Science.gov

Sample records for actual production history

  1. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  7. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  8. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  9. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  10. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification for actual production history coverage... Production History § 400.55 Qualification for actual production history coverage program. (a) The approved... history is certified and T or D-Yields are not provided in the actuarial documents, (2) If actual...

  11. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  12. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  13. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  14. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APH yield is calculated from a database containing a minimum of four yields and will be updated each subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may include... only occur in the database when there are less than four years of actual and/or assigned yields....

  15. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APH yield is calculated from a database containing a minimum of four yields and will be updated each subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may include... only occur in the database when there are less than four years of actual and/or assigned yields....

  16. [Natural history of the infection for human papillomavirus: an actualization].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gerardo González; Troconis, José Núñez

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the biology and natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Most papillomavirus infections are transmitted by close contact of either skin to skin or mucosa to mucosa. Sexual intercourse is not a requirement for genital HPV infection. Digital-oral infections occur and there is evidence that digital-genital and oral-genital contacts can result in the transmission of HPV, although in a relatively low percentage. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus is a common route of infection; in fact, it is recognized that more than 80% of infants born from mothers infected with genital HPV will be positive for HPV DNA determination in the nasal-pharyngeal region and oral mucosa. Women with transient infections often develop cytological abnormalities that take place while there is active HPV replication. This occurs because productive HPV infections result in cytological abnormalities in infected epithelial cells. The strong association between the risk of HPV infection and increased immune suppression, supports a direct biological effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on the natural history of HPV. PMID:24758104

  17. Bifocal contact lenses: History, types, characteristics, and actual state and problems

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Sado, Kazushige; Kanai, Atsushi; Murakami, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Since people who wear contact lenses (CL) often continue using CL even when they develop presbyopia, there are growing expectations for bifocal CL. To understand actual state and problems, history, types, and their characteristics are summarized in this review. Bifocal CL have a long history over 70 years. Recently, bifocal CL have achieved remarkable progress. However, there still is an impression that prescription of bifocal CL is not easy. It should also be remembered that bifocal CL have limits, including limited addition for near vision, as well as the effects of aging and eye diseases in the aged, such as dry eye, astigmatism, cataract, etc. Analysis of the long-term users of bifocal CL among our patients has revealed the disappearance of bifocal CL that achieved unsatisfactory vision and poor contrast compared with those provided by other types of CL. Changing the prescription up to 3 times for lenses of the same brand may be appropriate. Lenses that provide poor contrast sensitivity, suffer from glare, or give unsatisfactory vision have been weeded out. The repeated replacement of products due to the emergence of improved or new products will be guessed. PMID:19668441

  18. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  19. Coalbed methane production case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The production of methane gas from coal and coal-bearing rocks is one of the prime objectives of the Department of Energy's Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project. This report contains brief description of wells that are presently producing gas from coal or coal-bearing rocks. Data from three gob gas production areas in Illinois, an in-mine horizontal borehole degasification, and eleven vertical boreholes are presented. Production charts and electric logs of the producing zones are included for some of the wells. Additional information on dry gas production from the San Juan Basin, Colorado/New Mexico and the Greater Green River Coal Region, Colorado/Wyoming is also included.

  20. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  1. [Actual use of milk and its products and estimation of the degree of their contamination].

    PubMed

    Normatova, Sh A; Bakhritdinov, Sh S

    2011-01-01

    The actual use of milk and its products was studied in the population of the Fergana Valley and the daily intake of heavy metals, pesticides, nitrates, antibiotics, and other foreign substances was hygienically evaluated. Guidelines were developed to set up critical control points for the hazard analysis of production factors and the sale and storage of dairy products, which were approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. PMID:21604394

  2. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed. PMID:24051512

  3. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  4. [Evaluation of the actual traceability of labile blood products using medical records].

    PubMed

    Ingrand, P; Salmi, L R; Benz-Lemoine, E; Dupuis, M

    1998-12-01

    The traceability of blood products is an essential part of haemovigilance and transfusion safety. A pilot survey assessed the actual traceability by analysing transfusion information collected from medical records of a representative sample of 390 labile blood products transfused in a French university hospital. Transfusion and distribution forms were missing in 2.3% and 6.9% respectively. Availability and validity of transfusion information varied according to the nature of the expected information, elements of patients' records and types of wards. The location where the transfusion was performed was false or ambiguous in 38% of cases in surgery. Crude traceability, evaluated by the feedback of validated distribution forms, was estimated at 85.2% whereas actual traceability was estimated at 81.9% (SD 1.7%). High availability (98.7%) of at least one of the two sheets of the distribution form in medical records, or in the blood bank, revealed that a significant improvement of traceability should come from a better compliance to the rules of information transmission. The actual traceability differed significantly according to clinical services (worse in surgery) and was lower in case of autologous or absence of previous transfusion. An analysis of markers of good traceability should suggest efficient evolution of organization and information systems. This pilot study shows the relevance and feasibility of this kind of survey which could interestingly be performed on a large national representative random sample. PMID:9894331

  5. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  7. A "Genuine Relationship with the Actual": New Perspectives on Primary Sources, History and the Internet in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The pedagogic value of using archival holdings for the teaching of history has long been appreciated. Using primary sources in the teaching of history transcends the rote learning of facts and figures. It encourages critical thinking skills, introducing students to issues of context, selection and bias, to the nature of collective memory and to…

  8. Romanian Scholarly Productivity: Recent History and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Bob; Badescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Romanian scholars, and others, have decried the quality and quantity of scholarly productivity from Romania. However, Romanian scholars face challenges of both tradition and resources as they try to westernize their higher education system. We analyzed data from two sources to compare Romanian scholarly productivity to that of other countries from…

  9. Using Video Production in Teaching Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Linda S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that uses video production projects to entice lower level students into independent field investigation, reinforce their scientific curiosity, and build their confidence in the value of their own observations. Discusses the rationale behind using video, the lab structure, the success of this approach, and logistics and…

  10. Investigation and research on classification of productive skills (1)--Actual work and skills in the car manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1992-12-01

    A survey was conducted at a site for production which is in the process of technological innovation to examine and clarify the trend in current productive skills. In August 1991, a questionnaire survey was given to skilled workers of a car manufacturing company. The number of valid responses was 1,215. The survey included 133 items in the following three areas: (1) nature of workers' productive skills, 40 items; (2) human functions and vocational ability necessary for the work, 60 items; and (3) working conditions, 33 items. The characteristics of the productive skills required in each division were compared and examined based on the final results of the survey. Clear characteristics were found which reflect the actual productive skills introduced into the factories and sections through technological innovation. The nature of the product manufactured at each factory and the actual skills which reflect the work done at the factories are clarified. The survey items used for this research have effectively clarified the characteristic of the productive skills. PMID:1340499

  11. [History and uses of honey, mead and hive products].

