Science.gov

Sample records for actual production conditions

  1. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the “Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products” by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese. PMID:26760945

  2. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  8. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  9. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  10. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  11. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  12. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  13. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification for actual production history coverage... Production History § 400.55 Qualification for actual production history coverage program. (a) The approved... history is certified and T or D-Yields are not provided in the actuarial documents, (2) If actual...

  14. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  15. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  16. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  17. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  18. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  20. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  1. Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles under actual on-road driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J. Wayne; Maldonado, Hector; Chernich, Don

    Emission measurements of five 1996-2005 heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), representing three engine certification levels, were made using a Mobile Emissions Laboratory under actual on-road driving conditions on surface streets and highways. The results show that emissions depend on the emission component, the age/certification of vehicle/engine, as well as driving condition. For NO x emissions, there was a trend of decreasing emissions in going from older to newer model years and certification standards. Some vehicles showed a tendency toward higher NO x emissions per mile for the higher speed events (⩾55 mph) as compared to the 40 mph cruise and the other surface street driving, while others did not show large differences between different types of driving. For particulate matter (PM), the three oldest trucks had the highest emissions for surface street driving, while the two newest trucks had the highest PM emissions for highway driving. For total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions, some vehicles showed a tendency for higher emissions for the surface street segments compared to the steady-state segments, while others showed a tendency for higher emissions for the 40 mph cruise segments compared to the highway cruise segments. CO emissions under steady-state driving conditions were relatively low (1-3 g mile -1).

  2. [Actual use of milk and its products and estimation of the degree of their contamination].

    PubMed

    Normatova, Sh A; Bakhritdinov, Sh S

    2011-01-01

    The actual use of milk and its products was studied in the population of the Fergana Valley and the daily intake of heavy metals, pesticides, nitrates, antibiotics, and other foreign substances was hygienically evaluated. Guidelines were developed to set up critical control points for the hazard analysis of production factors and the sale and storage of dairy products, which were approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. PMID:21604394

  3. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  4. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  5. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the (137)Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of (137)Cs (10(-11) ~ 10(-9 )molL(-1) of (137)Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed "weathered biotite" (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed (137)Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of (137)Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed (137)Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  6. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed. PMID:24051512

  7. Investigation and research on classification of productive skills (1)--Actual work and skills in the car manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1992-12-01

    A survey was conducted at a site for production which is in the process of technological innovation to examine and clarify the trend in current productive skills. In August 1991, a questionnaire survey was given to skilled workers of a car manufacturing company. The number of valid responses was 1,215. The survey included 133 items in the following three areas: (1) nature of workers' productive skills, 40 items; (2) human functions and vocational ability necessary for the work, 60 items; and (3) working conditions, 33 items. The characteristics of the productive skills required in each division were compared and examined based on the final results of the survey. Clear characteristics were found which reflect the actual productive skills introduced into the factories and sections through technological innovation. The nature of the product manufactured at each factory and the actual skills which reflect the work done at the factories are clarified. The survey items used for this research have effectively clarified the characteristic of the productive skills. PMID:1340499

  8. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  9. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  10. [Evaluation of the actual traceability of labile blood products using medical records].

    PubMed

    Ingrand, P; Salmi, L R; Benz-Lemoine, E; Dupuis, M

    1998-12-01

    The traceability of blood products is an essential part of haemovigilance and transfusion safety. A pilot survey assessed the actual traceability by analysing transfusion information collected from medical records of a representative sample of 390 labile blood products transfused in a French university hospital. Transfusion and distribution forms were missing in 2.3% and 6.9% respectively. Availability and validity of transfusion information varied according to the nature of the expected information, elements of patients' records and types of wards. The location where the transfusion was performed was false or ambiguous in 38% of cases in surgery. Crude traceability, evaluated by the feedback of validated distribution forms, was estimated at 85.2% whereas actual traceability was estimated at 81.9% (SD 1.7%). High availability (98.7%) of at least one of the two sheets of the distribution form in medical records, or in the blood bank, revealed that a significant improvement of traceability should come from a better compliance to the rules of information transmission. The actual traceability differed significantly according to clinical services (worse in surgery) and was lower in case of autologous or absence of previous transfusion. An analysis of markers of good traceability should suggest efficient evolution of organization and information systems. This pilot study shows the relevance and feasibility of this kind of survey which could interestingly be performed on a large national representative random sample. PMID:9894331

  11. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  12. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  13. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  14. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.; Tirado-Corbalá, R.; Zhang, H.; Ayars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in tropical environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using eddy covariance (EC) towers at two irrigated sugarcane fields on the leeward (dry) side of Maui, Hawaii, USA in contrasting climates. We calculated reference ET at the fields using the short (ET0) and tall (ETr) vegetation versions of the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) equation. The ASCE equations were compared to the Priestley-Taylor ET (ETPT) and ETEC. Reference ET from the ASCE approaches exceeded ETEC during the mid-period (when vegetation coefficients suggest ETEC should exceed reference ET). At the windier tower site, cumulative ETr exceeded ETEC by 854 mm over the course of the mid-period (267 days). At the less windy site, mid-period ETr still exceeded ETEC, but the difference was smaller (443 mm). At both sites, ETPT approximated mid-period ETEC more closely than the ASCE equations ((ETPT-ETEC) < 170 mm). Analysis of applied water and precipitation, soil moisture, leaf stomatal resistance, and canopy cover suggest that the lower observed ETEC was not the result of water stress or reduced vegetation cover. Use of a custom-calibrated bulk canopy resistance improved the reference ET estimate and reduced seasonal ET discrepancy relative to ETPT and ETEC in the less windy field and had mixed performance in the windier field. These divergences suggest that modifications to reference ET equations may be warranted in some tropical regions.

  15. Experimental investigation of panel radiator heat output enhancement for efficient thermal use under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisir, Tamer; Baskaya, Senol; Onur Yazar, Hakan; Yucedag, Sinan

    2015-05-01

    In this study the heat output of a panel-convector-convector-panel radiator (PCCP) under controlled laboratory conditions under Turkish household and especially Ankara conditions was investigated experimentally. In this sense, investigations were performed for different heating water mass flow rates, water inlet temperatures and radiator inlet and outlet connection positions, which are most commonly used in Turkey. An experimental setup was built for this purpose in a test room where temperature was controlled and held constant during the experiments. Inlet and outlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were measured and heat output of the radiator was calculated. Infrared thermal camera visualizations of the steel panel radiator front surface were also performed.

  16. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  17. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  18. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APH yield is calculated from a database containing a minimum of four yields and will be updated each subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may include... only occur in the database when there are less than four years of actual and/or assigned yields....

  19. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APH yield is calculated from a database containing a minimum of four yields and will be updated each subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may include... only occur in the database when there are less than four years of actual and/or assigned yields....

  20. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  1. [THE ACTUAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN TH FIELD OF PRODUCTION GROWTH MEDIUM].

    PubMed

    Shepelin, A P; Domotenko, L V; Diatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-06-01

    The import substitution becomes one of strategic tasks of Russian economy as a result of imposition of economic sanctions on part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other states. The development of structure and technology of production of national import substituted growth mediums permits satisfying needs of laboratory service of Russia inactive storage and to secure appropriate response to occurring challenges and new biological menaces and support bio-security of state at proper level. The presented data concerning substantiation of nomenclature of growth mediums and transport system permit satisfying in fullness the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in growth mediums of national production and to give up of import deliveries without decreasing of quality of microbiological studies. PMID:26466457

  2. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  3. Added value products for imaging remote sensing by processing actual GNSS reflectometry delay doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavulli, Domenico; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramilien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative and promising tool for remote sensing. It is based on the exploitation of GNSS signals reflected off Earth's surface as signals of opportunity to infer geophysical information of the reflecting surface. The main advantages of GNSS-R with respect dedicated sensors are: the unprecedented spatial-temporal coverage due to the availability of a great amount of transmitting satellite, e.g. GPS, Galileo, Glonass, etc…, long term GNSS mission life and cost effectiveness. In fact only a simple receiver is needed. In the last years several works demonstrated the meaningful of this technique in several Earth Observation applications. All these applications presented results obtained by using a receiver mounted on an aircraft or on a fixed platform. Moreover, space borne missions have been launched or are planned: UK-DMC, TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), NASA CYGNSS, Geros ISS. Practically, GNSS-R can be seen as a bistatic radar system where the GNSS satellites continuously transmit the L-band all-weather night-and-day signals that are reflected off a surface, called Glistening Zone (GZ), and a receiver measures the scattered microwave signals in terms of Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) or delay waveforms. These two products have been widely studied in the literature to extract compact parameters for different remote sensing applications. However, products measured in the Delay Doppler (DD) domain are not able to provide any spatial information of the scattering scene. This could represent a drawback for applications related to imaging remote sensing, e.g. target detection, sea/land and sea/ice transition, oil spill detection, etc…. To overcome these limitations some deconvolution techniques have been proposed in the state of the art aiming at the reconstruction of a radar image of the observed scene by processing the measured DDMs. These techniques have been tested on DDMs related to simulated marine scenario

  4. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

  5. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  6. Productivity of local chickens under village management conditions.

    PubMed

    Mwalusanya, N A; Katule, A M; Mutayoba, S K; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E; Minga, U M

    2002-09-01

    The productivity of local chickens under village management conditions was studied in six villages situated in three climatic zones within Morogoro District in Tanzania. Two villages were picked in each climatic zone (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet) for the study. The data were obtained by actual measurement, qualitative observations and interview of members of the households directly responsible for the care of chickens. In addition, data sheets were given to selected farmers to record the performance of their chickens. The mean flock size for the three zones was 16.2, with a range of 2 to 58. The overall mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 11.8, 44.1 g and 83.6%, respectively. The overall mean chick survival rate to 10 weeks of age was 59.7%. The mean live weights for cocks and hens were 1948 g and 1348 g, respectively. The mean growth rates to the age of 10 weeks were 4.6 g/day and 5.4 g/day, while those from 10 to 14 weeks of age were 8.4 g/day and 10.2 g/day for female and male birds, respectively. The age at first lay ranged between 6 and 8 months, and the average hen had three laying cycles per year. Most of the chickens were left to scavenge during the day and were provided with simple housing at night (95.2% of the owners). Only small amounts of supplementary feeds were occasionally given and minimal health care was provided. It was concluded that the low productivity of chickens was partly due to the prevailing poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper health care, poor nutrition and housing. PMID:12379059

  7. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zainab Z.; Jaeel, Ali Jwied

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively. PMID:24453893

  8. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  9. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  10. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose. PMID:26618154

  11. [Investigation of the actual conditions of hospital nurses working on three rotating shifts: questionnaire results of shift work schedules, feelings of sleep and fatigue, and depression].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Kamata, S; Naoe, H; Mutoh, F; Chiba, S

    1996-01-01

    These studies were performed to clarify (1) the actual conditions concerning rotating shift schedules of nurses in Japanese university and college hospitals and to evaluate (2) some aspects of the physical and mental health, and (3) sleep profile of hospital nurses working on counter-clockwise shift rotation. Two questionnaire surveys and the OSA sleep inventory (OSA) were carried out. The subjects in the study (1) were a total of 80 nursing directors in university and college hospitals. The questionnaire covered 4 categories, such as the schedule most frequently adopted and reasons for using the schedule. The questionnaires were returned by 67 directors (83.8%). The subjects in the study (2) were 189 nurses working on three-shift work schedules at Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The items in the questionnaire covered 7 categories, as follows: 1) feeling of sleep after each shift (8 items); 2) feeling of fatigue after each shift (30 items); 3) physical symptoms; 4) inter-personal problems; 5) all the items on Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS); 6) all the items on the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire; and 7) 24 items on the Maudsley personality inventory. The questionnaires were returned by 156 nurses (82.5%), whose mean age and duration of shift-work employment were 27.2 +/- 5.1 and 5.0 +/- 4.3 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. For 152 nurses (97.4%) of those returning the questionnaire, the working schedule consisted of 2 consecutive night shifts and 2 consecutive evening shifts, following a variable number of day shifts (rapid and counterclockwise shift rotation). The subjects in the study (3) were 8 healthy nurses working on above-mentioned three rotating shifts at the psychiatric ward of Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, whose mean age was 29.4 +/- 5.8 years (mean +/- SD). All the subjects recorded their sleep-logs and underwent OSA everyday for 30 consecutive days. Of the 240 OSA data, 95 data (16 after day shift, 17 after

  12. Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMP) under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Tong

    2010-10-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) in the wastewater treatment process not only cause fouling to the membrane, but also generate disinfection by-products (DBP) in the effluent, thus get increasing attention. In this study, SMP produced by activated sludge and isolates under different stressful conditions, i.e. starvation, salinity, heavy metals, low pH and high temperature, were characterized to investigate the effects of these conditions on the amount of SMP and their compositions. The analysis results using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM) showed that activated sludge and isolates suffered with the same stressful condition contained almost the same concentration and composition of SMP, indicating that the stressful condition instead of the microbial species played the crucial role in the production of SMP. Among of stressful conditions tested, high temperature had stimulated the production of polysaccharides and polycarboxylate-type humic acid with high hydrophilicity, which is in positive proportion to the foulants formation potential, thus should be avoided in membrane bioreactors. Low pH had promoted the generation of hydrophobic humic acid-like or protein-like organics, which had been proved as the main disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor, thus should be avoided in the biological treatment. Starvation had less effect on SMP production as the seeding microbes had no substrates. PMID:20655085

  13. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  14. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  15. Rubisco activase and wheat productivity under heat stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperature (heat stress). We hypothesized that endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant productivity under heat stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the possible relation...

  16. Electroweak matching conditions for top pair production at threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Reisser, Christoph J.

    2006-08-01

    We determine the real parts of electroweak matching conditions relevant for top quark pair production close to threshold in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order. Numerically the corrections are comparable to the NNLL QCD corrections.

  17. [Working conditions in the production of electron-tube glass].

    PubMed

    Dubeĭkovskaia, L S; Masliaeva, T N

    1989-01-01

    The data on evaluation of working conditions in electron-tube glass production are presented. Major unfavourable factors, such as components of glass dust and their mixture, have been described. Approaches to standardization of electron-tube glass dust are set forth. PMID:2529191

  18. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. PMID:25476917

  19. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    Growth media and incubation conditions have a very strong influence of secondary metabolite production. There is no consensus on which media are the optimal for metabolite production, but a series of useful and effective media and incubation conditions have been listed here. Chemically well-defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity as agar plug samples are easily analyzed to get an optimal representation of the qualitative secondary metabolome. Standard incubation for a week at 25°C in darkness is recommended, but optimal conditions have to be modified depending on the ecology and physiology of different filamentous fungi. PMID:23065607

  20. Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Sanecki, J.E.; Osborne, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel is being studied by heating fuel rod segments in flowing steam and an inert carrier gas to simulate accident conditions. Fuels with a range of irradiation histories are being subjected to several steam flow rates over a wide range of temperatures. Fission product release during each test is measured by gamma spectroscopy and by detailed examination of the collection apparatus after the test has been completed. These release results are complemented by a detailed posttest examination of samples of the fuel rod segment. Results of release measurements and fuel rod characterizations for tests at 1400 through 2000/sup 0/C are presented in this paper.

  1. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  2. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  3. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  4. Management and sperm production of boars under differing environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunavongkrit, Annop; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Lundeheim, Nils; Heard, Terry W; Einarsson, Stig

    2005-01-15

    The management of boars to ensure good sperm production under differing environmental conditions is a major concern for pig keepers in both tropical countries and countries where there are extreme environmental changes. Such changes create stress in animals and influence the production of spermatozoa. High temperatures during hot summer months may result in lower feed consumption and create stresses that result in the inhibition of spermatogenesis. Although tropical countries do not have a problem with major variations in day length, this can cause problems such as decreased litter size and infertility in other regions of the world. Evaporative cooling systems built into boar accommodation are often used to reduce fluctuations in both temperature and humidity during the hot and humid months seen in tropical countries. The system has become popular in AI boar studs, where it is reported to reduce stress and improve feed consumption. Other management factors, such as housing comfort, social contact, mating conditions and the frequency of mating, are also very important boar management aids that assist good quality semen production; these will be covered briefly in this review. This review will consider primarily those management factors, for example, the management of temperature and humidity using evaporative cooling systems and other techniques that enable AI boar studs to maximize sperm fertility through adjustments to the environment. PMID:15626423

  5. [A discussion of production conditions among the peasantry].

    PubMed

    Salles, V A

    1984-01-01

    The immediate goal of rural production is to satisfy the consumption needs of the peasantry. The peasant enters the market either to acquire goods which he does not produce or to sell his goods or labor. In either case the peasant is forced to sell part of his product, thereby converting it into merchanise; this exchange represents an interaction between the peasant econmy and the capitalist system. In order to overcome the unfavorable conditions of this exchange, the peasantry has had to adopt a variety of strategies, such as intensifying family labor, diversifying the work, working outside its own land, or specializing in certain activites. It is by carrying out a wide range of activities that peasant families survive within a broader socioeconomic context. A number of macrosocial factors serve to control access to the land and other means of production; these in turn influence agricultural output and the peasants' economic behavior. These factors are: the delimitation of the rural area, the indispensable nature of land and its products, the inability to produce land, and the monopoly exercised by landowners. The peasantry is therefore forced to organize its agricultural production within the constraints imposed by the amount and quality of the available land. In addition, peasant agriculture is conditioned by the available labor (e.g.., the family) and by crop cycles and seasonal changes. Productivity will therefore vary widely vary widely from 1 farmer to the next. Prices, however, are established by the capitalist sector; this results in the pauperization of the peasantry who cannot compete in their market. Empirical data from Mexico show a 4-fold variation in agricultural output per unit of land. Peasants, who have the worst land and lack the technology to improve productivity, are at a disadvantage. Because the agricultural yield is often not enough to insure the survival of the domestic unit, peasant familirs diversify their work and either perform a

  6. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  7. Adaptation of Cupriavidus necator to conditions favoring polyhydroxyalkanoate production.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, João M B T; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; da Fonseca, M Manuela R; de Carvalho, Carla C C R

    2012-12-15

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of the bacterial membrane of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 was assessed during the time course of two-stage fed-batch cultivations for the production of short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Changes in the relative proportion of straight, methyl and cyclopropyl saturated, unsaturated, hydroxy substituted and polyunsaturated FA were observed, depending on the C sources and cultivation conditions used to favor the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-4-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-4HB-3HV)), under N limiting conditions. The relative percentage of each FA class was studied using glucose or waste glycerol (GRP), as main C source for P(3HB) production. The FA profile was also assessed when GRP was used together with i) γ-butyrolactone (GBL) (precursor of 4HB monomers) for P(3HB-4HB) synthesis and ii) GBL and propionic acid (PA) (3HV precursor) to yield P(3HB-4HB-3HV). The effect of GBL and PA utilization as PHA monomer precursors on the FA profile of the cell membrane was studied under two different dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOC). PMID:23376842

  8. Methane as a product of chloroethene biodegradation under methanogenic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Radiometric detection headspace analyses of microcosms containing bed sediments from two geographically distinct sites indicated that 10-39% of the radiolabeled carbon transformed during anaerobic biodegradation of [1,2- 14C]trichloroethene (TCE) or [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) under methanogenic conditions was ultimately incorporated into 14CH4. The results demonstrate that, in addition to ethene, ethane, and CO2, CH4 can be a significant product of chloroethene biodegradation in some methanogenic sediments.Radiometric detection headspace analyses of microcosms containing bed sediments from two geographically distinct sites indicated that 10-39% of the radiolabeled carbon transformed during anaerobic biodegradation of [1,2-14C]trichloroethene (TCE) or [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) under methanogenic conditions was ultimately incorporated into 14CH4. The results demonstrate that, in addition to ethene, ethane, and CO2, CH4 can be a significant product of chloroethene biodegradation in some methanogenic sediments.

  9. Carotenoids production in different culture conditions by Sporidiobolus pararoseus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; He, Qian; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus were studied. It was found that biomass was connected with carbon source, temperature, and pH, but carotenoids proportion was seriously influenced by dissolved oxygen and nitrogen source. Different carotenoids could be obtained by using selected optimum conditions. In the end we established the strategies to produce β-carotene or torulene. Fed-batch fermentation in fermentor was used to prove the authenticity of our conclusions. The cell biomass, β-carotene content, and β-carotene proportion could reach 56.32 g/L, 18.92 mg/L and 60.43%, respectively, by using corn steep liquor at 0-5% of dissolved oxygen saturation. β-Carotene content was 271% higher than before this addition. The cell biomass, torulene content, and torulene proportion could reach 62.47 g/L, 31.74 mg/L, and 70.41%, respectively, by using yeast extract at 30-35% of dissolved oxygen saturation. Torulene content was 152% higher than before this addition. The strategy for enhancing specific carotenoid production by selected fermentation conditions may provide an alternative approach to enhance carotenoid production with other strains. PMID:22708808

  10. Production of chitin deacetylase by Aspergillus flavus in submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Karthik; Parameswaran, Binod; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin and has been proven to have various applications in industry and biomedicine. Deacetylation of chitin using the enzyme chitin deacetylase (CDA) is favorable in comparison to the hazardous chemical method involving strong alkali and high temperature. A fungal strain producing CDA was isolated from environmental samples collected from coastal regions of South Kerala, India. It was identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphological characteristics and ITS DNA analysis. Nutritional requirement for maximum production of CDA under submerged condition was optimized using statistical methods including Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology central composite design. A 5.98-fold enhancement in CDA production was attained in shake flasks when the fermentation process parameters were used at their optimum levels. The highest CDA activity was 57.69 ± 1.68 U under optimized bioprocess conditions that included 30 g L(-1) glucose, 40 g L(-1) yeast extract, 15 g L(-1) peptone, and 7 g L(-1) MgCl2 at initial media pH of 7 and incubation temperature of 32°C after 48 hr of incubation, while the unoptimized basal medium yielded 9.64 ± 2.04 U. PMID:26474347

  11. 30 CFR 206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Oil § 206.106 What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? You must place oil in marketable condition and market the oil for the mutual benefit... production into marketable condition and to market production? 206.106 Section 206.106 Mineral...

  12. Behavior of fission product tellurium under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fission product release tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have provided new experimental data that help characterize the behavior of tellurium under severe light-water reactor (LWR) accident conditions. The release of tellurium from the fuel rods is dependent upon the rate and extent of cladding oxidation. Tellurium has been found to be considerably retained by metallic Zircaloy cladding at test temperatures up to 1975/sup 0/C. The results indicate that the tellurium is bound by the Zircaloy cladding as zirconium telluride, but once the available zirconium metal is oxidized by the steam, tellurium is released in favor of continued zirconium oxide formation. The collection behavior of the released tellurium indicates that it is probably released from the fuel rods as SnTe and CsTe, rather than as elemental tellurium.

  13. ORNL studies of fission product release under LWR accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup Zircaloy-clad UO{sub 2} fuel specimens have been heated to study the release of fission products in tests simulating LWR accident conditions. The dominant variable was found to be temperature, with atmosphere, time, and burnup also being significant variables. Comparison of data from tests in steam and hydrogen, at temperatures of 2000 to 2700 K, have shown that the releases of the most volatile species (Kr, Xe, I, and Cs) are relatively insensitive to atmosphere. The releases of the less-volatile species (Sr, Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, and Eu), however, may vary by orders of magnitude depending on atmosphere. In addition, the atmosphere may drastically affect the mode and extent of fuel destruction.

  14. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  15. Hydrothermal carbonisation of sewage sludge: effect of process conditions on product characteristics and methane production.

    PubMed

    Danso-Boateng, E; Shama, G; Wheatley, A D; Martin, S J; Holdich, R G

    2015-02-01

    Hydrothermal carbonisation of primary sewage sludge was carried out using a batch reactor. The effect of temperature and reaction time on the characteristics of solid (hydrochar), liquid and gas products, and the conditions leading to optimal hydrochar characteristics were investigated. The amount of carbon retained in hydrochars decreased as temperature and time increased with carbon retentions of 64-77% at 140 and 160°C, and 50-62% at 180 and 200°C. Increasing temperature and treatment time increased the energy content of the hydrochar from 17 to 19 MJ/kg but reduced its energy yield from 88% to 68%. Maillard reaction products were identified in the liquid fractions following carbonisations at 180 and 200°C. Theoretical estimates of the methane yields resulting from the anaerobic digestion of the liquid by-products are also presented and optimal reaction conditions to maximise these identified. PMID:25496954

  16. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  17. 30 CFR 206.362 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production into marketable condition and to market production? 206.362 Section 206.362 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION... to market production? You must place geothermal resources and byproducts in marketable condition...

  18. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  19. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  20. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  1. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  2. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.106 Section 1206.106 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.106 What are my responsibilities to place production...

  4. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  5. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  6. Atmospheric production of glycolaldehyde under hazy prebiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Harman, Chester E; Kasting, James F; Wolf, Eric T

    2013-04-01

    The early Earth's atmosphere, with extremely low levels of molecular oxygen and an appreciable abiotic flux of methane, could have been a source of organic compounds necessary for prebiotic chemistry. Here, we investigate the formation of a key RNA precursor, glycolaldehyde (2-hydroxyacetaldehyde, or GA) using a 1-dimensional photochemical model. Maximum atmospheric production of GA occurs when the CH4:CO2 ratio is close to 0.02. The total atmospheric production rate of GA remains small, only 1 × 10(7) mol yr(-1). Somewhat greater amounts of GA production, up to 2 × 10(8) mol yr(-1), could have been provided by the formose reaction or by direct delivery from space. Even with these additional production mechanisms, open ocean GA concentrations would have remained at or below ~1 μM, much smaller than the 1-2 M concentrations required for prebiotic synthesis routes like those proposed by Powner et al. (Nature 459:239-242, 2009). Additional production or concentration mechanisms for GA, or alternative formation mechanisms for RNA, are needed, if this was indeed how life originated on the early Earth. PMID:23695543

  7. 75 FR 35805 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... products (EPA File Symbols 524-LTL and 524-LTA) containing the active ingredients, Bacillus thuringiensis... with the proposed use of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins and the genetic... use of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins and the genetic material...

  8. Prosodically-Conditioned Variability in Children's Production of French Determiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Tremblay, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have long noted that children's grammatical morphemes are variably produced, raising questions about when and how grammatical competence is acquired. This study examined the spontaneous production of determiners by two French-speaking children aged 1 ; 5-2 ; 5. It found that determiners were produced earlier with monosyllabic words,…

  9. 75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Form EPA issued a notice, published in the Federal Register of November 18, 2009 (74 FR 59536) (FRL... products for use on apples and soybeans. 2. TOPGUARD Fungicide (EPA registration number 4787-55) was... leaf spot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and soybean rust, and on apples to control cedar apple...

  10. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  11. Examination of Incubation Conditions for Production of HERICIUM ERINACEUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Basidiomycetes has recently attracted considerable attention for its various physiological activities, such as antitumor, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities. Compounds isolated from fruit body of Hericium erinaceum, commonly called Yamabushitake in Japan, have interesting biological activities such as cytotoxic effectors on cancer cell (HeLa cells) and stimulators of synthesis of nerve growth factor. It is necessary for the cultivation of the fruit body of mushroom to control light, temperature, humidity. Otherwise, mycelia cultivation needs only temperature control. H. erinaceum cultivated by submerged culture have similar physiological activities to the fruit body of H. erinaceum, which suggests cultured mycelia can potentially become a promoter of synthesis of nerve growth factor. In this study, we used whey which is by-products of cheese-making process as an alternative nitrogen source in submerged cultivation of H. erinaceum mycelia, and then dry cell weight (DCW) and DCW productivity of whey medium were compared with those of chemical nutrient medium. When whey was used as a nitrogen source, DCW and DCW productivity are 1.5 times higher than those of chemical nutrient medium, 5.99 g/L and 0.60 g/L/day, respectively. It was suggested that whey could be used as an alternative nitrogen source and a growth promoting factor in H. erinaceum mycelia cultivation.

  12. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  13. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. PMID:22899495

  14. Actualizing the Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braman, Dave

    Where conditions are right, continuing education (CE) staff working in true collaboration with campus-based credit staff can meet the learning needs of the community and improve instructional quality with greater resource efficiency. CE staff must become learning strategists who bring ideas from their marketplace experience to the instructional…

  15. 30 CFR 1206.362 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.362 Section 1206.362 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.362 What are my responsibilities to place...

  16. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trading for security futures products. 41.25 Section 41.25 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Requirements and Standards for Listing Security Futures Products § 41.25 Additional conditions for trading for security futures products. (a)...

  17. 27 CFR 11.23 - Sales conditioned on the acquisition of other products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trade buyer is prohibited. (b) Exchange. The exchange of one product for another is prohibited as a sales transaction conditioned on the acquisition of other products. However, the exchange of a product for equal quantities (case for case) of the same type and brand of product, in containers of...

  18. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  19. [Actual problems of the impact of production and management of industrial waste on the environment and public health (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Cherniaeva, T K

    2013-01-01

    In the modern society the importance and applicability of the problem concerning the negative effect of production and consumption waste on the objects of the environment and the state sa people's health is related to their daily emergency, large tonnage, storage, and utilization. Wastes and places of their storage and waste burial constitute an toxicological and epidemiological risk. Chemical and biological contamination of solid waste is a threat to its penetration into the soil, air, groundwater and surface water bodies, vegetation, directly or indirectly, cause variations in health status of the population. PMID:24340576

  20. Impact of environmental production conditions on productivity and efficiency: a case study of wheat farmers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M Kamrul

    2008-09-01

    Environmental conditions significantly affect production, but are often ignored in studies analysing productivity and efficiency leading to biased results. In this study, we examine the influence of selected environmental factors on productivity and efficiency in wheat farming in Bangladesh. Results reveal that environmental production conditions significantly affect the parameters of the production function and technical efficiency, as well as correlates of inefficiency. Controlling for environmental production conditions improves technical efficiency by 4 points (p<0.01) from 86% to 90%. Large farms are more efficient relative to small and medium sized farms (p<0.01 and 0.05), with no variation among regions. Policy implications include soil fertility improvement through soil conservation and crop rotation, improvement in managerial practices through extension services and adoption of modern technologies, promotion of education, strengthening the research-extension link, and development of new varieties that have higher yield potential and are also suitable for marginal areas. PMID:17764818

  1. Sediment Production from Forest Roads During Different Rainfall Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M. J.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A. S.

    2004-12-01

    Sediment productions from storm-proofed forest roads were investigated at four locations in the managed forested land of Northwestern California (annual rainfall @1000 mm), where rocks have been characterized as Wildcat group consisting of mudstone, siltstone, claystone, and minor conglomerate. Rocked road (storm-proofed road) constitutes a part of the effective road management practices in the study area where other management practices include disconnection of roads from watercourses, reduction in distance between culverts, frequent road maintenance, and seasonal (or during rainfall) restrictions of log traffic. Specifically, this study examines the influence of rainstorm and road characteristics on sediment production from storm-proofed road in the context of varieties of road management practices in place. Continuous ditch flow during the rainstorm events was monitored using an UNIDATA float device and data logger. An ISCO sampler collected suspended sediment at temporal resolution of 2-h during the rainstorm events, and collected sediment samples were analyzed for turbidity and suspended sediment concentration in the laboratory. Sediment samples were also collected for particle size distribution analysis. Two tipping bucket rain gages located in the vicinity of road sites collected rainfall. Using an electronic total station, road surface was surveyed in detail, and a road Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated. Thus produced DEM was processed to delineate the road surface area contributing to ditch flow. The analysis of collected data for rainstorm events of hydrological year 2003/2004 reveals that the suspended sediment concentration conforms closely to rainfall hyetograph and ditch flow hydrograph with rapid flushing of road sediments for about 15-h following the onset of rainstorm. In general, ditch flow and suspended sediment concentration relation illustrates that the sediment transport is evidently "supply limited". For this reason, suspended

  2. Conditions for production of interdisciplinary teamwork outcomes in oncology teams: protocol for a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals’ participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. Methods This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients’ and professionals’ perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, ‘What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?’ Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases’ CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. Discussion This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of

  3. A strategy for clone selection under different production conditions.

    PubMed

    Legmann, Rachel; Benoit, Brian; Fedechko, Ronald W; Deppeler, Cynthia L; Srinivasan, Sriram; Robins, Russell H; McCormick, Ellen L; Ferrick, David A; Rodgers, Seth T; Russo, A Peter

    2011-01-01

    Top performing clones have failed at the manufacturing scale while the true best performer may have been rejected early in the screening process. Therefore, the ability to screen multiple clones in complex fed-batch processes using multiple process variations can be used to assess robustness and to identify critical factors. This dynamic ranking of clones' strategy requires the execution of many parallel experiments than traditional approaches. Therefore, this approach is best suited for micro-bioreactor models which can perform hundreds of experiments quickly and efficiently. In this study, a fully monitored and controlled small scale platform was used to screen eight CHO clones producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody across several process variations, including different feeding strategies, temperature shifts and pH control profiles. The first screen utilized 240 micro-bioreactors were run for two weeks for this assessment of the scale-down model as a high-throughput tool for clone evaluation. The richness of the outcome data enable to clearly identify the best and worst clone as well as process in term of maximum monoclonal antibody titer. The follow-up comparison study utilized 180 micro-bioreactors in a full factorial design and a subset of 12 clone/process combinations was selected to be run parallel in duplicate shake flasks. Good correlation between the micro-bioreactor predictions and those made in shake flasks with a Pearson correlation value of 0.94. The results also demonstrate that this micro-scale system can perform clone screening and process optimization for gaining significant titer improvements simultaneously. This dynamic ranking strategy can support better choices of production clones. PMID:21448991

  4. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113.69 Section 113.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading...

  5. Short-term variability of microphytobenthic primary production associated with in situ diel and tidal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Oh; Khim, Jong Seong; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Kang, Seong-Gil; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2012-10-01

    The short-term variability in microphytobenthos (MPB) production, measured by the oxygen microprofiling method, found under different experimental conditions indicated an endogenous production response reflecting in situ diel and tidal conditions. MPB production was measured for submerged core samples (collected from Daebu mudflat, Korea) at a fixed irradiance and temperature in the laboratory under the conditions of (1) constant light (data-I), (2) light-dark incubation (data-II), and (3) in situ reflected (data-III). The experimental design aimed to characterize within-day, across-day, and long term changes in MPB production. Our results showed that, under constant light conditions for 72 h, temporal fluctuations in MPB production (day:night = 2.4:1) were clearly present for three consecutive days (data-I), indicating a diel rhythm in production. Production increased at the beginning of light exposure, and dramatically decreased at the time of submersion, indicating tide-dependent rhythm in production. Furthermore, over a 10 d period under the same light and temperature conditions, a weakening (declining) trend in production was observed, which was logarithmic with diel fluctuation (r2 = 0.995, p < 0.01). This diel rhythm in production was also observed under an alternating light-dark (L14 h/D10 h) incubation period across an additional 18 d of measurement (data-II). The decline in production was slower, and more linear (r2 = 0.930, p < 0.01) under this condition, as the period of dark incubation (D10 h) seemed to allow the community to recover to a certain level of production. Finally, the effects of tidal condition (spring tide vs. neap tide) and biomass (dense vs. lesser dense) on the short-term (production (data-III) appeared to be negligible when time integrated the production.