    PubMed

    Viel, Claude; Doré, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    From Antiquity to marketing of cane sugar, and beet sugar in particular, honey was greatly consumed for its sweetening power; it was also employed for its therapeutic properties. Actually, it is always used in feeding and dietetic, and only as popular remedy. The hive products: pollen, propolis, royal jelly, introduced for few decades in dietetic meet show a great commercial passion; the beeswax was excipient in beauty care. These different aspects are developed in this study. PMID:12894775

  12. Decoding the Social Studies Production of Chicano History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arries, Jonathan F.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes in two fifth-grade social studies textbooks, the production of three "foundation myths" relating to Chicanos in American history: (1) Texas independence and the Alamo, (2) the Mexican War, and (3) the 20-century struggle for civil rights. How these contribute to cultural degradation is discussed. (SLD)

  13. [THE ACTUAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN TH FIELD OF PRODUCTION GROWTH MEDIUM].

    PubMed

    Shepelin, A P; Domotenko, L V; Diatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-06-01

    The import substitution becomes one of strategic tasks of Russian economy as a result of imposition of economic sanctions on part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other states. The development of structure and technology of production of national import substituted growth mediums permits satisfying needs of laboratory service of Russia inactive storage and to secure appropriate response to occurring challenges and new biological menaces and support bio-security of state at proper level. The presented data concerning substantiation of nomenclature of growth mediums and transport system permit satisfying in fullness the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in growth mediums of national production and to give up of import deliveries without decreasing of quality of microbiological studies. PMID:26466457

  14. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the “Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products” by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese. PMID:26760945

  15. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  16. Added value products for imaging remote sensing by processing actual GNSS reflectometry delay doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavulli, Domenico; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramilien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative and promising tool for remote sensing. It is based on the exploitation of GNSS signals reflected off Earth's surface as signals of opportunity to infer geophysical information of the reflecting surface. The main advantages of GNSS-R with respect dedicated sensors are: the unprecedented spatial-temporal coverage due to the availability of a great amount of transmitting satellite, e.g. GPS, Galileo, Glonass, etc…, long term GNSS mission life and cost effectiveness. In fact only a simple receiver is needed. In the last years several works demonstrated the meaningful of this technique in several Earth Observation applications. All these applications presented results obtained by using a receiver mounted on an aircraft or on a fixed platform. Moreover, space borne missions have been launched or are planned: UK-DMC, TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), NASA CYGNSS, Geros ISS. Practically, GNSS-R can be seen as a bistatic radar system where the GNSS satellites continuously transmit the L-band all-weather night-and-day signals that are reflected off a surface, called Glistening Zone (GZ), and a receiver measures the scattered microwave signals in terms of Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) or delay waveforms. These two products have been widely studied in the literature to extract compact parameters for different remote sensing applications. However, products measured in the Delay Doppler (DD) domain are not able to provide any spatial information of the scattering scene. This could represent a drawback for applications related to imaging remote sensing, e.g. target detection, sea/land and sea/ice transition, oil spill detection, etc…. To overcome these limitations some deconvolution techniques have been proposed in the state of the art aiming at the reconstruction of a radar image of the observed scene by processing the measured DDMs. These techniques have been tested on DDMs related to simulated marine scenario

  17. Eugene Island Block 330 Field - development and production history. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, H.J. Jr.; Holland, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 Field is currently the largest oil producing field in federally owned offshore waters of the United States. The field is located about 272 kilometers southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. This paper discusses the total geological complex and then follows the development and production history of the primary block: Eugene Island Block 330. A discussion of the sand control and safety features used in the offshore is also included. 1 ref.

  18. The history and global market of oral home-care products.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo; Maltz, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since before recorded history, like chewing sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones, tooth powder and home-made mouth rinses. Today, due to technological improvements of the cosmetic industry and market competition, home-use oral care products available in the marketplace offer a great variety of options. An increase in the consumption of oral care products has been observed in the last decades. Estimates show that Latin America observed a 12% increase in hygiene and beauty products sales between 2002 and 2003, whereas the observed global rate was approximately 2%. A significant increase in the per capita consumption of toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthrinse and dental floss has been estimated from 1992 to 2002, respectively at rates of 38.3%, 138.3%, 618.8% and 177.2%. Pertaining to this increased supply and consumption of oral care products, some related questions remain unanswered, like the occurrence of changes in disease behavior due to the use of new compounds, their actual efficacy and correct indications, and the extent of the benefits to oral health derived from consuming more products. PMID:19838554

  19. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  20. Producing the Goods: Design History and the Production of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, John

    1990-01-01

    Questions the origin of design history and its relationship to art history. Maintains that design historical knowledge is produced, and it must be acknowledged that there are design histories and not one monolithic body of knowledge. (KM)

  1. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  2. Temperature histories in geothermal wells: Survey of rock thermomechanical properties and drilling, production, and injection case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. A.

    1981-07-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties for geothermal formations are tabulated for a range of temperatures and stress conditions. Data were obtained from the technical literature and direct contacts with industry. Heat capacity, conductivity, diffusivity and undisturbed geothermal profiles are presented. Mechanical properties include Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio. Two GEOTEMP thermal simulations of drilling, production and injection are reported. Actual drilling, production, and injection histories were simulated. Results are documented in the form of printed GEOTEMP output and plots of temperatures versus depth, radius, and time. Wellbore temperatures during drilling as a function of depth; bit temperatures over the drilling history; cement temperatures from setting to the end of drilling; and casing and formation temperatures during drilling, production, and injection are discussed.

  3. Satellite anomaly assessments: operations, history, databasing, and current product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2003-04-01

    The current operational process for assessing space environmental effects on satellite anomalies in near-real time has a history of significant constraints. It has been troubled by lacks in: personnel experience, applicable data and model availability, consistency, automation, and database sharing. In an effort to alleviate such problems, the Air Force Research Laboratory, in-conjunction with the Space and Missile Systems Center's Technology Applications Division, has initiated the process of developing an all-inclusive satellite operations environment product that would automate the various aspects of satellite anomaly post-assessment, "nowcasting" (or warning), and forecasting. It will include satellite-specific, hazardous region-specific, and orbit-specific processes and related output products. Satellite charging, single event upsets, communications effects, and drag are considered with a suite of real-time data and state-of-the-art models that specify and forecast the radiation belts, ionosphere, neutral atmosphere, and more. Focused on radiation belt effects, each aspect of our current satellite anomaly assessment process and products will be presented, along with future development considerations, concerns, and solicitations.

  4. A STREAMLINE APPROACH FOR HISTORY-MATCHING PRODUCTION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Yuandong Wang; Anthony R. Kovscek

    2001-06-01

    This study proposes and develops a streamline approach for inferring field-scale effective permeability distributions based on dynamic production data including producer water-cut curve, well pressures, and rates. The streamline-based inverse approach simplifies the history-matching process significantly. The basic idea is to relate the water-cut curve at a producer to the water breakthrough of individual streamlines. By adjusting the effective permeability along streamlines, the breakthrough time of each streamline is found that reproduces the reference producer fractional-flow curve. Then the permeability modification along each streamline is mapped onto cells of the simulation grid. Modifying effective permeability at the streamline level greatly reduces the size of the inverse problem compared to modifications at the grid-block level. The approach outlined here is relatively direct and rapid. Limitations include that the forward flow problem must be solvable with streamlines, streamline locations do not evolve radically during displacement, no new wells are included, and relatively noise-free production data is available. It works well for reservoirs where heterogeneity determines flow patterns. Example cases illustrate computational efficiency, generality, and robustness of the proposed procedure. Advantages and limitations of this work, and the scope of future study, are also discussed.

  5. The History of Actual School Lives and the Perspectives of "Learners"--Sickness of Secondary Students and Their Dropping out, in the Age that Lafcadio Hearn Observed--

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Numerous historical studies have been done regarding education in modern Japan from a great diversity of viewpoints. It is true that studies of educational systems and history of educational policies have made considerable progress. Still, there remains great room for improvement in terms of both quantity and quality for studies of everyday…

  6. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zainab Z.; Jaeel, Ali Jwied

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively. PMID:24453893

  7. Training managers for high productivity: Guidelines and a case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranftl, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hughes Aircrafts 13-year productivity study clearly identifies management as the key link in the entire productivity chain. This fact led to the establishment of a long-term series of seminars on personal, managerial, organizational, and operational productivity for all levels and sectors of line and staff management. To inspire the work force to higher levels of productivity and creativity management, itself, must first be inspired. In turn they have to clearly understand the productive and creative processes, fashion an effective productivity improvement plan with sound strategy and implementation, create an optimal environmental chemistry, and provide the outstanding leadership necessary to propel their organizations to achieve full potential. The primary goals of the seminars are to (1) ignite that spark of inspiration, enabling productive action to follow, (2) provide participants a credible roadmap and effective tools for implementation, and (3) develop a dedicated commitment to leadership and productivity throughout the management team.

  8. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

  9. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  10. Lithostratigraphic framework and production history of Wilcox in central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, R.S.; Wheeler, C.W.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Moslow, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Complex fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary processes active during deposition of the Wilcox Group in central Louisiana created multiple, discontinuous sandstones. Prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs developed in association with positive structural features or where sedimentary characteristics were favorable. Because the Wilcox Group contains numerous complex depocenters, it does not lend itself to easy regional correlation. Therefore, to better delineate the occurrence of hydrocarbon-bearing sediments and to promote further exploration, five-fold lithostratigraphic framework is proposed for the Wilcox Group in Louisiana. Five lithostratigraphic zones were defined on the basis of sedimentary processes and resistivity-log character. Their thickness and sand content were mapped within 21 parishes. These zones vary from 115 to 1,000 ft thick and the sand content in each ranges from 25 to 60%. All zones produce hydrocarbons, although production is geographically variable. Production in the updip Wilcox is by far the greatest in Zone III, whereas Zone I and Zone II are most productive in the downdip deep Wilcox shelf-margin trend, a paleo-shelf margin. Isopach and isolith maps indicate that the Wilcox was sourced from the northeast and northwest. All zoness display a strong north-south isopach grain in the northern two-thirds of the study area. East-west-oriented sand packages are presented southward along the paleo-shelf margin. Regional mapping facilitated the extension of presently existing production from fluvial/deltaic depocenters by following the sand packages to the west and southwest. Where these sandstones are associated with favorable structural/stratigraphic trapping conditions, new and lucrative Wilcox fields should be found.

  11. Eugene Island Block 330 field-development and production history

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, M.J.

    1983-11-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 field is currently the largest oilproducing field in federally owned offshore waters of the U.S. The field is located about 170 miles southwest of New Orleans (Fig. 1). The first leases were purchased in Dec. 1970. Three months later, a major discovery was apparent when exploratory wells drilled by Pennzoil and Shell on adjoining Blocks 330 and 331, respectively, established a 900-ft column of hydrocarbon-bearing sands. By the end of 1971, two platforms had been set, and development was under way. Four more platforms were set during 1972 and ultimately nine platforms were installed in the field. Initial production began in Sept. 1972 from Block 331. Hydrocarbon accumulation occurs in more than 25 sandstone reservoirs located at 2,200 to 12,000 ft. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be greater than 225 million bbl of liquid hydrocarbons and 950 Bcf of gas. Improved recovery operations began in Aug. 1975, utilizing water injection on Blocks 331 and 314 and through-gas injection in Dec. 1979 on Block 330. Through Dec. 1982, cumulative production was 224 million bbl of liquid and 1.03 Tcf of gas. This production is graphically illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. This field is unique in the quick timing of operations to develop and initiate production. In summary, the Eugene Island Block 330 field is a major oil and gas field in which the hydrocarbons have accumulated in more than 25 Plio-Pleistocene deltaic sandstone reservoirs. Trapping mechanisms are combinations of structural and stratigraphic varieties including fourway dip closure, fault closure, and facies changes.

  12. U.S. Productivity Growth: History as Antidote for Both Hysteria and Complacency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumol, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An historical analysis of U.S. productivity policy shows that there is no justification for panic. But history also tells us that the vanguard is a vulnerable place. It may take enormous investment and innovation efforts for the United States to maintain its standing as the first among productivity leaders. (RM)

  13. Blackberry production in the Pacific northwestern US: A long history and a bright future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Pacific Northwest has a long history of blackberry production and research. The breeding program began in the 1920s with Darrow and later Waldo. They utilized the native Rubus ursinus along with ‘Logan’ in their breeding to develop the first commercial cultivars ‘Pacific’ and ‘Cascade’ in the...

  14. Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of women with a history of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Morgan R; Faux, David S; Hamblin, Steven D; Silver, Robert M; Esplin, M Sean

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha at the maternal-fetal interface. Previous studies have suggested that women with a history of preterm birth produce aberrantly strong inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However many intrauterine infections in women are associated with pathogens including Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) that contain pro-inflammatory factors other than LPS. We evaluated whether peripheral blood leukocytes from women with a history of preterm birth produce elevated amounts of TNFalpha upon stimulation with pathogens associated with preterm birth and if pre-treatment with aspirin, an anti-inflammatory medication, decreases the ex vivo production of this cytokine. Heat-killed bacteria elicited increased TNFalpha production from leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner, but no differences in TNFalpha production between leukocytes from women with preterm birth and control women with term birth were detected. In women who consumed aspirin each day for one week, TNFalpha production was increased in leukocytes from control women stimulated with Escherichia coli and U. urealyticum, but was reduced or unchanged in leukocytes from women with preterm birth. Similar trends were observed for a subset of samples stimulated with U. urealyticum and assayed for IL-6, IL-10, IL-1beta and TNFalpha by bead array. We conclude that leukocytes from women with a history of preterm birth do not have elevated pro-inflammatory responses to pathogens, and that reproductive history is associated with different effects of aspirin on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:20005575

  15. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  16. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  17. The exposure history of Jilin and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heusser, G.

    1986-01-01

    Jilin, the largest known story meteorite, is a very suitable object for studying the systematics of cosmic ray produced nuclides in stony meteorites. Its well established two stage exposure history even permits to gain information about two different irradiation geometries (2pi and 4pi). All stable and long-lived cosmogenic nuclides measured in Jilin so far correlate well with each other. An example is shown where the Al-26 activities are plotted vs. the spallogenic Ne-21 concentration. These records of cosmic-ray interaction in Jilin can be used both to determine the history of the target and to study the nature of production rate profiles. This is unavoidably a bootstrap process, involving studying one with assumption about the other. Production rate equations are presented and discussed.