  6. What Actually Happened.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The medical team found the patient to lack medical decisionmaking capacity. However, the team felt that the patient was still able to respond appropriately to some situations. KS had displayed a consistent refusal of all medical treatments that made her uncomfortable or caused pain. During her sister's visits, the patient would be much more receptive to eating. A meeting was planned with the patient's sister in which the ethicist explained that the patient was not able to make her own decisions. The patient's sister agreed that she would honor the patient's wishes but would let the team make any decisions outside of what she knew about the patient's preferences. The patient's sister agreed and was willing to be at the patient's bedside as much as she could to encourage her eating. If the patient's condition worsened, it was discussed that the team honor the patient's wishes and not force a feeding tube on her. The patient's code status was also addressed, and KS's sister felt comfortable in communicating to the team that the patient would not want to be resuscitated if medical treatments would not be able to improve her current quality of life. A natural passing away would be most amenable to the patient. The patient was discharged to her nursing home with a physician order for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) form signed by the sister documenting a do-not-resuscitate code status with comfort-focused treatments. PMID:26957461

  7. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions for main occupations in asbestos cement production of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Kundiev, Iu I; Cherniuk, V I; Karakashian, A N; Kucheruk, T K; Martynovskaia, T Iu; Demetskaia, A V; Sal'nikova, N A; Chuĭ, T S; Piatnitsa-Gorpinchenko, N K

    2008-01-01

    Studies covered of work conditions for main occupations in asbestos cement production of Ukraine. Studies covered work conditions and occupational features of workers engaged into main occupations in asbestos cement enterprises of Ukraine. Parameters presented characterize ambient air state, microclimate conditions, levels of noise and vibration, work intensity and hardness. PMID:18461799

  8. 30 CFR 1206.362 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.362 Section 1206.362 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.106 Section 1206.106 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.106 Section 1206.106 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.362 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.362 Section 1206.362 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.106 Section 1206.106 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.362 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.362 Section 1206.362 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  14. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH. PMID:24681408

  15. 30 CFR 206.55 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indian Oil § 206.55 What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the production? You must place oil in marketable condition and market the oil for the mutual... production into marketable condition and to market the production? 206.55 Section 206.55 Mineral...

  16. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product stored or handled in the warehouse on a demand made by: (1) The holder of the warehouse receipt... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM...

  17. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... product stored or handled in the warehouse on a demand made by: (1) The holder of the warehouse receipt... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM...

  18. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... product stored or handled in the warehouse on a demand made by: (1) The holder of the warehouse receipt... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM...

  19. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... product stored or handled in the warehouse on a demand made by: (1) The holder of the warehouse receipt... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM...

  20. Optimization of culture conditions for flexirubin production by Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Ahmad, Wan Azlina

    2015-01-01

    Flexirubins are the unique type of bacterial pigments produced by the bacteria from the genus Chryseobacterium, which are used in the treatment of chronic skin disease, eczema etc. and may serve as a chemotaxonomic marker. Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, an yellowish-orange pigment producing strain was investigated for maximum production of pigment by optimizing medium composition employing response surface methodology (RSM). Culture conditions affecting pigment production were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments. Lactose, l-tryptophan and KH2PO4 were the most significant variables affecting pigment production. Box Behnken design (BBD) and RSM analysis were adopted to investigate the interactions between variables and determine the optimal values for maximum pigment production. Evaluation of the experimental results signified that the optimum conditions for maximum production of pigment (521.64 mg/L) in 50 L bioreactor were lactose 11.25 g/L, l-tryptophan 6 g/L and KH2PO4 650 ppm. Production under optimized conditions increased to 7.23 fold comparing to its production prior to optimization. Results of this study showed that statistical optimization of medium composition and their interaction effects enable short listing of the significant factors influencing maximum pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497. In addition, this is the first report optimizing the process parameters for flexirubin type pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497. PMID:25979288

  1. Cultural and environmental factors governing tomato production: Local food production under elevated temperature conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production data was used to estimate cultural and environmental impacts on marketable tomato yields in eastern Oklahoma. Quantifying the interactive effects of planting date and growing season duration and the effects of cumulative heat units and heat...

  2. Enhanced photo-H₂ production by unsaturated flow condition in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng-Long; Cao, Hong-Xia; Guo, Fei-Qiang; Huang, Cong-Liang; Wang, Huan-Guang; Rao, Zhong-Hao

    2015-02-01

    A biofilm photobioreactor under unsaturated flow condition (BFPBR-U) is proposed using a polished optical fiber as the internal light source for photo-H2 production in continuous culture. The main chamber was filled with spherical glass beads to create the reaction bed and the cells were immobilized to form a biofilm under unsaturated flow condition obtained by pumping substrate solution over a packing bed at a rate to create a thin fluid film and injecting the argon to maintain the gas phase space. The effects of operational conditions, including flow rate and influent substrate concentration, on the photo-H2 production performance were investigated. The unsaturated flow conditions eliminated the inhibition caused by high organic loading rate and enhanced light transmission efficiency, leading to an improvement in the photo-H2 production performance. PMID:25257592

  3. The Influence of Atmospheric Conditions on the Production of Ozone during VOC Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, J.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a short-lived climate forcing pollutant that is detrimental to human health and crop growth. Reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight produce ozone. Ozone production is a non-linear function of the concentrations of both NOx and VOC, with VOC acting as the "fuel" for ozone production and NOx as the "catalyst". Different VOC, due to their differing structure and carbon content, have different maximum potential to produce ozone. Due to different degrees of reactivity, VOC also differ in the time taken to reach this maximum ozone production potential under ideal conditions. Ozone production is also influenced by meteorological factors such as radiation, temperature, advection and mixing, which may alter the rate of ozone production, and the degree to which VOC are able to reach their maximum ozone production potential. Identifying the chemical and meteorological processes responsible for controlling the degree to which VOC are able to reach their maximum ozone production potential could inform decisions on emission control to efficiently tackle high levels of tropospheric ozone. In this study we use a boxmodel to determine the chemical processes affecting ozone production under different meteorological and chemical conditions. The chemistry scheme used by the boxmodel is "tagged" for each initial VOC enabling attribution of ozone production to its VOC source. We systematically vary a number of meteorological parameters along with the source of NOx within the box model to simulate a range of atmospheric conditions. These simulations are compared with a control simulation done under conditions of maximum ozone formation to determine which parameters affect the rate at which VOC produce ozone and the extent to which they reach their maximum potential to produce ozone. We perform multi-day simulations in order to examine whether these processes can influence ozone production over

  4. Production of Retrovirus-Based Vectors in Mildly Acidic pH Conditions.

    PubMed

    Holic, Nathalie; Fenard, David

    2016-01-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on retroviridae are increasingly becoming a tool of choice for biomedical research and for the development of biotherapies in rare diseases or cancers. To meet the challenges of preclinical and clinical production, different steps of the production process of self-inactivating γ-retroviral (RVs) and lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been improved (e.g., transfection, media optimization, cell culture conditions). However, the increasing need for mass production of such vectors is still a challenge and could hamper their availability for therapeutic use. Recently, we observed that the use of a neutral pH during vector production is not optimal. The use of mildly acidic pH conditions (pH 6) can increase by two- to threefold the production of RVs and LVs pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) or gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) glycoproteins. Here, we describe the production protocol in mildly acidic pH conditions of GALVTR- and VSV-G-pseudotyped LVs using the transient transfection of HEK293T cells and the production protocol of GALV-pseudotyped RVs produced from a murine producer cell line. These protocols should help to achieve higher titers of vectors, thereby facilitating experimental research and therapeutic applications. PMID:27317171

  5. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-11-01

    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals. PMID:25865657

  6. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land. PMID:23238340

  7. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  8. Ethanol production with saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic conditions at different potassium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wiimpelmann, M.; Joergensen, B.; Kjaergaard, L.

    1984-04-01

    The specific ethanol productivity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a chemostat was found to be highly dependent on the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium concentration through variations in the energy consumption used for maintenance of the concentration gradient of potassium across the cell membrane. The specific ethanol productivity progressively rose from 0 to 20 mmol h/sup -1/ g/sup -1/ cell dry matter at a growth rate of 0.17 h/sup -1/ when the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium concentration was increased from 10 to 80. The ethanol production under potassium limited growth conditions was caused neither by a reduction in the specific respiratory activity nor by variations in the potassium content in cell dry matter. Results which strongly suggest that ethanol production under potassium limited growth conditions is brought about by changes in the ratio of pyruvate oxidase to pyruvate decarboxylase activity through changes in the intracellular pyruvate concentration are presented.

  9. Ethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic conditions at different potassium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wuempelmann, M.; Kjaergaard, L.; Joergensen, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The specific ethanol productivity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown aerobicly in a chemostat was found to be highly dependent on the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium concentration through variations in the energy consumption used for maintenance of the concentration gradient of potassium across the cell membrane. The specific ethanol productivity progressively rose from 0 to 20 mmol h/sup -1/g/sup -1/ cell dry matter at a growth rate of 0.17 h/sup -1/ when the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium concentration was increased from 10 to 80. The ethanol production under potassium limited growth conditions was caused neither by a reduction in the specific respiratory activity nor by variations in the potassium content in cell dry matter. Results which strongly suggest that ethanol production under potassium limited growth conditions is brought about by changes in the ratio of pyruvate oxidase to pyruvate decarboxylase activity through changes in the intracellular pyruvate concentration are presented.

  10. Nitrous oxide production by Alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, S.; Grobben, N.G.; Robertson, L.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Nitrous oxide production contributes to both greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in the stratosphere. A significant part of the global N2O emission can be attributed to microbial processes, especially nitrification and denitrification, used in biological wastewater treatment systems. This study looks at the efficiency of denitrification and the enzymes involved, with the emphasis on N2O production during the transient phase from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and vice versa. The effect of repetitive changing aerobic-anaerobic conditions on N2O was also studied. Alcaligenes faecalis was used as the model denitrofing organism. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Significantly enhanced production of recombinant nitrilase by optimization of culture conditions and glycerol feeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Ai-Tao; Pan, Jiang; Xu, Jian-He

    2011-02-01

    The production of a recombinant nitrilase expressed in Escherichia coli JM109/pNLE was optimized in the present work. Various culture conditions and process parameters, including medium composition, inducer, induction condition, pH and temperature, were systematically examined. The results showed that nitrilase production in E. coli JM109/pNLE was greatly affected by the pH condition and the temperature in batch culture, and the highest nitrilase production was obtained when the fermentation was carried out at 37°C, initial pH 7.0 without control and E. coli was induced with 0.2 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside at 4.0 h. Furthermore, enzyme production could be significantly enhanced by adopting the glycerol feeding strategy with lower flow rate. The enzyme expression was also authenticated by sodium dodecyl phosphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Finally, under the optimized conditions for fed-batch culture, cell growth, specific activity and nitrilase production of the recombinant E. coli were increased by 9.0-, 5.5-, and 50-fold, respectively. PMID:20862583

  12. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  13. Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using Gluconacetobacter hansenii NCIM 2529 strain under shaking conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Bhavna V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a biopolymer, due to its unique properties is valuable for production of vital products in food, textile, medicine, and agriculture. In the present study, the optimal fermentation conditions for enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii NCIM 2529 were investigated under shaking conditions. The investigation on media components and culture parameters revealed that 2 % (w/v) sucrose as carbon source, 0.5 % (w/v) potassium nitrate as nitrogen source, 0.4 % (w/v) disodium phosphate as phosphate source, 0.04 % (w/v) magnesium sulfate, and 0.8 % (w/v) calcium chloride as trace elements, pH5.0, temperature 25 °C, and agitation speed 170 rpm with 6 days of fermentation period are optimal for maximum BC production. Production of BC using optimized media components and culture parameters was 1.66 times higher (5.0 g/l) than initial non optimized media (3.0 g/l). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and comparison with the available literature suggests that the produced component by G. hansenii in the present study is pure bacterial cellulose. The specific action of cellulase out of the investigated hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase, amylase, and protease) further confirmed purity of the produced BC. These findings give insight into conditions necessary for enhanced production of bacterial cellulose, which can be used for a variety of applications. PMID:23319186

  14. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  15. Strategies for gas production from hydrate accumulations under various geologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.; Collett, T.

    2003-04-29

    In this paper we classify hydrate deposits in three classes according to their geologic and reservoir conditions, and discuss the corresponding production strategies. Simple depressurization appears promising in Class 1 hydrates, but its appeal decreases in Class 2 and Class 3 hydrates. The most promising production strategy in Class 2 hydrates involves combinations of depressurization and thermal stimulation, and is clearly enhanced by multi-well production-injection systems. The effectiveness of simple depressurization in Class 3 hydrates is limited, and thermal stimulation (alone or in combination with depressurization) through single well systems seems to be the strategy of choice in such deposits.

  16. The characterization of coal liquefaction products obtained under an inert atmosphere and catalytic conditions. Part II: Soluble products

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, H.

    2006-03-15

    Beypazari and Tuncbilek lignite were liquefied using two different catalyst methods physically mixing and impregnation. The liquefaction occurred under conditions of inert atmosphere and various process parameters. Solvent to coal ratio, pressure, catalyst type, catalyst concentration, temperature, and time were examined as process parameters. The most appropriate parameters for the total soluble products obtained by liquefaction of both lignites and for elemental analysis of preasphaltenes were determined as follows: 2/1 solvent to coal ratio; from 1.25 MPa to 2.50 MPa initial nitrogen pressure; Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mo(CO){sub 6} as catalyst types; 3% as catalyst concentration; 400{sup o}C as reaction temperature; and 60 min as reaction time. In general, fuel quality of both preasphaltene and total soluble products decreased as temperature increased above 400{sup o}C and reaction time exceeded 60 min. The fuel quality of the preasphaltenes and the total soluble products obtained under the catalytic conditions and in the state of impregnation of catalyst onto coal is higher than under the noncatalytic conditions and in the state of physically mixing of catalyst.

  17. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  18. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments. 260.97 Section 260.97 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED...

  19. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 679 - Delivery Condition* and Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery Condition* and Product Codes 1a Table 1a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  20. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 679 - Delivery Condition* and Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery Condition* and Product Codes 1a Table 1a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  1. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 679 - Delivery Condition* and Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery Condition* and Product Codes 1a Table 1a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 1a Table 1a...

  2. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) FORMATION UNDER PYROLYTIC AND STARVED AIR CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive program of laboratory studies based on the non-flame mode of thermal decomposition produced much data on PIC (Products of Incomplete Combustion) formation, primarily under pyrolytic and starved air conditions. Most significantly, laboratory results from non-flame ...

  3. The Comparative Effect of Single and Multiple Gloss Conditions on EFL Learners' Vocabulary Retention and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khabiri, Mona; Akbarpour, Raheleh

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary glosses are considered effective learning tools since they decrease incorrect meaning inferences from context while keeping reading uninterrupted. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of different gloss conditions on intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary retention and production. The participants were 101 EFL…

  4. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  5. Optimization of culture conditions of Fusarium solani for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Phat, Chanvorleak; Nam, Woo-Seon; Lee, Chan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of Fusarium solani KCCM90040 on cereal grain for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide, a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide exhibiting cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects. From the analysis of variance results using response surface methodology, temperature, initial moisture content, and growth time were shown to be important parameters for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on cereal grain. A model was established in the present study to describe the relationship between environmental conditions and the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on rice, the selected cereal grain. The optimal culture conditions were determined at 25.79 °C with the initial moisture content of 40.79%, and 16.19 days of growth time. This report will give important information concerning the optimization of environmental conditions using statistic methodology for the production of a new cyclic pentadepsipeptide from fungi. PMID:25130748

  6. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  7. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments. 260.97 Section 260.97 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED...

  8. Optimization of production conditions and material characteristics of tubular stabilizer bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhr, R.

    1983-08-01

    Weight reduction of car tubular stabilizer bars is studied. Optimization of prematerial, forming and tempering procedures, and surface treatment are discussed. Steel qualities and production conditions were examined for feasibility with sample stabilizer bars. It is concluded that tubular stabilizer bars can be manufactured and practically used in cars. Tube diameters must not be too small, otherwise the weight saving is minimal.

  9. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments. 260.97 Section 260.97 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED...

  10. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments. 260.97 Section 260.97 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED...

  11. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the...

  12. Optimization of fermentation condition favoring butanol production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525.

    PubMed

    Sarchami, Tahereh; Johnson, Erin; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a promising biofuel and valuable platform chemical that can be produced through fermentative conversion of glycerol. The initial fermentation conditions for butanol production from pure glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 were optimized via a central composite design. The effect of inoculum age, initial cell density, initial pH of medium and temperature were quantified and a quadratic model was able to predict butanol yield as a function of all four investigated factors. The model was confirmed through additional experiments and via analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subsequently, numerical optimization was used to maximize the butanol yield within the experimental range. Based on these results, batch fermentations in a 7 L bioreactor were performed using pure and crude (residue from biodiesel production) glycerol as substrates at optimized conditions. A butanol yield of 0.34 mole(butanol) mole(-1)(glycerol) was obtained indicating the suitability of this feedstock for fermentative butanol production. PMID:26922315

  13. Effect of environmental conditions on extracellular lipases production and fungal morphology from Aspergillus niger MYA 135.

    PubMed

    Colin, Veronica Leticia; Baigori, Mario Domingo; Pera, Licia Maria

    2010-02-01

    Under the current assay conditions, lipase production in mineral medium was only detected in the presence of vegetable oils, reaching the highest specific activity with olive oil. In this way, effect of different environmental conditions on fungal morphology and olive oil-induced extracellular lipases production from Aspergillus niger MYA 135 was studied. It was observed that addition of 1.0 g l(-1) FeCl(3)to the medium encouraged filamentous growth and increased the specific activity 6.6 fold after 4 days of incubation compared to the control. However, major novelty of this study was the satisfactory production of an acidic lipase at initial pH 3 of the culture medium (1.74 +/- 0.06 mU microg(-1)), since its potencial applications in food and pharmaceutical industry are highly promising. PMID:20082373

  14. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (a(w): 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l(-1) NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B(1) (FB1), B(2) (FB2) and B(3) (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F. verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, a(w) of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l(-1) of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, a(w) of 0.99, 25 g l(-1) of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under a wide range of conditions. Gene expression mirrored fumonisin production profile under all conditions with the exception of temperature: FUM1 and FUM21 expression was highest at 15°C, while maximum fumonisin production was at 30°C. These data indicate that a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism could account for the different optimal temperatures for FUM gene expression and fumonisin production. PMID:23167929

  15. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  16. Effects of climate on the productivity of desert truffles beneath hyper-arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Bradai, Lyès; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun; Amrani, Khaled

    2015-07-01

    Desert truffles are edible hypogenous fungi that are very well adapted to conditions of aridity in arid and semi-arid regions. This study aims to highlight the influence of climatic factors on the productivity of desert truffles under hyper-arid climatic conditions of the Sahara Desert in Algeria, with assumptions that the more varying climatic factors, mainly rainfall, are more crucial for the development and production of desert truffles. At seven separate sites, desert truffles were collected by systematic sampling between 2006 and 2012. The effects of climate parameters of each site on the productivities (g/ha/year) of desert truffle species were tested using generalized linear models (GLMs). The annual mean of the total production recorded for all three harvested species (Terfezia arenaria, Terfezia claveryi, and Tirmania nivea) was 785.43 ± 743.39 g/ha. Tirmania nivea was commonly present over the sampled sites with an occurrence of 70 ± 10.1%. GLMs revealed that total and specific productivities were closely positively related to autumnal precipitations occurring during October-December, which is the critical pre-breeding period for both desert truffles and host plant species. The other climatic parameters have statistically no effect on the annual variation of desert truffle productivity. PMID:25164975

  17. Effects of climate on the productivity of desert truffles beneath hyper-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradai, Lyès; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun; Amrani, Khaled

    2015-07-01

    Desert truffles are edible hypogenous fungi that are very well adapted to conditions of aridity in arid and semi-arid regions. This study aims to highlight the influence of climatic factors on the productivity of desert truffles under hyper-arid climatic conditions of the Sahara Desert in Algeria, with assumptions that the more varying climatic factors, mainly rainfall, are more crucial for the development and production of desert truffles. At seven separate sites, desert truffles were collected by systematic sampling between 2006 and 2012. The effects of climate parameters of each site on the productivities (g/ha/year) of desert truffle species were tested using generalized linear models (GLMs). The annual mean of the total production recorded for all three harvested species ( Terfezia arenaria, Terfezia claveryi, and Tirmania nivea) was 785.43 ± 743.39 g/ha. Tirmania nivea was commonly present over the sampled sites with an occurrence of 70 ± 10.1 %. GLMs revealed that total and specific productivities were closely positively related to autumnal precipitations occurring during October-December, which is the critical pre-breeding period for both desert truffles and host plant species. The other climatic parameters have statistically no effect on the annual variation of desert truffle productivity.

  18. Influence of sound-conditioning on noise-induced susceptibility of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2015-07-01

    Cochlear damage caused by loud sounds can be attenuated by "sound-conditioning" methods. The amount of adaptation for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured in alert rabbits previously predicted an ear's susceptibility to a subsequent noise exposure. The present study investigated if sound-conditioning influenced the robustness of such DPOAE adaptation, and if such conditioning elicited more protection by increasing the amount of DPOAE adaptation. Toward this end, rabbits were divided into two study groups: (1) experimental animals exposed to a sound-conditioning protocol, and (2) unconditioned control animals. After base-line measures, all rabbits were exposed to an overstimulation paradigm consisting of an octave band noise, and then re-assessed 3 weeks post-exposure to determine permanent changes in DPOAEs. A major result was that prior sound-conditioning protected reductions in DPOAE levels by an average of 10-15 dB. However, DPOAE adaptation decreased with sound-conditioning, so that such conditioning was no longer related to noise-induced reductions in DPOAEs. Together, these findings suggest that sound-conditioning affected neural pathways other than those that likely mediate DPOAE adaptation (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent and/or middle-ear muscle reflexes). PMID:26233006

  19. Mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production from abiotic oxidation of pyrite under acidic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (radOH) produced from pyrite oxidation by O2 have been recognized, but mechanisms regarding the production under anoxic and oxic conditions are not well understood. In this study, the mechanisms of radOH production from pyrite oxidation under anoxic and oxic conditions were explored using benzoic acid (BA) as an radOH probe. Batch experiments were conducted at pH 2.6 to explore radOH production under anoxic and oxic conditions. The cumulative radOH concentrations produced under anoxic and oxic conditions increased linearly to 7.5 and 52.2 μM, respectively within 10 h at 10 g/L pyrite. Under anoxic conditions, radOH was produced from the oxidation of H2O on the sulfur-deficient sites on pyrite surface, showing an increased production with the increase of pyrite surface exposure due to oxidation. Under oxic conditions, the formation of radOH proceeds predominantly via the two-electron reduction of O2 on pyrite surface along with a minor contribution from the oxidation of H2O on surface sulfur-defects and the reactions of Fe2+/sulfur intermediates with O2. For both O2 reduction and H2O oxidation on the surface sulfur-defects, H2O2 was the predominant intermediate, which subsequently transformed to radOH through Fenton mechanism. The radOH produced had a significant impact on the transformation of contaminants in the environment. Anoxic pyrite suspensions oxidized 13.9% As(III) (C0 = 6.67 μM) and 17.6% sulfanilamide (C0 = 2.91 μM) within 10 h at pH 2.6 and 10 g/L pyrite, while oxic pyrite suspensions improved the oxidation percentages to 55.4% for As(III) and 51.9% for sulfanilamide. The ratios of anoxic to oxic oxidation are consistent with the relative contribution of surface sulfur-defects to radOH production. However, Fe2+ produced from pyrite oxidation competed with the contaminants for radOH, which is of particular significance with the increase of time in a static environment. We conclude that radOH can be produced from abiotic oxidation of

  20. Non-limiting food conditions for growth and production of the copepod community in a highly productive upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Rubén; Bustos-Ríos, Evelyn; Hidalgo, Pamela; Morales, Carmen E.

    2016-09-01

    Zooplankton production is critical for understanding marine ecosystem dynamics. This work estimates copepod growth and production in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (~35 to 37°S) during a 3-year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006) at a fixed shelf station, and from spring-summer spatial surveys during the same period. To estimate copepod production (CP), we used species-biomasses and associated C-specific growth rates from temperature dependent equations (food-saturated) for the dominant species, which we assumed were maximal growth rates (gmax). Using chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for food conditions, we determined a size-dependent half-saturation constant with the Michaelis-Menten equation to derive growth rates (g) under the effect of food limitation. These food-dependent C-specific growth rates were much lower (<0.1 d-1) than those observed in the field for the dominant species, while gmax for same species, in the range of 0.19-0.23 d-1 better represented the necessary growth to attain observed adult sizes of at least two copepods, Paracalanus cf. indicus and Calanus chilensis. Copepod biomass (CB) and rates of maximal copepod production (CPmax) obtained with gmax were higher in the coastal upwelling zone (<50 km from shore), and correlated significantly to oceanographic variables associated with upwelling conditions. Both CPmax and gmax exhibited negative trends at the fixed station from 2004 to 2006 in association with increased duration of upwelling in the latter year. Annual CPmax ranged between 24 and 52 g C m-2 y-1 with a mean annual P/B ratio of 7.3. We concluded that interannual variation in copepod production resulted from factors and processes regulating copepod abundance and biomass in the absence of bottom-up control, allowing copepods to grow without limitation due to food resources.

  1. Fate of plasticised PVC products under landfill conditions: a laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactor study.

    PubMed

    Mersiowsky, I; Weller, M; Ejlertsson, J

    2001-09-01

    The long-term behaviour of plasticised PVC products was investigated in laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactors. The examined products included a cable material and a flooring with different combinations of plasticisers. The objective of the study was to assess whether a degradation of the PVC polymer or a loss of plasticisers occurred under landfill conditions. A degradation of the polymer matrix was not observed. The contents of plasticisers in aged samples was determined and compared to the respective original products. The behaviour of the various plasticisers was found to differ significantly. Losses of DEHP and BBP from the flooring were too low for analytical quantification. No loss of DIDP from the cable was detectable, whereas DINA in the same product showed considerable losses of up to 70% compared to the original contents. These deficits were attributable to biodegradation rather than leaching. There was no equivalent release of plasticisers into the leachate. PMID:11487101

  2. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  3. The effect of particle inlet conditions on FCC riser hydrodynamics and product yields.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.; Huntsinger, A.; Petrick, M.

    1999-10-11

    Essential to today's modern refineries and the gasoline production process are fluidized catalytic cracking units. By using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate the riser, parametric and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the effect of catalyst inlet conditions on the riser hydrodynamics and on the product yields. Simulations were created on the basis of a general riser configuration and operating conditions. The results of this work are indications of riser operating conditions that will maximize specific product yields. The CFD code is a three-dimensional, multiphase, turbulent, reacting flow code with phenomenological models for particle-solid interactions, droplet evaporation, and chemical kinetics. The code has been validated against pressure, particle loading, and product yield measurements. After validation of the code, parametric studies were performed on various parameters such as the injection velocity of the catalyst, the angle of injection, and the particle size distribution. The results indicate that good mixing of the catalyst particles with the oil droplets produces a high degree of cracking in the riser.

  4. Shear conditions in clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cerri, M O; Badino, A C

    2012-08-01

    In biochemical processes involving filamentous microorganisms, the high shear rate may damage suspended cells leading to viability loss and cell disruption. In this work, the influence of the shear conditions in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated in a 4-dm(3) conventional stirred tank (STB) and in 6-dm(3) concentric-tube airlift (ALB) bioreactors. Batch cultivations were performed in a STB at 600 and 800 rpm and 0.5 vvm (cultivations B1 and B2) and in ALB at 3.0 and 4.1 vvm (cultivations A1 and A2) to define two initial oxygen transfer conditions in both bioreactors. The average shear rate ([Formula: see text]) of the cultivations was estimated using correlations of recent literature based on experimental data of rheological properties of the broth (consistency index, K, and flow index, n) and operating conditions, impeller speed (N) for STB and superficial gas velocity in the riser (UGR) for ALB. In the same oxygen transfer condition, the [Formula: see text] values for ALB were higher than those obtained in STB. The maximum [Formula: see text] presented a strong correlation with a maximum consistency index (K (max)) of the broth. Close values of maximum CA production were obtained in cultivations A1 and A2 (454 and 442 mg L(-1)) with similar maximum [Formula: see text] values of 4,247 and 4,225 s(-1). In cultivations B1 and B2, the maximum CA production of 269 and 402 mg L(-1) were reached with a maximum [Formula: see text] of 904 and 1,786 s(-1). The results show that high values of average shear rate increase the CA production regardless of the oxygen transfer condition and bioreactor model. PMID:22271253

  5. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  6. Hierarchical Satellite-based Approach to Global Monitoring of Crop Condition and Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Zeng, H.; Zou, W.; Yan, N.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of global food security goes beyond the mere estimate of crop production: It needs to take into account the spatial and temporal patterns of food availability, as well as physical and economic access. Accurate and timely information is essential to both food producers and consumers. Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, such as FY-2/3A, HJ-1 CCD, CropWatch has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The new monitoring approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global (sixty-five Monitoring and Reporting Units, MRU), seven major production zones (MPZ), thirty-one key countries (including China) and "sub- countries." The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both global exports and production of four major crops (maize, rice, soybean and wheat). The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales, using the integrated information to assess global, regional, and national (as well as sub-national) crop environmental condition, crop condition, drought, production, and agricultural trends. The climatic indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass are first analysed at global scale to describe overall crop growing conditions. At MPZ scale, the key indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation health index (VHI), Vegetation condition index (VCI), Cropped arable land fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping intensity (CI). Together, they characterise agricultural patterns, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses for thirty one individual countries at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop condition are

  7. A Cuvette Design for Measurement of Ethylene Production and Carbon Dioxide Exchange by Intact Shoots under Controlled Environmental Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Pawan K.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1979-01-01

    A cuvette is described for simultaneous measurement of ethylene production and CO2 fixation by intact shoots under controlled environmental conditions. This design overcomes potential problems associated with closed systems conventionally used for studies on ethylene production, allowing accurate determination of rates of ethylene production in plants exposed to different environmental conditions. PMID:16660994

  8. Optimization of culture medium and conditions for penicillin acylase production by Streptomyces lavendulae ATCC 13664.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Arroyo, Miguel; Torres-Guzmán, Raquel; De La Mata, Isabel; Acebal, Carmen; Castillón, M Pilar

    2005-08-01

    The culture medium for Streptomyces lavendulae ATCC 13664 was optimized on a shake-flask scale by using a statistical factorial design for enhanced production of penicillin acylase. This extracellular enzyme recently has been reported to be a penicillin K acylase, presenting also high hydrolytic activity against penicillin V and other natural aliphatic penicillins such as penicillin K, penicillin F, and penicillin dihydroF. The factorial design indicated that the main factors that positively affect penicillin acylase production by S. lavendulae were the concentration of yeast extract and the presence of oligoelements in the fermentation medium, whereas the presence of olive oil in the medium had no effect on enzyme production. An initial concentration of 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract and 3 microg/mL of CuSO4 x 5H2O was found to be best for acylase production. In such optimized culture medium, fermentation of the microorganism yielded 289 IU/L of enzyme in 72 h when employing a volume medium/volume flask ratio of 0.4 and a 300-rpm shaking speed. The presence of copper, alone and in combination with other metals, stimulated biomass as well as penicillin acylase production. The time course of penicillin acylase production was also studied in the optimized medium and conditions. Enzyme production showed catabolite repression by different carbon sources such as glucose, lactose, citrate, glycerol, and glycine. PMID:16118466

  9. Influence of culture conditions on thermostable lipase production by a thermophilic alkalitolerant strain of Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Kambourova, M; Emanuilova, E; Dimitrov, P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different culture conditions on thermostable lipase production by Bacillus sp. was studied in shake flasks. A maximum enzyme activity of 67-75 nkat/mL was observed in a medium consisting of 0.5% soybean flour and 0.1% stearyl glycerol esters or natural fats. A lipase activity of about 117 nkat/mL was established when the cultivation was carried out in a laboratory fermentor at 20% minimal dissolved oxygen level, the enzyme production being increased 1.5 fold compared to that in a flask culture. PMID:9138309

  10. Characterization and chemistry of fission products released from LWR fuel under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, K.S.; Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Wichner, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Segments from commercial LWR fuel rods have been tested at temperatures between 1400 and 2000/sup 0/C in a flowing steam-helium atmosphere to simulate severe accident conditions. The primary goals of the tests were to determine the rate of fission product release and to characterize the chemical behavior. This paper is concerned primarily with the identification and chemical behavior of the released fission products with emphasis on antimony, cesium, iodine, and silver. The iodine appeared to behave primarily as cesium iodide and the antimony and silver as elements, while cesium behavior was much more complex. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Comparison of biotin production by recombinant Sphingomonas sp. under various agitation conditions.

    PubMed

    Saito; Honda; Kawabe; Mukumoto; Shimizu; Kobayashi

    2000-06-01

    Biotin production by fermentation of recombinant Sphingomonas sp./pSP304 was investigated. A complex medium containing 60g/l of glycerol and 30g/l of yeast extract was suitable for biotin production. Biotin was produced in the late logarithmic or stationary phase after glycerol starvation. The optimum pH value for biotin production was 7.0. When the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) was controlled at a constant level, the biotin concentration produced after 120h was significantly lower than that obtained in a test tube culture. Therefore, a batchwise jar-fermentor culture with a constant agitation speed and without DO control was conducted for investigating the effect of agitation conditions on biotin production. Six types of impeller were tested: turbine-blade type, turbo-lift type, rotating mesh type (EGSTAR((R))), screw with draft tube type, Maxblend((R))type, and anchor type. With some impellers, agitation speed was also changed. Both the maximum cell concentration and biotin production varied depending on agitation conditions. Relatively high cell concentrations were attained with four of the impeller types, turbine-blade type, rotating mesh type, Maxblend((R)) type, and anchor type. Among these impellers, the turbine-blade impeller with sintered sparger was suitable for biotin production. After 120h, the cell concentration reached an OD(660) of 43 and a biotin concentration of 66mg/l was obtained, which was comparable with the results from the test tube culture. Morphological variation was also observed depending on the agitation conditions: oval-shaped, rod-shaped, and elongated-shaped cells. Biotin production was relatively high in slightly long rod-shape cells but low in elongated cells. The difference in morphology appeared to depend on the shear stress. It was found that biotin production was strongly correlated with cell length and the oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a); cell lengths in the range 4-7µm and k(L)a values in the range 1.5-2.0/min were

  12. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  13. Force production during squats performed with a rotational resistance device under stable versus unstable conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moras, Gerard; Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Force production during a squat action on a rotational resistance device (RRD) under stable and unstable conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy males were asked to perform six sets of six repetitions of squats on an RRD on either stable or unstable surfaces. The stable and unstable sets were performed on different days. Muscular outputs were obtained from a linear encoder and a strain gauge fixed to a vest. [Results] Overall, the results showed no significant differences for any of the dependent variables across exercise modes. Forcemean outputs were higher in the concentric phase than in the eccentric phase for each condition, but there were no differences in velocity, time or displacement. The forcepeak was similar in the eccentric and concentric phases of movement under both stable and unstable conditions. There were no significant differences in forcemean between sets per condition or between conditions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that performing squats with a RRD achieves similar forcemean and forcepeak under stable and unstable conditions. The forcepeak produced is also similar in concentric and eccentric phases. PMID:26696707

  14. Force production during squats performed with a rotational resistance device under stable versus unstable conditions.

    PubMed

    Moras, Gerard; Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Force production during a squat action on a rotational resistance device (RRD) under stable and unstable conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy males were asked to perform six sets of six repetitions of squats on an RRD on either stable or unstable surfaces. The stable and unstable sets were performed on different days. Muscular outputs were obtained from a linear encoder and a strain gauge fixed to a vest. [Results] Overall, the results showed no significant differences for any of the dependent variables across exercise modes. Forcemean outputs were higher in the concentric phase than in the eccentric phase for each condition, but there were no differences in velocity, time or displacement. The forcepeak was similar in the eccentric and concentric phases of movement under both stable and unstable conditions. There were no significant differences in forcemean between sets per condition or between conditions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that performing squats with a RRD achieves similar forcemean and forcepeak under stable and unstable conditions. The forcepeak produced is also similar in concentric and eccentric phases. PMID:26696707

  15. Mycelial mass production of fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium under different culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium are promising fungus species in veterinary biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of their production capacity of fungal structures (conidia and/or chlamydospores), growth efficiency in laboratory solid media and especially their predatory capacity. However, their large-scale production remains a challenge. This work aimed at evaluating the mycelial mass production of D. flagrans (AC001 and CG722) and M. thaumasium (NF34A) nematophagous fungi under different culture conditions. Results The results did not present significant differences (p > 0.05) in mycelia mass production between the isolates cultured under pH 4.0. Furthermore, after 168 hrs., the isolate CG722 presented a lower production of mycelial mass in medium CM (corn meal) (p < 0.05). Conclusion We therefore concluded the use of culture media SD (soy dextrose) and CG (corn grits) at pH values between 6.0 and 7.0 is suitable for high mycelial mass production of D. flagrans and M. thaumasium. PMID:23985336

  16. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mühlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia × hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. PMID:25402319

  17. Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] production under different salinity conditions by a novel Bacillus megaterium strain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Contreras, Alejandra; Koller, Martin; Braunegg, Gerhart; Marqués-Calvo, María Soledad

    2016-01-25

    Bacillus megaterium uyuni S29, isolated from the Bolivian salt lake Uyuni, displays a high capability to produce poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) in industrial culture media. In order to analyze the influence of salt on biomass formation and PHB production, cultivations at different NaCl concentrations were carried out according to the salinity conditions of the habitats of the strain's original isolation. In this preliminary report, the strain showed considerable adaptability to media of different salinity, obtaining the best results for both cellular growth and PHB production in media containing 45 g/L NaCl. The strain grew at 100 g/L NaCl and PHB production was observed even at high salt levels of 250 g/L without unwanted concurrent spore formation. Its tolerance to high salt concentrations together with auspicious PHB productivity makes this strain appealing not only for PHB production, but also for other biotechnological applications such as the treatment of salty wastewater; additional studies will be needed to further increase PHB productivity. PMID:26344348

  18. Mathematical model of Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341 growth and lipid production under photoheterotrophic fermentation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, JinShui; Rasa, Ehsan; Tantayotai, Prapakorn; Scow, Kate M.; Yuan, HongLi; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the cost of algal biomass production, mathematical model was developed for the first time to describe microalgae growth, lipid production and glycerin consumption under photoheterotrophic conditions based on logistic, Luedeking–Piret and Luedeking–Piret-like equations. All experiments were conducted in a 2 L batch reactor without considering CO2 effect on algae’s growth and lipid production. Biomass and lipid production increased with glycerin as carbon source and were well described by the logistic and Luedeking–Piret equations respectively. Model predictions were in satisfactory agreement with measured data and the mode of lipid production was growth-associated. Sensitivity analysis was applied to examine the effects of certain important parameters on model performance. Results showed that S0, the initial concentration of glycerin, was the most significant factor for algae growth and lipid production. This model is applicable for prediction of other single cell algal species but model testing is recommended before scaling up the fermentation of process. PMID:21115343

  19. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. PMID:26855359

  20. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  1. Diffusion modeling of fission product release during depressurized core conduction cooldown conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model for diffusion through the silicon carbide layer of TRISO particles is applied to the data for accident condition testing of fuel spheres for the High-Temperature Reactor program of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Categorization of sphere release of {sup 137}Cs based on fast neutron fluence permits predictions of release with an accuracy comparable to that of the US/FRG accident condition fuel performance model. Calculations are also performed for {sup 85}Kr, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 110m}Ag. Diffusion of cesium through SiC suggests that models of fuel failure should consider fuel performance during repeated accident condition thermal cycling. Microstructural considerations in models in fission product release are discussed. The neutron-induced segregation of silicon within the SiC structure is postulated as a mechanism for enhanced fission product release during accident conditions. An oxygen-enhanced SiC decomposition mechanism is also discussed. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production. PMID:25847795

  3. Effect of fermentation conditions on biohydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Hai M.; Le, Kien A.; Tran, An T.; Le, Phung K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6.5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76.22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.

  4. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations. PMID:25479999

  5. Silicification-induced cell aggregation for the sustainable production of H2 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Li, Yaling; Ma, Weimin; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-10-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production is of great importance because of its promise for generating clean renewable energy. In nature, green algae cannot produce hydrogen as a result of the extreme sensitivity of hydrogenase to oxygen. However, we find that silicification-induced green algae aggregates can achieve sustainable photobiological hydrogen production even under natural aerobic conditions. The core-shell structure of the green algae aggregates creates a balance between photosynthetic electron generation and hydrogenase activity, thus allowing the production of hydrogen. This finding provides a viable pathway for the solar-driven splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen to develop green energy alternatives by using rationally designed cell-material complexes. PMID:26302695

  6. Lipid production on free fatty acids by oleaginous yeasts under non-growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobing; Jin, Guojie; Wang, Yandan; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2015-10-01

    Microbial lipids produced by oleaginous yeasts serve as promising alternatives to traditional oils and fats for the production of biodiesel and oleochemicals. To improve its techno-economics, it is pivotal to use wastes and produce high quality lipids of special fatty acid composition. In the present study, four oleaginous yeasts were tested to use free fatty acids for lipid production under non-growth conditions. Microbial lipids of exceptionally high fatty acid relative contents, e.g. those contained over 70% myristic acid or 80% oleic acid, were produced that may be otherwise inaccessible by growing cells on various carbon sources. It was found that Cryptococcus curvatus is a robust strain that can efficiently use oleic acid as well as even-numbered saturated fatty acids with carbon atoms ranging from 10 to 20. Our results provided new opportunity for the production of functional lipids and for the exploitation of organic wastes rich in free fatty acids. PMID:26159379

  7. Extracellular xylanase production by Pleurotus species on lignocellulosic wastes under in vivo condition using novel pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K

    2012-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanase by three species of Pleurotus species i.e. P. florida, P. flabellatus and P. sajor caju was studied under in vivo condition during their cultivation on pretreated lignocellulosic wastes. Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and ashoka (Saraca indica) leaves extract were used for pretreatment of paddy straw and wheat straw. Between these two wastes, paddy straw pretreated with neem oil, supported better xylanase production than wheat straw. Initially, xylanase production was low but it increased in subsequent days and reached at peak on 25th day of cultivation of Pleurotus species. Thereafter, there was decrease in the activity of the enzyme. On 25th day of incubation P. florida produced maximum xylanase on neem oil pretreated paddy straw i.e. 10.59 Uh—1ml—1. Among the three species, P. florida showed maximum enzyme activity followed by P. flabellatus and P. sajor caju. PMID:23273208

  8. Compactin production studies using Penicillium brevicompactum under solid-state fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaligram, N S; Singh, S K; Singhal, R S; Pandey, A; Szakacs, G

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, compactin production by Penicillium brevicompactum WA 2315 was optimized using solid-state fermentation. The initial one factor at a time approach resulted in improved compactin production of 905 microg gds(-1) compared to initial 450 microg gds(-1). Subsequently, nutritional, physiological, and biological parameters were screened using fractional factorial and Box-Behnken design. The fractional factorial design studied inoculum age, inoculum volume, pH, NaCl, NH(4)NO(3), MgSO(4), and KH(2)PO(4). All parameters were found to be significant except pH and KH(2)PO(4). The Box-Behnken design studied inoculum volume, inoculum age, glycerol, and NH(4)NO(3) at three different levels. Inoculum volume (p = 0.0013) and glycerol (p = 0.0001) were significant factors with greater effect on response. The interaction effects were not significant. The validation study using model-defined conditions resulted in an improved yield of 1,250 microg gds(-1) compactin. Further improvement in yield was obtained using fed batch mode of carbon supplementation. The feeding of glycerol (20% v/v) on day 3 resulted in further improved compactin yield of 1,406 microg gds(-1). The present study demonstrates that agro-industrial residues can be successfully used for compactin production, and statistical experiment designs provide an easy tool to improve the process conditions for secondary metabolite production. PMID:19099208

  9. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus and its partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanmin; Yao, Lifeng; Fan, Chuanhui

    2015-12-10

    Figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries are about 4000,000 tons in 2011 and are increasing every year according to FAO statistics. However, there is not any report on pectin production by microbial with persimmon peel as the source. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture and partial characterization of pectin were carried out in the work. An optimum fermentation condition for pectin production was obtained through a central composite rotatable design in response surface methodology as follows: fermentation time, 30.09 h, temperature, 25.00 °C and the initial pH in the fermentation medium, 6.90, respectively and the pectin yield reached the maximal value 0.449 g/g. Persimmon peel pectin had highly methoxylated (62.51%), high galacturonic acid content (82.28%) than citrus pectin, and was classified as the highly methoxylated pectin, the results indicated that persimmon peel had potential good resources for pectin production. The investigation can make it available to utilize persimmon peel to produce high methoxyl pectin for food industry, pharmacy and cosmetic manufacture. PMID:26428166

  10. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables. PMID:16797762

  11. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  12. Assessment of possibilities and conditions of irrigation in Hungary by digital soil map products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Szabó, József; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Sustaining proper soil moisture is essentially important in agricultural management. However, irrigation can be really worth only, if we lay sufficient emphasis on soil conservation. Nationwide planning of irrigation can be taken place, if we have spatially exhaustive maps and recommendations for the different areas. Soil moisture in the pores originate from 'above' (precipitation), or from 'beneath' (from groundwater by capillary lift). The level of groundwater depends on topography, climatic conditions and water regime of the nearby river. The thickness of capillary zone is basicly related to the physical and water management properties of the soil. Accordingly the capillary rise of sandy soils - with very high infiltration rate and very poor water retaining capacity - are far smaller than in the case of clay soils - with very poor infiltration rate and high water retaining capacity. Applying irrigation water can be considered as a reinforcement from 'above', and it affects the salinity and sodicity as well as the soil structure, nutrient supply and soil formation. We defined the possibilities of irrigation according to the average salt content of the soil profile. The nationwide mapping of soil salinity was based on legacy soil profile data, and it was carried out by regression kriging. This method allows that environmental factors with exhaustive spatial extension, such as climatic-, vegetation-, topographic-, soil- and geologic layers can be taken into consideration to the spatial extension of the reference data. According to soil salinity content categories, the areas were delineated as 1. to be irrigated, 2. to be irrigated conditionally, 3. not to be irrigated. The conditions of irrigation was determined by the comparison of the 'actual' and the 'critical' depth of the water table. Since, if the water rises above the critical level, undesirable processes, such as salinization and alkalinization can be developed. The critical depth of the water table was

  13. 30 CFR 1206.55 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production into marketable condition and to market the production? 1206.55 Section 1206.55 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.55 What are my responsibilities to place production...

  14. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  15. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  16. Herbicides and herbicide degradation products in upper midwest agricultural streams during august base-flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Lee, K.E.; Porter, S.D.; Terrio, P.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide concentrations in streams of the U.S. Midwest have been shown to decrease through the growing season due to a variety of chemical and physical factors. The occurrence of herbicide degradation products at the end of the growing season is not well known. This study was conducted to document the occurrence of commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota streams during base-flow conditions in August 1997. Atrazine, the most frequently detected herbicide (94%), was present at relatively low concentrations (median 0.17 μg L−1). Metolachlor was detected in 59% and cyanazine in 37% of the samples. Seven of nine compounds detected in more than 50% of the samples were degradation products. The total concentration of the degradation products (median of 4.4 μg L−1) was significantly greater than the total concentration of parent compounds (median of 0.26 μg L−1). Atrazine compounds were present less frequently and in significantly smaller concentrations in streams draining watersheds with soils developed on less permeable tills than in watersheds with soils developed on more permeable loess. The detection and concentration of triazine compounds was negatively correlated with antecedent rainfall (April–July). In contrast, acetanalide compounds were positively correlated with antecedant rainfall in late spring and early summer that may transport the acetanalide degradates into ground water and subsequently into nearby streams. The distribution of atrazine degradation products suggests regional differences in atrazine degradation processes.

  17. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.

    PubMed

    Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-09-10

    Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. PMID:22877870

  18. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable. PMID:26005785

  19. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26496881

  20. Investigating the influence of production conditions on the energy distribution between the solid, liquid and gaseous products of slow pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Kyle; Masek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Slow pyrolysis is a well established technology for converting biomass into a more stable form of carbon (biochar) while also producing energy rich by-products of bio-oil and syngas. Biochar is the porous, carbonaceous material produced by thermo-chemical treatment of organic materials in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar can be incorporated into soils to improve soil fertility, reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as provide long term storage of carbon or alternatively it can also provide additional energy to a pyrolysis system through combustion. Biochar production conditions have a significant influence on the yield as well as physiochemical and functional properties of the final pyrolysis products, resulting in a selection process aimed towards either agricultural benefits and carbon mitigation or heat/energy generation. This work aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and gas flow rate on the product energy distribution as well as the physical, chemical and soil functional properties of biochar, in order to optimise conditions best suited to maximise both energy value and agronomic benefit. Biochar samples were produced from wood pellets (WP) and straw pellets (SP) at two temperatures (350 and 650oC), with three residence times (10, 20 and 40 minutes) and three carrier gas flow rates (0, 0.3 and 0.6 L min-1). The energy balance of the system was determined through the calorimetric analysis of biochar and bio-oil, while the higher heating value for the syngas was calculated from the gas composition measured via mass spectroscopy. Biochar was also analysed for the physiochemical properties of proximate analysis and ultimate analysis as well as the functional property of environmentally stable carbon (C) content. As expected the yield of biochar decreased with increasing temperature resulting in elevated yields of liquid and gas fractions. Increased temperature also resulted in higher values of fixed C, total C, stable C and

  1. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies. PMID:27066237

  2. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  3. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A.; Wierman, C.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  4. Effect of culture conditions on tremorgen production by some Penicillium species.

    PubMed Central

    di Menna, M E; Lauren, D R; Wyatt, P A

    1986-01-01

    Four strains each of seven tremorgenic Penicillium species were grown under various conditions and tested for tremorgen production by intraperitoneal injection of mice and by chemical analysis. Half of the strains had previously been found to be tremorgenic on bioassay after growth on Czapek Dox yeast extract broth or potato-milk-sucrose broth for 3 weeks at 26 degrees C. In the tests reported here nearly all previously nontremorgenic strains were either tremorgenic to mice or produced tremorgens detectable by chemical analysis but did so after longer incubation periods than used in the original screening. Bioassay was not suitable for the estimation of absolute levels but was preferable to chemical analysis when the identity of the tremorgens was not known. Species and strains within species gave different responses to changes in culture medium, incubation temperature, light irradiation, and shaking. Overall, tremorgen production was maximal at 20 or 26 degrees C, increased with time, and was reduced in shaken culture. PMID:3707124

  5. Effect of culture conditions on tremorgen production by some Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    di Menna, M E; Lauren, D R; Wyatt, P A

    1986-04-01

    Four strains each of seven tremorgenic Penicillium species were grown under various conditions and tested for tremorgen production by intraperitoneal injection of mice and by chemical analysis. Half of the strains had previously been found to be tremorgenic on bioassay after growth on Czapek Dox yeast extract broth or potato-milk-sucrose broth for 3 weeks at 26 degrees C. In the tests reported here nearly all previously nontremorgenic strains were either tremorgenic to mice or produced tremorgens detectable by chemical analysis but did so after longer incubation periods than used in the original screening. Bioassay was not suitable for the estimation of absolute levels but was preferable to chemical analysis when the identity of the tremorgens was not known. Species and strains within species gave different responses to changes in culture medium, incubation temperature, light irradiation, and shaking. Overall, tremorgen production was maximal at 20 or 26 degrees C, increased with time, and was reduced in shaken culture. PMID:3707124

  6. Fission products behaviour in UO2 submitted to nuclear severe accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, E.; Bès, R.; Martin, P.; Pontillon, Y.; Solari, P. L.; Salome, M.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the molybdenum chemistry in UO2 based materials, known as SIMFUELS. These materials could be used as an alternative to irradiated nuclear fuels in the study of fission products behaviour during a nuclear severe accident. UO2 samples doped with 12 stable isotopes of fission products were submitted to annealing tests in conditions representative to intermediate steps of severe accidents. Samples were characterized by SEM-EDS and XAS. It was found that Mo chemistry seems to be more complex than what is normally estimated by thermodynamic calculations: XAS spectra indicate the presence of Mo species such as metallic Mo, MoO2, MoO3 and Cs2MoO4.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome.

    PubMed

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na(+)). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L(-1) day(-1) organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the "ML635J-40 aquatic group" while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  8. Screening and characterization of Isochrysis strains and optimization of culture conditions for docosahexaenoic acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Isochrysis is a genus of marine unicellular microalgae that produces docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), a very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of significant health and nutritional value. Mass cultivation of Isochrysis for DHA production for human consumption has not been established due to disappointing low DHA productivity obtained from commonly used Isochrysis strains. In this study, 19 natural Isochrysis strains were screened for DHA yields and the results showed that the cellular DHA content ranged from 6.8 to 17.0 % of total fatty acids with the highest DHA content occurring in the exponential growth phase. Isochrysis galbana #153180 exhibited the greatest DHA production potential and was selected for further investigation. The effects of different light intensities, forms, and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and salinity on growth and DHA production of I. galbana #153180 were studied in a bubble column photobioreactor (PBR). Under favorable culture conditions, I. galbana #153180 contained DHA up to 17.5 % of total fatty acids or 1.7 % of cell dry weight. I. galbana #153180 was further tested in outdoor flat-plate PBRs varying in light path length, starting cell density (SCD), and culture mode (batch versus semicontinuous). When optimized, record high biomass and DHA productivity of I. galbana #153180 of 0.72 g L(-1) day(-1) and 13.6 mg L(-1) day(-1), or 26.4 g m(-2) day(-1) and 547.7 mg m(-2) day(-1), respectively, were obtained, suggesting that I. galbana #153180 may be a desirable strain for commercial production of DHA. PMID:23423326

  9. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively. PMID:27154516

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process. PMID:26232771

  11. A Review on the Assessment of Stress Conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Amritpreet K.; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J.; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids) under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions. PMID:27199903

  12. Functional significance of dinitrogen fixation in sustaining coral productivity under oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Naumann, Malik S; van Hoytema, Nanne; Rix, Laura; Foster, Rachel A; Al-Rshaidat, Mamoon M D; Wild, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional traits define species by their ecological role in the ecosystem. Animals themselves are host-microbe ecosystems (holobionts), and the application of ecophysiological approaches can help to understand their functioning. In hard coral holobionts, communities of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) may contribute a functional trait by providing bioavailable nitrogen (N) that could sustain coral productivity under oligotrophic conditions. This study quantified N2 fixation by diazotrophs associated with four genera of hermatypic corals on a northern Red Sea fringing reef exposed to high seasonality. We found N2 fixation activity to be 5- to 10-fold higher in summer, when inorganic nutrient concentrations were lowest and water temperature and light availability highest. Concurrently, coral gross primary productivity remained stable despite lower Symbiodinium densities and tissue chlorophyll a contents. In contrast, chlorophyll a content per Symbiodinium cell increased from spring to summer, suggesting that algal cells overcame limitation of N, an essential element for chlorophyll synthesis. In fact, N2 fixation was positively correlated with coral productivity in summer, when its contribution was estimated to meet 11% of the Symbiodinium N requirements. These results provide evidence of an important functional role of diazotrophs in sustaining coral productivity when alternative external N sources are scarce. PMID:26511052

  13. A Review on the Assessment of Stress Conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Amritpreet K; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids) under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions. PMID:27199903

  14. Effects of culture conditions on growth and docosahexaenoic acid production from Schizochytrium limacinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Luying; Zhang, Xuecheng; Ren, Xueying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2008-02-01

    The effects of temperature, initial pH, salinity of culture medium, and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6 n-3, DHA) production from Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 were investigated in the present study. The results revealed that the optimal temperature, initial pH and salinity level of the medium for DHA production were 23°C, 7.0 and 18, respectively. Glucose was proved the best carbon source for the growth and DHA production from S. limacinum. Among the nitrogen sources tested, soybean cake hydrolysate, a cheap by-product, was found to be effective for the accumulation of DHA in S. limacinum cells. In addition, increasing the concentration of carbon sources in the medium caused a significant increase in cell biomass; however, accumulation of DHA in cells was mainly stimulated by the ratio of C/N in the medium. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum DHA yield achieved in flasks was 4.08 g L-1 after 5 d of cultivation.

  15. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2014-05-01

    Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

  16. Diversity and variability of methanogens during the shift from mesophilic to thermohilic conditions while biogas production.

    PubMed

    Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A; Banach, A; Bacza, T; Pieczykolan, M

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most popular path of organic waste disposal. It is often used in wastewater treatment plants for excessive sludge removal. Methanogenic fermentation had usually been performed under mesophilic conditions, but in the past few years the thermophilic processes have become more popular due to economics and sludge sanitation. Methanogens, the group of microorganisms responsible for methane production, are thought to be sensitive to temperature change and it has already been proven that the communities performing methanogenesis under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions differ. But in most cases the research performed on methanogen diversity and changeability was undertaken in two separate anaerobic chambers for meso- and thermophilic conditions. It is also known that there is a group of microorganisms performing AD which are insensitive to temperature. Also the linkage between digester performance and its microbial content and community changeability is still not fully understood. That is why in this experiment we analyzed the bacterial community performing methanogenesis in a pilot scale anaerobic chamber during the shift from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions to point at the group of temperature tolerant microorganisms and their performance. The research was performed with PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). It occurred that the community biodiversity decreased together with a temperature increase. The changes were coherent for both the total bacteria community and methanogens. These bacterial shifts were also convergent with biogas production-it decreased in the beginning of the thermophilic phase with the bacterial biodiversity decrease and increased when the community seemed to be restored. DGGE results suggest that among a wide variety of microorganisms involved in AD there is a GC-rich group relatively insensitive towards temperature change, able to adapt quickly to shifts in

  17. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  18. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat waves will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and functioning with major impacts on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently impacting Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and functional responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem functioning and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, functional class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce

  19. 2,3 Butanediol production in an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium in dark conditions via diverse sugar consumption.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jordan T; Kanno, Masahiro; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are under investigation as a means to utilize light energy to directly recycle CO2 into chemical compounds currently derived from petroleum. Any large-scale photosynthetic production scheme must rely on natural sunlight for energy, thereby limiting production time to only lighted hours during the day. Here, an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium was engineered for enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol (23BD) in continuous light, 12h:12h light-dark diurnal, and continuous dark conditions via supplementation with glucose or xylose. This study achieved 23BD production under diurnal conditions comparable to production under continuous light conditions. The maximum 23BD titer was 3.0gL(-1) in 10d. Also achieving chemical production under dark conditions, this work enhances the feasibility of using cyanobacteria as industrial chemical-producing microbes. PMID:26979472

  20. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  1. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production from 24 to 27 weeks under simulated evaporatively cooled conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  2. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-01-01

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth. PMID:25535716

  3. Improvements of tolerance to stress conditions by genetic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aytekin, Ali Özhan; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2014-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, industrial yeast isolate, has been of great interest in recent years for fuel ethanol production. The ethanol yield and productivity depend on many inhibitory factors during the fermentation process such as temperature, ethanol, compounds released as the result of pretreatment procedures, and osmotic stress. An ideal strain should be able to grow under different stress conditions occurred at different fermentation steps. Development of tolerant yeast strains can be achieved by reprogramming pathways supporting the ethanol metabolism by regulating the energy balance and detoxicification processes. Complex gene interactions should be solved for an in-depth comprehension of the yeast stress tolerance mechanism. Genetic engineering as a powerful biotechnological tool is required to design new strategies for increasing the ethanol fermentation performance. Upregulation of stress tolerance genes by recombinant DNA technology can be a useful approach to overcome inhibitory situations. This review presents the application of several genetic engineering strategies to increase ethanol yield under different stress conditions including inhibitor tolerance, ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, and osmotolerance. PMID:24908051

  4. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust.

    PubMed

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth. PMID:25500902

  5. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  6. Statistical analysis of optimal culture conditions for Gluconacetobacter hansenii cellulose production

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Leon, R. V.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Evans, Barbara R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different culture parameters on Gluconacetobacter hansenii (ATCC 10821) to determine which conditions provided optimum cellulose growth. Five culture factors were investigated: carbon source, addition of ethanol, inoculation ratio, pH and temperature. JMP Software (SAS, Cary, NC, USA) was used to design this experiment using a fractional factorial design. After 22 days of static culture, the cellulose produced by the bacteria was harvested, purified and dried to compare the cellulose yields. The results were analyzed by fitting the data to a first-order model with two-factor interactions. The study confirmed that carbon source, addition of ethanol, and temperature were significant factors in the production of cellulose of this G. hansenii strain. While pH alone does not significantly affect average cellulose production, cellulose yields are affected by pH interaction with the carbon source. Culturing the bacteria on glucose at pH 6-5 produces more cellulose than at pH 5-5, while using mannitol at pH 5-5 produces more cellulose than at pH 6-5. The bacteria produced the most cellulose when cultured on mannitol, at pH 5-5, without ethanol, at 20 C. Inoculation ratio was not found to be a significant factor or involved in any significant two-factor interaction. These findings give insight into the conditions necessary to maximize cellulose production from this G. hansenii strain. In addition, this work demonstrates how the fractional factorial design can be used to test a large number of factors using an abbreviated set of experiments. Fitting a statistical model determined the significant factors as well as the significant two-factor interactions.

  7. Radical product yields from the ozonolysis of short chain alkenes under atmospheric boundary layer conditions.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammed S; Rickard, Andrew R; Camredon, Marie; Wyche, Kevin P; Carr, Timo; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

    2013-11-27

    The gas-phase reaction of ozone with unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), alkenes, is an important source of the critical atmospheric oxidant OH, especially at night when other photolytic radical initiation routes cannot occur. Alkene ozonolysis is also known to directly form HO2 radicals, which may be readily converted to OH through reaction with NO, but whose formation is poorly understood. We report a study of the radical (OH, HO2, and RO2) production from a series of small alkenes (propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, 2-methylpropene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (tetramethyl ethene, TME), and isoprene). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) atmospheric simulation chamber, with OH and HO2 levels directly measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and HO2 + ΣRO2 levels measured by peroxy-radical chemical amplification (PERCA). OH yields were found to be in good agreement with the majority of previous studies performed under comparable conditions (atmospheric pressure, long time scales) using tracer and scavenger approaches. HO2 yields ranged from 4% (trans-2-butene) to 34% (2-methylpropene), lower than previous experimental determinations. Increasing humidity further reduced the HO2 yields obtained, by typically 50% for an RH increase from 0.5 to 30%, suggesting that HOx production from alkene ozonolysis may be lower than current models suggest under (humid) ambient atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The mechanistic origin of the OH and HO2 production observed is discussed in the context of previous experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:24171583

  8. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  9. A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ν GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ν is defined by: -s- ν = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and

  10. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  11. Formation of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole reversible transformation products in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions: batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-01

    Soil-aquifer processes have proven to work as a natural treatment for the attenuation of numerous contaminants during artificial recharge of groundwater. Nowadays, significant scientific effort is being devoted to understanding the fate of pharmaceuticals in subsurface environments, and to verify if such semipersistent organic micropollutants could also be efficiently removed from water. In this context we carried out a series of batch experiments involving aquifer material, selected drugs (initial concentration of 1 μg/L and 1 mg/L), and denitrifying conditions. Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole exhibited an unreported and peculiar behavior. Their concentrations consistently dropped in the middle of the tests but recovered toward the end, which suggest a complex effect of denitrifying conditions on aromatic amines. The transformation products Nitro-Diclofenac and 4-Nitro-Sulfamethoxazole were detected in the biotic experiments, while nitrite was present in the water. Their concentrations developed almost opposite to those of their respective parent compounds. We conjecture that this temporal and reversible effect of denitrifying conditions on the studied aromatic amines could have significant environmental implications, and could explain at least partially the wide range of removals in subsurface environments reported in literature for DCF and SMX, as well as some apparent discrepancies on SMX behavior. PMID:22534360

  12. Evaluation of biotransformation products from 2,4-dinitrotoluene under nitrate-reducing conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, D.L.; Noguera, D.R.

    1995-04-10

    Wastewater generated during the manufacture of munitions often contains significant levels of nitrates and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). The objective of this project was to characterize the major biotransformation products formed from DNT under denitrifying conditions, and to identify the organisms responsible. In a denitrifying enrichment culture that used ethanol as the primary substrate, DNT was transformed primarily to 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, 4-arnino-2-nitrotoluene, and 2,4-diaminotoluene. With extended incubation (>% 80 days), all of the 2,4-diaminotoluene subsequently disappeared. In cultures that received 14Cdnt, nearly all of the labeled metabolites remained in the aqueous phase. Approximately 35% consisted of insoluble material, while 29% was soluble hydrophobic and 32% was soluble hydrophilic. Two organisms were isolated from the enrichment: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a much slower-growing rod. Pure cultures of P. aeruginosa only partially reduced DNT to 2,4-diaminotoluene under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Accumulation of 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene accounted for 25-45% of the DNT consumed, while 4-acetylamino-2-nitrotoluene accounted for 32-35%. Reduction and acetylation therefore appear to be major biotransformation pathways for DNT under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

  13. Hydrothermal processing of duckweed: effect of reaction conditions on product distribution and composition.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peigao; Chang, Zhoufan; Xu, Yuping; Bai, Xiujun; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Influences of operating conditions such as temperature (270-380 °C), time (10-120 min), reactor loading (0.5-5.5 g), and K2CO3 loading (0-50 wt.%) on the product (e.g. crude bio-oil, water soluble, gas and solid residue) distribution from the hydrothermal processing of duckweed were determined. Of the four variables, temperature and K2CO3 loading were always the most influential factors to the relative amount of each component. The presence of K2CO3 is unfavorable for the production of bio-oil and gas. Hydrothermal processing duckweed produces a bio-oil that is enriched in carbon and hydrogen and has reduced levels of O compared with the original duckweed feedstock. The higher heating values of the bio-oil were estimated within the range of 32-36 MJ/kg. Major bio-oil constituents include ketones and their alkylated derivatives, alcohols, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds, saturated fatty acids and hydrocarbons. The gaseous products were mainly CO2 and H2, with lesser amounts of CH4 and CO. PMID:23021946

  14. Influence of culture conditions of Streptomyces sp. (strain S242) on chitinase production.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, Ismail; Al-Omari, Ruqayyah; Jaradat, Ziad; Ababneh, Qotaiba

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of growth conditions and medium composition on the production ofchitinase by Streptomyces sp. (strain S242). Production of chitinase by strain S242 was detected on colloidal chitin agar (CCA) medium after 8 days of incubation at 28 degrees C resulting in a clear zone 10 mm around the colony. Chitinase activity was assayed as the amount of N-acetylglucosamine released in micromol/ml/min using the dinitrosalicylic acid assay method. The crude enzyme had maximum activity (0.162 U ml/l) after 4 days of incubation at pH 7 and 30 degrees C when the broth medium was supplemented with 1.6% of colloidal chitin. However, enzyme activity was strongly decreased at 40 degrees C and extreme acidic and alkaline pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis revealed six distinctive bands that range from 39 to 97 kDa with chitinolytic activity. The findings of this investigation create a possibility for the use of the organism in the commercial production of chitinase. In addition, it can be a source of DNA for cloning the chitinase gene(s) to generate phytopathogen resistant transgenic plants. PMID:20380144

  15. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain. PMID:26989057

  16. Pressure retarded osmosis for energy production: membrane materials and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Choi, J-S; Lee, S

    2012-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a novel membrane process to produce energy. PRO has the potential to convert the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water (i.e. river water) and seawater to electricity. Moreover, it can recover energy from highly concentrated brine in seawater desalination. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been undertaken for fundamental understanding of the PRO process. In this study, the characteristics of the PRO process were examined using a proof-of-concept device. Forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were compared in terms of flux rate and concentration polarization ratio. The results indicated that the theoretical energy production by PRO depends on the membrane type as well as operating conditions (i.e. back pressure). The FO membrane had the highest energy efficiency while the NF membrane had the lowest efficiency. However, the energy production rate was low due to high internal concentration polarization (ICP) in the PRO membrane. This finding suggests that the control of the ICP is essential for practical application of PRO for energy production. PMID:22546793

  17. Insights on fission products behaviour in nuclear severe accident conditions by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, E.; Bès, R.; Martin, Ph; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Solari, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    Many research programs have been carried out aiming to understand the fission products behaviour during a Nuclear Severe Accident. Most of these programs used highly radioactive irradiated nuclear fuel, which requires complex instrumentation. Moreover, the radioactive character of samples hinders an accurate chemical characterisation. In order to overcome these difficulties, SIMFUEL stand out as an alternative to perform complementary tests. A sample made of UO2 doped with 11 fission products was submitted to an annealing test up to 1973 K in reducing atmosphere. The sample was characterized before and after the annealing test using SEM-EDS and XAS at the MARS beam-line, SOLEIL Synchrotron. It was found that the overall behaviour of several fission products (such as Mo, Ba, Pd and Ru) was similar to that observed experimentally in irradiated fuels and consistent with thermodynamic estimations. The experimental approach presented in this work has allowed obtaining information on chemical phases evolution under nuclear severe accident conditions, that are yet difficult to obtain using irradiated nuclear fuel samples.