  18. Increased thromboxane production in women with a history of venous thromboembolic event: effect of heparins.

    PubMed

    Kaaja, R; Pettilä, V; Leinonen, P; Ylikorkala, O

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane in pregnant women with a previous venous thromboembolic event before, during and after the use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). Twenty women were studied before starting heparin prophylaxis (before 20 weeks of gestation), during heparin prophylaxis (at 30 weeks of gestation) and after heparin prophylaxis (16 weeks after delivery). Ten pregnant women with no history of thromboembolism were studied as the control group. Urinary output of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha) and that of thromboxane A2 (2,3-dinor-TxB2), as well as a number of markers of thrombophilia were measured and expressed as mean (+/-SEM). Women with a history of thromboembolism were characterized by normal prostacyclin production but elevated thromboxane production (44.0 +/- 4.1 versus 19.0 +/- 3.6 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Heparin prophylaxis (regardless of the type) had abolished elevated thromboxane concentrations at 30 weeks of gestation. Four months after delivery, thromboxane dominance had returned (25.2 +/- 3.5 versus 13.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.01). The presence of hereditary thrombophilia (9/20) was not associated with any changes in prostanoid concentrations. Thus, women with a history of venous thromboembolic events have thromboxane dominance during and after pregnancy, but this dominance can be eliminated through the use of heparins. PMID:11552994

  19. [Information production by scientists and the history of science: typological study of personal archives].

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Celina Soares de Mello E; Trancoso, Márcia Cristina Duarte

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the study of document typology in the personal archives of scientists and its importance in the history of science studies and for the archivist's work. A brief history is presented of diplomatic to typological information, emphasizing that identifying document production activity as essential for its classification. The article illustrates personal archive characteristics as regards the diversity of documental types and, in particular, those belonging to physicists. Furthermore, it presents five examples of documental types found in the archives of physicists as examples of research in progress. It also highlights the elaboration of a glossary of different documental kinds and types found in the private archives of Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26331648

  20. From history to myth: productive engagement with the Flexnerian metanarrative in medical education.

    PubMed

    Schrewe, Brett

    2013-12-01

    More than 100 years following its publication, the Flexner Report endures as a principal text in contemporary medical education. While recent scholarship has questioned popular conceptions of the report and attends to marginalized passages, explanations as to why the Flexner story endures as myth in medical education remain absent in the literature. From a Bourdieusian perspective applied to an archive of both primary and secondary texts related to the history, production, and reception of the Flexner Report, this work examines the events that led to the production of a mythological "Flexner" and what significance this has for repeated yet insufficient efforts towards improving medical education. Specifically, this work links the values, beliefs, and assumptions embedded in the Flexner mythology to the unintentional obstruction of wholesale curricular reform and suggests it is in productively struggling with the legacy of this myth that we may be better positioned to reconcile ourselves to the Flexner legacy and its implication for future training. PMID:23288471

  1. A spatially and temporally explicit, individual-based, life-history and productivity modeling approach for aquatic species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realized life history expression and productivity in aquatic species, and salmonid fishes in particular, is the result of multiple interacting factors including genetics, habitat, growth potential and condition, and the thermal regime individuals experience, both at critical stag...

  2. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  3. Dark matter production mechanisms with a nonthermal cosmological history: A classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Nelson, Brent D.; Zheng, Bob

    2016-03-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a nonthermal cosmological history, i.e. with a phase of pressureless matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). We classify the different production mechanisms for DM in this framework, generalizing previous works by considering a wide range of DM masses/couplings and allowing for DM to be in equilibrium with a "dark" sector. We identify four distinct parametric regimes for the production of relic DM, and derive accurate semianalytic approximations for the DM relic abundance. Our results are particularly relevant for supersymmetric theories, in which the standard nonthermally produced DM candidates are disfavored by indirect-detection constraints. We also comment on experimental signals in this framework, focusing on novel effects involving the power spectrum of DM density perturbations. In particular, we identify a class of models where the spectrum of DM density perturbations is sensitive to the pressureless matter-dominated era before BBN, giving rise to interesting astrophysical signatures to be looked for in the future. A worthwhile future direction would be to study well-motivated theoretical models within this framework and carry out detailed studies of the pattern of expected experimental signals.

  4. [History of the development and production of drugs in the firm Lachema in Brno].

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš

    2014-04-01

    Since the 1980 year Lachema Brno was ranked among the leading pharmaceutical companies in Czechoslovakia. Lachema was founded already in 1951 but the modern factory was built around the Research Institute in the 1970s. Although Lachema existed separately, it became the property of Chemapol after privatization. After bankruptcy of Chemapol, Lachema was purchased by the largest Eastern European generic company Pliva. In 2006 Pliva became part of the U.S. generic pharmaceutical company Barr Pharmaceuticals. Finally, in 2008, Barr was acquired by Teva and Lachema was subsequently shut down. Although in the Czech Republic Lachema was almost the monopoly producer of cytostatics and a developer of original drugs, there is no separate mention about it in The History of Pharmacy in the Czech Countries. This paper therefore briefly summarizes the period of its existence, describes the research and production of pharmaceuticals and mentions a few, but not all, key personalities in the development and production of drugs.Keyword: Lachema history research industry cytostatics. PMID:24870554

  5. History effect and timing of force production introduced in a skeletal muscle model.

    PubMed

    Kosterina, Natalia; Westerblad, Håkan; Eriksson, Anders

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle modelling requires a detailed description of muscular force production. We have performed a series of experiments on mouse skeletal muscles to give a basis for an improved description of the muscular force production. Our previous work introduced a force modification in isometric phases, which was based on the work performed by or on the muscle during transient-length-varying contractions. Here, state-space diagrams were used to investigate the timing aspects of the force production. These show a dominant exponential nature of the force development in isometric phases of the contractions, reached after a non-exponential phase, assumed as an activation or deactivation stage and not further analysed here. The time constants of the exponential functions describing isometric force redevelopment after length variations appear to be related to the one for an initial isometric contraction, but depending on the previous history. The timing of force production calculated from the state-space diagrams was in agreement with the generally accepted muscle properties, thereby demonstrating the reliability of the method. A macroscopic muscular model consisting of a contractile element, parallel and series elastic elements was developed. The parameters from the experiment analysis, particularly the force modification after non-isometric contractions and the time constants, were reproduced by the simulations. The relationship between time constants introduced in a mechanistic model and the measured macroscale timings is discussed. PMID:22203363