  18. An extremophile Microbacterium strain and its protease production under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jin; Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Yali; Cai, Xiaofeng; Huang, Luyao; Yang, Yongbo; Wang, Huili; Zeng, Aibing; Li, Aiying

    2014-05-01

    Extremophiles are potential resources for alkaline protease production. In order to search for alkaline protease producers, we isolated and screened alkaliphilic microorganisms from alkaline saline environments. The microorganism HSL10 was identified as a member of the genus Microbacterium by morphological observation, Gram staining and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. By colony-forming unit counting under alkali or salt stress, it was further identified as an alkaliphilic microbe with mild halotolerance. In addition, it was capable of secreting alkaline proteases, evidenced by larger hydrolyzation zones in the skim milk-containing medium at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.0. Subsequently, we demonstrated that both NaCl and yeast extract significantly promoted protease production by HSL10. Finally, we established a sensitive colorimetric method for the detection of protease production by HSL10 under neutral and alkaline conditions, by using the Bradford reagent for substrate staining to improve the contrast between the hydrolyzation zone and the substrate background on agar plates. HSL10 was the first example of an alkaliphilic protease-producing member in Microbacterium, and its isolation and characterization have both academic and commercial importance. PMID:23686381

  19. Effect of substrate availability on nitrous oxide production by deammonification processes under anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Yvonne; Beier, Maike; Rosenwinkel, Karl‐Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Due to its high global warming potential, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment processes have recently received a high degree of attention. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information regarding the microbiological processes leading to N2O production. In this study, two lab‐scale sequencing batch reactors were operated with deammonification biomass to investigate the role of denitrification and the influence of substrate availability regarding N2O formation during the anoxic phase of deammonification. Three different operational phases were established: within the first phase conversion by anammox was favoured and after a transition phase, denitrification activity was promoted. Low nitrous oxide production was observed during stable operation aiming for anammox conversion. Pulsed inflow of the wastewater containing ammonium (NH4+) and nitrite (NO2‐) led to increased N2O production rates. Within the period of denitrification as dominating nitrogen conversion process, the nitrous oxide concentration level was higher during continuous inflow conditions, but the reaction to pulsed inflow was less pronounced. The results indicated that denitrification was responsible for N2O formation from the deammonification biomass. Operational settings to achieve suppression of denitrification processes to a large extend were deducted from the results of the experiments. PMID:22296600

  20. Effect of substrate availability on nitrous oxide production by deammonification processes under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Yvonne; Beier, Maike; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz

    2012-05-01

    Due to its high global warming potential, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from wastewater treatment processes have recently received a high degree of attention. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information regarding the microbiological processes leading to N(2)O production. In this study, two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors were operated with deammonification biomass to investigate the role of denitrification and the influence of substrate availability regarding N(2)O formation during the anoxic phase of deammonification. Three different operational phases were established: within the first phase conversion by anammox was favoured and after a transition phase, denitrification activity was promoted. Low nitrous oxide production was observed during stable operation aiming for anammox conversion. Pulsed inflow of the wastewater containing ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) led to increased N(2)O production rates. Within the period of denitrification as dominating nitrogen conversion process, the nitrous oxide concentration level was higher during continuous inflow conditions, but the reaction to pulsed inflow was less pronounced. The results indicated that denitrification was responsible for N(2)O formation from the deammonification biomass. Operational settings to achieve suppression of denitrification processes to a large extend were deducted from the results of the experiments. PMID:22296600

  1. Increased greenhouse-gas intensity of rice production under future atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; van Kessel, Chris; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-03-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to affect rice yields and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest human-induced sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. The need for meeting a growing global food demand argues for assessing GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, such that efforts to reduce GHG emissions take into consideration the consequences for food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Increased atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely owing to a decrease in yield. This analysis suggests that rising CO2 and warming will approximately double the GHG intensity of rice production by the end of the twenty-first century, stressing the need for management practices that optimize rice production while reducing its GHG intensity as the climate continues to change.

  2. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  3. Submerged culture conditions for the production of mycelial biomass and antimicrobial metabolites by Polyporus tricholoma Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gladys Rosane Thomé; Liebl, Mariane; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; Paulert, Roberta; Smânia Júnior, Artur

    2008-01-01

    Basidiomycete fungi of the Polyporus genus are a source of secondary metabolites which are of medicinal interest as antibacterial compounds. As these substances are produced in a small amount by the fungi, the study of the cultivation conditions in vitro that could possibly optimize their production seems of major importance. The effects of glucose and lactose, pH and agitation on biomass concentration and on the specific growth rate caused by the basidiomycete Polyporus tricholoma were investigated. The initial pH (4.5, 6.5 and 8.5) was autoregulated at pH 5.5, and the agitation increased the mycelial growth and the specific growth rate. The high concentration of carbon sources (4%) increased biomass production. The lactose concentration and the absence of agitation were determinant in the production of antibacterial metabolites. The characterization of the antibacterial substance by GC-MS indicated a major compound, isodrimenediol, produced by the fungus Polyporus tricholoma with activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24031266

  4. Insights on fission products behaviour in nuclear severe accident conditions by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, E.; Bès, R.; Martin, Ph; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Solari, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    Many research programs have been carried out aiming to understand the fission products behaviour during a Nuclear Severe Accident. Most of these programs used highly radioactive irradiated nuclear fuel, which requires complex instrumentation. Moreover, the radioactive character of samples hinders an accurate chemical characterisation. In order to overcome these difficulties, SIMFUEL stand out as an alternative to perform complementary tests. A sample made of UO2 doped with 11 fission products was submitted to an annealing test up to 1973 K in reducing atmosphere. The sample was characterized before and after the annealing test using SEM-EDS and XAS at the MARS beam-line, SOLEIL Synchrotron. It was found that the overall behaviour of several fission products (such as Mo, Ba, Pd and Ru) was similar to that observed experimentally in irradiated fuels and consistent with thermodynamic estimations. The experimental approach presented in this work has allowed obtaining information on chemical phases evolution under nuclear severe accident conditions, that are yet difficult to obtain using irradiated nuclear fuel samples.

  5. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  6. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics. PMID:23106385

  7. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  8. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  9. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25°C up to 55°C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007d(-1) at room temperature that increased to 0.03-0.05d(-1) at 37°C and to 0.04-0.11d(-1) at 55°C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed

  10. Effects of environmental conditions on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase production by Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Sene, L; Vitolo, M; Felipe, M G; Silva, S S

    2000-01-01

    The effects of environmental conditions, namely initial pH (2.5-7.0) and temperature (25 and 35 degrees C), on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase levels, as well as on xylitol production, were evaluated. Although the fermentative parameter values increased with an increase in pH and temperature (the maximum Yp/s and Qp were 0.75 g/g and 0.95 g/[L.h], respectively, both attained at pH 6.0, 35 degrees C), the highest xylose reductase activities (nearly 900 IU/mg of protein) were observed at an initial pH varying from 4.0 to 6.0. Xylitol dehydrogenase was favored by an increase in both initial pH and temperature of the medium. The highest xylitol dehydrogenase specific activity was attained at pH 6.5 and 35 degrees C (577 IU/mg of protein). PMID:10849803

  11. A study of 192Ir production conditions at an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbnya, A. N.; Rogov, Yu. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Shramenko, B. I.; Tenishev, A. Eh.; Torgovkin, A. V.; Uvarov, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    This communication deals with the conditions of 192Ir isotope production under a nonreactor technology via the 193Ir(γ, n)192Ir reaction. It can be carried out by irradiation of a target from natural iridium with the high-energy X-ray of an electron accelerator. The possibility of increasing the photonuclear yield of the target isotope by addition of the 191Ir( n, γ)192Ir reaction induced by moderated photoneutrons has been shown. For this, an X-ray converter and a target were placed inside a neutron moderator. Data on the 192Ir and admixture yields for the techniques using the moderator and without it have been obtained by computer simulation and experimentally.

  12. Influence of home cooking conditions on Maillard reaction products in beef.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Aurea Juliana Bombo; de Almeida Lima, Daniele; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Markowicz Bastos, Deborah Helena

    2016-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods on the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in beef was investigated. Grilling and frying hamburgers to an internal temperature below 90 °C mainly generated furosine. When the temperature reached 90 °C and 100 °C, furosine content decreased by 36% and fluorescent compounds increased by up to 98%. Baking meat at 300 °C, the most severe heat treatment studied, resulted in the formation of carboxymethyllysine. Boiling in water caused very low MRP formation. Acrylamide concentrations in grilled, fried or baked meat were extremely low. Home cooking conditions leading to low MRP generation and pleasant colours were obtained and could be used to guide diabetic and chronic renal patients on how to reduce their carboxymethyllysine intake. PMID:26593478

  13. Estimation and Analysis of Gross Primary Production of Soybean Under Various Management Practices and Drought Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Xiao, X.; Suyker, A.

    2014-12-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) of croplands may be used to quantify crop productivity and evaluate a range of management practices. Eddy flux data from three soybean (Glycine max L.) fields under different management practices (no-till vs till; rainfed vs irrigated) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices (VIs) were used to evaluate the biophysical performance of VIs and crop phenology, and to model GPP using a satellite-based vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM). The VIs tracked soybean phenology well and delineated the growing season length. The results show that the carbon uptake period and seasonal sums of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and GPP can be inferred from the length of the vegetation activity period from satellite remote sensing data. Land surface water index (LSWI) tracked drought-impacted vegetation well. On a seasonal scale, NEE of the soybean sites ranged from -37 to -264 g C m-2. The result suggests that rainfed soybean fields needed about 450-500 mm of well-distributed seasonal rainfall to maximize the net carbon sink. During non-drought conditions, VPM accurately estimated seasonal dynamics and interannual variation of GPP of soybean under different management practices. However, some large discrepancies between GPPVPM and GPPEC were observed under drought conditions as the VI did not reflect the corresponding decrease in GPP. Diurnal GPP dynamics showed a bimodal distribution with a pronounced midday depression at the period of higher water vapor pressure deficit (> 1.2 kPa). A modified Wscalar based on LSWI, to account for the water stress, in VPM helped quantify the reduction in GPP during severe drought and the model's performance improved substantially. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of remotely sensed VIs for better understanding of carbon dynamics and extrapolation of GPP of soybean croplands.

  14. Treated wastewater irrigation: uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by common vegetables under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy L; Ernst, Frederick; Gan, Jay

    2014-10-01

    Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest. Plant samples at premature and mature stages were collected. Analysis of edible tissues showed a detection frequency of 64% and 91% in all vegetables from the treated wastewater and fortified water treatments, respectively. The edible samples from the two treatments contained the same PPCPs, including caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, naproxen, and triclosan. The total concentrations of PPCPs detected in edible tissues from the treated wastewater and fortified irrigation treatments were in the range of 0.01-3.87 and 0.15-7.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Annual exposure of PPCPs from the consumption of mature vegetables irrigated with the fortified water was estimated to be only 3.69 μg per capita. Results from the present study showed that the accumulation of PPCPs in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater was likely limited under field conditions. PMID:25211705

  15. Floridoside production by the red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria under different conditions of growth and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, Marta; van der Maarel, Marc J E C

    2016-12-01

    Floridoside is a compatible solute synthesized by red algae that has attracted considerable attention due to its promising antifouling and therapeutic properties. However, research on industrial applications of floridoside is hampered by limited compound availability and the development of a production process yielding high amounts of this glycoside has not been explored yet. In the present work, floridoside accumulation by the red microalgae Galdieria sulphuraria under different conditions was investigated in order to optimize the production of this glycoside in this microalgae. G. sulphuraria shows consider advantages over other red algae as potential industrial producer of floridoside due to its unicellular nature, its ability to grow heterotrophically in complete darkness and its acidophilic lifestyle. The main compatible solute accumulated by G. sulphuraria under salt stress was purified, identified as floridoside by (1)H-NMR and used as standard for quantification. Our results showed that applying the osmotic stress after the cells had grown first in medium with no salt resulted in higher floridoside yields compared to those obtained in cells growing under osmotic stress from the beginning. Among several parameters tested, the use of glycerol as carbon source for cell growth showed the most significant impact on floridoside accumulation, which reached a maximum of 56.8 mg/g dry biomass. PMID:27620735

  16. Biphasic kinetics of growth and bacteriocin production with Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 occur under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; Gevers, Dirk; Swings, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-04-01

    Micro-organisms used during the production of fermented foods are subjected to several abiotic stresses. Microbial survival during these processes strongly depends on the ability of the cells to adapt and become more tolerant to the environmental conditions. Cultivation of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471, a potential strain for use during type II sourdough fermentations, at low temperatures, unfavourable pH and high salt concentrations resulted in biphasic growth patterns. In addition, two separate bacteriocin peaks, as well as a dramatic change in cellular morphology, were observed. In general, an increase of the specific bacteriocin production occurred during the second growth phase. Finally, the observed sugar consumption profiles were affected by the applied fermentation temperature. Moreover, the highest bacteriocin activity occurred during maltose consumption at a low constant temperature of 28 degrees C and a constant pH of 5.4. Plate counts from both growth phases revealed the existence of two colony types. Irregular colonies were found to outnumber smoother colonies during the first growth phase, while the second growth phase was characterized by a greater number of smooth colonies. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the observed morphological switch at the single-cell level. Single, rod-shaped cells changed into elongated cells that grew in chains. Colony and cell morphology changes coincided with the biphasic growth pattern. PMID:12686649

  17. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  18. Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praplan, A. P.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Ehn, M.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Adamov, A.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Duplissy, J.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Heinritzi, M.; Kangasluoma, J.; Kirkby, J.; Krapf, M.; Kürten, A.; Lehtipalo, K.; Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sarnela, N.; Simon, M.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Ye, P.; Curtius, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Donahue, N. M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition of oxidation products and their clustering behaviour, several instruments must be used. We compare oxidation products containing 10 and 20 carbon atoms and show that highly oxidised organic compounds are formed in the early stages of the oxidation.

  19. Nitrous oxide production from sequencing batch reactor sludge under nitrifying conditions: effect of nitrite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gong, Youkui; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Sai; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas which contributes to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, can be emitted from nitrifying processes during wastewater treatment. The pathway of N2O production was studied using a lab-scale nitrifying reactor. Allylthiourea was used to inhibit NH4+ oxidation and provide information on processes that happen under nitrifying condition. Our study confirmed that besides heterotrophic bacteria, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria could perform denitrification processes, during which NO2- was the electron acceptor and NH4+ was the electron donor, with N2 and N2O as final products. The relative contribution of the heterotrophic denitrification process to total N2O emissions varied from 46.1% to 60.4% depending on NO2(-)-N addition. Correspondingly, 21.8% to 51.5% of total N2O emissions can be attributed to nitrifier denitrification. Little N2O is emitted during the NO2- oxidation process. PMID:22629611

  20. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  1. Parametric Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Carboxymethyl Cellulase Production Using Pretreated Rice Straw by Bacillus sp. 313SI under Stationary and Shaking Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Arpana; Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) provides a key opportunity for achieving tremendous benefits of utilizing rice straw as cellulosic biomass. Out of total 80 microbial isolates from different ecological niches one bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus sp. 313SI, was selected for CMCase production under stationary as well as shaking conditions of growth. During two-stage pretreatment, rice straw was first treated with 0.5 M KOH to remove lignin followed by treatment with 0.1 N H2SO4 for removal of hemicellulose. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase activity of 3.08 U/mL was obtained using 1% (w/v) pretreated rice straw with 1% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 35°C after 60 h of growth under stationary conditions, while the same was obtained as 4.15 U/mL using 0.75% (w/v) pretreated substrate with 0.4% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 30°C, under shaking conditions of growth for 48 h. For maximum titre of CMCase carboxymethyl cellulose was optimized as the best carbon source under both cultural conditions while ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate were optimized as the best nitrogen sources under stationary and shaking conditions, respectively. The present study provides the useful data about the optimized conditions for CMCase production by Bacillus sp. 313SI from pretreated rice straw. PMID:24868469

  2. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming product under hydraulically unsaturated conditions.

    PubMed

    Neeway, James J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Williams, Benjamin D; Rod, Kenton; Bowden, Mark E; Brown, Christopher F; Pierce, Eric M

    2014-05-01

    Several candidates for supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) immobilization at the Hanford site in Washington State, USA are being considered. One waste sequestering technology considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The granular product resulting from the FBSR process is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals with a 1:1:1 molar ratio of Na, Al and Si. To demonstrate the durability of the product, which can be disposed of at the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford, a series of tests has been performed using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system, which allows for the accelerated weathering of the solid materials. The system maintains hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that will be present at the IDF. Two materials were tested using the system: 1) the FBSR granular product and 2) the FBSR granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer to form a monolith. Results of the experiments show a trend of relatively constant effluent concentration of Na, Si, Al, and Cs as a function of time from both materials. The elements I and Re show a steady release throughout the yearlong test from the granular material but their concentrations seem to be increasing at one year from the monolith material. This result suggests that these two elements may be present in the sodalite cage structure rather than in the predominant nepheline phase because their release occurs at a different rate compared to nepheline phase. Also, these elements to not seem to reprecipitate when released from the starting material. Calculated one-year release rates for Si are on the order of 10(-6) g/(m(2) d) for the granular material and 10(-5) g/(m(2) d) for the monolith material while Re release is seen to be two orders of magnitude higher than Si release rates. SEM imaging and XRD analysis show how the alteration of the two

  3. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming product under hydraulically unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E; Pierce, Eric M; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D; Brown, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Several candidates for supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) immobilization at the Hanford site in Washington State, USA are being considered. One waste sequestering technology considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The granular product resulting from the FBSR process is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals with a 1:1:1 molar ratio of Na, Al and Si. To demonstrate the durability of the product, which can be disposed of at the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford, a series of tests has been performed using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system, which allows for the accelerated weathering of the solid materials. The system maintains hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that will be present at the IDF. Two materials were tested using the system: 1) the FBSR granular product and 2) the FBSR granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer to form a monolith. Results of the experiments show a trend of relatively constant effluent concentration of Na, Si, Al, and Cs as a function of time from both materials. The elements I and Re show a steady release throughout the yearlong test from the granular material but their concentrations seem to be increasing at one year from the monolith material. This result suggests that these two elements may be present in the sodalite cage structure rather than in the predominant nepheline phase because their release occurs at a different rate compared to nepheline phase. Also, these elements to not seem to reprecipitate when released from the starting material. Calculated one-year release rates for Si are on the order of 10 6 g/(m2 d) for the granular material and 10 5 g/(m2 d) for the monolith material while Re release is seen to be two orders of magnitude higher than Si release rates. SEM imaging and XRD analysis show how the alteration of the two materials is

  4. Relationship between biomass production and nitrogen fixation under drought stress conditions in peanut genoytpes with different levels of drought resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between biomass production and N2 fixation under drought stress conditions in peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation by evaluating t...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.55 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the production? 1206.55 Section 1206.55 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.55 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the production? 1206.55 Section 1206.55 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.55 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market the production? 1206.55 Section 1206.55 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  8. Estimation and analysis of gross primary production of soybean under various management practices and drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) of croplands may be used to quantify crop productivity and evaluate a range of management practices. Eddy flux data from three soybean (Glycine max L.) fields under different management practices (no-till vs. till; rainfed vs. irrigated) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices (VIs) were used to test the capabilities of remotely sensed VIs and soybean phenology to estimate the seasonal dynamics of carbon fluxes. The modeled GPP (GPPVPM) using vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) was compared with the GPP (GPPEC) estimated from eddy covariance measurements. The VIs tracked soybean phenology well and delineated the growing season length (GSL), which was closely related to carbon uptake period (CUP, R2 = 0.84), seasonal sums of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, R2 = 0.78), and GPPEC (R2 = 0.54). Land surface water index (LSWI) tracked drought-impacted vegetation well, as the LSWI values were positive during non-drought periods and negative during severe droughts within the soybean growing season. On a seasonal scale, NEE of the soybean sites ranged from -37 to -264 g C m-2. The result suggests that rainfed soybean fields needed about 450-500 mm of well-distributed seasonal rainfall to maximize the net carbon sink. During non-drought conditions, VPM accurately estimated seasonal dynamics and interannual variation of GPP of soybean under different management practices. However, some large discrepancies between GPPVPM and GPPEC were observed under drought conditions as the VI did not reflect the corresponding decrease in GPPEC. Diurnal GPPEC dynamics showed a bimodal distribution with a pronounced midday depression at the period of higher water vapor pressure deficit (>1.2 kPa). A modified Wscalar based on LSWI to account for the water stress in VPM helped quantify the reduction in GPP during severe drought and the model's performance improved substantially. In conclusion, this study demonstrates

  9. Holocene size variations in two diatom species off East Antarctica: Productivity vs environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Xavier

    2009-11-01

    I here present a biometric investigation on two diatom species, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (O'Meara) Hustedt and Fragilariopsis curta (Van Heurck) Hustedt, in Holocene samples from sediment core MD03-2601 from the Antarctic Continental Shelf off Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Apical valve length measurements of the two species are compared to their respective absolute and relative abundances as a proxy for the species productivity. Fragilariopsis kerguelensis valves were longer and more abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and smaller and less abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Conversely, F. curta valves were smaller and less abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and longer and more abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Mean apical valve length variations even follow centennial-to-millennial oscillations in the species abundances. Maximal valve length and minimal valve length were also larger during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and during the colder Late-Holocene period for F. keguelensis and F. curta, respectively. The observed positive size-abundance relationships are linked to the environmental conditions at the core location that stands today at the lower ecological limit for F. kerguelensis and upper ecological limit for F. curta. More favourable environmental conditions (warmer, less icy for F. kerguelensis and colder, icier for F. curta) allowed for sexual reproduction at the upper range of the sexually inducible size window and subsequent restoration of larger initial cells which, in turn, resulted in overall bigger size of the species populations, though vegetative multiplication was more frequent.

  10. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown.

    PubMed

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S

    2009-03-01

    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter. PMID:19323694

  11. Comparative efficacy of anticoccidials under the conditions of commercial broiler production and in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Gässlein, U; Rommel, M

    1998-04-15

    Coccidia were isolated from a commercial broiler farm with a history of suspected drug resistance. The sensitivity profiles of the Eimeria spp. isolates against the anticoccidial drugs nicarbazin (NIC), narasin (NAR), halofuginone (HAL), salinomycin (SAL), meticlorpindol plus methylbenzoquate (MET), and monensin (MON) at the recommended dose levels were followed in three battery trials (B1, B2, B3) corresponding to a field study over three periods of commercial broiler keeping (F1, F2, F3). Shuttle programs were performed in F1 (NIC/MON) and in F2 (MET/MON) while only SAL was used in F3. Eimeria acervulina and E. tenella were isolated from indicator birds in F1 while only E. acervulina could be found during F2 and F3. In trial B1 the isolate from F1 was identified as resistant against HAL and partly resistant against NIC and MON, the two drugs that were used in F1. Following the replacement of NIC in the starter feed by MET the respective isolate from F2 showed no resistance against ionophores (trial B2) while partial resistance against HAL was still present. Since SAL was the most efficient drug in B1 and B2 only this drug was applied in F3. Apart from a resistance against HAL no resistance against any of the other tested anticoccidials was found in the isolate from F3. SAL controlled coccidiosis efficiently in the field and best productivity was recorded in F3. This study shows that battery trials have a good predictive value in respect to the efficacy of anticoccidials under the conditions of commercial broiler production. PMID:9615950

  12. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  13. Xylanase production by Aspergillus awamori under solid state fermentation conditions on tomato pomace

    PubMed Central

    Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A.; Díaz, Ana B.; de Ory, Ignacio; Blandino, Ana; Gomes, Eleni; Caro, Ildefonso

    2011-01-01

    In this work, tomato pomace, a waste abundantly available in the Mediterranean and other temperate climates agro-food industries, has been used as raw material for the production of some hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanase, exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG), cellulase (CMCase) and α-amylase. The principal step of the process is the solid state fermentation (SSF) of this residue by Aspergillus awamori. In several laboratory experiments, maximum xylanase and exo-PG activities were measured during the first days of culture, reaching values around 100 and 80 IU/gds (international units of enzyme activity per gram of dried solid), respectively. For CMCase and α-amylase production remained almost constant along fermentation, with average values of 19 and 21.5 IU/gds, respectively. Experiments carried out in a plate-type bioreactor at lab scale showed a clear positive effect of aeration on xylanase and CMCase, while the opposite was observed for exo-PG and α-amylase. In general, xylanase was the enzyme produced in higher levels, thus the optimum conditions for the determination of the enzyme activity was characterized. The xylanase activity shows an optimum pH of 5 and an optimum temperature of 50 ºC. The enzyme is activated by Mg2+, but strongly inhibited by Hg2+ and Cu2+. The enzymatic activity remains quite high if the extract is preserved in a range of pH from 3 to 10 and a temperature between 30 ºC to 40 ºC. PMID:24031793

  14. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups. PMID:26188034

  15. Optimization of culture conditions of the thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. strain 18W-13a for squalene production.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Atsushi; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kose, Ryoji; Kato, Syou; Honda, Daiske; Inouye, Isao; Kaya, Kunimitsu; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2012-04-01

    Optimum conditions of temperature, salinity and glucose concentration were investigated for squalene production of the strain of Aurantiochytrium sp. 18 W-13a, with a high content of squalene. Squalene production by this strain was optimum at 25 °C, 25-50% seawater concentration and 2-6% glucose concentration. When this strain was grown in the optimum condition, the squalene content and production of approximately 171 mg/g dry weight and 0.9 g/L were much higher than that previously reported in thraustochytrids, plants and yeasts, respectively. Therefore, 18 W-13a could be used as an alternative source of commercial squalene. PMID:22023965

  16. Optimization of fermentation conditions for 1,3-propanediol production by marine Klebsiella pneumonia HSL4 using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lili; Zhou, Sheng; Ji, Huasong; Gao, Ren; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-09-01

    The industrially important organic compound 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is mainly used as a building block for the production of various polymers. In the present study, response surface methodology protocol was followed to determine and optimize fermentation conditions for the maximum production of 1,3-PDO using marine-derived Klebsiella pneumoniae HSL4. Four nutritional supplements together with three independent culture conditions were optimized as follows: 29.3 g/L glycerol, 8.0 g/L K2 HPO4, 7.6 g/L (NH4)2 SO4, 3.0 g/L KH2 PO4, pH 7.1, cultivation at 35°C for 12 h. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum 1,3-PDO concentration of 14.5 g/L, a productivity of 1.21 g/(L·h) and a conversion of glycerol of 0.49 g/g were obtained. In comparison with the control conditions, fermentation under the optimized conditions achieved an increase of 38.8% in 1,3-PDO concentration, 39.0% in productivity and 25.7% in glycerol conversion in flask. This enhancement trend was further confirmed when the fermentation was conducted in a 5-L fermentor. The optimized fermentation conditions could be an important basis for developing lowcost, large-scale methods for industrial production of 1,3-PDO in the future.

  17. Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Sonia; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    The contribution of volatilization, sorption and transformation to the removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in two lab-scale conventional activated sludge reactors, working under nitrifying (aerobic) and denitrifying (anoxic) conditions for more than 1.5 years, have been assessed. Pseudo-first order biological degradation rate constants (k(biol)) were calculated for the selected compounds in both reactors. Faster degradation kinetics were measured in the nitrifying reactor compared to the denitrifying system for the majority of PPCPs. Compounds could be classified according to their k(biol) into very highly (k(biol)>5Lg(SS)(-1)d(-1)), highly (175%) and anoxic (>65%) conditions, whereas naproxen (NPX), ethinylestradiol (EE2), roxithromycin (ROX) and erythromycin (ERY) were only significantly transformed in the aerobic reactor (>80%). The anti-depressant citalopram (CTL) was moderately biotransformed under both, aerobic and anoxic conditions (>60% and >40%, respectively). Some compounds, as carbamazepine (CBZ), diazepam (DZP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), manifested high resistance to biological transformation. Solids Retention Time (SRT(aerobic) >50d and <50d; SRT(anoxic) >20d and <20d) had a slightly positive effect on the removal of FLX, NPX, CTL, EE2 and natural estrogens (increase in removal efficiencies <10%). Removal of diclofenac (DCF) in the aerobic reactor was positively affected by the development of nitrifying biomass and increased from 0% up to 74%. Similarly, efficient anoxic transformation of ibuprofen (75%) was observed after an adaptation period of 340d. Temperature (16-26 degrees C) only had a slight effect on the removal of

  18. S-layer production by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under environmental stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Brown, Lucia; Hebert, Elvira M; Brezeanu, Aurelia; Brinzan, Alexandru; Fadda, Silvina; Mozzi, Fernanda; Zamfir, Medana

    2016-05-01

    The ability of microorganisms to synthesize S-layer, the outermost structure of the microbial cell envelope composed of non-covalently bound proteins, has been ascribed to help microorganisms to exert their probiotic properties in the host. In this work, formation of S-layer by the potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under different stress culture conditions (high incubation temperatures, presence of bile salts or NaCl, and acidic pH) was assayed. A marked S-layer synthesis by L. acidophilus IBB 801 was detected when the strain was grown at 42 °C and in the presence of 0.05 % bile salts or 2.0 % NaCl. The presence of S-layer proteins was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and protein identification by MS/MS. The differential expression of the proteome of this strain at 42 °C, when a marked formation of S-layer was detected, revealed the overexpression of six proteins mainly related to general stress and protein biosynthesis and translation, while four proteins detected in lower amounts were involved in DNA repair and energy metabolism. As L. acidophilus IBB 801 produces both a bacteriocin and S-layer proteins, the strain could be of interest to be used in the formulation of functional food products with specific properties. PMID:26910041

  19. RF Conditioning and Testing of Fundamental Power Couplers for SNS Superconducting Cavity Production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stirbet; G.K. Davis; M. A. Drury; C. Grenoble; J. Henry; G. Myneni; T. Powers; K. Wilson; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; Y.W. Kang; D. Stout

    2005-05-16

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) makes use of 33 medium beta (0.61) and 48 high beta (0.81) superconducting cavities. Each cavity is equipped with a fundamental power coupler, which should withstand the full klystron power of 550 kW in full reflection for the duration of an RF pulse of 1.3 msec at 60 Hz repetition rate. Before assembly to a superconducting cavity, the vacuum components of the coupler are submitted to acceptance procedures consisting of preliminary quality assessments, cleaning and clean room assembly, vacuum leak checks and baking under vacuum, followed by conditioning and RF high power testing. Similar acceptance procedures (except clean room assembly and baking) were applied for the airside components of the coupler. All 81 fundamental power couplers for SNS superconducting cavity production have been RF power tested at JLAB Newport News and, beginning in April 2004 at SNS Oak Ridge. This paper gives details of coupler processing and RF high power-assessed performances.

  20. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g., plant cycle or vegetative phase). These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time). Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organization and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a “minimum dataset” of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that. PMID:23423357

  1. Optimization of irradiation conditions for {sup 177}Lu production at the LVR-15 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lahodova, Z.; Viererbl, L.; Klupak, V.; Srank, J.

    2012-07-01

    The use of lutetium in medicine has been increasing over the last few years. The {sup 177}Lu radionuclide is commercially available for research and test purposes as a diagnostic and radiotherapy agent in the treatment of several malignant tumours. The yield of {sup 177}Lu from the {sup 176}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu nuclear reaction depends significantly on the thermal neutron fluence rate. The capture cross-sections of both reaction {sup 176}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu and reaction {sup 177}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 178}Lu are very high. Therefore a burn-up of target and product nuclides should be taken into account when calculating {sup 177}Lu activity. The maximum irradiation time, when the activity of the {sup 177}Lu radionuclide begins to decline, was found for different fluence rates. Two vertical irradiation channels at the LVR-15 nuclear research reactor were compared in order to choose the channel with better irradiation conditions, such as a higher thermal neutron fluence rate in the irradiation volume. In this experiment, lutetium was irradiated in a titanium capsule. The influence of the Ti capsule on the neutron spectrum was monitored using activation detectors. The choice of detectors was based on requirements for irradiation time and accurate determination of thermal neutrons. The following activation detectors were selected for measurement of the neutron spectrum: Ti, Fe, Ni, Co, Ag and W. (authors)

  2. Microcystin Production and Regulation under Nutrient Stress Conditions in Toxic Microcystis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Juliana S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microcystin is a common and well-known cyanobacterial toxin whose intracellular role is still under investigation. Increasing knowledge on microcystin gene expression and regulation can contribute to the understanding of its putative cellular function. In this work, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the transcriptional response of the mcyD gene to nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) and phosphorus limitation in two toxic Microcystis strains. The existence of a direct correlation between transcripts of mcyD and ntcA genes was also identified. In previous studies, NtcA (global nitrogen regulator) has been described as a potential component in the control of microcystin biosynthesis. This research showed that stress agents linked to nutrient deprivation could lead to a significant increase of microcystin production in both strains studied. The more toxic strain proved to be more resistant to nutrient limitation. The similar outcomes of mcyD regulation observed for all nutrients suggest that this response can be linked to oxidative stress of cells undergoing adverse growth conditions. PMID:25038094

  3. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  4. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  5. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  6. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  7. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  8. Biomass and nutrient productivities of Tetraselmis chuii under mixotrophic culture conditions with various C:N ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Guanpin; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou

    2016-05-01

    Mass microalgal culture plays an irreplaceable role in aquaculture, but microalgal productivity is restricted by traditional autotrophic culture conditions. In the present study, a Tetraselmis chuii strain belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta was isolated from south Yellow Sea. The growth rate and biomass productivity of this strain was higher under mixotrophic conditions with different carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios than those under autotrophic conditions. When the C:N ratio was 16, the optical density and biomass productivity were 3.7- and 5-fold higher than their corresponding values under autotrophic culture conditions, respectively. Moreover, T. chuii synthesized more polysaccharides and total lipids under mixotrophic conditions. In addition, T. chuii cultured under mixotrophic conditions synthesized more types of fatty acids than autotrophic culture conditions. At a C:N ratio of 16, the percentage of C16:0 and C18:1 reached 30.08% and 24.65% of the total fatty acid (TFA) content, respectively. These findings may provide a basis for largescale mixotrophic culture of T. chuii, as a potential bait-microalga.

  9. Experiments on Nitrogen Oxide Production of Droplet Arrays Burning under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moesl, Klaus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Kikuchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Shin; Yoda, Shinichi

    The optimization of the combustion process is top priority in current aero-engine and aircraft development, particularly from the perspectives of high efficiency, minimized fuel consumption, and a sustainable exhaust gas production. Aero-engines are exclusively liquid-fueled with a strong correlation between the combustion temperature and the emissions of nitric oxide (NOX ). Due to safety concerns, the progress in NOX reduction has been much slower than in stationary gas turbines. In the past, the mixing intensity in the primary zone of aero-engine combustors was improved and air staging implemented. An important question for future aero-engine combustors, consequently, is how partial vaporization influences the NOX emissions of spray flames? In order to address this question, the combustion of partially vaporized, linear droplet arrays was studied experimentally under microgravity conditions. The influence of fuel pre-vaporization on the NOX emissions was assessed in a wide range. The experiments were performed in a drop tower and a sounding rocket campaign. The microgravity environment provided ideal experiment conditions without the disturbing ef-fect of natural convection. This allowed the study of the interacting phenomena of multi-phase flow, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. This way the understanding of the physical and chemical processes related to droplet and spray combustion could be improved. The Bremen drop tower (ZARM) was utilized for the precursor campaign in July 2008, which was com-prised of 30 drops. The sounding rocket experiments, which totaled a microgravity duration of 6 minutes, were finally performed on the flight of TEXUS-46 in November 2009. On both campaigns the "Japanese Combustion Module" (JCM) was used. It is a cooperative experi-ment on droplet array combustion between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA's (European Space Agency) research team, working on the combustion properties of partially premixed sprays

  10. Necessary Conditions for Short Gamma-Ray Burst Production in Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Lee, William H.

    2014-06-01

    The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the trigger—the actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering an sGRB—but also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativistic outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce an sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (<=100 ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of successful breakthrough of the jet through the neutrino-driven wind, the energy stored in the cocoon could contribute to the precursor and extended emission observed in sGRBs.

  11. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST PRODUCTION IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Lee, William H.

    2014-06-10

    The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the trigger—the actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering an sGRB—but also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativistic outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce an sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (≤100 ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of successful breakthrough of the jet through the neutrino-driven wind, the energy stored in the cocoon could contribute to the precursor and extended emission observed in sGRBs.

  12. Effects of anti-odor automobile air-conditioning system products on adherence of Serratia marcescens to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Drago, G K; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2002-12-01

    Sixteen commercial products for use in automobile air-conditioning systems (ACS), most designated for abatement of malodors presumably of microbial origin, were examined for their potential to inhibit attachment and to detach cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens on aluminum sections. Numbers of attached cells were appreciably reduced (>60%) following immersion in three alcohol-type and two acrylic-coating-type products. Several products had essentially no effect on the attached cells. Most of the products indicated for alleviation of associated microbial odors from ACS provided only short-term effects. When products were coated onto aluminum prior to exposure to the cells, water-insoluble coatings appeared to provide more consistent inhibition of primary adherence of S. marcescens. The differences in degrees of primary adherence of a selected strain of S. marcescens to variously treated aluminum provided a rapid and reproducible assessment of potential antimicrobial efficacy of ACS products. PMID:12483481

  13. Influence of storage conditions in the evolution of phytochemicals in nutraceutical products applying high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2016-06-15

    An adequate knowledge about possible transformation of bioactive compounds in nutraceutical products during long storage is important in order to know potential modifications of this type of compounds. In this study, one year monitoring was performed in different types of nutraceutical products based on natural extracts (green tea, soy, royal jelly and grapes) observing the appearance of new bioactive compounds, which were not detected at the initial conditions, as well as the decrease of some of the detected compounds. To determine these transformation products, an analytical procedure based on high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap analyzer) was applied. It was noted that transformation products were detected after 3 months of storage in green tea and soy products, while 6 months were necessary to observe transformation products in royal jelly. PMID:26868548

  14. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5°C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20°C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20°C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P≤0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics

  15. Exploitation of biological wastes for the production of value-added products under solid-state fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2008-07-01

    Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fibre. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environmentally friendly method of waste management. This paper reviews the reutilization of biological wastes for the production of value-added products using the SSF technique. PMID:18543242

  16. Optimization of large-scale culture conditions for the production of cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by liquid static culture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  17. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  18. Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced Production of Extracellular Amylase.

    PubMed

    Dash, Biplab Kumar; Rahman, M Mizanur; Sarker, Palash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A study was carried out with a newly isolated bacterial strain yielding extracellular amylase. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences revealed this strain as clustered with the closest members of Bacillus sp. and identified as Bacillus subtilis BI19. The effect of various fermentation conditions on amylase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Rice flour (1.25%) as a cheap natural carbon source was found to induce amylase production mostly. A combination of peptone and tryptone as organic and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen sources gave highest yield. Maximum production was obtained after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C with an initial medium pH 8.0. Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. Amylase production was 3.06 times higher when optimized production conditions were used. Optimum reaction temperature and pH for crude amylase activity were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. The crude enzyme showed activity and stability over a fair range of temperature and pH. These results suggest that B. subtilis BI19 could be exploited for production of amylase at relatively low cost and time. PMID:26180814

  19. Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced Production of Extracellular Amylase

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Biplab Kumar; Rahman, M. Mizanur; Sarker, Palash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A study was carried out with a newly isolated bacterial strain yielding extracellular amylase. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences revealed this strain as clustered with the closest members of Bacillus sp. and identified as Bacillus subtilis BI19. The effect of various fermentation conditions on amylase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Rice flour (1.25%) as a cheap natural carbon source was found to induce amylase production mostly. A combination of peptone and tryptone as organic and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen sources gave highest yield. Maximum production was obtained after 24 h of incubation at 37°C with an initial medium pH 8.0. Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. Amylase production was 3.06 times higher when optimized production conditions were used. Optimum reaction temperature and pH for crude amylase activity were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. The crude enzyme showed activity and stability over a fair range of temperature and pH. These results suggest that B. subtilis BI19 could be exploited for production of amylase at relatively low cost and time. PMID:26180814

  20. Using EPIC v. 3060 and the Soil Conditioning Index to predict soil organic carbon in cotton production systems of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) administered by the USDA-NRCS predicts the consequences of tillage practices and cropping systems on trends in SOC but does not represent an actual quantity or accumulation rate of SOC. We calibrated the EPIC model for three major land resource areas in the southea...

  1. Growth and toxin production of Azadinium poporum strains in batch cultures under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Jiang, Baozhou; Chen, Huidan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-05-01

    Azaspiracid-2 (AZA2) is the dominant toxin produced by Azadinium poporum strains AZDY06 and AZFC22 isolated from the South China Sea. Biomass and AZA2-production were examined within batch cultures with variation in experimental concentrations of nitrate (0, 88, 882, and 2647µM) or phosphate (0, 3.6, 36, and 109µM), different nitrogen sources (nitrate and urea) and media (f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si) in the present study. Growth of both strains positively responded to nitrate or phosphate nutrients, but the growth status was significantly repressed by the highest additional level of phosphate (109µM). Both AZDY06 and AZFC22 grew well with higher specific growth rates, but with shorter growth periods, within f/2-Si medium spiked with urea than that within media spiked with nitrate. L1-Si medium with relatively high concentrations of trace metals was relatively favorable to both strains of A. poporum tested here. No obvious change within the toxin profile occurred in all cultures of both strains under the various nutrient conditions, although trace amounts of some suspicious derivatives of AZA2 occurred in some cultures. AZA2 cell quotas within both strains significantly (p<0.05) increased at the stationary phase under lower additional phosphate (0 and 3.6µM). Significant differences were not found within AZA2 cell quotas in cultures with additional nitrate ranging from 0 to 2647µM. The highest AZA2 cell quota and maximum AZA2 quantity per culture volume occurred in batch culture at the stationary phase under phosphate concentrations at 3.6µM. Neither A. poporum strain exhibited significant changes in AZA2 cell quotas within f/2-Si media spiked with urea or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The AZA2 cell quota of strain AZDY06 also did not change remarkably within f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si media, however the AZA2 cell quota of strain AZFC22 within L1-Si medium was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that within f/2-Si medium. PMID:26820226

  2. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively. PMID:26800388

  3. Nitrite-driven nitrous oxide production under aerobic soil conditions: Kinetics and biochemical controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrite (NO2-) can accumulate during nitrification in soil following fertilizer application. While the role of NO2- as a substrate regulating nitrous oxide (N2O) production is recognized, kinetic data are not available that allow for estimating N2O production or soil-to-atmosphere fluxes as a functi...

  4. Torrefaction of almond shells: effects of torrefaction conditions on properties of solid and condensate products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond shells were torrefied in a fixed bed reactor and their solid and condensate products were collected for analysis. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used to examine effects of torrefaction temperature and time on mass and energy yields of solid products as well a...

  5. Nitrite-Driven Nitrous Oxide Production Under Aerobic Soil Conditions: Kinetics and Biochemical Controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrite (NO2-) can accumulate during nitrification in soil following fertilizer application. While the role of NO2- as a substrate regulating nitrous oxide (N2O) production is recognized, kinetic data are not available that allow for estimating N2O production or soil-to-atmosphere fluxes as a functi...

  6. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... processing, packaging, grading, laboratory analyses, and output of products inspected, processed, and... laboratory facilities and necessary equipment available for the use of inspectors to inspect samples of... manner prescribed by NMFS, and three (3) end-product samples for evaluation and/or laboratory analysis...

  7. The Mechanisms of Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products Formation through Polyphenols in Hyperglycemic Condition.

    PubMed

    Khangholi, Shahpour; Majid, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul; Berwary, Najat Jabbar Ahmed; Ahmad, Farediah; Aziz, Ramlan Bin Abd

    2016-01-01

    Glycation, the non-enzymatic binding of glucose to free amino groups of an amino acid, yields irreversible heterogeneous compounds known as advanced glycation end products. Those products play a significant role in diabetic complications. In the present article we briefly discuss the contribution of advanced glycation end products to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and wound healing. Then we mention the various mechanisms by which polyphenols inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products. Finally, recent supporting documents are presented to clarify the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on the formation of advanced glycation end products. Phytochemicals apply several antiglycation mechanisms, including glucose metabolism, amelioration of oxidative stress, scavenging of dicarbonyl species, and up/down-regulation of gene expression. To utilize polyphenols in order to remedy diabetic complications, we must explore, examine and clarify the action mechanisms of the components of polyphenols. PMID:26550791

  8. Efficient lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under pH-shift conditions.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2011-10-01

    Lactobionic acid finds applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medicine. The production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens was studied in shake-flasks and in a bioreactor. Shake-flask experiments showed that lactobionic acid was a non-growth associated product. A two-stage pH-shift bioconversion strategy with a pH-uncontrolled above 6.5 during the growth phase and maintained at 6.5 during cumulative production was adopted in bioreactor batch cultures. An inoculation level of 30% promoted high cell culture densities that triggered lactobionic acid production at a rate of 1.12 g/Lh. This methodology displayed efficient bioconversion with cheese whey as an inexpensive substrate for lactobionic acid production. PMID:21862326

  9. Effect of bioconversion conditions on vanillin production by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 through an analysis of competing by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformation conditions such as initial pH, the initial concentration of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, and the separate addition of ferulic acid and vanillic acid, on the production of vanillin through an analysis of competing by-product formation by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116. The extent and nature of by-product formation and vanillin yield were affected by initial pH and different initial concentrations of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, with a high yield of vanillin and high cell density obtained at pH 8.0, 10 g/l glucose, and 8 g/l yeast extract. High concentrations of ferulic acid were found to negatively affect cell density. Additional supplementation of 100 mg/l vanillic acid, a metabolically linked by-product, was found to result in a high concentration of vanillin and guaiacol, an intermediate of vanillin. Via an analysis of the effect of these transformation conditions on competing by-product formation, high concentrations of ferulic acid were transformed with a molar yield to vanillin of 96.1 and 95.2 %, by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 and Streptomyces V1, respectively, together with a minor accumulation of by-products. These are among the highest performance values reported in the literature to date for Streptomyces in batch cultures. PMID:24078147

  10. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. PMID:27213846

  11. Debottlenecking recombinant protein production in Bacillus megaterium under large-scale conditions--targeted precursor feeding designed from metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Korneli, Claudia; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Godard, Thibault; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    In the present work the impact of large production scale was investigated for Bacillus megaterium expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Specifically designed scale-down studies, mimicking the intermittent and continuous nutrient supply of large- and small-scale processes, were carried out for this purpose. The recombinant strain revealed a 40% reduced GFP yield for the large-scale conditions. In line with extended carbon loss via formation of acetate and carbon dioxide, this indicated obvious limitations in the underlying metabolism of B. megaterium under the large-scale conditions. Quantitative analysis of intracellular amino acids via validated fast filtration protocols revealed that their level strongly differed between the two scenarios. During cultivation in large-scale set-up, the availability of most amino acids, serving as key building blocks of the recombinant protein, was substantially reduced. This was most pronounced for tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine. In contrast alanine was increased, probably related to a bottleneck at the level of pyruvate which also triggered acetate overflow metabolism. The pre-cursor quantifications could then be exploited to verify the presumed bottlenecks and improve recombinant protein production under large-scale conditions. Addition of only 5 mM tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine to the feed solution increased the GFP yield by 100%. This rational concept of driving the lab scale productivity of recombinant microorganisms under suboptimal feeding conditions emulating large scale can easily be extended to other processes and production hosts. PMID:22252649

  12. Influence of propionic acid on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in liquid submerged and solid substrate conditions.

    PubMed

    al-Hilli, A L; Smith, J E

    1992-01-01

    The present experiments demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of propionic acid stimulated aflatoxin production considerably in submerged shaken culture and solid substrate culture of Aspergillus flavus. In liquid conditions aflatoxin formation was significantly influenced by the time of addition of propionic acid. The spores initially swelled into large spherical cells, and the resultant hyphae developed into a swollen, stunted, and excessively branched mycelium. PMID:1573566

  13. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  14. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  15. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  16. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  17. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  18. Current status of the FASTGRASS/PARAGRASS models for fission product release from LWR fuel during normal and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Zawadski, S.A.; Piasecka, M.

    1983-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS model for the prediction of the behavior of the gaseous and volatile fission products in nuclear fuels under normal and transient conditions has undergone substantial improvements. The major improvements have been in the atomistic and bubble diffusive flow models, in the models for the behavior of gas bubbles on grain surfaces, and in the models for the behavior of the volatile fission products iodine and cesium. The thoery has received extensive verification over a wide range of fuel operating conditions, and can be regarded as a state-of-the-art model based on our current level of understanding of fission product behavior. PARAGRASS is an extremely efficient, mechanistic computer code with the capability of modeling steady-state and transient fission-product behavior. The models in PARAGRASS are based on the more detailed ones in FASTGRASS. PARAGRASS updates for the FRAPCON (PNL), FRAP-T (INEL), and SCDAP (INEL) codes have recently been completed and implemented. Results from an extensive FASTGRASS verification are presented and discussed for steady-state and transient conditions. In addition, FASTGRASS predictions for fission product release rate constants are compared with those in NUREG-0772. 21 references, 13 figures.

  19. Carbon dioxide production from peatland soil profiles: The influence of temperature, oxic/anoxic conditions and substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, D.; Moore, T.

    2000-02-01

    The authors incubated intact peat cores from depth intervals of 5--15, 15--25, 25--35, and 35--45 cm from ombrotrophic bog, poor fen, and beaver pond margin sections of a cool-temperate peatland. CO{sub 2} production was measured over 12-day incubation periods at 4 and 14 C and under oxic and anoxic conditions. Rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.66 mg CO{sub 2} g{sup {minus}1} dry peat d{sup {minus}1} under oxic conditions and from 0.002 to 0.098 mg CO{sub 2} g{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} under anoxic conditions, and rates generally decreased with depth in the profiles. When expressed on a volumetric basis, production rates ranged from 0.3 to 23.4 g CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}3} d{sup {minus}1}, and there was much less variation in CO{sub 2} production rates within profiles because the bulk density of peat increased with depth. The Q{sub 10} quotient, between 4 and 14 C, ranged from 1.0 to 7.7, depending on sample and incubation conditions, with an average of 2.0 for oxic and 2.7 for anoxic conditions. Oxic:anoxic ratios averaged 7:1, 16:1, and 12:1 for the bog, poor fen, and beaver pond margin samples, respectively. Degree of decomposition (von Post index) was the substrate property most strongly correlated with CO{sub 2} production. Based on temperature and incubation data for the peat profiles to a depth of 45 cm, annual decomposition values (k) ranged from 0.016 to 0.060 yr{sup {minus}1} under oxic conditions and from 0.001 to 0.007 yr{sup {minus}1} under anoxic conditions. A model of CO{sub 2} emission from the three sites, based on the incubation data and thermal and water table regime, gave good agreement with measured in situ CO{sub 2} emission rates, although summer emission rates were underpredicted, possibly because of the absence of a root production component in the incubations or because of underestimation of CO{sub 2} production rates in field conditions above the water table.

  20. Effect of various husbandry conditions on the production parameters of swine herds in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dors, A; Czyzewska, E; Pomorska-Mól, M; Kolacz, R; Pejsak, Z

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect production data of Polish swine herds, with special emphasis on the production parameters in farrow to finish pig herds. Another goal was to determine differences in the production performance of swine herds with different sizes, various status with regard to biosecurity, and with different veterinary expenditure. For this purpose, questionnaire surveys were carried out in 96 polish farrow to finish pig herds. The data concerning production parameters (e.g. the number of pigs born per sow per year, litters per sow per year, pre- and post-weaning mortality), farm size (small, medium, large), management (all in-all out by room or building), veterinary expenditure (including medication) and the percentage of pigs under medical treatment, were collected. The data obtained in the present study indicate that in general, the efficiency of swine production in evaluated farms was relatively low. It was also found that in large swine farms the efficiency was better than that in small ones and that the proper biosecurity positively influenced the performance of the swine farms. However, only in 10.4% facilities, the biosecurity rules and methods, including the principle "all-in all-out", were implemented and kept. It seems that inefficient swine production on the majority of Polish farms results from poor basic knowledge on pig production and understanding of fundamental economic rules of swine breeding. PMID:24597306

  1. Optimization to the Culture Conditions for Phellinus Production with Regression Analysis and Gene-Set Based Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongwei; Xin, Yuezhen; Wang, Xun; Sun, Beibei; Xia, Shengyu; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus is a kind of fungus and is known as one of the elemental components in drugs to avoid cancers. With the purpose of finding optimized culture conditions for Phellinus production in the laboratory, plenty of experiments focusing on single factor were operated and large scale of experimental data were generated. In this work, we use the data collected from experiments for regression analysis, and then a mathematical model of predicting Phellinus production is achieved. Subsequently, a gene-set based genetic algorithm is developed to optimize the values of parameters involved in culture conditions, including inoculum size, PH value, initial liquid volume, temperature, seed age, fermentation time, and rotation speed. These optimized values of the parameters have accordance with biological experimental results, which indicate that our method has a good predictability for culture conditions optimization. PMID:27610365

  2. Photodesorption and product formation in UV-irradiated N2 and NH3 ices under ultra-high-vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.

    2012-02-01

    The accretion and desorption processes of gas molecules on cold grains play an important role in the evolution of dense clouds and circumstellar regions around YSOs. Given the low temperatures in dark cloud interiors (10-20 K), thermal desorption is negligible and most molecules are expected to stick to grains leading to depletion in the gas phase. Laboratory simulations of these processes under astrophysically relevant conditions are required for their understanding. The use of ultra-high-vacuum conditions minimalizes contamination by background water accretion. This introduces a radical improvement, allowing the study of photodesorption and the detection of products at very low abundances in a water-free ice matrix. We studied UV-photoprocessing of pure NH3 and N2 ices under ultra-high-vacuum conditions using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber. The photodesorbed molecules, and the volatile products released upon photolysis and warm-up, were detected in situ by quadrupole mass spectroscopy.

  3. Optimization to the Culture Conditions for Phellinus Production with Regression Analysis and Gene-Set Based Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwei; Xin, Yuezhen; Wang, Xun; Sun, Beibei; Xia, Shengyu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus is a kind of fungus and is known as one of the elemental components in drugs to avoid cancers. With the purpose of finding optimized culture conditions for Phellinus production in the laboratory, plenty of experiments focusing on single factor were operated and large scale of experimental data were generated. In this work, we use the data collected from experiments for regression analysis, and then a mathematical model of predicting Phellinus production is achieved. Subsequently, a gene-set based genetic algorithm is developed to optimize the values of parameters involved in culture conditions, including inoculum size, PH value, initial liquid volume, temperature, seed age, fermentation time, and rotation speed. These optimized values of the parameters have accordance with biological experimental results, which indicate that our method has a good predictability for culture conditions optimization. PMID:27610365

  4. Optimization of submerged fermentation conditions for lovastatin production by the culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Atli, Burcu; Yamac, Mustafa; Yildiz, Zeki

    2013-01-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to optimize lovastatin production by culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus OBCC 1031 under submerged fermentation. The Plackett-Burman design was used to determine effective culture parameters, glucose, lactose, maltose, glycerol, peptone, yeast extract, NH4SO2, NaCl, thiamine, and agitation speed. Statistical analyses of data from the Plackett-Burman design show that glucose, yeast extract, and agitation speed are significant parameters. The interactive effects of these culture parameters on lovastatin production by P. ostreatus OBCC 1031 were further studied by a Box-Behnken design. Maximum lovastatin production (114.82 mg/L) was reached after 6 days of fermentation in optimized culture conditions (30 g/L glucose, 10 g/L yeast extract, 200 rpm, 28°C, and pH 6). This amount was found to be 50 times higher than that produced under unoptimized conditions in submerged fermentation by P. ostreatus. PMID:24266373

  5. Mechanistic prediction of fission product release under normal and accident conditions: key uncertainties that need better resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.

    1983-09-01

    A theoretical model has been used for predicting the behavior of fission gas and volatile fission products (VFPs) in UO/sub 2/-base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. This model represents an attempt to develop an efficient predictive capability for the full range of possible reactor operating conditions. Fission products released from the fuel are assumed to reach the fuel surface by successively diffusing (via atomic and gas-bubble mobility) from the grains to grain faces and then to the grain edges, where the fission products are released through a network of interconnected tunnels of fission-gas induced and fabricated porosity. The model provides for a multi-region calculation and uses only one size class to characterize a distribution of fission gas bubbles.

  6. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  7. Mechanistic prediction of fission-product release under normal and accident conditions: key uncertainties that need better resolution. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.

    1983-09-01

    A theoretical model has been used for predicting the behavior of fission gas and volatile fission products (VFPs) in UO/sub 2/-base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. This model represents an attempt to develop an efficient predictive capability for the full range of possible reactor operating conditions. Fission products released from the fuel are assumed to reach the fuel surface by successively diffusing (via atomic and gas-bubble mobility) from the grains to grain faces and then to the grain edges, where the fission products are released through a network of interconnected tunnels of fission-gas induced and fabricated porosity. The model provides for a multi-region calculation and uses only one size class to characterize a distribution of fission gas bubbles.

  8. Culture Conditions for Production of Biomass, Adenosine, and Cordycepin from Cordyceps sinensis CS1197: Optimization by Desirability Function Method

    PubMed Central

    Ghatnur, Shashidhar M.; Parvatam, Giridhar; Balaraman, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is a traditional Chinese medicine contains potent active metabolites such as nucleosides and polysaccharides. The submerged cultivation technique is studied for the large scale production of CS for biomass and metabolites production. Objective: To optimize culture conditions for large-scale production of CS1197 biomass and metabolites production. Materials and Methods: The CS1197 strain of CS was isolated from dead larvae of natural CS and the authenticity was assured by the presence of two major markers adenosine and cordycepin by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize process parameters culturing temperature, pH, and inoculum volume for the biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin. The experimental results were regressed to a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis for the prediction of biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin production. Multiple responses were optimized based on desirability function method. Results: The desirability function suggested the process conditions temperature 28°C, pH 7 and inoculum volume 10% for optimal production of nutraceuticals in the biomass. The water extracts from dried CS1197 mycelia showed good inhibition for 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid-free radicals. Conclusion: The result suggests that response surface methodology-desirability function coupled approach can successfully optimize the culture conditions for CS1197. SUMMARY Authentication of CS1197 strain by the presence of adenosine and cordycepin and culturing period was determined to be for 14 daysContent of nucleosides in natural CS was found higher than in cultured CS1197 myceliumBox-Behnken design to optimize critical cultural conditions: temperature, pH and inoculum volumeWater extract showed better antioxidant activity proving credible source of natural antioxidants

  9. Production of extracellular acidic lipase by Rhizopus arrhizus as a function of culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K K; Deshpande, B S; Ambedkar, S S

    1993-01-01

    Thermophilic strain of Rhizopus arrhizus accumulates an acidic lipase in culture fluid when grown in a medium containing ground nut oil, milk powder and inorganic salts. Addition of 2.0% ground nut oil yielded the highest productivity of enzyme. Soyabean meal and arabinose were found to be the best nitrogen and carbon sources for enzyme production respectively. Addition of metal ions such as MnCl2, SnCl2 and CaCl2 increased the enzyme productivity by 4 fold. The enzyme productivity in the fermenter was much higher (310 U/ml) than in shake-flask (180 U/ml). Crude lipase preparation showed pH and temperature activity optima at 3.5 and 45 degrees C respectively. The enzyme is thermostable and highly active in hydrolysing triglycerides and failed to hydrolyse-methyl esters of caprylate and palmitate. PMID:8181953

  10. PROTOCOL FOR LABORATORY TESTING OF CRUDE-OIL BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCTS IN FRESHWATER CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (EPA, NRMRL), with the National Environmental Technology Application Center (NETAC), developed a protocol for evaluation of bioremediation products in marine environments. The marine proto...

  11. Lipase production by Aspergillus niger under various growth conditions using solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Olama, Z A; el-Sabaeny, A H

    1993-12-01

    Ricinus seed litters were chosen as a cheap carbon source for lipase production by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF). Maximum lipase production was achieved upon using an enriched (potassium citrate and casein) waste at pH 7.8 and 30 degrees C for 8 days incubation. Nitrogen sources as NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, urea and amino acids repressed the lipolytic activity. The chloride salts of Ba2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+ and Sn2+ inhibited, while Zn+2 did not affect lipase production. Compounds containing hydrolyzable ester group, such as Tween(s), were found to inhibit lipase activity. When the effect of different additives such as EDTA, gum acacia, span(s), mineral and vitamins, were studied, it was found that they all exhibit decreased lipase production by the tested fungus. PMID:8172691

  12. Optimisation of Environmental Conditions for Enhanced Production of Fungal Exopectinase Using Agro-industrial Wastes.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sabika; Prasuna, R Gyana; Theja, B; Chakradhar, Y M S

    2014-07-01

    Management of household solid waste and agro industrial residues generated from various sources is a serious problem due to huge ever increasing population and pollution. Application of these worthless agro waste materials to generate a commercially valuable product, pectinase enzyme, using locally isolated fungal strain, Aspergillus flavipes, was the main motive of this study. Physiological characterisation and enzyme profile determination were done along with formulation of production media. Fruit skins, rags were used as C source and oil cakes were used for N source. Various combinations of these C and N sources were applied for revised production of pectinase enzyme compared to YEP basal media (29 U/ml). A huge increase in pectinase production of 40 U/ml was obtained with Citrus peel - Sesame oil cake (CS) media. The enzyme had its maximum activity at 500C, 4.5 pH. This was achieved at 45 min in 1.5% substrate concentration. PMID:26563086

  13. Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Saturated Soil Under Various Redox Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Menahem, A.; Berkowitz, B.

    2014-12-01

    The growing use of PPCPs results in their increasing release to the aquatic environment. Consequently, understanding the fate of PPCPs under environmentally relevant conditions that account for dynamic flow and varying redox states is critical. In this study, the transport of two organometallic PPCPs, Gd-DTPA and Roxarsone (As complex) and their metal salts (Gd(NO3)3, AsNaO2), is investigated. The former is used widely as a contrasting agent for MRI, while the latter is applied extensively as a food additive in the broiler poultry industry. Both of these compounds are excreted from the body, almost unchanged chemically. Gadolinium complexes are not fully eliminated in wastewater treatment and can reach groundwater via irrigation with treated wastewater; Roxarsone can enter groundwater via leaching from manure used as fertilizer. Studies have shown that the transport of PPCPs in groundwater is affected by environmental conditions such as redox states, pH, and soil type. For this study, column experiments using sand or Mediterranean red sandy clay soil were performed under several redox conditions: aerobic, nitrate-reducing, iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing, methanogenic, and very strongly chemical reducing. Batch experiments to determine adsorption isotherms were also performed for the complexes and metal salts. We found that Gd-DTPA transport was affected by the soil type and was not affected by the redox conditions. In contrast, Roxarsone transport was affected mainly by the different redox conditions, showing delayed breakthrough curves as the conditions became more biologically reduced (strong chemical reducing conditions did not affect the transport). We also observed that the metal salts show essentially no transport while the organic complexes display much faster breakthrough. The results suggest that transport of these PPCPs through soil and groundwater is determined by the redox conditions, as well as by soil type and the form of the applied metal (as salt

  14. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  15. Manufacture of immunoglobulin products for patients with primary antibody deficiencies - the effect of processing conditions on product safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert; Quinti, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Early preparations of immunoglobulin (Ig) manufactured from human plasma by ethanol (Cohn) fractionation were limited in their usefulness for substitution therapy in patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD), as Ig aggregates formed during manufacture resulted in severe systemic reactions in patients when given intravenously. Developments in manufacturing technology obviated this problem through the capacity to produce concentrated solutions of intact monomeric Ig, revolutionizing PAD treatment and improving patient life expectancy and quality of life. As the need for Ig has grown, manufacturers have refined further manufacturing technologies to improve yield from plasma and produce therapies, which are easier and less expensive to deliver. This has led to the substitution, partly or wholly, of ethanol precipitation by other techniques such as chromatography, and has also stimulated the production of highly concentrated solutions capable of rapid infusion. Ig products have been associated, since their inception, with certain adverse events, including infectious disease transmission, hemolysis, and thromboembolism. The introduction of standardized manufacturing processes and dedicated pathogen elimination steps has removed the risk of infectious disease, and the focus of attention has shifted to other problems, which appear to have increased over the past 5 years. These include hemolysis and thromboembolism, both the cause for substantial concern and the subject of recent regulatory scrutiny and actions. We review the development of manufacturing technology and the emerging evidence that changes for the optimization of yield and convenience has contributed to the recent incidents in certain adverse events. Industry measures under development will be discussed in terms of their potential to improve safety and optimize care for patients with PAD. PMID:25566269

  16. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production of waste activated sludge under salinity conditions: Performance and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are essential for removing biological nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether and how the addition of NaCl could improve the production of VFAs from waste activated sludge (WAS). Sludge solubilization was efficiently improved by the addition of NaCl. Both protein and carbohydrate in the fermentation liquid increased with the dosage of NaCl, and it provided a larger amount of organic compounds for the production of the VFAs. NaCl had inhibitory effects on the production of methane and a high dosage of NaCl could severely suppress the growth of methanogens, which decreased the consumption of the VFAs. Consequently, the production of VFAs was significantly enhanced by the addition of NaCl. The maximum production of VFAs was achieved with the highest dosage of NaCl (3316 mg (COD)/L at the NaCl dosage 0.5 mol/L; 783 mg (COD)/L without the addition of NaCl). Therefore, this study indicates that using NaCl could be an efficient method for improving the production of VFAs from WAS. PMID:26320405

  17. Influence of climatic conditions on production of Stipa-Bouteloua prairie over a 50-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Smoliak, S.

    1986-03-01

    Range forage yields obtained over a 50-year period at the Research Substation near Manyberries in southeastern Alberta were analyzed in relation to several climatic factors. The basic variables were precipitation, pan evaporation, temperature, hours of sunlight, and wind velocity. The precipitation from April through July was highly correlated with range forage production and this relationship could be utilized to predict the annual forage production by 1 August each year. A slightly better correlation was obtained when range forage production was related to the total of the previous September plus the current April through July precipitation. Pan evaporation totals, mean temperature, and hours of sunlight were negatively correlated with forage production, while wind velocity during the growing season showed a low relationship to forage production. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of May and June mean temperatures with June and July precipitation accounted for 63% of the variation in range forage production. The predicted forage yield would be useful in making management decisions or adjustments, especially during drought periods, while the long-term forage yield data can be utilized in range forage models or in validating their effectiveness.

  18. Selection method of pH conditions to establish Pseudomonas taetrolens physiological states and lactobionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Microbial physiological responses resulting from inappropriate bioprocessing conditions may have a marked impact on process performance within any fermentation system. The influence of different pH-control strategies on physiological status, microbial growth and lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens during bioreactor cultivations has been investigated for the first time in this work. Both cellular behaviour and bioconversion efficiency from P. taetrolens were found to be negatively influenced by pH-control modes carried out at values lower than 6.0 and higher than 7.0. Production schemes were also influenced by the operational pH employed, with asynchronous production from damaged and metabolically active subpopulations at pH values lower than 6.0. Moreover, P. taetrolens showed reduced cellular proliferation and a subsequent delay in the onset of the production phase under acidic conditions (pH < 6.0). Unlike cultivations performed at 6.5, both pH-shift and pH-stat cultivation strategies performed at pH values lower than 6.0 resulted in decreased lactobionic acid production. Whereas the cellular response showed a stress-induced physiological response under acidic conditions, healthy functional cells were predominant at medium operational pH values (6.5-7.0). P. taetrolens thus displayed a robust physiological status at initial pH value of 6.5, resulting in an enhanced bioconversion yield and lactobionic acid productivity (7- and 4-fold higher compared to those attained at initial pH values of 4.5 and 5.0, respectively). These results have shown that pH-control modes strongly affected both the physiological response of cells and the biological performance of P. taetrolens, providing key information for bio-production of lactobionic acid on an industrial scale. PMID:23254761

  19. Investigation of malic acid production in Aspergillus oryzae under nitrogen starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Brown, Stephen H; McCulloch, Michael; Berry, Alan; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Malic acid has great potential for replacing petrochemical building blocks in the future. For this application, high yields, rates, and titers are essential in order to sustain a viable biotechnological production process. Natural high-capacity malic acid producers like the malic acid producer Aspergillus flavus have so far been disqualified because of special growth requirements or the production of mycotoxins. As A. oryzae is a very close relative or even an ecotype of A. flavus, it is likely that its high malic acid production capabilities with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status may be combined with already existing large-scale fermentation experience. In order to verify the malic acid production potential, two wild-type strains, NRRL3485 and NRRL3488, were compared in shake flasks. As NRRL3488 showed a volumetric production rate twice as high as that of NRRL3485, this strain was selected for further investigation of the influence of two different nitrogen sources on malic acid secretion. The cultivation in lab-scale fermentors resulted in a higher final titer, 30.27 ± 1.05 g liter(-1), using peptone than the one of 22.27 ± 0.46 g liter(-1) obtained when ammonium was used. Through transcriptome analysis, a binding site similar to the one of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast transcription factor Msn2/4 was identified in the upstream regions of glycolytic genes and the cytosolic malic acid production pathway from pyruvate via oxaloacetate to malate, which suggests that malic acid production is a stress response. Furthermore, the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was identified as a target for metabolic engineering, after it was confirmed to be transcriptionally regulated through the correlation of intracellular fluxes and transcriptional changes. PMID:23892740

  20. Investigation of Malic Acid Production in Aspergillus oryzae under Nitrogen Starvation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Brown, Stephen H.; McCulloch, Michael; Berry, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Malic acid has great potential for replacing petrochemical building blocks in the future. For this application, high yields, rates, and titers are essential in order to sustain a viable biotechnological production process. Natural high-capacity malic acid producers like the malic acid producer Aspergillus flavus have so far been disqualified because of special growth requirements or the production of mycotoxins. As A. oryzae is a very close relative or even an ecotype of A. flavus, it is likely that its high malic acid production capabilities with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status may be combined with already existing large-scale fermentation experience. In order to verify the malic acid production potential, two wild-type strains, NRRL3485 and NRRL3488, were compared in shake flasks. As NRRL3488 showed a volumetric production rate twice as high as that of NRRL3485, this strain was selected for further investigation of the influence of two different nitrogen sources on malic acid secretion. The cultivation in lab-scale fermentors resulted in a higher final titer, 30.27 ± 1.05 g liter−1, using peptone than the one of 22.27 ± 0.46 g liter−1 obtained when ammonium was used. Through transcriptome analysis, a binding site similar to the one of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast transcription factor Msn2/4 was identified in the upstream regions of glycolytic genes and the cytosolic malic acid production pathway from pyruvate via oxaloacetate to malate, which suggests that malic acid production is a stress response. Furthermore, the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was identified as a target for metabolic engineering, after it was confirmed to be transcriptionally regulated through the correlation of intracellular fluxes and transcriptional changes. PMID:23892740

  1. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R.; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. |; Perhac, R.M. Jr. |

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  2. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source. PMID:25880041

  3. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events. PMID:24271184

  4. Statistical key factors optimization of conditions for hydrogen production from S-TE (solubilization by thermophilic enzyme) waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhao, Jun; She, Zonglian; Lu, Mingmin; Zong, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Waste sludge can be solubilized after S-TE (solubilization by thermophilic enzyme) pretreatment as the cryptic growth occurs at the expense of the cell lysate. The hydrogen production from S-TE sludge is greatly influenced by many factors. In this study, factors including pH, C/N, C/P, and Fe(2+) affecting hydrogen production from S-TE sludge were optimized using uniform design. The optimum condition for maximum hydrogen yield of 68.4 ml H2/g VSS (volatile suspended solid) could be predicted from regression model, and the optimum conditions were pH of 6.4, C/N ratio of 38, C/P ratio of 265, and Fe(2+) concentration of 85 mg/L. There was interaction effect of factors on hydrogen production from S-TE sludge. Different pH, C/N, C/P and Fe(2+) conditions could influence the VSS removal rate, carbohydrate and protein utilization. When the highest compositions of acetate and ethanol and lowest propionate were observed in metabolites, effective hydrogen production was also achieved. PMID:23584408

  5. CHO cells knocked out for TSC2 display an improved productivity of antibodies under fed batch conditions.

    PubMed

    McVey, Duncan; Aronov, Michael; Rizzi, Giovanni; Cowan, Alexis; Scott, Charo; Megill, John; Russell, Reb; Tirosh, Boaz

    2016-09-01

    The kinase mTOR operates in two cellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 adjusts metabolic activity according to external growth conditions and nutrients availability. When conditions are prosperous, mTOR facilitates protein and lipid biosyntheses and inhibits autophagy, while under metabolic constraints, however, its attenuation induces a catabolic program, energy preservation and autophagy. CHO is a key cell line for manufacturing of biologics owing to its remarkable ability to grow to high densities and maintain protein production and secretion for extended times. While high mTOR activity has been associated with high productivity in CHO cells, its inhibition by rapamycin has also been documented to augment productivity via promotion of viability. Here using CRISPR/Cas9 editing we engineered CHO cells to enforce high mTORC1 activity by knocking-out TSC2, a major mTOR inhibitory protein, or PTEN, a phosphatase that attenuates the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Only TSC2-deleted cells exhibited a constitutive activation of mTORC1 under fed batch conditions. Cells grew larger in size, synthesized more proteins and displayed an over twofold elevation in their specific productivity. While peak viable cell density was compromised, overall titers increased to an extent dependent upon the parental clone. Our data underscore manipulation of TSC as a strategy to improve performance of CHO cell in bioreactors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1942-1952. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888596

  6. Maximizing productivity of CHO cell-based fed-batch culture using chemically defined media conditions and typical manufacturing equipment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Ming; Hu, WeiWei; Rustandi, Eddie; Chang, Kevin; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena; Ryll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A highly productive chemically defined fed-batch process was developed to maximize titer and volumetric productivity for Chinese hamster ovary cell-based recombinant protein manufacturing. Two cell lines producing a recombinant antibody (cell line A) and an Fc-fusion protein (cell line B) were used for development. Both processes achieved product titers of 10 g/L on day 18 under chemically defined conditions. For cell line B, the use of plant derived hydrolysates combined with the optimized chemically defined medium increased the titer to 13 g/L. Volumetric productivities were increased from a base line of about 200 mg/L/d to about 500 mg/L/d under chemically defined conditions and as high as 700 mg/L/d with cell line B using plant derived hydrolysates. Peak cell densities reached greater than 20E6 vc/mL, and cell viabilities were maintained above 80% on day 18 without the use of antiapoptotic genes or temperature shift. A rapid compound screening method was developed to effectively test positive factors within 72 h. Peak volumetric oxygen uptake rates (OUR) more than tripled from the baseline condition. Oxygen demand continued to increase after maximum cell density was reached with a maximal OUR of 3.7 mmol/L/h. The new process format was scaled up and verified at 100 L pilot scale using reactor equipment of similar configuration as used at manufacturing scale. PMID:20945494

  7. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  8. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    PubMed

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes. PMID:26762392

  9. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. PMID:22980961

  10. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, L. A.; Smith, T. G.; George, J. C.; Sandstrom, S. J.; Walkusz, W.; Divoky, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2-4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary preference for Arctic cod, experienced declines in condition, growth and/or production during the same time period. The proximate causes of these observed changes remain unknown, but may reflect an upward trend in secondary productivity, and a concurrent downward trend in the availability of forage fishes, such as the preferred Arctic cod. To further our understanding of these apparent ecosystem shifts, we urge the use of multiple marine vertebrate species in the design of biophysical sampling studies to identify causes of these changes. Continued long-term, standardized monitoring of vertebrate body condition should be paired with concurrent direct (stomach contents) or indirect (isotopes, fatty acids) monitoring of diet, detailed study of movements and seasonal ranges to establish and refine baselines, and identification of critical habitats of the marine vertebrates being monitored. This would be coordinated with biophysical and oceanographic sampling, at spatial and temporal scales, and geographic locations, that are relevant to the home range, critical habitats and prey of the vertebrate indicator species showing changes in condition and related parameters.