  6. Rethinking the history of modern agriculture: British pig production, c.1910-65.

    PubMed

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it. PMID:23045887

  7. Effects of dietborne cadmium on life history and secondary production of a tropical freshwater cladoceran.

    PubMed

    Souza, J P; Melo, D C; Lombardi, A T; Melão, M G G

    2014-11-01

    The presence of metals in aquatic environments has increased worldwide. Environmental assessments of metals in freshwater ecosystems presume that toxicity is mainly caused by aqueous exposure, but dietborne exposure (contaminated food) in zooplankton may occur because microalgae carry metal ions through adsorption/absorption of dissolved metal species, resulting in toxic effects once ingested by the animals. However, official regulations for ecotoxicological assays in most countries do not consider the toxic effects caused by dietborne exposure. Here, we provide life history parameters and secondary production of Simocephalus serrulatus (Koch 1841) (Cladocera: Daphniidae) fed with cadmium (Cd) contaminated algae during a 21-day bioassay. The microalgae Chlorophyceae Scenedesmus quadricauda was exposed for 96 h to dissolved Cd concentrations of 0.03; 5.87; 12.27 and 22.27 µg Cd l(-1) (equivalent to 1.6 × 10(-10); 3.2 × 10(-8); 6.7 × 10(-8); 1.2 × 10(-7) mol l(-1)) that resulted in algae internal Cd burdens of 0.004; 0.032; 0.270 and 0.280 pg Cd cell(-1), respectively. Significant toxic effects on life history parameters of S. serrulatus were observed. Time of embryonic development, generation time and age at first reproduction (primipara) showed significant delay. Length at first reproduction, number of eggs and clutches produced per female, hatching percentage, body length, survival and feeding rates were significantly reduced. Secondary production, that is, accumulated biomass for growth and reproduction, decreased significantly with dietborne Cd concentrations. Our results emphasize that food can be an important source of metals to zooplankton in aquatic ecosystems. Environmental regulations should consider the diet in ecotoxicological assessments. Furthermore, secondary production may be considered as a suitable endpoint in ecotoxicity tests. PMID:25248828

  8. Fast history matching of time-lapse seismic and production data for high resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Arismendi, Eduardo Antonio

    Integrated reservoir modeling has become an important part of day-to-day decision analysis in oil and gas management practices. A very attractive and promising technology is the use of time-lapse or 4D seismic as an essential component in subsurface modeling. Today, 4D seismic is enabling oil companies to optimize production and increase recovery through monitoring fluid movements throughout the reservoir. 4D seismic advances are also being driven by an increased need by the petroleum engineering community to become more quantitative and accurate in our ability to monitor reservoir processes. Qualitative interpretations of time-lapse anomalies are being replaced by quantitative inversions of 4D seismic data to produce accurate maps of fluid saturations, pore pressure, temperature, among others. Within all steps involved in this subsurface modeling process, the most demanding one is integrating the geologic model with dynamic field data, including 4Dseismic when available. The validation of the geologic model with observed dynamic data is accomplished through a "history matching" (HM) process typically carried out with well-based measurements. Due to low resolution of production data, the validation process is severely limited in its reservoir areal coverage, compromising the quality of the model and any subsequent predictive exercise. This research will aim to provide a novel history matching approach that can use information from high-resolution seismic data to supplement the areally sparse production data. The proposed approach will utilize streamline-derived sensitivities as means of relating the forward model performance with the prior geologic model. The essential ideas underlying this approach are similar to those used for high-frequency approximations in seismic wave propagation. In both cases, this leads to solutions that are defined along "streamlines" (fluid flow), or "rays" (seismic wave propagation). Synthetic and field data examples will be used

  9. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances.

    PubMed

    Salter, Phia S; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  10. On the Intentionality of Cultural Products: Representations of Black History As Psychological Affordances

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Phia S.; Adams, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U.S. In studies 1 and 2, we considered whether mainstream BHM artifacts reflect the preferences and understandings of White Americans (i.e., psychological constitution of cultural worlds). Consistent with the psychological constitution hypothesis, White American participants reported more positive affect, better recognition, and greater liking for BHM representations from the schools where White Americans were the majority than BHM representations from the schools where Black students and other students of color were the majority. Moreover, as an indication of the identity relevance of BHM representations, White identification was more positively associated with judgments of positive affect and preference in response to BHM representations from White schools than BHM representations from the schools where Black students were in the majority. In studies 3 and 4, we considered whether BHM representations from different settings differentially afford support or opposition to anti-racism policies (i.e., cultural constitution of psychological experience). In support of the cultural constitution hypothesis, BHM representations typical of schools where Black students were in the majority were more effective at promoting support for anti-racism policies compared to BHM representations typical of predominately White schools and a control condition. This effect was mediated by the effect of (different) BHM

  11. Virulence genes in a probiotic E. coli product with a recorded long history of safe use

    PubMed Central

    Zschüttig, Anke; Beimfohr, Claudia; Geske, Thomas; Auerbach, Christian; Cook, Helen; Zimmermann, Kurt; Gunzer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli. PMID:25883796

  12. The Relationships among Production Changes, Employment Outcomes and Program Prestige for English and History Doctorates between 1973 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Tim W., III

    2009-01-01

    English and History doctoral programs produced varying amounts of doctoral degrees between 1973 and 2003. These doctoral degree recipients experienced changing employment outcomes influenced by program prestige. The main goal of this study is to explain the changes over time in doctoral degree production and employment outcomes for doctoral degree…

  13. [Actual problems of the impact of production and management of industrial waste on the environment and public health (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Cherniaeva, T K

    2013-01-01

    In the modern society the importance and applicability of the problem concerning the negative effect of production and consumption waste on the objects of the environment and the state sa people's health is related to their daily emergency, large tonnage, storage, and utilization. Wastes and places of their storage and waste burial constitute an toxicological and epidemiological risk. Chemical and biological contamination of solid waste is a threat to its penetration into the soil, air, groundwater and surface water bodies, vegetation, directly or indirectly, cause variations in health status of the population. PMID:24340576

  14. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Barsukov and Tarasov production histories western equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 2 of the study containing Production Histories-Western Equipment. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Job Descriptions; (2) Barsukov Histories/Logs; (3) Tarasov Histories/Logs; (4) Taxes Paid by PNG; (5) Vendors Literature; (6) Rigs; (7) Liners; (8) Directional Drilling; (9) Mechanical Perforating; (10) Camps; (11) Pumps; (12) Fishing; (13) Downhole Oil/Water Separator; (14) Plastic.

  15. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production...

  17. Predicted and actual high voltage failure - A case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, P. H.; Brent, D. A.; Sidio, G. J.

    In the process of re-developing a high voltage transformer for space use, excellent correlation was found between predicted mechanical failure, predicted partial discharge signature, and real behavior of the parts. Some useful design and inspection criteria for potted high voltage parts were developed on a consistent basis. It was found that partial discharge testing as normally implemented will not necessarily discern all life limiting defects. Three lines of investigation were followed: material properties and stress analysis, prediction of partial discharge signature as a function of defect size, and computer field stress analysis to predict which defects are capable of discharge.