  11. Abiotic formation of acylglycerols under simulated hydrothermal conditions and self-assembly properties of such lipid products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Deamer, David W.

    The abiotic formation of aliphatic lipid compounds (i.e., fatty acids, alcohols, and acylglycerols) has been reported to occur at elevated temperatures and pressures under simulated hydrothermal conditions. Although abiotic synthetic chemistry can occur under these conditions, the prebiotic self-assembly of micelles to bilayer to vesicles (protocells) may have occurred elsewhere. Amphiphilic compounds such as fatty acids are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation, because they are abundant products of Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions and are also found in carbonaceous meteorites. Thus, it is of interest to determine whether more complex amphiphilic precursor compounds, capable of assembling into stable membrane structures, can be synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to study condensation reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media, i.e., glycerol and alkanoic acids, to form acylglycerols (glyceryl alkanoates) at elevated temperature under confining pressure. Nine different alkanoic acids ranging from C 7 to C 16 (except C 8) were used in these experiments. The condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols, as well as the corresponding triacylglycerol. The results indicated that: (1) condensation (dehydration) reactions are possible under aqueous pyrolysis conditions; (2) abiotic synthesis and subsequent condensation reactions of aliphatic lipid compounds are possible under hydrothermal conditions; and (3) such molecules have robust properties of self-assembly into membranous structures that would be suitable boundary structures for primitive forms of cellular life.

  12. Effects of speaking condition and hearing status on vowel production in postlingually deaf adults with cochlear implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Lucie; Denny, Margaret; Lane, Harlan; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid; Balkany, Thomas; Polack, Marek; Tiede, Mark K.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of speaking condition and hearing status on vowel production by postlingually deafened adults. Thirteen cochlear implant users produced repetitions of nine American English vowels in three time samples (prior to implantation, one month, and one year after implantation); in three speaking conditions (clear, normal, and fast); and in two feedback conditions after implantation (implant processor turned on and off). Ten speakers with normal hearing were also recorded. Results show that vowel contrast, in the F1 versus F2 space, in mels, does not differ from the pre-implant stage to the 1-month stage. This finding indicates that shortly after implantation, speakers had not had enough experience with hearing from the implant to adequately retune their auditory feedback systems and use auditory feedback to improve feedforward commands. After 1 year of implant use, contrast distances had increased in both feedback conditions (processor on and off), indicating improvement in feedforward commands for phoneme production. Furthermore, after long-term auditory deprivation, speakers were producing differences in contrast between clear and fast conditions in the range of those found for normal-hearing speakers, leading to the inference that maintenance of these distinctions is not affected by hearing status. [Research supported by NIDCD.

  13. Interactions of speaking condition and auditory feedback on vowel production in postlingually deaf adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Polak, Marek; Denny, Margaret; Burton, Ellen; Lane, Harlan; Matthies, Melanie L; Marrone, Nicole; Perkell, Joseph S; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell

    2007-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of speaking condition and auditory feedback on vowel production by postlingually deafened adults. Thirteen cochlear implant users produced repetitions of nine American English vowels prior to implantation, and at one month and one year after implantation. There were three speaking conditions (clear, normal, and fast), and two feedback conditions after implantation (implant processor turned on and off). Ten normal-hearing controls were also recorded once. Vowel contrasts in the formant space (expressed in mels) were larger in the clear than in the fast condition, both for controls and for implant users at all three time samples. Implant users also produced differences in duration between clear and fast conditions that were in the range of those obtained from the controls. In agreement with prior work, the implant users had contrast values lower than did the controls. The implant users' contrasts were larger with hearing on than off and improved from one month to one year postimplant. Because the controls and implant users responded similarly to a change in speaking condition, it is inferred that auditory feedback, although demonstrably important for maintaining normative values of vowel contrasts, is not needed to maintain the distinctiveness of those contrasts in different speaking conditions. PMID:17552727

  14. Optimal Conditions for Antimicrobial Metabolites Production from a New Streptomyces sp. RUPA-08PR Isolated from Bangladeshi Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ripa, F. A.; Nikkon, F.; Zaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    An actinomycete strain was isolated from northern part of Bangladesh and identified as a new Streptomyces species on the basis of its morphological, biochemical, cultural characteristics and 16S rRNA data. Attempts were made to optimize the culture conditions for the production of antimicrobial metabolites by this strain. Antimicrobial metabolites production was started after 7 days of incubation of culture broth and reached its maximum levels after 10 days and thereafter gradually decreased. The maximum production of antimicrobial metabolites was obtained when the culture medium pH was adjusted to 8. The optimum temperature for antimicrobial metabolites production was 39℃, indicated the new strain as mesophilic organism. Basel medium supplemented with glucose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, was proved to be the best for the production of bioactive metabolites. Maximum production of bioactive metabolites was when NaCl concentration was 1% and among different minerals tested, K2HPO4 and NaCl showed positive influence on antibiotic production by the strain. PMID:23983535

  15. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  16. Comparison of different twin-screw extraction conditions for the production of arabinoxylans.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Leslie; Mogni, Assad; Zeitoun, Rawan; Guinot, Cécile; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Saulnier, Luc; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this article is to compare two different sets of optimal conditions for twin-screw extraction of xylans and define their influence on the purification steps, combining ultrafiltration and industrial chromatography. Two xylan extracts were obtained by twin-screw extrusion of straw and bran. Condition 1 used a high straw/bran ratio (equal to 6) and high sodium hydroxide content, and condition 2 used a lower straw/bran ratio (equal to 2) and low sodium hydroxide content. Arabinoxylan extraction yields are slightly higher for conditions with low straw content (5.1% versus 4.4%). Nevertheless, these recovery yields remain between 9% and 10%. Ultrafiltration is as efficient as evaporation for polysaccharide concentration, with lower energy consumption, but also demineralizes the solution. The combination of ultrafiltration and chromatography gives partial purification of the extract with a final arabinoxylan purity ranging from 16% to 26%. This is slightly higher than by direct precipitation, but limited because all the large molecules such as proteins and lignins were retained by ultrafiltration. PMID:25458276

  17. CONDITION OF THE MID ATLANTIC ESTUARIES: PRODUCTION OF A STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has released a report entitled Condition of the Mid-Atlantic Estuaries. That report summarizes the findings of several studies conducted by federal and state agencies and academic institutions in Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Estuary, and the c...

  18. Influence of coal briquetting conditions on the chemical composition of the products of thermal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Turenko, F.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectro-statistical method was used to examine the chemical composition of liquid non-volatile constituents from a mixture of Donbass coals (gas, fat, lean, caking). The thermal destruction products obtained by thermal filtration in a centrifugal field from both briquetted and non-briquetted charges differ in terms of their structural group content.

  19. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requiring the daily reporting of market data. (2) Regulatory trading halts. The rules of a designated... that a regulatory halt has been instituted for the underlying security; and (ii) Trading of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times that a regulatory...

  20. Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

  1. Leaching of Terbutryn and Its Photodegradation Products from Artificial Walls under Natural Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Minelgaite, Greta; Schlüsener, Michael; Ternes, Thomas; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2016-04-19

    Terbutryn is a commonly used biocide in construction materials. Especially polymer-resin-based renders and paints, used in external thermal insulation composite systems, are very susceptible to microbial deterioration. Previous studies have shown that biocides leach out of the material when contacted with rainwater; thus, they reach surface waters where they might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The knowledge on the long-term leaching performance and especially the formation and fate of degradation products is rare. In the present study, the leaching of terbutryn from artificial walls equipped with two types of render was observed for 19 months. In addition to concentration and mass load determinations for terbutryn, photodegradation products were identified and studied in the leachate and render. The results show that terbutryn leached mainly within the first 6-12 months. During the exposure, only 3% of the initial terbutryn was emitted to the runoff, while 64-80% remained in the coating. The overall mass balance could be closed by including several degradation products. Contrary to expectations, the major fraction of transformation products remained in the material and was not washed off immediately, which is of high importance for the long-term assessment of biocides in coating materials. PMID:26963769

  2. Culture conditions supporting inhibitor tolerance and rapid production of ethanol by P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand the biomass to fuel ethanol industry, process strategies are needed to foster the production and utilization of microorganisms which can survive and ferment hexose and pentose sugars while exposed to inhibitors (such as ethanol, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)). Furfural and HMF...

  3. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 679 - Delivery Condition and Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (includes offsite production).DO NOT RECORD ON PTR. 42 Bones (if meal, report as 32) (ancillary only). 39... body behind head and in front of tail. 21 Fish meal. Meal from whole fish or fish parts; includes bone..., Western cut.Head removed just in front of the collar bone, and viscera removed. 07 Headed and...

  4. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  5. 75 FR 28208 - Conditions and Requirements for Testing Component Parts of Consumer Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... November 13, 2009, at 74 FR 58611, 58616; and (5) an Interim Enforcement Policy on Component Testing and... and published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68593)). The proposed rule also... products for compliance with lead limits. 74 FR 68593 (December 28, 2009). Section 101(f)(1) of the...

  6. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  7. Ethanol Production by Selected Intestinal Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growing under Different Nutritional Conditions.

    PubMed

    Elshaghabee, Fouad M F; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Meske, Diana; de Vrese, Michael; Walte, Hans-Georg; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Heller, Knut J

    2016-01-01

    To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum, and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD(+)/NADP(+), drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial

  8. Ethanol Production by Selected Intestinal Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growing under Different Nutritional Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Elshaghabee, Fouad M. F.; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Meske, Diana; de Vrese, Michael; Walte, Hans-Georg; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Heller, Knut J.

    2016-01-01

    To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum, and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD+/NADP+, drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial

  9. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  10. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  11. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  12. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  13. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  14. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  15. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  16. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  17. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 107 spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40 mL of water to 100 g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200 kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5 min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  18. Assessing risks from drought and heat stress in productive grasslands under present and future climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanca, Pierluigi; Mosimann, Eric; Meisser, Marco; Deléglise, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands cover the majority of the world's agricultural area, provide the feedstock for animal production, contribute to the economy of farms, and deliver a variety of ecological and societal services. Assessing responses of grassland ecosystems to climate change, in particular climate-related risks, is therefore an important step toward identifying adaptation options necessary to secure grassland functioning and productivity. Of particular concern are risks in relation to drought and extreme temperatures, on the one hand because grasslands are very sensitive to water stress, on the other hand also because global warming is expected to increase the occurrence and intensity of these events in many agricultural areas of the world. In this contribution we review findings of ongoing experimental and modelling activities that aim at examining the implications of climate extremes and climate change for grassland vegetation dynamics and herbage productivity. Data collected at the Jura foot in western Switzerland indicate that water scarcity and associated anomalous temperatures slowed plant development in relation to both the summer drought of 2003 as well as the spring drought of 2011, with decline in annual yields of up to 40%. Further effects of drought found from the analysis of recent field trials explicitly designed to study the effects of different water management regimes are changes in the functional composition and nutritive value of grasslands. Similar responses are disclosed by simulations with a process based grassland ecosystem model that was originally developed for the simulation of mixed grass/clover swards. Simulations driven with historical weather records from the Swiss Plateau suggest that drought and extreme temperature could represent one of the main reasons for the observed yield variability in productive systems. Simulations with climate change scenarios further reveal important changes in ecosystem dynamics for the current century. The results

  19. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. PMID:26004381

  20. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  1. Analysis of Organohalogen Products From Chlorination of Natural Waters Under Simulated Biofouling Control Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R. M.; Mann, D. C.; Riley, R. G.

    1980-06-01

    The products of low-level chlorination of natural waters from ten locations across the continental United States have been studied, with emphasis on volatile and lipophilic organohalogen components. A specially designed apparatus permitted continuous sampling and chlorination of water in a manner analogous to some types of cooling water treatments. Volatile components were analyzed using headspace, purge-and-trap, and resin adsorption methods. The less-volatile components were collected by passing large volumes of the chlorinated water over XAD-2 columns. Total organic halogen collected on XAD resins was compared with the halogen contribution of haloform compounds. The XAD samples were further separated into fractions according to molecular weight and polarity using liquid chrOmatography. These studies indicate that haloforms are the most abundant lipophilic halogenated products formed from low-level chlorination of natural waters, but that other halogenated lipophilic material is also formed.

  2. Rhodium-Catalyzed Ketone Methylation Using Methanol Under Mild Conditions: Formation of α-Branched Products**

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Louis K M; Poole, Darren L; Shen, Di; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed methylation of ketones has been accomplished using methanol as the methylating agent and the hydrogen-borrowing method. The sequence is notable for the relatively low temperatures that are required and for the ability of the reaction system to form α-branched products with ease. Doubly alkylated ketones can be prepared from methyl ketones and two different alcohols by using a sequential one-pot iridium- and rhodium-catalyzed process. PMID:24288297

  3. The influence of macrophyte growth, typical of eutrophic conditions, on river flow velocities and turbulence production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naden, Pamela; Rameshwaran, Ponnambalam; Mountford, Owen; Robertson, Coralie

    2006-11-01

    The influence of emergent and submerged macrophytes on flow velocity and turbulence production is demonstrated in a 140 m reach of the River Blackwater in Farnborough, Hampshire, UK. Macrophyte growth occurs in patches and is dominated by Sparganium erectum and Sparganium emersum. In May 2001, patches of S. erectum were already established and occupied 18% of the channel area. The flow adjusted to these (predominantly lateral) patches by being channelled through a narrower cross-section. The measured velocity profiles showed a logarithmic form, with deviations attributable to topographic control. The channel bed was the main source of turbulence. In September 2001, in-stream macrophytes occupied 27% of the channel, and overhanging bank vegetation affected 32% of the area. Overall flow resistance, described by Manning's n, showed a threefold increase that could be attributed to the growth of S. emersum in the middle of the channel. Velocity profiles showed different characteristic forms depending on their position relative to plant stems and leaves. The overall velocity field had a three-dimensional structure. Turbulence intensities were generally higher and turbulence profiles tended to mirror the velocity profiles. Evidence for the generation of coherent eddies was provided by ratios of the root mean square velocities. Spectral analysis identified deviations from the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law and provided statistical evidence for a spectral short-cut, indicative of additional turbulence production. This was most marked for the submerged vegetation and, in some instances, the overhanging bank vegetation. The long strap-like leaves of S. emersum being aligned approximately parallel to the flow and the highly variable velocity field created by the patch arrangement of macrophytes suggest that the dominant mechanism for turbulence production is vortex shedding along shear zones. Wake production around individual stems of S. emersum close to the bed may also be

  4. Whitebark Pine Stand Condition, Tree Abundance, and Cone Production as Predictors of Visitation by Clark's Nutcracker

    PubMed Central

    Barringer, Lauren E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B.; McKinney, Shawn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae), cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. Conclusions/Significance Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration. PMID:22662186

  5. Optimization of ultrasonic emulsification conditions for the production of orange peel essential oil nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Hashtjin, Adel Mirmajidi; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of emulsifying conditions on some physical and rheological properties of orange peel essential oil (OPEO) in water nanoemulsions. In this regard, using the response surface methodology, the influence of ultrasonication conditions including sonication amplitude (70-100 %), sonication time (90-150 s) and process temperature (5-45 °C) on the mean droplets diameter (Z-average value), polydispersity index (PDI), and viscosity of the OPEO nanoemulsions was evaluated. In addition, the flow behavior and stability of selected nanoemulsions was evaluated during storage (up to 3 months) at different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C). Based on the results of the optimization, the optimum conditions for producing OPEO nanoemulsions (Z-average value 18.16 nm) were determined as 94 % (sonication amplitude), 138 s (sonication time) and 37 °C (process temperature). Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R (2) > 0.95) for the response surface models of the energy input and Z-average. In addition, the flow behavior of produced nanoemulsions was Newtonian, and the effect of time and storage temperature as well as their interactions on the Z-average value was highly significant (P < 0.0001). PMID:25892765

  6. Analysis of l-DOPA-derived melanin and a novel degradation product formed under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Omotani, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Makoto; Ishii, Ritsuko; Ikarashi, Tsukasa; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Mawatari, Ken-Ichi; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nakagomi, Kazuya

    2016-06-01

    When the therapeutic drug l-DOPA, which is used to treat Parkinson's disease, is combined with magnesium oxide (MgO), a formulation change produces a dark substance. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that this substance is melanin. After allowing the l-DOPA and MgO mixture to stand, the l-DOPA content decreases significantly, and a new degradation product (the final degradation product of l-DOPA, FDP-D) is generated. Formation of this product requires a solution with a pH of >10, and the presence of MgO is not necessary. FDP-D is not produced by tyrosinase decomposition of l-DOPA and is therefore not a melanin-related compound. Pure FDP-D is isolated by adjusting the l-DOPA solution to pH 10 with ammonium hydroxide, allowing it to stand for 3 days at room temperature, adding trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), filtering the precipitate, and separating the supernatant with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mass spectrometry indicates that the isolated FDP-D has a molecular formula of C9H9NO7. On the basis of NMR analysis ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, H-H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC), FDP-D appears to be a substance with the novel structure 7a-hydroxy-5-oxo-1,2,3,5,7,7a-hexahydropyrano [3,4-b]pyrrole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid. PMID:26999318

  7. Optimizing conditions for production of high levels of soluble recombinant human growth hormone using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Savari, Marzieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Edalati, Masoud; Biria, Davoud

    2015-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized and stored by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and can effect on body metabolism. This protein can be used to treat hGH deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner syndrome. The limitations in current technology for soluble recombinant protein production, such as inclusion body formation, decrease its usage for therapeutic purposes. To achieve high levels of soluble form of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) we used suitable host strain, appropriate induction temperature, induction time and culture media composition. For this purpose, 32 experiments were designed using Taguchi method and the levels of produced proteins in all 32 experiments were evaluated primarily by ELISA and dot blotting and finally the purified rhGH protein products assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. Our results indicate that media, bacterial strains, temperature and induction time have significant effects on the production of rhGH. The low cultivation temperature of 25°C, TB media (with 3% ethanol and 0.6M glycerol), Origami strain and a 10-h induction time increased the solubility of human growth hormone. PMID:26151869

  8. Aspergillus oryzae S2 alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation: optimization of culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Kriaa, Mouna; Elgharbi, Fatma; Ayadi, Dorra-Zouari; Bejar, Samir; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus oryzae S2 was assayed for alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation (SSF). In addition to AmyA and AmyB already produced in monitored submerged culture, the strain was noted to produce new AmyB oligomeric forms, in particular a dominant tetrameric form named AmyC. The latter was purified to homogeneity through fractional acetone precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analyses revealed that, purified AmyC was an approximately 172 kDa tetramer of four 42 kDa subunits. AmyC was also noted to display the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence residues and approximately the same physico-chemical properties of AmyA and AmyB, to exhibit maximum activity at pH 5.6 and 60 °C, and to produce maltose and maltotriose as major starch hydrolysis end-products. Soyabean meal was the best substitute to yeast extract compared to fish powder waste and wheat gluten waste. AmyC production was optimized under SSF using statistical design methodology. Moisture content of 76.25%, C/N substrate ratio of 0.62, and inoculum size of 10(6.87) spores allowed maximum activity of 22118.34 U/g of dried substrate, which was 33 times higher than the one obtained before the application of the central composite design (CCD). PMID:25617840

  9. Ethanol production from rape straw by a two-stage pretreatment under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero, Inmaculada; López-Linares, Juan C; Delgado, Yaimé; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio

    2015-08-01

    The growing interest on rape oil as raw material for biodiesel production has resulted in an increasing availability of rape straw, an agricultural residue that is an attractive renewable source for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Pretreatment is one of the key steps in such a conversion process. In this work, a sequential two-stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid (130 °C, 60 min, 2% w/v H2SO4) followed by H2O2 (1-5% w/v) in alkaline medium (NaOH) at low temperature (60, 90 °C) and at different pretreatment times (30-90 min) was investigated. The first-acid stage allows the solubilisation of hemicellulose fraction into fermentable sugars. The second-alkaline peroxide stage allows the delignification of the solid material whilst the cellulose remaining in rape straw turned highly digestible by cellulases. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 15% (w/v) delignified substrate at 90 °C, 5% H2O2 for 60 min, led to a maximum ethanol production of 53 g/L and a yield of 85% of the theoretical. PMID:25813909

  10. Fission Product Transport in TRISO Particle Layers under Operating and Off-Normal Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Ven, Anton; Was, Gary; Wang, Lumin; Taheri, Mitra

    2014-07-07

    The objective of this project is to determine the diffusivity and chemical behavior of key fission products (ag, Cs, I. Te, Eu and Sr) through SiC and PyC both thermally, under irradiation, and under stress using FP introduction techniques that avoid the pitfalls of past experiments. The experimental approach is to create thin PyC-SiC couples containing the fission product to be studied embedded in the PyC layer. These samples will then be subjected to high temperature exposures in a vacuum and also to irradiation at high temperature, and last, to irradiation under stress at high temperature. The PyC serves as a host layer, providing a means of placing the fission product close to the SiC without damaging the SiC layer by its introduction or losing the FP during heating. Experimental measurements of grain boundary structure and distribution (EBSD, HRTEM, APT) will be used in the modeling effort to determine the qualitative dependence of FP diffusion coefficients on grain boundary orientation, temperature and stress.

  11. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better

  12. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses. PMID:19132555

  13. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  14. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 1206.180 Section 1206.180 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing...

  15. 27 CFR 19.35 - Application of effective tax rate (Actual).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax rate (Actual). 19.35 Section 19.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Rates § 19.35 Application of effective tax rate (Actual). Any proprietor who does not apply effective... tax rate for each batch of distilled spirits in the processing account on which credit against tax...

  16. Culture condition improvement for whole-cell lipase production in submerged fermentation by Rhizopus chinensis using statistical method.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yun; Xu, Yan

    2008-06-01

    Rhizopus chinensis CCTCC M201021 was a versatile strain capable of producing whole-cell lipase with synthetic activity in submerged fermentation. In order to improve the production of whole-cell lipase and study the culture conditions systematically, the combination of taguchi method and response surface methodology was performed. Taguchi method was used for the initial optimization, and eight factors viz., maltose, olive oil, peptone, K2HPO4, agitation, inoculum size, fermentation volume and pH were selected for this study. The whole-cell lipase activity yield was two times higher than the control experiment under initial optimal conditions, and four significant factors (inoculum, olive oil, fermentation volume and peptone) were selected to test the effect on the lipase production using response surface methodology. The optimal fermentation parameters for enhanced whole-cell lipase yield were found to be: inoculum 4.25 x 10(8) spores/L, olive oil 2.367% (w/v), fermentation volume 18 mL/250 mL flask, peptone 4.06% (w/v). Subsequent experimental trails confirmed the validity of the model. These optimal culture conditions in the shake flask led to a lipase yield of 13875 U/L, which 120% increased compare with the non-optimized conditions. PMID:17888652

  17. Studies on growth kinetics of Serratia marcescens VITSD2 and optimization of fermentation conditions for serratiopeptidase production.

    PubMed

    Subathra, Devi C; Alam, Shah; Nag, Suraj Kumar; Jemimah, Naine S; Mohanasrinivasan, V; Vaishnavi, B

    2014-01-01

    Serratia is one of the most important groups of bacteria which produces proteolytic enzymes effectively and known to possess anti- inflammatory properties. The main focus of the current study was to optimize the culture conditions of Serratia marcescens VITSD2 for the mass production of serratiopeptidase. Effect of various nutritional and environmental factors were analysed and optimized. Among the different carbon and nitrogen sources tested, mannose and soya bean meal was found to be the best with enzyme activity of 1391 units /mL and 1800 U/mL respectively. The enzyme showed an optimum activity of 1668 U/mL at pH-8 and 1500 U/mL at 25ºC. Maximum peptidase production during fermentation was obtained after 24 h incubation with 1% inoculum in the medium at 25ºC and yielded 1668 U/mL. Lysine stimulated the production of peptidase and the yield obtained was 2410U/mL. Growth curve analysis was done. Maximum serratiopeptidase production was detected after 24 h incubation with 2155 units/mL and cell density of 2.4g/100mL. Hence the observation of the present study clearly indicates that the yield of Serratiopeptidase was found to be maximum by varying the cultural conditions. PMID:25056366

  18. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris. PMID:26685672

  19. Low-cost lipid production by an oleaginous yeast cultured in non-sterile conditions using model waste resources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima, previously utilised as a biological control agent, was evaluated for its potential to produce lipids for biofuel production. Results Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH and to produce natural antimicrobial compounds. Although not previously classified as oleaginous, a combination of low temperature and restricted nutrient availability triggered high levels of oil production in M. pulcherrima cultures. This regime was designed to trigger the sporulation process but prevent its completion to allow the accumulation of a subset of a normally transitional, but oil-rich, ‘pulcherrima’ cell type. This approach resulted in yields of up to 40% lipid, which compares favourably with other oleaginous microbes. We also demonstrate that M. pulcherrima metabolises glycerol and a diverse range of other sugars, suggesting that heterogeneous biomass could provide a suitable carbon source. M. pulcherrima also grows well in a minimal media containing no yeast extract. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the yeast to produce lipids inexpensively on an industrial scale by culturing the yeast in a 500 L, open air, tank reactor without any significant contamination. Conclusions The production of antimicrobial compounds coupled to efficient growth at low temperature and pH enables culture of this oleaginous yeast in inexpensive, non-sterile conditions providing a potential route to economic biofuel production. PMID:24593824

  20. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Norris, Peter M.

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be

  1. The role of methanogens in acetic acid production under different salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Keke; Guo, Chenghong; Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fed-batch acidogenic reactor was operated at a 3 d hydraulic retention time (HRT) and fed with alkaline pre-treated sludge to investigate salinity effects on methanogens' abundance, activities and their consumption of produced acetic acid (HAc) and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The salinity concentration was increased step-wise by adding sodium chloride. At 3‰ (parts per thousand) salinity, the average produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration was 2410.16 ± 637.62 mg COD L(-1) and 2.70 ± 0.36 L methane was produced daily in the acidogenic reactor. Further batch tests indicated methanogens showed a HAc degradation rate of 3.81 mg COD g(-1) VSS h(-1) at initial HAc concentration of 1150 mg COD L(-1), and showed tolerance up to 16‰ salinity (3.76 g Na(+) L(-1)) as indicated by a constant HAc degradation rate. The microbiological study indicated this can be related to the predominance of acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales in the reactor. However, with salinity increased to 20‰ and 40‰, increases in VFAs and HAc production and decreases in methane production, methanogens population, acidogenic bacteria population and acidification extent were observed. This study demonstrated presence of acetate-utilizing methanogens in an acidogenic reactor and their high tolerance to salinity, as well as their negative impacts on net VFAs production. The results would suggest the presence of methanogens in the acidogenic reactor should not be ignored and the recovery of methane from the acidogenic reactor needs to be considered to avoid carbon loss. PMID:27421101

  2. Influence of culture conditions of Gordonia jacobaea MV-26 on canthaxanthin production.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucia; Rosa-Dos-Santos, Fernando; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomas G

    2005-03-01

    Commercial interest in the use of natural pigments isolated from microorganisms has increased in recent years; hence, molecules belonging to the polyisoprenoid group (i.e. beta-carotene, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin) have been the focus of much attention. The bacterium Gordonia jacobaea readily synthesizes and accumulates large amounts of canthaxanthin (beta-beta'-carotene-4,4'-dione), which is widely used in the food and cosmetics industries. In the present work, the effects of different low-cost raw materials on fermentation and canthaxanthin accumulation by a hyperpigmented strain of G. jacobaea were studied. Canthaxanthin production and peak levels of accumulation varied according to the different media used. PMID:15906262

  3. The optimization of fermentation conditions and enzyme properties of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for protease production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaigui; Sun, Linghong; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Chaoliang; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal bacteria play a significant physiological role in silkworms. Proteases secreted by intestinal microbes can promote the digestion of the nutrient by Bombyx mori and the absorption of mulberry leaves. Intestinal bacteria from Jingsong × Haoyue in the fourth larvae were isolated and purified to obtain high activity protease-producing bacteria. The morphology of the identified bacterial colony was examined by microscopy combined with the 16S rDNA method. The results showed that this bacterium was Gram negative and that it belonged to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which produces the proteases. To improve the utilization rate of these proteases, we studied the proper culture conditions for producing proteases, and we further studied the properties of the proteases that were produced. The results showed that the optimal enzyme-producing conditions were as follows: pH of 7.0, culture temperature of 35 °C, incubation time of 36 H, and outfit fluid amount of 60 mL per 100 mL. Meanwhile, the properties of the preliminary enzyme purification indicated that the best pH of the enzymes was 9.0 and the optimal reaction temperature was 50 °C. The enzymes are alkaline proteases that show satisfactory stability at 30 °C and pH 9.0. Consequently, it is suitable for the proteases secreted by S. maltophilia to play a bioactive role in the silkworm gut. PMID:25656812

  4. Effect of growth conditions on microbial activity and iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Hayes, Kim F; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-05-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can produce iron sulfide (FeS) solids with mineralogical characteristics that may be beneficial for a variety of biogeochemical applications, such as long-term immobilization of uranium. In this study, the growth and metabolism of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, one of the best-studied SRB species, were comprehensively monitored in batch studies, and the biogenic FeS solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Controlling the pH by varying the initial pH, the iron-to-sulfate ratio, or the electron donor - affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH (from initial conditions or a decrease caused by less sulfate reduction, FeS precipitation, or using pyruvate as the electron donor) produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and particularly stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3mM. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe(2+) led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)]. Thus, microbially relevant conditions (initial pH, choice of electron donor, and excess or deficiency of sulfide) are tools to generate biogenic FeS solids of different characteristics. PMID:24675611

  5. Evaluation of Power Conditioning Architectures for Energy Production Enhancement in Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale thermoelectric generator (TEG) system has an unbalanced temperature distribution among the TEG modules, which leads to power mismatch among the modules and decreases the power output of the TEG system. To maximize the power output and minimize the power conversion loss, a centralized-distributed hybrid power conditioning architecture is presented, analyzed, and evaluated for a TEG system. The novel architecture is a combination of a conventional centralized architecture and a fully distributed architecture. By using the proposed architecture, most of the harvested power is processed by the centralized stage while only the mismatched power among the TEG modules is processed by the distributed stages. As a result, accurate and distributed maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) for each TEG module and single-stage power conversion between the modules and load can be achieved. It offers the benefit of implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A 50-W TEG system composed of two TEG modules is built and tested. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid power conditioning architecture generates up to 5% more energy for a temperature difference between the two modules of only 10°C.

  6. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radiofrequency cavity production

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian; Michael Kelley; Charles Reece

    2005-11-14

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant data sets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (100), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3 - 1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is ?? 30% and that of the surface composition is ?? 5%.

  7. A review on the effects of environmental conditions on growth and toxin production of Ostreopsis ovata.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, R; Pezzolesi, L; Guerrini, F; Vanucci, S; Dell'aversano, C; Fattorusso, E

    2011-03-01

    Since the end of the 1990s the occurrence of blooms of the benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis spp. is spreading in many tropical and temperate regions worldwide, sometimes causing benthonic biocenosis suffering and occasional human distress. Ostreopsis ovata has been found to produce palytoxin-like compounds, a class of highly potent toxins. As general, the highest abundances of Ostreopsis spp. are recorded during warmer periods characterized by high temperature, salinity, and water column stability. Moreover, as these cells are easily resuspended in the water column, the role of hydrodynamism in the blooms development and decline has been highlighted. The environmental conditions appear, therefore, to be one of the main factors determining the proliferation of these species as testified by several field surveys. Laboratory studies on the effect of environmental parameters on growth and toxicity of O. ovata are rather scarce. With regard to the effects of temperature, culture results indicate that different strains blooming along Italian coasts displayed different optima, in accordance to blooming periods, and that higher toxin levels correlated with best growth conditions. Additionally, in relation to an Adriatic strain, cell growth positively correlated with the increase in salinity, while toxicity was lowest at the highest salinity value (i.e. 40). For the same strain, both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation determined a decrease in cell toxicity showing different behaviour with respect to many other toxic dinoflagellates. PMID:20920514

  8. The effect of processing conditions on the stability of fructooligosaccharides in acidic food products.

    PubMed

    Vega, Roberto; Zuniga-Hansen, M E

    2015-04-15

    The effect of processing conditions (temperature and degree of polymerisation, DP) on the stability of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) was investigated in three reaction media (sodium citrate buffer and orange and tomato juices) in a kinetic study at pH 3.5. In addition, kinetic equations as a function of temperature and pH were developed, using published data. Pentasaccharides were more stable to heat treatment than were trisaccharides under all of the conditions tested. In addition, the sc-FOS were more stable in orange juice, followed by tomato juice and citrate buffer. The results showed that, in addition to temperature and pH, the DP and food matrix, including the type of pasteurisation, must be considered when processing foods enriched with sc-FOS. Furthermore, the continuous thermal processing simulation for each of the equivalent processes at 90 °C revealed that the percent retention of sc-FOS is greater than 95% at temperatures above 95 °C. PMID:25466090

  9. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneschg, Werner; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ˜15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  10. Effect of Methanethiol Concentration on Sulfur Production in Biological Desulfurization Systems under Haloalkaline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Roman, Pawel; Veltman, René; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Keesman, Karel J; Janssen, Albert J H

    2015-08-01

    Bioremoval of H2S from gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand the scope of these processes to gas streams containing volatile organic sulfur compounds, like thiols, it is necessary to provide new insights into their impact on overall biodesulfurization process. Published data on the effect of thiols on biodesulfurization processes are scarce. In this study, we investigated the effect of methanethiol on the selectivity for sulfur production in a bioreactor integrated with a gas absorber. This is the first time that the inhibition of biological sulfur formation by methanethiol is investigated. In our reactor system, inhibition of sulfur production started to occur at a methanethiol loading rate of 0.3 mmol L(-1) d(-1). The experimental results were also described by a mathematical model that includes recent findings on the mode of biomass inhibition by methanethiol. We also found that the negative effect of methanethiol can be mitigated by lowering the salinity of the bioreactor medium. Furthermore, we developed a novel approach to measure the biological activity by sulfide measurements using UV-spectrophotometry. On the basis of this measurement method, it is possible to accurately estimate the unknown kinetic parameters in the mathematical model. PMID:26154624

  11. Production of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapeutics Under Defined Xeno-free Conditions: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yongjia; Wu, Jincheng; Ashok, Preeti; Hsiung, Michael; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have brought us closer to the realization of their clinical potential. Nonetheless, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications will require the generation of hPSC products well beyond the laboratory scale. This also mandates the production of hPSC therapeutics in fully-defined, xeno-free systems and in a reproducible manner. Toward this goal, we summarize current developments in defined media free of animal-derived components for hPSC culture. Bioinspired and synthetic extracellular matrices for the attachment growth and differentiation of hPSCs are also reviewed. Given that most progress in xeno-free medium and substrate development has been demonstrated in two-dimensional rather than three dimensional culture systems, translation from the former to the latter poses unique difficulties. These challenges are discussed in the context of cultivation platforms of hPSCs as aggregates, on microcarriers or after encapsulation in biocompatible scaffolds. PMID:25077810

  12. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maneschg, Werner; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ∼15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  13. Helminth-conditioned dendritic cells prime CD4+ T cells to IL-4 production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Connor, Lisa M; Tang, Shiau-Choot; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Ronchese, Franca

    2014-09-15

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for the initiation of immune responses; however, their role in priming IL-4-producing Th2 cells in vivo is not fully understood. We used a model of intradermal injection with fluorescent-labeled, nonviable larvae from the helminth parasite nonviable Nippostrongylus brasiliensis L3 larvae (Nb), a strong inducer of Th2 responses, together with IL-4-GFP reporter mice that enable a sensitive detection of IL-4 production to examine the contribution of DC to the priming of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in vivo. We found that parasite material is taken up by two distinct DC populations in draining lymph nodes: a mostly CD11c(int)MHC class II (MHCII)(hi)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-) dermal DC population and a CD11c(hi)MHCII(int)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) monocyte-derived DC population. After Nb treatment, these two DC populations appeared in the draining lymph nodes in comparable numbers and with similar kinetics; however, treatment with pertussis toxin blocked the migration of dermal DC and the priming of IL-4-producing T cells, but only partially affected monocyte-derived DC numbers. In line with this observation, transfer of OVA-loaded CD11c(int)MHCII(hi) DC from Nb-treated mice into naive hosts could sensitize OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells to IL-4 production, whereas transfer of CD11c(int)MHCII(hi) DC from naive mice, or CD11c(hi)MHCII(int) DC from Nb-treated or naive mice, induced CD4(+) T cell expansion but no IL-4 production. Phenotypic analysis of Nb-loaded CD11c(int)MHCII(hi) DC revealed expression of programmed death ligand 2, CD301b, IFN regulatory factor 4, and moderate upregulation of OX40 ligand. However, thymic stromal lymphopoietin and OX40 ligand were not required for Th2 priming. Thus, our data suggest that appropriate stimuli can induce DC to express the unique signals sufficient to direct CD4(+) T cells to Th2 differentiation. PMID:25108019

  14. Enterovirus 71 virus-like particle vaccine: improved production conditions for enhanced yield.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Li; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Wei-Jheng; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2010-10-01

    To develop the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, we previously constructed a recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under p10 promoter) proteins, which caused P1 cleavage by 3CD protease and self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) in Sf-9 cells. Assuming that reducing the 3CD expression can alleviate the competition with P1 expression and elevate the VLPs yield, hereby we constructed Bac-P1-C3CD and Bac-P1-I3CD expressing 3CD under weaker CMV and IE-1 promoters, respectively. Western blot and ELISA analyses revealed that Bac-P1-C3CD and Bac-P1-I3CD led to the VLPs release into the supernatant and enhanced the extracellular VLPs yield in Sf-9 cells, but gave poor VLPs production in High Five™ (Hi-5) cells. By optimizing the process parameters including host cells, cell density, culture mode and dissolved oxygen (DO), the best extracellular VLPs yield was achieved by infecting Sf-9 cells (4 × 10(6)cells/mL) cultured in the bioreactor (DO=30%) with Bac-P1-C3CD, which approached ≈64.3mg/L and represented a ≈43-fold increase over the yield (1.5mg/L) attained using the old process (Bac-P1-3CD infection of Sf-9 cells in the spinner flasks). The resultant VLPs not only resembled the VLPs produced from Bac-P1-3CD infection in density, size and shape, but also induced potent antibody responses in mouse models. The antibodies neutralized EV71 strains of homologous and heterologous genogroups, implicating the potential of the VLPs to confer cross-protection for the prevention of future epidemics. Altogether, Bac-P1-C3CD and the bioprocess render mass production more economical, obviate the need for cell lysis and hold promise for future industrial vaccine production. PMID:20797455

  15. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  16. Transport of exhaust products in the near trail of a jet engine under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Karcher, B.

    1994-07-01

    The transport of exhaust effluents and the possibility of water ice contrail formation are investigated under the specific fluid dynamical conditions in the near exhaust trail of a subsonic jet aircraft at cruise altitude. By means of a computational model describing the two-dimensional turbulent mixing of a single jet of hot exhaust gas with the atmosphere, representative results are discussed on the temperature and saturation ratio evolutions of air parcels in the jet flow field as well as on radial distributions of exhaust effluents undergoing chemical reactions behind the nozzle exit with prescribed, typical net reaction rates. The results underline the importance of a simultaneous treatment of spatially resolved jet expansion together with microphysical and chemical processes, because this coupling leads to distinct concentration patterns for various classes of chemical reactants and is essential for the detailed prediction of contrails.

  17. Partition coefficients of substrates and products and solvent selection for biocatalysis under nearly anhydrous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen; Robb, D.A. . Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology)

    1994-03-05

    The effect of solvent on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase toward three substrates was studied at a constant water activity of either 0.74 or 0.86. No simple correlation was observed between enzyme activity and log P, but partition coefficients of substrate (P[sub s]) and product (P[sub p]) gave systematic relations with enzyme activity. When initial reaction rates were considered, there was a bell-shaped relationship between enzyme and P[sub s] with an optimal P[sub s] for each substrate. This can be explained by assuming that the solvent affected the enzyme activity primarily by affecting the substrate concentration in the aqueous layer around the catalyst where the enzymic reaction occurs. When long-term reaction rates were considered, a high P[sub p]/P[sub s] ratio was consistent with preservation of enzyme activity.

  18. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  19. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    PubMed

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  20. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  1. Biochar and microbial signaling: production conditions determine effects on microbial communication.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Caroline A; Chen, Ye; Gao, Xiaodong; Liu, Shirley; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Bennett, Matthew R; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Wagner, Daniel S; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2013-10-15

    Charcoal has a long soil residence time, which has resulted in its production and use as a carbon sequestration technique (biochar). A range of biological effects can be triggered by soil biochar that can positively and negatively influence carbon storage, such as changing the decomposition rate of organic matter and altering plant biomass production. Sorption of cellular signals has been hypothesized to underlie some of these effects, but it remains unknown whether the binding of biochemical signals occurs, and if so, on time scales relevant to microbial growth and communication. We examined biochar sorption of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) intercellular signaling molecule used by many gram-negative soil microbes to regulate gene expression. We show that wood biochars disrupt communication within a growing multicellular system that is made up of sender cells that synthesize AHL and receiver cells that express green fluorescent protein in response to an AHL signal. However, biochar inhibition of AHL-mediated cell-cell communication varied, with the biochar prepared at 700 °C (surface area of 301 m(2)/g) inhibiting cellular communication 10-fold more than an equivalent mass of biochar prepared at 300 °C (surface area of 3 m(2)/g). These findings provide the first direct evidence that biochars elicit a range of effects on gene expression dependent on intercellular signaling, implicating the method of biochar preparation as a parameter that could be tuned to regulate microbial-dependent soil processes, like nitrogen fixation and pest attack of root crops. PMID:24066613

  2. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  3. Biochar and microbial signaling: production conditions determine effects on microbial communication

    PubMed Central

    Masiello, Caroline A.; Chen, Ye; Gao, Xiaodong; Liu, Shirley; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Bennett, Matthew R.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.; Wagner, Daniel S.; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Charcoal has a long soil residence time, which has resulted in its production and use as a carbon sequestration technique (biochar). A range of biological effects can be triggered by soil biochar that can positively and negatively influence carbon storage, such as changing the decomposition rate of organic matter and altering plant biomass production. Sorption of cellular signals has been hypothesized to underlie some of these effects, but it remains unknown whether the binding of biochemical signals occurs, and if so, on time scales relevant to microbial growth and communication. We examined biochar sorption of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) intercellular signaling molecule used by many gram-negative soil microbes to regulate gene expression. We show that wood biochars disrupt communication within a growing multicellular system that is made up of sender cells that synthesize AHL and receiver cells that express green fluorescent protein in response to an AHL signal. However, biochar inhibition of AHL-mediated cell-cell communication varied, with the biochar prepared at 700°C (surface area of 301 m2/g) inhibiting cellular communication 10-fold more than an equivalent mass of biochar prepared at 300°C (surface area of 3 m2/g). These findings provide the first direct evidence that biochars elicit a range of effects on gene expression dependent on intercellular signaling, implicating the method of biochar preparation as a parameter that could be tuned to regulate microbial-dependent soil processes, like nitrogen fixation and pest attack of root crops. PMID:24066613

  4. Pseudomonas and neutrophil products modify transferrin and lactoferrin to create conditions that favor hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed Central

    Britigan, B E; Edeker, B L

    1991-01-01

    In vivo most extracellular iron is bound to transferrin or lactoferrin in such a way as to be unable to catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radical from superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At sites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection bacterial and neutrophil products could possibly modify transferrin and/or lactoferrin forming catalytic iron complexes. To examine this possibility, diferrictransferrin and diferriclactoferrin which had been incubated with pseudomonas elastase, pseudomonas alkaline protease, human neutrophil elastase, trypsin, or the myeloperoxidase product HOCl were added to a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase .O2-/H2O2 generating system. Hydroxyl radical formation was only detected with pseudomonas elastase treated diferrictransferrin and, to a much lesser extent, diferriclactoferrin. This effect was enhanced by the combination of pseudomonas elastase with other proteases, most prominently neutrophil elastase. Addition of pseudomonas elastase-treated diferrictransferrin to stimulated neutrophils also resulted in hydroxyl radical generation. Incubation of pseudomonas elastase with transferrin which had been selectively iron loaded at either the NH2- or COOH-terminal binding site yielded iron chelates with similar efficacy for hydroxyl radical catalysis. Pseudomonas elastase and HOCl treatment also decreased the ability of apotransferrin to inhibit hydroxyl radical formation by a Fe-NTA supplemented hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. However, apotransferrin could be protected from the effects of HOCl if bicarbonate anion was present during the incubation. Apolactoferrin inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation was unaffected by any of the four proteases or HOCl. Alteration of transferrin by enzymes and oxidants present at sites of pseudomonas and other bacterial infections may increase the potential for local hydroxyl radical generation thereby contributing to tissue injury. Images PMID:1655825

  5. Potentially Pathogenic Escherichia coli Can Form a Biofilm under Conditions Relevant to the Food Production Chain

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Camilla; Berg, Kristin; Johannesen, Karianne C. S.; Solheim, Heidi; Vestby, Lene K.; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

    2014-01-01

    The biofilm-producing abilities of potentially human-pathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli from the ovine reservoir were studied at different temperatures and on different surfaces. A possible influence of the hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells, as well as the presence of two virulence factors, the Shiga toxin-encoding (Stx) bacteriophage and the eae gene, was also studied. A total of 99 E. coli isolates of serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, and O103:H25 isolated from sheep feces were included. The results show that isolates of all three E. coli serotypes investigated can produce biofilm on stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene at 12, 20, and 37°C. There was a good general correlation between the results obtained on the different surfaces. E. coli O103:H2 isolates produced much more biofilm than those of the other two serotypes at all three temperatures. In addition, isolates of serotype O26:H11 produced more biofilm than those of O103:H25 at 37°C. The hydrophobicity of the isolates varied between serotypes and was also influenced by temperature. The results strongly indicated that hydrophobicity influenced the attachment of the bacteria rather than their ability to form biofilm once attached. Isolates with the eae gene produced less biofilm at 37°C than isolates without this gene. The presence of a Stx bacteriophage did not influence biofilm production. In conclusion, our results show that potentially human-pathogenic E. coli from the ovine reservoir can form biofilm on various surfaces and at several temperatures relevant for food production and handling. PMID:24362422

  6. Investigation of the effect of UV-LED exposure conditions on the production of vitamin D in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Petersen, Paul Michael; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-12-01

    The dietary intake of vitamin D is currently below the recommended intake of 10-20μg vitamin D/day. Foods with increased content of vitamin D or new products with enhanced vitamin D are warranted. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential new resource in food production lines. In the present study the exposure conditions with ultraviolet (UV) LEDs were systematically investigated in the wavelength range 280-340nm for achieving optimal vitamin D bio-fortification in pig skin. A wavelength of 296nm was found to be optimal for vitamin D3 production. The maximum dose of 20kJ/m(2) produced 3.5-4μg vitamin D3/cm(2) pig skin. Vitamin D3 produced was independent on the combination of time and intensity of the LED source. The increased UV exposure by UV-LEDs may be readily implemented in existing food production facilities, without major modifications to the process or processing equipment, for bio-fortifying food products containing pork skin. PMID:27374546

  7. A Study of the Dispatching Order System to Support Module Structured Production System for the Demand Synchronized Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kuniaki; Kurahashi, Masashi; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Inao, Shinya; Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    The module structured production systems that aim for the demand-synchronized production has a function and composition for high-variety low-volume production. However, an efficient dispatching to manufacturing lines is a problem to be solved. Two requirements are necessary for the dispatching order system to solve this problem. The first requirement is that production order must be decided with parameters of evaluation values that affect efficiency. For quick response to actual orders and variable conditions of manufacturing lines, deciding a production order with short processing time would be essential. And the second requirement is to decide a production order in short time by grasping condition changes of actual orders and variable conditions of manufacturing lines in real time. In this paper, we propose a configuration and operation systems that efficiently dispatch orders by grasping actual conditions of manufacturing lines in real time for meeting customers' various demands. Effectiveness of the system is verified with examples.

  8. Effect of aposymbiotic conditions on colony growth and secondary metabolite production in the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina dilacerata.

    PubMed

    Timsina, Brinda A; Sorensen, John L; Weihrauch, Dirk; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2013-01-01

    The production of secondary metabolites by aposymbiotic lichen-forming fungi in culture is thought to be influenced by environmental conditions. The effects of the environment may be studied by culturing fungi under defined growing parameters to provide a better understanding of the role of the large number of polyketide synthase (PKS) gene paralogs detected in the genomes of many fungi. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of culture conditions (media composition and pH level) on the colony growth, the numbers of secondary products, and the expression of two PKS genes by the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina dilacerata. Four types of growth media at four different pH levels were prepared to culture spore isolates of R. dilacerata. Colony diameter and texture were recorded. The number of secondary compounds were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Expression of two PKS genes (non-reducing (NR) and 6-MSAS-type PKS) were compared with expression of an internal control mitochondrial small subunit gene (mtSSU). The results showed that media containing yeast extracts produced the largest colony diameters and the fewest number of secondary metabolites. Colony growth rates also varied with different media conditions, and a significant negative relationship occurred between colony diameter and number of secondary metabolites. Expression of the NR PKS gene was significantly higher at pH 6.5 on the glucose malt agar than any other media, and expression of the 6-MSAS-type (partially-reducing) PKS gene was significantly higher at pH 8.5 on (malt agar) malt agar than on the other types of agar. Gene expression was correlated with the pH level and media conditions that induced the production of the larger number of secondary substances. This is the first study to examine secondary metabolite production in R. dilacerata by comparing the number of polyketides detected with quantitative polymerase chain

  9. Environmental conditions associating microcystins production to Microcystis aeruginosa in a reservoir of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Parkpian, Preeda; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Ruchirawat, Khunying Mathuros; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2002-08-01

    Three heptapeptide toxins, microcystin-RR, microcystin-RY and microcystin-LR, which can cause health problems in animals and humans were monitored in Bang Phra Reservoir, Thailand using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of the three toxins in the reservoir varied greatly depending on location and time water samples were collected. Water quality parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solid, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a were also measured in parallel with microcystin determinations. Relationships among water quality parameters, toxins and chlorophyll-a were established. Toxin concentration increased in proportion to increases in total phosphorus, fraction of dissolved phosphorus, but was inversely correlated with water pH and total suspended solids. The other measured parameters in the study showed no correlations to toxin level in reservoir water. Significant correlations between chlorophyll-a and suspended solids, phosphate, nitrate and ammonia were observed suggesting that nitrogen and phosphorus are the two major nutrients governing growth of algae in the reservoir. This relationship suggests that algal production as well as toxin concentration are dependant on nutrient levels in the water body, since both measured light intensity and temperature level was favorable for algal growth. A small algal bloom observed in the rainy season of each year (lasting for only a couple of months) paralleled measured increases in toxin concentration, chlorophyll-a, TP and TN in the water column. Toxin level in the water column remain detectable for 3-4 months period following the initiation of algal bloom. Results indicate that major blooms are likely to occur following the raining season which usually occurs near the end of October when runoff

  10. Impact of appropriate pharmaceutical therapy for chronic conditions on direct medical costs and workplace productivity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Neil; Weston, Christine; Hartmann, Christine W; Sikirica, Mirko; Crawford, Albert; He, Hope; Howell, Jamie; Maio, Vittorio; Clarke, Janice; Nuthulaganti, Bhaskar; Cobb, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a literature review investigating the economic impact of appropriate pharmaceutical therapy in treating four prevalent chronic conditions - asthma, diabetes, heart failure, and migraine. The goal of the review was to identify high-quality studies examining the extent to which appropriate pharmaceutical therapy impacts overall medical expenditure (direct costs) and workplace productivity (indirect costs). The working hypothesis in conducting the review was that the costs of pharmaceuticals for the selected chronic conditions are offset by savings in direct and indirect costs in other areas. The literature provides evidence that appropriate drug therapy improves the health status and quality of life of individuals with chronic illnesses while reducing costs associated with utilization of emergency room, inpatient, and other medical services. A growing body of evidence also suggests that workers whose chronic conditions are effectively controlled with medications are more productive. For employers, the evidence translates into potential direct and indirect cost savings. The findings also confirm the importance of pharmaceutical management as a cornerstone of disease management. PMID:15035834

  11. Non-Sink Dissolution Conditions for Predicting Product Quality and In Vivo Performance of Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dajun D; Wen, Hong; Taylor, Lynne S

    2016-09-01

    With recent advances in the development of supersaturating oral dosage forms for poorly water-soluble drugs, pharmaceutical scientists are increasingly applying in vitro dissolution testing under non-sink conditions for a direct evaluation of their ability to generate and maintain supersaturation as a predictive surrogate for ensuring product quality and in vivo performance. However, the scientific rationale for developing the appropriate non-sink dissolution methodologies has not been extensively debated. This calls for a comprehensive discussion of recent research efforts on theoretical and experimental considerations of amorphous solubility, liquid-liquid phase separation, and phase transitions of drugs in a supersaturated solution when dissolution testing is performed under supersaturated non-sink conditions. In addition, we outline the concept of "sink index" that quantifies the magnitude of deviations from perfect sink dissolution conditions in the sink/non-sink continuum and some considerations of non-sink dissolution testing for marketed drug products. These factors should be carefully considered in recommending an adequately discriminatory dissolution method in the performance assessment of supersaturating drug delivery systems. PMID:27174227

  12. Methane excess production in oxygen-rich polar water and a model of cellular conditions for this paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Kattner, G.

    2015-09-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on an excess of methane in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79°N oceanographic transect, in the western part of the Fram Strait and in Northeast Water Polynya region off Greenland. Between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitations occurred and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences between both water masses and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. We show that in this region methane is in situ produced while DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for the methane formation. The methane production occured despite high oxygen concentrations in this water masses. As the metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  13. Direct production of organic acids from starch by cell surface-engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum in anaerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We produced organic acids, including lactate and succinate, directly from soluble starch under anaerobic conditions using high cell-density cultures of Corynebacterium glutamicum displaying α-amylase (AmyA) from Streptococcus bovis 148 on the cell surface. Notably, reactions performed under anaerobic conditions at 35 and 40°C, which are higher than the optimal growth temperature of 30°C, showed 32% and 19%, respectively, higher productivity of the organic acids lactate, succinate, and acetate compared to that at 30°C. However, α-amylase was not stably anchored and released into the medium from the cell surface during reactions at these higher temperatures, as demonstrated by the 61% and 85% decreases in activity, respectively, from baseline, compared to the only 8% decrease at 30°C. The AmyA-displaying C. glutamicum cells retained their starch-degrading capacity during five 10 h reaction cycles at 30°C, producing 107.8 g/l of total organic acids, including 88.9 g/l lactate and 14.0 g/l succinate. The applicability of cell surface-engineering technology for the production of organic acids from biomass by high cell-density cultures of C. glutamicum under anaerobic conditions was demonstrated. PMID:24342107

  14. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Hiras, Jennifer; Deng, Kai; Bowen, Benjamin; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Singer, Steven W.; Northen, Trent R.

    2013-01-01

    Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS)-based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45°C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45°C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60°C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45°C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications. PMID:24367356

  15. Direct production of organic acids from starch by cell surface-engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum in anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Tateno, Toshihiro; Sasaki, Kengo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    We produced organic acids, including lactate and succinate, directly from soluble starch under anaerobic conditions using high cell-density cultures of Corynebacterium glutamicum displaying α-amylase (AmyA) from Streptococcus bovis 148 on the cell surface. Notably, reactions performed under anaerobic conditions at 35 and 40°C, which are higher than the optimal growth temperature of 30°C, showed 32% and 19%, respectively, higher productivity of the organic acids lactate, succinate, and acetate compared to that at 30°C. However, α-amylase was not stably anchored and released into the medium from the cell surface during reactions at these higher temperatures, as demonstrated by the 61% and 85% decreases in activity, respectively, from baseline, compared to the only 8% decrease at 30°C. The AmyA-displaying C. glutamicum cells retained their starch-degrading capacity during five 10 h reaction cycles at 30°C, producing 107.8 g/l of total organic acids, including 88.9 g/l lactate and 14.0 g/l succinate. The applicability of cell surface-engineering technology for the production of organic acids from biomass by high cell-density cultures of C. glutamicum under anaerobic conditions was demonstrated. PMID:24342107

  16. Mental-Health Conditions, Barriers to Care, and Productivity Loss Among Officers in An Urban Police Department

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Justin; Desai, Mayur M.; Britten, Karissa; Lucas, Georgina; Luneau, Renee; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Police officers are frequently exposed to situations that can negatively impact their mental health. Methods We conducted this study of an urban police department to determine 1) the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse; 2) patterns of and barriers to mental-health services utilization; and 3) the impact these conditions have on productivity loss. Results Among 150 officers, PTSD (24%), depression (9%), and alcohol abuse (19%) were common. Only 46.7% had ever sought mental-health services; the most commonly cited barriers to accessing services were concerns regarding confidentiality and the potential “negative career impact.” Officers with mental-health conditions had higher productivity loss (5.9% vs 3.4%, P <0.001) at an annual cost of $ 4,489 per officer. Conclusion Mental-health conditions among police officers are common, and costly, yet most officers had never accessed mental-health services; many due to modifiable risk factors. PMID:23155671

  17. Lipase production by solid-state fermentation: cultivation conditions and operation of tray and packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gutarra, Melissa L E; Cavalcanti, Elisa D C; Castilho, Leda R; Freire, Denise M G; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2005-01-01

    The production of lipase by Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation was studied using babassu cake as the basal medium. Tray-type and packed-bed bioreactors were employed. In the former, the influence of temperature; content of the medium, and medium supplementation with olive oil, sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, and yeast hydrolysate was studied. For all combinations of supplements, a temperature of 30 degrees C, a moisture content of 70%, and a concentration of carbon source of 6.25% (m/m, dry basis) provided optimum conditions for lipase production. When used as single supplements olive oil and molasses also were able to provide high lipase activities (20 U/g). Using packed-bed bioreactors and molasses-supplemented medium, optimum conditions for enzyme production were air superficial velocities above 55 cm/min and temperatures below 28 degrees C. The lower temperature optimum found for these reactors is probably related to radial heat gradient formation inside the packed bed. Maximum lipase activities obtained in these bioreactors (26.4 U/g) were 30% higher than in tray-type reactors. PMID:15917592

  18. Bioprocessing of wheat bran for the production of lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail by Cotylidia pannosa under submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepika; Garlapat, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-04-01

    Characterization and production of efficient lignocellulytic enzyme cocktails for biomass conversion is the need for biofuel industry. The present investigation reports the modeling and optimization studies of lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail production by Cotylidia pannosa under submerged conditions. The predominant enzyme activities of cellulase, xylanase and laccase were produced in the cocktail through submerged conditions using wheat bran as a substrate. A central composite design approach was utilized to model the production process using temperature, pH, incubation time and agitation as input variables with the goal of optimizing the output variables namely cellulase, xylanase and laccase activities. The effect of individual, square and interaction terms on cellulase, xylanase and laccase activities were depicted through the non-linear regression equations with significant R(2) and P-values. An optimized value of 20 U/ml, 17 U/ml and 13 U/ml of cellulase, xylanase and laccase activities, respectively, were obtained with a media pH of 5.0 in 77 h at 31C, 140 rpm using wheatbran as a substrate. Overall, the present study introduces a fungal strain, capable of producing lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail for subsequent applications in biofuel industry. PMID:26941214

  19. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality. PMID:27004115

  20. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater for bio-oil production in subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hadhoum, Loubna; Balistrou, Mourad; Burnens, Gaëtan; Loubar, Khaled; Tazerout, Mohand

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (240-300°C), water contents (58-88wt.%) and reaction times (15-45min). Results show that the highest bio-oil yield was about 58wt.%, resulting in a higher heating value of 38MJ/kg. This was conducted at the following optimal conditions: water content 88wt.%, a temperature of 280°C, and 30min as reaction time. To put bio-oil into wide application, the various physical and chemical characteristics were determined. A detailed chemical composition analysis of bio-oil was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID). The dominant compounds were identified by using NIST library. Analyses show that the bio-oil contains mainly oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid methyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, amino acid derived compounds and phenolic compounds. PMID:27344243

  2. Influence of different treatment condition on biopolymer yield production for coagulation-flocculation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Murshed, M. F.; Norli, I.

    2016-06-01

    Two different agro wastes (banana pseudostem and rice straw) were utilized in order to extract biopolymer (pectin) known as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment. Factors such as pH, temperature and time were chosen due to the critical role in hot acid extraction process. The yield of biopolymer extraction from banana pseudostem was found to be higher at 28% meanwhile only 18% from rice straw was manage to produce from the dry weight 10 g, respectively. It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the most important factors influencing the biopolymer yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. Based on two level factorial design, the same condition of pH 1.5, temperature 90 oC and 4 hours extraction time can produce high amount of extracted biopolymer. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the existence of functional group which helps in the coagulation-flocculation process. Result indicates a similar functional group of biopolymer were detected for both difference agro wastes.

  3. Changes in thermodynamic conditions of the Ahuachapán reservoir due to production and injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingrimsson, B.; Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Truesdell, A.; Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C.; Quintanilla, A.

    1991-01-01

    Since large-scale exploitation of the Ahuachapán reservoir began in 1975 large changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions have occurred. Drawdown of up to 15 bars and significant temperature changes have been observed in the wellfield. Temperatures have declined due to boiling in the reservoir in response to the pressure drawdown; localized and minor cooling due to reinjection of spent geothermal fluids have also been observed. There are indications of cold fluid influx deep into the reservoir from the west and north. Reservoir temperatures show that a significant amount of hot fluid recharge comes to the wellfield from the southeast, and temperatures also indicate that the recharge rate has increased with time as pressure declines in the reservoir. Chemical analyses of the produced fluids show that most wells are fed by a mixture of geothermal fluids and cooler, less-saline waters. The cold water inflow has increased due to exploitation, as demonstrated by decreased salinity of the produced fluids.

  4. Effect of coal liquefaction conditions on the composition of the product oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, H.

    2006-12-15

    Two methods, catalyst physically mixing method (method I) and catalyst impregnation method (method II) were employed for Beypazari and Tuncbilek lignites liquefaction. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mo(CO){sub 6} were used as the catalysts. Oils obtained at the end of the catalytic coal liquefaction were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). With solvent/coal ratio increase, compounds with straight chain and high molecular weight were formed. Likewise, as the reaction time and catalyst concentration were increased, the number and the intensity of the compounds in the oils increased partially. Due to the increase in the reaction time, temperature and catalyst concentration, the oils were enriched in straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds. However, alkanes with straight chain were reduced by the effect of pyrolysis at temperatures over 400{sup o}C. Retention times of the compounds obtained by method II were higher than those of the compounds obtained by method I. Respectively, the compounds in the oils obtained by method II were found to have been composed by high quantities of high molecular straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds. Our data gave us ground to presume that the oils from both lignites were composed by straight chain alkanes and aromatic polycyclic compounds (tetralin, naphthalene and their derivatives, phenols, xylenols, biphenyl, naphthols, etc.). The oil compositions were strongly influenced by the liquefaction conditions.

  5. Postmigratory body condition and ovarian steroid production predict breeding decisions by female gray-headed albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Williams, Tony D

    2013-01-01

    Carryover effects have been documented in many migratory bird species, but we know little about the physiological mechanisms that mediate those effects. Here we show that the energetic, endocrine, and aerobic characteristics of postmigratory female gray-headed albatrosses (Thalassarche chrysostoma) can affect their decision to breed. All females in this study, whether breeding or not, were secreting ovarian steroids when they arrived at the breeding colony at Bird Island, South Georgia, which suggests that all were responding to seasonal cues. However, deferring, nonbreeding birds were characterized by a steroid profile of high progesterone (P4) and low testosterone (T), whereas breeding birds showed the opposite pattern. Deferring birds also had low body mass, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. These results suggest that postmigratory condition can influence patterns of ovarian steroidogenesis and that the maintenance of high P4 without subsequent conversion to T favors breeding deferral. Whereas breeding females normally convert P4 to T, which is a key deterministic step toward 17β-estradiol synthesis, vitellogenesis, and follicle development, deferring females did not make this conversion and instead maintained high levels of P4, perhaps due to inhibition of the hydroxylase-lyase enzyme complex, thus rendering them infertile for the current season. Results are discussed within the context of the biennial breeding system of this species, and comparisons with other biennially and annually breeding albatrosses are made. PMID:24241072

  6. Short rotation willow coppice in Wales: High production under adverse environmental conditions?

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, F.M.; Hodson, R.W.; Randerson, P.F.

    1995-11-01

    The production of short rotation willow coppice in central Wales was once regarded as a vain hope rather than a distinct possibility. Research at the University of Wales, Cardiff, Field Station at Llysdinam in mid-Wales over the last four years has proven that it is possible to produce a commercially viable crop on very poor upland soils and at an altitude of almost 300m provided that lime and inorganic fertilizers are added. Because of the national need to find new routes for the disposal of sewage sludge, its addition to short rotation coppice serves the dual purpose of disposal and nutrient addition. Over the first two years of the sludging experiment, it was found that the addition of 300 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1} of digested sewage sludge significantly increased crop weight, at least in the first year. Unfortunately, the crop yields did not reach those obtained using inorganic fertilizers at the same site but it is suggested that a repeated application regime might improve overall crop yield.

  7. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  8. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  9. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. PMID:22784965

  10. Production of fissioning uranium plasma to approximate gas-core reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.; Kim, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The intense burst of neutrons from the d-d reaction in a plasma-focus apparatus is exploited to produce a fissioning uranium plasma. The plasma-focus apparatus consists of a pair of coaxial electrodes and is energized by a 25 kJ capacitor bank. A 15-g rod of 93% enriched U-235 is placed in the end of the center electrode where an intense electron beam impinges during the plasma-focus formation. The resulting uranium plasma is heated to about 5 eV. Fission reactions are induced in the uranium plasma by neutrons from the d-d reaction which were moderated by the polyethylene walls. The fission yield is determined by evaluating the gamma peaks of I-134, Cs-138, and other fission products, and it is found that more than 1,000,000 fissions are induced in the uranium for each focus formation, with at least 1% of these occurring in the uranium plasma.