  18. West Valley glass product qualification durability studies, FY 1987--1988: Effects of composition, redox state, thermal history, and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The product qualification subtask of the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides support for the waste form qualification efforts at West Valley Nuclear Services Co. Testing is being conducted to determine waste form chemical durability in support of these efforts. The effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), thermal history, and groundwater are being investigated. Glasses were tested using modified Materials Characterization Center (MCC) -3 and MCC-1 test methods. Results obtained in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 are presented here. 13 refs., 27 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. Software conversion history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the overall history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) applications software conversion project. It describes the background and nature of the project; traces the actual course of conversion; assesses the process, product, and personnel involved; and offers suggestions for future projects. It also contains lists of pertinent reference material and examples of supporting data.

  20. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

  1. Impact of operating history on mixed culture fermentation microbial ecology and product mixture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Slater, F R; Mohd-Zaki, Z; Pratt, S; Batstone, D J

    2011-01-01

    Mixed culture fermentation is an alternative to pure culture fermentation for production of biofuels and valuable products. A glucose-fed, continuous reactor was operated cyclically to a central pH of 5.5 from a number of precedent pHs, from 4.5 to 7.5. At each pH, stable chemical production was reached after 2 retention times and was held for least 2 further retention times prior to the next change. Bacterial groups were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones. Bacterial community dynamics were monitored by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. More ethanol was produced at high pH, and more butyrate at lower pH. At pH 5.5, the product spectrum was not measurably influenced by precedent pH but showed seemingly random changes. The impact of precedent pH on community structure was more systematic, with clear indications that when the pH was returned to 5.5, the bacterial group that was dominant at the precedent pH remained at high abundance. This result is important, since it indicates a decoupling between microbial function (as indicated by product spectrum), and community structure. More work is needed to determine the longevity of this hysteresis effect. There was evidence that groups retained their ability to re-emerge even after times of low abundance. PMID:22097058

  2. [The pharmaceutical company Choay: an history linked to research and commercialization of biological products].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Eugène Choay, when he created his own company in 1911, had already a large experience in pharmaceutical industry obtained with Maison Frère where he discovered the famous Dentol, well known thank to Poulbot's publicity drawings for this product. But, convinced of the future of biological products and Opotherapy, he decided to invest himself in this area with a totally new process for cold desiccation of organs. The success will be there and several pharmacists from Choay family will take care of the company and bring it to the top of its specialty in Opotherapy. At the beginning of the 1970's, Choay in in full development and has the products, the sites and the human resources for the future. In 1975, 4 therapeutic areas are covered by Choay's products: coagulation, inflammation, dermatology and hepatology. After more than 65 years of independence, Choay group will be finally bought partially and then totally by Sanofi. With the support of Sanofi, Choay created, in 1981, their US subsidiary called Choay Laboratories Inc;, after the NDA approval of sub-cutaneous Calciparine by the FDA. In 1985 Fraxiparine, a low molecular weight heparin discovered by Jean Choay's team, is lauched on the market. All these developments represent an outstanding record a longevity which indicates how perceptive was Eugène Choay and his successors when choosing to invest totally in the therapeutic use of hormones and products acting on coagulation factors. PMID:26827552

  3. Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.; Kohout, J.

    1980-11-20

    Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

  4. Avian life history profiles for use in the Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Markov Chain nest productivity model, or MCnest, quantitatively estimates the effects of pesticides or other toxic chemicals on annual reproductive success of avian species (Bennett and Etterson 2013, Etterson and Bennett 2013). The Basic Version of MCnest was developed as a...

  5. Pavayacu Field, Peru - a case history for production improvement through reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.; Ahmad, R.; Gregovic, R. ); Sanchez, W. )

    1996-01-01

    The Pavayacu field in the Mara[acute n]on basin of Peru is a mature oil field with a declining production rate. The field was under consideration for disposal when a 3-D seismic survey and reservoir characterization were conducted. These studies led to a refined understanding of the hydrocarbon distribution, which led to a 10 fold increase in daily production and additional recoverable reserves. The main reservoir in the Pavayacu field is within fluvial deltaic sands of the Vivian formation. The overall trapping mechanism is controlled by asymmetric anticlinal folding of the reservoir over basement faults. Hydrocarbon distribution and production is greatly influenced by smaller scale reservoir heterogeneities within a seemingly homogenous sand. Small scale reservoir heterogeneities were successfully resolved through an integrated reservoir characterization process where hydrocarbon pore volumes (HPV) were found to be related to seismic amplitudes derived from the 3-D seismic survey. Additional well locations were successfully selected not only based on the 3-D structural data but also on the HPV distribution. Six wells were drilled based on these analysis resulting in individual flow tests in excess of 4000 BOPD. The one well location based only on the 3-D seismic was not successful. As a result of this study overall field production was increased by an order of magnitude and the field is no longer a candidate for disposal.

  6. Pavayacu Field, Peru - a case history for production improvement through reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.; Ahmad, R.; Gregovic, R.; Sanchez, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Pavayacu field in the Mara{acute n}on basin of Peru is a mature oil field with a declining production rate. The field was under consideration for disposal when a 3-D seismic survey and reservoir characterization were conducted. These studies led to a refined understanding of the hydrocarbon distribution, which led to a 10 fold increase in daily production and additional recoverable reserves. The main reservoir in the Pavayacu field is within fluvial deltaic sands of the Vivian formation. The overall trapping mechanism is controlled by asymmetric anticlinal folding of the reservoir over basement faults. Hydrocarbon distribution and production is greatly influenced by smaller scale reservoir heterogeneities within a seemingly homogenous sand. Small scale reservoir heterogeneities were successfully resolved through an integrated reservoir characterization process where hydrocarbon pore volumes (HPV) were found to be related to seismic amplitudes derived from the 3-D seismic survey. Additional well locations were successfully selected not only based on the 3-D structural data but also on the HPV distribution. Six wells were drilled based on these analysis resulting in individual flow tests in excess of 4000 BOPD. The one well location based only on the 3-D seismic was not successful. As a result of this study overall field production was increased by an order of magnitude and the field is no longer a candidate for disposal.

  7. Comparative Demography of Skates: Life-History Correlates of Productivity and Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lewis A. K.; Winton, Megan V.; Ainsley, Shaara M.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Ebert, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Age-structured demographic models were constructed based on empirical estimates of longevity and maturity for five deepwater Bering Sea skates to investigate how observed differences in life history parameters affect population growth rates. Monte Carlo simulations were used to incorporate parameter uncertainty. Estimated population growth rates ranged from 1.045 to 1.129 yr−1 and were lower than those reported for other Alaskan skates and most chondrichthyans. Population growth rates of these and other high-latitude skates increased with relative reproductive lifespan, but displayed no significant relationship with body size or depth distribution, suggesting that assemblage shifts may be difficult to predict for data-poor taxa. Elasticity analyses indicated that juvenile and adult survival had greater per-unit effects on population growth rates than did egg-case survival or fecundity. Population growth rate was affected more by uncertainty in age at maturity than maximum age. The results of this study indicate that if skates are deemed to be a management concern, gear modifications or depth-specific effort controls may be effective. PMID:23741442

  8. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  9. Life History and Production of the Western Gray Whale's Prey, Ampelisca eschrichtii Krøyer, 1842 (Amphipoda, Ampeliscidae).