  11. Effect of culture conditions on lipase production by Fusarium solani in batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Maia, M M; Heasley, A; Camargo de Morais, M M; Melo, E H; Morais, M A; Ledingham, W M; Lima Filho, J L

    2001-01-01

    Lipase (Glycerol ester hydrolase EC 3.1.1.3.) from a Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani FSI has been investigated. The effect of different carbon sources and trace elements added to basal medium was observed with the aim of improving enzyme production. Lipase specific activity was highest (0.45 U mg(-1)) for sesame oil. When this medium was supplemented with trace elements using olive oil, corn oil and sesame oil the lipase specific activity increased to 0.86, 1.89 and 1.64 U mg(-1), respectively, after 96 h cultivation without any considerable biomass increase. The Km of this lipase using pNPP (p-nitrophenylpalmitate) as substrate, was 1.8 mM with a Vmax of 1.7 micromol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Lipase activity increased in the presence of increasing concentrations of hexane and toluene. In contrast, incubation of this enzyme with water-soluble solvents decreased its activity after 10% concentration (v/v) of the solvent. The lipase activity was stable below 35 degrees C but above this temperature activity losses were observed. PMID:11315806

  12. Study of conditions of production of roquefortine and other metabolites of Penicillin roqueforti.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, P M; Kennedy, B P; Harwig, J; Blanchfield, B J

    1977-01-01

    Experiments to determine optimum yields of roquefortine, isofumigaclavine A, and PR toxin, metabolites from Penicillum roqueforti Thom, were performed. Four strains, isolated from blue cheese, and five liquid media were evaluated, although not all permutations were studied. Sucrose (15%)-yeast extract (2%) was the medium chosen for time-course studies at 25 and 15 degrees C using one favorable strain. At 25 degrees C, maximum estimated yields of roquefortine were about 100 mg/liter in the mycelium by 16 days, and no subsequent degradation of this alkaloid was observed. On the other hand, production of PR toxin in the medium peaked at 770 mg/liter at 21 days. At 15 degrees C, yields of roquefortine and PR toxin after 49 days were 60 to 70% of the maximum yields obtained at 25 degrees C. However, about three times more isofumigaclavine A (up to 11 mg/liter) was formed in the mycelium at 15 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. All four strains of P. roqueforti procedure both roquefortine and PR toxin on the sucrose-yeast extract medium at 25 degrees C; isofumigaclavine A was detected in all but one strain grown on this medium. PMID:848949

  13. Products of the Strecker Synthesis as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions of the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Narcinda R.; Cooper, George W.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The Strecker synthesis, R2C=O + HCN + NH3 yields R2C(NH2)CN + H2O yields R2C(NH2)CO2H has been proposed as a source of amino acids in meteorites. The detection of carbonlyl compounds, the precursors of the amino acids in the Strecker synthesis, and a-hydroxy acids, important by-products of the Strecker synthesis, in the Murchison meteorite supports this conjecture. However, the following observations raise questions about the Strecker synthesis as the source of a-amino and a-hydroxy acids in Murchison: a) Imino acetic acids are also important by-products of the Strecker synthesis and have not been reported in Murchison. b) a-aminisobutyric acid (AIBA) is one of the most abundant amino acids in Murchison but the Strecker synthesis conducted at room temperature produced only small amounts of AIBA relative to other amino acids. c) If the a-amino and a-hydroxy acids observed in Murchison arose from a common precursor this ought to be reflected in their relative abundances, but the straight chain a-hydroxy acids appeared to be relatively abundant compared with the analogous a-amino acids. In order to address question a) we have examined a non-hydrolyzed aqueous extract of the Murchison meteorite. Imino di acetic acid, Imino propionic acetic acid and Imino butyric acetic acid (both isomers) have been identified in this fraction. The relative abundances of amino acids and imino acetic acids in this fraction are consistent with a Strecker synthesis at low temperature (263 K) as a origin of both the amino acids and the imino acetic acids found on Murchison. To deal with questions b) and c) we have carried out laboratory simulations of the Strecker synthesis. The starting concentrations for carbonlyl compounds used were based on estimates of what these concentrations might have been on the parent body. for the carbonyl compounds this estimate was determined by the amount of carbonyl compound found on Murchison plus the amounts of the corresponding amino acid and hydroxy acid

  14. Extracellular polysaccharides from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota: production conditions, biochemical characteristics, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Szałapata, Katarzyna; Nowak, Artur; Jaszek, Magdalena; Ozimek, Ewa; Majewska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Fungal polysaccharides (PSs) are the subject of research in many fields of science and industry. Many properties of PSs have already been confirmed and the list of postulated functions continues to grow. Fungal PSs are classified into different groups according to systematic affinity, structure (linear and branched), sugar composition (homo- and heteropolysaccharides), type of bonds between the monomers (β-(1 → 3), β-(1 → 6), and α-(1 → 3)) and their location in the cell (cell wall PSs, exoPSs, and endoPSs). Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are most frequently studied fungal PSs but their definition, classification, and origin are still not clear and should be explained. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi producing EPS have different ecological positions (saprotrophic and endophytic, pathogenic or symbiotic-mycorrhizae fungi); therefore, EPSs play different biological functions, for example in the protection against environmental stress factors and in interactions with other organisms. EPSs obtained from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal cultures are known for their antioxidant, immunostimulating, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. The major objective of the presented review article was to provide a detailed description of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the effectiveness of EPS production by filamentous and yeast Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi and techniques of derivation of EPSs, their biochemical characteristics, and biological properties allowing comprehensive analysis as well as indication of similarities and differences between these fungal groups. Understanding the role of EPSs in a variety of processes and their application in food or pharmaceutical industries requires improvement of the techniques of their derivation, purification, and characterization. The detailed analyses of data concerning the derivation and application of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota EPSs can facilitate development and trace the direction of application of these EPSs

  15. On Extrapolating Nighttime Ecosystem Respiration To Daytime Conditions and Implications for Gross Primary Productivity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagno, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is a key term in the carbon cycle science. Being difficult or even impossible, at the ecosystem scale to directly quantify, various methods are used to estimate GPP, such as: eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning, carbonyl sulfide exchange, sun-induced fluorescence, isotopes of CO2, and the photochemical reflectance index. The primary source of global GPP estimates is the FLUXNET project within which GPP is estimated in a consistent fashion through eddy covariance flux partitioning at more than 700 sites globally. Since the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reflects net uptake during daytime, when photosynthesis exceeds respiration, and net emission during nighttime due to ecosystem respiration (RECO), the eddy covariance flux partitioning is based on the idea that daytime RECO may be inferred from nighttime NEE direct measurements, and consequently GPP can be obtained by subtracting RECO from NEE. However, the main assumption underlying this approach, which is that a temperature-dependent model of RECO parametrised based on nighttime temperatures may be extrapolated to daytime temperatures, has not been conclusively tested. This study investigates whether nighttime measurements of RECO provide unbiased estimates of daytime RECO. To this end we used ecosystem respiration chambers in a mountain grassland which, by keeping the vegetation in the dark during the measurement, allowed us to directly quantify RECO during both day and night. These data, pooled by day, night or day and night, were then used to parametrise temperature dependent models of RECO. Results show that day and night RECO do not follow the same relationship with temperature and that RECO inferred by using the nighttime parametrisation overestimates the true respiration. Potential reasons of this observed bias, like the overestimation of daytime mitochondrial respiration and implications for the quantification of GPP are discussed.

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Catherine M.; Duffy, Lesley L.; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h) compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h) and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h). Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min) and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C), with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P < 0.05) than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P < 0.05) levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks. PMID:26539536

  17. Expression of HpaI in Pichia pastoris and optimization of conditions for the heparinase I production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yang, Jun; Gu, Huifen

    2014-06-15

    Heparinase I has important applications in the fields of biomedicine and pharmaceuticals. The heparinase I gene (HpaI) from Flavobacterium heparinum was cloned and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the conditions for the heparinase I production were optimized by RSM. PCR analysis indicated that HpaI was integrated into the P. pastoris GS115 genome. The concentrations of key factors that affected the heparinase I activity were optimized, and were as follows: oleic acid, 0.07%, liquid volume in flask, 34.3 ml/L, and methanol, 0.96%. Under the optimal conditions, the activity of heparinase I was up to 323 U/L in shake flask. A maximal heparinase I activity of 398.5 U/L from the transformant 2 was achieved in a 5L fermentor. This study demonstrates the overproduction of heparinase I by recombinant P. pastoris. PMID:24721072

  18. Fine-tuning of process conditions to improve product uniformity of polystyrene particles used for wind tunnel velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asit K.

    1990-01-01

    Monodisperse polymer particles (having uniform diameter) were used for the last two decades in physical, biological, and chemical sciences. In NASA Langley Research Center monodisperse polystyrene particles are used in wind tunnel laser velocimeters. These polystyrene (PS) particles in latex form were formulated at the Engineering Laboratory of FENGD using emulsion-free emulsion polymerization. Monodisperse PS latices particles having different particle diameters were formulated and useful experimental data involving effects of process conditions on particle size were accumulated. However, similar process conditions and chemical recipes for polymerization of styrene monomer have often yielded monodisperse particles having varying diameters. The purpose was to improve the PS latex product uniformity by fine-tuning the process parameters based on the knowledge of suspension and emulsion polymerization.

  19. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  20. Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Culture Conditions for Hydrogen Production by an Anaerobic Bacterial Strain from Soluble Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieu, Hoa Thi Quynh; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Dang, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Binh Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean source of energy that produces no harmful byproducts during combustion, being a potential sustainable energy carrier for the future. Therefore, biohydrogen produced by anaerobic bacteria via dark fermentation has attracted attention worldwide as a renewable energy source. However, the hydrogen production capability of these bacteria depends on major factors such as substrate, iron-containing hydrogenase, reduction agent, pH, and temperature. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to improve the hydrogen production by an anaerobic bacterial strain isolated from animal waste in Phu Linh, Soc Son, Vietnam (PL strain). The hydrogen production process was investigated as a function of three critical factors: soluble starch concentration (8 g L-1 to 12 g L-1), ferrous iron concentration (100 mg L-1 to 200 mg L-1), and l-cysteine concentration (300 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1). RSM analysis showed that all three factors significantly influenced hydrogen production. Among them, the ferrous iron concentration presented the greatest influence. The optimum hydrogen concentration of 1030 mL L-1 medium was obtained with 10 g L-1 soluble starch, 150 mg L-1 ferrous iron, and 400 mg L-1 l-cysteine after 48 h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen concentration produced by the PL strain was doubled after using RSM. The obtained results indicate that RSM with CCD can be used as a technique to optimize culture conditions for enhancement of hydrogen production by the selected anaerobic bacterial strain. Hydrogen production from low-cost organic substrates such as soluble starch using anaerobic fermentation methods may be one of the most promising approaches.

  1. Excess Heat Production in Pd/D during Periodic Pulse Discharge Current in Various Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabut, A. B.

    2006-02-01

    Experimental data from low-energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, and 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides ware quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2-2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered.

  2. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  3. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  4. Two Methods for Retrieving UV Index for All Cloud Conditions from Sky Imager Products or Total SW Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Badosa, Jordi; Calbo, J.; McKenzie, R. L.; Liley, Ben; Gonzalez, J. A.; Forgan, B. W.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) as a function of cloud cover estimations and sunny conditions (from sky imaging products) as well as of solar zenith angle (SZA). These analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds reduce TR more than UV, in particular for obscured Sun conditions, low cloud fraction (< 60%) and large SZA (> 60º). Similarly, clouds enhance TR more than UV, mainly for visible Sun conditions, large cloud fraction and large SZA. Two methods to estimate UVI are developed: 1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and 2) from TR measurements. Both methods may be used in practical operational applications, although Method 2 shows overall the best performance, since TR allows accounting for cloud optical properties. The mean absolute differences of Method 2 estimations with respect to measured values are 0.17 UVI units (for 1-minute data) and 0.79 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) units (for daily integrations). Method 1 shows less accurate results but it is still suitable to estimate UVI: mean absolute differences are 0.37 UVI units and 1.6 SED.

  5. Isolation of lipase producing thermophilic bacteria: optimization of production and reaction conditions for lipase from Geobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akshita; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Reena

    2012-12-01

    Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long chain fatty acids. Lipases occur widely in nature, but only microbial lipases are commercially significant. In the present study, thirty-two bacterial strains, isolated from soil sample of a hot spring were screened for lipase production. The strain TS-4, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Geobacillus sp. at MTCC, IMTECH, Chandigarh. The isolated lipase producing bacteria were grown on minimal salt medium containing olive oil. Maximal quantities of lipase were produced when 30 h old inoculum was used at 10% (v/v) in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (150 rpm) for 72 h. The optimal temperature and pH for the bacterial growth and lipase production were found to be 60°C and 9.5, respectively. Maximal enzyme production resulted when mustard oil was used as carbon source and yeast extract as sole nitrogen source at a concentration of 1% (v/v) and 0.15% (w/v), respectively. The different optimized reaction parameters were temperature 65°C, pH 8.5, incubation time 10 min and substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The Km and Vmax values of enzyme were found to be 14 mM and 17.86 μmol ml-1min-1, respectively, with p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate. All metal ions studied (1 mM) increased the lipase activity. PMID:23195552

  6. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in Sliced Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Packaged under Vacuum or Modified Atmosphere Conditions.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Rosa Ana; Rendueles, Eugenia; Sanz, José Javier; Capita, Rosa; García-Fernández, Camino

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in three types of sliced ready-to-eat meat products packaged under vacuum or modified atmosphere conditions and stored at three temperatures. Slices of about 25 g of chorizo (a fermented dry pork sausage), jamón (cured ham), and cecina (a salted, dried beef product) were inoculated with L. monocytogenes NCTC 11994. Slices were packaged in a vacuum or in a modified atmosphere (20% CO2, 80% N2). After packaging, samples were stored for 6 months at three temperatures: 3, 11, or 20°C. Microbiological analyses were performed after 0, 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 90, and 180 days of storage. The type of meat product, the type of packaging, the temperature, and the day of storage all influenced microbial levels (P < 0.001). L. monocytogenes counts decreased throughout the course of storage in samples of chorizo (quick decrease) and jamón (gradual decrease). In cecina samples, counts of L. monocytogenes increased from day 0 to day 1 of storage and then remained constant until day 90 of the study. These results may be of use for enhancing the safety of these ready-to-eat meat product types. Additional evaluation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes in cecina is needed. PMID:26408140

  7. Sedimentary Redox Conditions, Biogenic Production, and Oxygenation of Southeast Pacific Intermediate Waters Over the Past 30 ky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratli, J.; Mix, A.; Chase, Z.; McManus, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present data from SE Pacific sediments in an effort to characterize the paleo-redox conditions of shallow (~400-1000 m) subsurface sediments, and the water masses that overlie them, over the past 30 ky. The sediments were recovered during ODP Leg 202, and come from three sites: 1233, 1234, and 1235; together these three sites constitute a vertical transect of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Site 1233, at 41°S, sits in the core of AAIW at 838 m depth. Site 1234, at 36°S, is located between AAIW and the Pacific Central Water (PCW) mass. Site 1235 (489 m) is located close to Site 1234, but is between AAIW and the overlying low- dissolved-oxygen Gunther Undercurrent (GUC) water mass. Recent sediments for sites 1234 and 1235 contain a rich signature of biogenic opal production and enrichments of iron and the authigenic metals U, Mo, and Re. At site 1234 there is a minimum in biogenic Si at approximately 20 ky followed by a slight increase and a second minimum between 12 and 5 ky. At both sites 1233 and 1234 the trace metals exhibit more structure during the period of roughly 15 to 30 ky as compared to the most recent 15 ky. The trace metal data at site 1234 shows a sharp reducing signature at ~17 ky (higher Mo, lower U:Mo ratios), bracketed by periods of more oxygenated conditions (lower Mo, higher U:Mo) back to ~22 ky, and forward to ~12 ky. This combination of low biological production and more oxygenated bottom water may suggest a period of increased AAIW ventilation as far north as site 1234. Although it is difficult at this point to unequivocally separate the impact of ventilation from production using our current data base, it does appear that some of the observed changes in sedimentary character may be ventilation-driven rather than driven by local production.

  8. Dissipation and adsorption of isoproturon, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos and their main transformation products under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Karas, Panagiotis A; Nikolaki, Sofia; Storck, Veronika; Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Tsiamis, George; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of dissipation constitutes an integral part of pesticides risk assessment since it provides an estimate of the level and the duration of exposure of the terrestrial ecosystem to pesticides. Within the frame of an overall assessment of the soil microbial toxicity of pesticides, we investigated the dissipation of a range of dose rates of three model pesticides, isoproturon (IPU), tebuconazole (TCZ), and chlorpyrifos (CHL), and the formation and dissipation of their main transformation products following a tiered lab-to-field approach. The adsorption of pesticides and their transformation products was also determined. IPU was the least persistent pesticide showing a dose-dependent increase in its persistence in both laboratory and field studies. CHL dissipation showed a dose-dependent increase under laboratory conditions and an exact opposite trend in the field. TCZ was the most persistent pesticide under lab conditions showing a dose-dependent decrease in its dissipation, whereas in the field TCZ exhibited a biphasic dissipation pattern with extrapolated DT90s ranging from 198 to 603.4days in the ×1 and ×2 dose rates, respectively. IPU was demethylated to mono- (MD-IPU) and di-desmethyl-isoproturon (DD-IPU) which dissipated following a similar pattern with the parent compound. CHL was hydrolyzed to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) which dissipated showing a reverse dose-dependent pattern compared to CHL. Pesticides adsorption affinity increased in the order IPUproducts showed low affinity for soil adsorption, whereas TCP was weakly adsorbed compared to its parent compound. The temporal dissipation patterns of the pesticides and their transformation products will be used as exposure inputs for assessment of their soil microbial toxicity. PMID:27341109

  9. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Ushakova, S.; Gribovskaya, I.; Tirranen, L.; Manukovsky, N.; Zolotukhin, I.

    To investigate feasibility of enhancing closedness in a new generation of biological life support systems (LSS) to involve the inedible phytomass into intrasystem mass exchange the vermicomposting method we have chosen made possible to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) suitable for growing plants. However, to use the SLS in life support systems call for investigation of its physical, chemical and other parameters. Of special importance among them is the capacity of SLS to provide the LSS photosynthesizing component with required mineral elements in selected cultivation conditions. In this connection the aim of this work was to study opportunities of enhancing pr4oduction activity of wheat and radish cenoses by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) without decreasing the harvest index. Increase of light intensity to 250 W/m 2 PAR decreased the intensity of visible photosynthesis of wheat cenosi and slightly increased visible photosynthesis of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. The maximum productivity of wheat cenosis both total and seeds corresponded to the irradiance of 200 W/m 2 PAR. The light intensity of 250 W/m2 PAR decreased productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect of the productivity of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and SLS was determined by the condition of plants, development phase and PAR intensity. By the end of wheat vegetation under 250 W/m 2 there were an order more bacteria of the colon rod group and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and SLS than under other illumination conditions. Investigation of the mineral composition of SLS and the watering solution demonstrated that one of the reasons of inadequate response of the cenosis under study to elevated PAR intensity may be deficiency of accessible forms of some mineral elements, e.g. nitrogen. The above said materials evidence that

  10. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  11. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Recombinant Human Interferon Beta Production by Escherichia coli Using the Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Rajabi Memari, Hamid; Vahidi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The periplasmic overexpression of recombinant human interferon beta (rhIFN-β)-1b using a synthetic gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was optimized in shake flasks using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Objectives: This study aimed to predict and develop the optimal fermentation conditions for periplasmic expression of rhIFN-β-1b in shake flasks whilst keeping the acetate excretion as the lowest amount and exploit the best results condition for rhIFN-β in a bench top bioreactor. Materials and Methods: The process variables studied were the concentration of glucose as carbon source, cell density prior the induction (OD 600 nm) and induction temperature. Ultimately, a three-factor three-level BBD was employed during the optimization process. The rhIFN-β production and the acetate excretion served as the evaluated responses. Results: The proposed optimum fermentation condition consisted of 7.81 g L-1 glucose, OD 600 nm prior induction 1.66 and induction temperature of 30.27°C. The model prediction of 0.267 g L-1 of rhIFN-β and 0.961 g L-1 of acetate at the optimum conditions was verified experimentally as 0.255 g L-1 and 0.981 g L-1 of acetate. This agreement between the predicted and observed values confirmed the precision of the applied method to predict the optimum conditions. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the RSM is an effective method for the optimization of recombinant protein expression using synthetic genes in E. coli. PMID:26034535

  12. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  13. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin.

    PubMed

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  14. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I.; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  15. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  16. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  17. Optimization and partial characterization of culture conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Palash Kumar; Talukdar, Saimon Ahmad; Deb, Promita; Sayem, Sm Abu; Mohsina, Kaniz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have occupied a pivotal position for their practical applications. The present study was carried out under shake flask conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003 in basal medium containing glucose, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and Na2CO3 at pH 10. The effect of culture conditions and medium components for maximum production of alkaline protease was investigated using one factor constant at a time method along with its characterization. Maximum level of enzyme production was obtained after 48h of incubation with 2% inoculum size at 42°C, under continuous agitation at 150 rpm, in growth medium of pH 9. Highest enzyme production was obtained using 1% rice flour as carbon source and 0.8% beef extract as organic nitrogen source. Results indicated that single organic nitrogen source alone was more suitable than using in combinations and there was no significant positive effect of adding inorganic nitrogen sources in basal medium. After optimization of the parameters, enzyme production was increased about 20 fold than that of in basal medium. The crude enzyme was highly active at pH 10 and stable from pH 7-11. The enzyme showed highest activity (100%) at 50°C, and retained 78% relative activity at 70°C. Stability studies showed that the enzyme retained 75% of its initial activity after heating at 60°C for 1h. The enzyme retained about 66% and 46% of its initial activity after 28 days of storage at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) respectively. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) increased the residual activity of the enzyme, whereas Fe(2+) moderately inhibited its residual activity. When pre-incubated with Tween-20, Tween-80, SDS and H2O2, each at 0.5% concentration, the enzyme showed increased residual activity. These characteristics may make the enzyme suitable for several industrial applications, especially in leather industries. PMID:24133650

  18. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m -2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. Light intensity of 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m 2) as compared to 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  19. Preparation, application, and optimization of Zn/Al complex oxides for biodiesel production under sub-critical conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lu, Hou-Fang; Qi, Tao; Yan, Shu-Li; Liang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel produced by transesterification is a promising green fuel in the future. A new heterogeneous catalyst, Zn/Al complex oxide, was prepared for biodiesel production. The results showed that the catalyst derived from a hydrotalcite-like precursor with a zinc/aluminum atom ratio of 3.74:1 and calcined at 450 degrees C gave the highest conversion of 84.25%. Analysis of XRD, XPS, FI-IF, TG-DTA, BET and alkalinity tests demonstrated that it is the unique structure of hydrotalcite-like compound precursor that gave the catalyst a high alkalinity greater than 11.1. The optimal reaction condition for Zn/Al complex oxide was under methanol sub-critical condition: 200 degrees C, 2.5MPa, 1.4% (wt) catalyst dosage, and 24:1 methanol to oil ratio. Under these conditions, the conversion reached 84.25% after 90min, which was better than Mg/Al complex oxides. The excellent tolerance to water and free fatty acid was exhibited when the oil feed had fewer than 6% FFA or 10% water content with a conversion greater than 80%. PMID:20478377

  20. Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Oscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  1. Anthrolysin O and fermentation products mediate the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis to lung epithelial cells under microaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Popova, Taissia G; Millis, Bryan; Chung, Myung-Chul; Bailey, Charles; Popov, Serguei G

    2011-02-01

    Bacillus anthracis generates virulence factors such as lethal and edema toxins, capsule, and hemolytic proteins under conditions of reduced oxygenation. Here, we report on the acute cytotoxicity of culture supernatants (Sups) of six nonencapsulated B. anthracis strains grown till the stationary phase under static microaerobic conditions. Human small airway epithelial, umbilical vein endothelial, Caco-2, and Hep-G2 cells were found to be susceptible. Sups displayed a reduction of pH to 5.3-5.5, indicating the onset of acid anaerobic fermentation; however, low pH itself was not a major factor of toxicity. The pore-forming hemolysin, anthrolysin O (ALO), contributed to the toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Its effect was found to be synergistic with a metabolic product of B. anthracis, succinic acid. Cells exposed to Sups demonstrated cytoplasmic membrane blebbing, increased permeability, loss of ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and arrest of cell respiration. The toxicity was reduced by inhibition of ALO by cholesterol, decomposition of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Cell death appears to be caused by an acute primary membrane permeabilization by ALO, followed by a burst of reactive radicals from the mitochondria fuelled by the succinate, which is generated by bacteria in the hypoxic environment. This mechanism of metabolic toxicity is relevant to the late-stage conditions of hypoxia and acidosis found in anthrax patients and might operate at anatomical locations of the host deprived from oxygen supply. PMID:20946354

  2. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Medina, Sandra C; Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1) of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1) of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  3. Effect of Production Conditions of Wood Powder on Bending Properties of Wood Powder Molding Material without Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Hiroshi; Soma, Naho; Yamashita, Osamu; Miki, Tsunehisa; Kanayama, Kozo

    The effect of production conditions of wood powder on the bending properties of wood powder molding material was investigated. Wood powder was produced by milling wood into powder under conditions of different temperatures (25°C, 100°C) and moisture contents (0%MC, about 30%MC). Molding materials were produced from wood powder in stream atmosphere of high temperature and high pressure (175°C, 900kPa) using self-bonding ability of the wood powder. Adhesives, such as a synthetic resin, were not used. To evaluate the bending properties of the molding materials, the modulus of elasticity and the bending strength were examined by static three-point bending test. As for the characteristic of wood particle, in case of wood particle produced by milling wood under a condition of high temperature and high moisture content (100°C and about 30%MC), tendencies for intercellular layer to be exposed on surface of a particle and for the aspect ratio of particles to be large were confirmed. And in that case, the molding material showed the highest value in modulus of elasticity and bending strength. It is highly probable that the inprovement of the self-bonding ability of wood powder and the increase of the aspect ratio of wood particle take part in the improvement of strength properties of molding material.

  4. Arg tyrosine kinase modulates TGF-β1 production in human renal tubular cells under high-glucose conditions.

    PubMed

    Torsello, Barbara; Bianchi, Cristina; Meregalli, Chiara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Invernizzi, Lara; De Marco, Sofia; Bovo, Giorgio; Brivio, Rinaldo; Strada, Guido; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A

    2016-08-01

    Renal tubular cells are involved in the tubular interstitial fibrosis observed in diabetic nephropathy. It is debated whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) affects tubular cells, which under high-glucose conditions overproduce transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a fibrogenic cytokine involved in interstitial fibrosis development. Our study investigated the involvement of non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg (also called Abl2) in TGF-β production. Human primary tubular cell cultures exposed to high-glucose conditions were used. These cells showed an elongated morphology, stress fibers and vimentin increment but maintained most of the epithelial marker expression and distribution. In these cells exposed to high glucose, which overexpressed and secreted active TGF-β1, Arg protein and activity was downregulated. A further TGF-β1 increase was induced by Arg silencing with siRNA, as with the Arg tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib. In the cells exposed to high glucose, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent Arg kinase downregulation induced both RhoA activation, through p190RhoGAPA (also known as ARHGAP35) modulation, and proteasome activity inhibition. These data evidence a new specific involvement of Arg kinase into the regulation of TGF-β1 expression in tubular cells under high-glucose conditions and provide cues for new translational approaches in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27298228

  5. A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the "instantaneous" presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with "a posteriori" assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R (2) = 0.95), plasma (R (2) = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R (2) = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001-0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  6. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  7. Mass spectral studies on vinylic degradation products of sulfur mustards under gas chromatography/mass spectrometry conditions.

    PubMed

    Sai Sachin, L; Karthikraj, R; Kalyan Kumar, K; Sony, T; Prasada Raju, N; Prabhakar, S

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustards are a class of vesicant chemical warfare agents that rapidly degrade in environmental samples. The most feasible degradation products of sulfur mustards are chloroethyl vinylic compounds and divinylic compounds, which are formed by the elimination of one and two HCl molecules from sulfur mustards, respectively. The detection and characterization of these degradation products in environmental samples are an important proof for the verification of sulfur mustard usage. In this study, we synthesized a set of sulfur mustard degradation products, i.e., divinylic compounds (1-7) and chloroethyl vinylic compounds (8-14), and characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) under electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) (methane) conditions. The EI mass spectra of the studied compounds mainly included the fragment ions that resulted from homolytic cleavages with or without hydrogen migrations. The divinylic compounds (1-7) showed [M-SH](+) ions, whereas the chloroethylvinyl compounds (8-14) showed [M-Cl](+) and [M-CH2CH2Cl](+) ions. Methane/CI mass spectra showed [M+H](+) ions and provided molecular weight information. The GC retention index (RI) values were also calculated for the studied compounds. The EI and CI mass spectral data together with RI values are extremely useful for off-site analysis for the verification of the chemical weapons convention and also to participate in official Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons proficiency tests. PMID:26764309

  8. A Quantitative Method to Monitor Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R2 = 0.95), plasma (R2 = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R2 = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001–0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  9. Alkylating activity in food products--especially sauerkraut and sour fermented dairy products--after incubation with nitrite under quasi-gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Groenen, P J; Busink, E

    1988-03-01

    N-Nitroso compounds may well rank high among the genotoxic carcinogens present in our environment. Small amounts of such compounds may be formed in the human stomach after consumption of high-nitrate vegetables. Volatile nitrosamines can be conveniently determined but reliable methods of analysis for non-volatile N-nitroso compounds are still lacking. In this study we have used the 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine test to look for the formation of alkylating compounds such as N-nitroso-N-methylurea in a wide range of food products after incubation with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions. Our results indicate that many food products do not form alkylating compounds in appreciable amounts, even though the nitrite concentration used was five to ten times that found in saliva after a high-nitrate meal. Comparatively strong alkylating activity, however, was detected after incubation of samples of sauerkraut, certain dairy products (yoghurt, biogarde, quark, buttermilk and milk), wine and smoked mackerel. Samples of sauerkraut incubated with simulated gastric fluid, but without (added) nitrite, also displayed appreciable alkylating activity. The formation of alkylating substances in non-fat yoghurt was markedly inhibited by addition of ascorbic acid. The identity of the alkylating agents remains unknown. The isolation procedure was optimized for N-nitroso-N-methylurea, but will certainly result in the isolation of other compounds, such as C-nitroso-, C-nitro- or perhaps even C-nitroso-C'-nitro-compounds as well. Biogenic amines, glucosinolates, indole derivatives or other compounds may be involved as precursors. If alkylating agents are formed in vivo after ingestion of high-nitrate vegetables or drinking water, this is likely to occur only when the food products mentioned above are ingested simultaneously with or shortly after the nitrate load and not appreciably (except perhaps in the case of sauerkraut) when they are ingested alone, without a nitrate source. The

  10. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  11. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  12. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  13. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  14. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  15. Relating actual with subfossil chironomid assemblages. Holocene habitat changes and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrats, Pol; Rieradevall, Maria; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Analyses of subfossil and actual macroinvertebrate fauna and Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera) assemblages of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees, Spain, 1914 m a.s.l.) improves the environmental calibration for lake paleoreconstruction and allow to infer lake habitat changes throughout the Holocene. The results of the actual Chironomidae community are consistent with other mountain lake studies (either in the Pyrenees or other regions), with a few mismatching due to lake specific conditions. The actual and the subfossil Chironomidae taxa present in Basa de la Mora Lake are the same, which is an essential requirement to apply the analogue methods. Although we could not find habitat-specific taxa, significant differences between the different habitats present in the lake were found. This circumstance allowed applying the Modern Analogue Technique (MAT) to infer lake habitat changes. The MAT method relates the actual community, defined from the species abundance matrix and an environmental variable (which is the object of the inference), and the past community, defined from the species abundance matrix downcore. Because the first axis of DCA carried out for the study of the actual Chironomidae larvae explained the assemblage changes between the different habitats, the scores of this first axis were used as representative of the environmental variable (dominant habitat type) to be inferred. The application of the MAT has allowed identifying two periods of lake productivity increase through the Holocene: i) around 2800 cal. yrs BP, which coincides with the first documented human occupation of the area, and ii) the last four centuries, synchronous to the maximum population of mountain areas in the Pyrenees and development of stockbreeding activities.

  16. ATP production from adenine by a self-coupling enzymatic process: high-level accumulation under ammonium-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, A; Fujio, T

    2001-03-01

    To improve ATP production from adenine, we optimized cultivation and reaction conditions for the ATP producing strain, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes KY13510. In the conventional method, 28% NH4OH has been used both to adjust pH during cultivation and reaction, and to provide nitrogen for cell growth. In the ATP-producing reaction, high concentrations of inorganic phosphate and magnesium ion are needed, which form magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4) precipitate. To keep inorganic phosphate and magnesium ions soluble in the reaction mixture, it was indispensable to add phytic acid as a chelating agent of divalent metal ions. Under such conditions, 37 mg/ml (61.2 mM) ATP was accumulated in 13 h (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21, 143 1985). If ammonium ion was depleted from the reaction mixture to avoid MgNH4 PO4 formation, we expected that there was no need to add phytic acid and ATP accumulation might be improved. Therefore, we obtained the cultured broth of C. ammoniagenes KY13510 strain with low ammonium ion content (less than 1 mg/ml as NH3) by the method that a part of alkali solution (28% NH4OH) for pH control was replaced with 10 N KOH. Using this culture broth, ATP producing reaction was done in 2-liter jar fermentor, controlling the pH of the reaction mixture with 10 N KOH. Under these conditions, the rate of ATP accumulation improved greatly, and 70.6 mg/ml (117 mM) ATP was accumulated in 28 h. The molar conversion ratio from adenine to ATP was about 82%. Phytic acid was slightly inhibitory to ATP formation under these ammonium-limited conditions. PMID:11330681

  17. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation. PMID:23171052

  18. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  19. Simulating the impact of no-till systems on field water fluxes and maize productivity under semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, W.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Crop output from the smallholder farming sector in sub-Saharan Africa is trailing population growth leading to widespread household food insecurity. It is therefore imperative that crop production in semi-arid areas be improved in order to meet the food demand of the ever increasing human population. No-till farming practices have the potential to increase crop productivity in smallholder production systems of sub-Saharan Africa, but rarely do because of the constraints experienced by these farmers. One of the most significant of these is the consumption of mulch by livestock. In the absence of long term on-farm assessment of the no-till system under smallholder conditions, simulation modelling is a tool that provides an insight into the potential benefits and can highlight shortcomings of the system under existing soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Thus, this study was designed to better understand the long term impact of no-till system without mulch cover on field water fluxes and maize productivity under a highly variable rainfall pattern typical of semi-arid South Africa. The simulated on-farm experiment consisted of two tillage treatments namely oxen-drawn conventional ploughing (CT) and ripping (NT). The APSIM model was applied for a 95 year period after first being calibrated and validated using measured runoff and maize yield data. The predicted results showed significantly higher surface runoff from the conventional system compared to the no-till system. Predicted deep drainage losses were higher from the NT system compared to the CT system regardless of the rainfall pattern. However, the APSIM model predicted 62% of the annual rainfall being lost through soil evaporation from both tillage systems. The predicted yields from the two systems were within 50 kg ha -1 difference in 74% of the years used in the simulation. In only 9% of the years, the model predicted higher grain yield in the NT system compared to the CT system. It is suggested that

  20. An indigenous hyperproductive species of Aureobasidium pullulans RYLF-10: influence of fermentation conditions on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kanchan L; Rahi, Deepak K; Soni, Sanjeev K

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, a significant interest has been generated in discovering and developing exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by microorganisms, especially fungi due to their multifaceted industrial and pharmacological applications. A number of filamentous and cellular fungi have been explored for this; however, according to the existing literature, the work on exopolysaccharide production by indigenous culture on this aspect is still very less and requires a serious attention. The present work is an attempt in this regard and aims to optimize the submerged culture conditions to produce the exopolysaccharides from an indigenous yeast Aureobasidium pullulans RYLF-10 with respect to several operating parameters in shake flask fermentation. The yeast A. pullulans RYLF-10 was identified by 18s RNA sequencing and detailed study on its nutritional requirements, and environmental conditions for submerged culture have been optimized. The optimal temperature and pH for both the vegetative growth and EPS production were found to be 28 ± 1 °C and 5.0, respectively, while the agitation speed and inoculum size were reported to be 150 rpm and 1 % (v/v), respectively. Sucrose (50 g/l) and yeast extract (1 g/l) were found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources which worked best in the ratio of 60:1 and resulted in the maximum EPS yield. Similarly, the other variables like growth regulator (riboflavin) and minerals (NaCl + K2HPO4 + MgSO4) altogether resulted in a noteworthy EPS yield of 45.24 g/l which is the maximum yield from this indigenous isolate of A. pullulans RYLF-10. PMID:24293276