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Natalia L; Chapman, John W; Durkina, Valentina B; Fadeev, Valeriy I

    2016-01-01

    Ampelisca eschrichtii are among the most important prey of the Western North Pacific gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus. The largest and densest known populations of this amphipod occur in the gray whale's Offshore feeding area on the Northeastern Sakhalin Island Shelf. The remote location, ice cover and stormy weather at the Offshore area have prevented winter sampling. The incomplete annual sampling has confounded efforts to resolve life history and production of A. eschrichtii. Expanded comparisons of population size structure and individual reproductive development between late spring and early fall over six sampling years between 2002 and 2013 however, reveal that A. eschrichtii are gonochoristic, iteroparous, mature at body lengths greater than 15 mm and have a two-year life span. The low frequencies of brooding females, the lack of early stage juveniles, the lack of individual or population growth or biomass increases over late spring and summer, all indicate that growth and reproduction occur primarily in winter, when sampling does not occur. Distinct juvenile and adult size cohorts additionally indicate growth and juvenile production occurs in winter through spring under ice cover. Winter growth thus requires that winter detritus or primary production are critical food sources for these ampeliscid populations and yet, the Offshore area and the Eastern Sakhalin Shelf ampeliscid communities may be the most abundant and productive amphipod population in the world. These A. eschrichtii populations are unlikely to be limited by western gray whale predation. Whether benthic community structure can limit access and foraging success of western gray whales is unclear. PMID:26800185

  10. Carbon isotopic comparisons of oil products used in the developmental history of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Warden, A.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the fate of oil released into Prince William Sound, AK, as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, have led to an unexpected discovery. In addition to oil-like residues attributed to the spill, the ubiquitous presence of flattened tar balls, the carbon isotopic compositions of which fall within a surprisingly narrow range [??13C(PDB) = -23.7 ?? 0.3??? (n = 65)], were observed on the shorelines of the northern and western parts of the sound. These compositions are similar to those of some oil products [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 35)] that were shipped from California and used in Alaska for fuel, lubrication, construction, and paving before ~ 1970. These products include fuel oil, asphalt, and lubricants [-23.8 ?? 0.5??? (n = 11)], caulking, sealants, and roofing tar [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 16)], and road pavements and airport runways [-23.5 ?? 0.9??? (n = 8)]. Fuel oil and asphalt [-23.5 ?? 0.1??? (n = 3)], stored at the old Valdez town site and spilled during the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, appear to be the source of most of the beached tar balls. Oil products with lighter carbon isotopic compositions, between -25 and -30??? (n = 18), appear to have been used more recently in Alaska, that is, after ~ 1970. The source of some of the products used for modern pavement and runways [-29.3 ?? 0.2??? (n = 6)] is likely Alaskan North Slope crude oil, an example of which was spilled in the 1989 oil spill [-29.2??? (n = 1)].

  11. Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

  12. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  13. A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of an Arctic wolf pack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    A pack of two to eight adult wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and their pups was observed during ten summers (1986-95) on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. The author habituated the wolf pack to his presence in the first summer and reinforced the habituation each summer thereafter. The first alpha female produced four to six pups each year between 1986 and 1989. However, her daughter, who succeeded her as the alpha female, produced only one to three pups each year between 1990 and 1992 and in 1994, and apparently did not whelp in 1993 or in 1995. The tenure of the first alpha male was at least two years, and his successor was alpha male for the remaining eight years of the study. The wolf pack was characterized by highly variable annual productivity. The second alpha male-and-female breeding pair likely was an older brother and a younger sister. Early survival of wolf pups was high and constant, with all pups surviving through August of their first year. The pack's demography was consistent with what is known for wolf packs in other regions of North America, but its productivity was more typical of arctic packs.

  14. Well productivity improvement using extreme overbalanced perforating and surging-case history

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, L.; Coueet, B.; Abel, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes overbalanced perforating and surging operations as a pretreatment to hydraulic fracturing for the Romeo interval at Prudhoe Bay. Operation conditions are presented and discussed, as well as surface and bottomhole pressure measurements. Well productivity and the amount of proppant placed are compared to results in offset wells where the technique was not applied. The paper shows how the use of the technique allows placement of small, highly conductive fractures in intervals that were not previously considered fracturing candidates due to the close proximity to the gas/oil contact (GOC). The paper also shows pressure transient analysis affirming the technique as a stand-alone stimulation. It is shown that the use of extreme overbalanced perforating and surging treatments prior to hydraulic fracturing produces a substantial increase both in the success rate and the efficiency of the hydraulic fracturing operation and in the production rate of the wells that are pretreated. Finally, a comparison between pressure data and a new radial fracture propagation model shows a good match. The model demonstrates that high-energy treatment can significantly increase the extension and the height of the fracture; this was corroborated by downhole pressure measurements recorded during one overbalance treatment and by well logs.

  15. Fundamental population-productivity relationships can be modified through density-dependent feedbacks of life-history evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of life histories over contemporary time scales will almost certainly affect population demography. One important pathway for such eco-evolutionary interactions is the density-dependent regulation of population dynamics. Here, we investigate how fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) might alter density-dependent population-productivity relationships. To this end, we simulate the eco-evolutionary dynamics of an Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) population under fishing, followed by a period of recovery in the absence of fishing. FIE is associated with increases in juvenile production, the ratio of juveniles to mature population biomass, and the ratio of the mature population biomass relative to the total population biomass. In contrast, net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and per capita population growth rate (r) decline concomitantly with evolution. Our findings suggest that FIE can substantially modify the fundamental population-productivity relationships that underlie density-dependent population regulation and that form the primary population-dynamical basis for fisheries stock-assessment projections. From a conservation and fisheries-rebuilding perspective, we find that FIE reduces R 0 and r, the two fundamental correlates of population recovery ability and inversely extinction probability. PMID:25558282

  16. The history of consumer magnetic video tape recording, from a rarity to a mass product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luitjens, S. B.; Rijckaert, A. M. A.

    1999-03-01

    Since the first experiments on magnetic recording by Valdemar Poulsen in 1898 the use of this technology has grown tremendously and magnetic storage is used in almost every home in the world. A special challenge was the recording of video signals which need a high bandwidth. In the 1950s, television broadcasts had started which created a need for storage in the broadcast world. The first broadcast recorder was the Quadruplex from Ampex in 1956. Later solutions were found for application in the consumer market. Better mechanics, magnetic tapes and recording heads allowed the mass production of a cheap consumer recorder. The size and weight decreased tremendously and portable camcorders are very common. Recording of broadcasts, video rental and home movies are now very popular. The factors which contributed to the maturing of this technology will be reviewed in this paper.

  17. Life history and production of walleyes of the 1959 year-class in western Lake Erie, 1959-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the near collapse of the fishery for walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in Lake Erie in the late 1950's, walleyes of the 1959 year-class were studied to gain a better understanding of the life history of the species and the dynamics of the population. In the summer of 1959 most walleyes of the year-class were in water 10 to 20 feet deep along the south and west shores of the western basin. By fall they averaged about 10 inches long and were rather widely distributed throughout the basin. By September 1960 most had reached legal length (then 13 inches in Ohio), and in October they made up nearly the entire commercial walleye production and made the highest monthly contribution during the life of the year-class. Walleyes of the 1959 year-class were cropped intensively and remained in the fishery for only a relatively short time. Estimated Ohio trap net production of the year-class was 261,000 fish in 1960, 168,000 in 1961, and 21,000 in 1962. Few fish survived beyond the spring of 1962. About 97% of the females of the year-class were caught before they had spawned once.

  18. Vascular function and nitric oxide production in chronic social-stress-exposed rats with various family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bernatowa, I; Csizmadiova, Z; Kopincova, J; Puzserova, A

    2007-09-01

    The study investigated the effect of chronic crowding stress on vascular function and nitric oxide (NO) production in rats with various family history of hypertension. Wistar (W), wBHR (offspring of W dams and spontaneously hypertensive sires), sBHR (offspring of spontaneously hypertensive dams and W sires) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used. Twelve-week-old males were divided into the control or crowded group for eight weeks. Basal blood pressure (BP, determined by tail-cuff plethysmography) of W, wBHR, sBHR and SHR rats was 112 +/- 3, 129 +/- 2, 135 +/- 2 and 187 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Crowding increased BP and reduced aortic NO synthase activity only in sBHR and SHR rats, without alterations in hypothalamic NO production. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of the femoral artery of stress-exposed rats was improved in W, unaltered in wBHR and sBHR and reduced in SHR. Crowding reduced serotonin-induced vasoconstriction in W and wBHR rats but had no effect in sBHR and SHR rats. In conclusion, the results suggest that crowded offspring of normotensive mothers were able to modify their vascular function in order to maintain BP at normal levels. On the other hand, offspring of hypertensive mothers were unable of effective adaptation of vascular function in stressful conditions resulting in gradual development of hypertension. PMID:17928645

  19. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  20. Women and History: Outside the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…

  1. My Dog's Name is Snoopy: Personal Symbolism and Joan Miro--A Model for Planning Learning Situations in Aesthetics, Art Criticism, Art History and Art Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jackie

    The four content areas of discipline based art education (aesthetics, art criticism, art history, and art production) should be addressed in every art education unit planned and taught to students. All four content areas are addressed in the process of formal art criticism therefore every unit/lesson that utilizes a formal art criticism also…

  2. [Actuality with the breast implants].

    PubMed

    Duchateau, J

    2013-09-01

    The author presents the history of breast implants, and the modern evolution where breast implants are largely used in both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. Breast augmentation is one of the most performed cosmetic procedures, with a high satisfaction rate. However, one needs to remind that breast implants have a limited duration of life. The estimated rate of breast implant rupture after 10 years is of 10% in the current literature, This rate will probably become lower with the new more cohesive implants recently available on the market. It is therefore essential to propose a regular follow-up to all patients having breast implants. This follow-up is performed using a combination of physical examination, mammograms, ultrasound and MRI. The more specific therapeutic approach for patients having a PIP prosthesis will also be discussed. PMID:24195240

  3. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaples, Lee

    2001-01-01

    The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

  4. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  5. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  6. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  7. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  8. Radiogenic Heat Production in the Cretaceous Sediments of Yola Arm of Nigeria Benue Trough: Implications for Thermal History and Hydrocarbon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Joshua, E. O.; Opeloye, S. A.; Ademola, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Yola Arm is an east-west extension of the upper Benue Trough of Nigeria with Cretaceous sediments of Albian to Coniacian ages. Thirteen samples which are mainly sandstone, shale, mudstone, clay, siltstone, limestone and coal were collected from six different geological units namely: Bima Sandstone (BS), Yolde Formation (YF), Dukul Formation (DF), Sukuliye Formation (SF), Numanhan Formation (NF) and Lamja Sandstone (LS). This is to determine their radioactive heat production and implications for thermal history and hydrocarbon generation. The result shows that concentration and rate of heat production of 40K, 232Th, and 238U in the samples varies widely with lithologies and stratigraphic intervals. Three groups of total heat production (HP) were identified and designated as low (LHP), moderate (MHP), and high (HHP). The LHP includes sandstones of BS, limestone of DF and coal of LS with total heat production of <750 pW/Kg. Clay of BS, siltstone of YF, limestone of SF and NF, and sandstone of LS belong to MHP with total heat production of between 750 and 1500 pW/Kg. Shale of YF, SF and NF with total heat production of >1500 pW/Kg belong to HHP. The HHP group corresponds to shale units at different ages in the study area, and may have produced enough heat for hydrocarbon generation. The total heat production studies have suggested that the Cretaceous sediments experienced complex temperature history with at least two sudden thermal pulses. They could have been related to Cretaceous synsedimentary volcanism or to the emplacement of the basaltic pluton.

  9. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  10. Gas-well production decline in multiwell reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S. ); Stark, J.J. ); Yost, A.B. II )

    1990-12-01

    This paper introduces a pseudosteady-state constant-pressure solution for gas wells. The solution was used to develop a type-curve-based method to history match and predict multiwell gas reservoir production. Good agreements between the predicted and actual gas well production rates were obtained.

  11. Doing History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Robert W.

    When elementary students examine primary sources and local historical sites to gain firsthand information about life in the past, history becomes more relevant, exciting, and enjoyable. To help students understand that history is not just what is in a textbook, this student resource book focuses on making them aware that history exists all around…

  12. [The history of the Confederation of historians of medicine].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with a brief essay of history and actual state of activities of the Confederation of historians of medicine which before Perestroika was named the All-Union history medical society. PMID:20731155

  13. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  14. Life history, secondary production and trophic basis of two dominant mayflies in a subtropical stream of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    Mayflies constitute a major part of macroinvertebrate biomass and production in lotic ecosystems, and play an important role in material cycle and energy flow. There are more than 250 species of mayflies in rivers and streams of China. In order to learn their ecological functions, an investigation on life cycle, production and trophic basis of dominant species of mayflies in a second-order branch of Hanjiang River basin, Hubei, China was carried out during June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that the dominant mayfly species Epeorus sp. and Caenis sp. developed two generations per year; in term of Epeorus sp., putation mainly occurred in spring and then from late summer to early autumn, while Caenis sp. pupated in spring and autumn. The abundance and biomass of the Epeorus sp. population peaked twice (1 226 ind/m2, 3.142 5g/m2) in April and June. Caenis sp. also had two peaks (307ind/m2, 1.590 g/m2), but in February and June. Cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of Epeorus sp. were 161.009 g/m2 wet weight and 7.7, respectively, and annual production and P/B ratio were 267.46g/m2.a wet weight and 15.4, respectively; cohort production and P/B ratio of Caenis sp. were 26.7995g/m2 wet weight and 4.7, its annual production and P/B ratio were 53.60 g/m2.a wet weight and 9.4, respectively. For Epeorus sp., the proportions contributing to secondary production of the main food types were: amorphous detritus, 33.46%; fungi, 10.83%; vascular plant detritus, 1.80%; diatoms, 53.90%; for Caenis sp., the proportions were 70.79%, 6.90%, 3.52% and 18.77%, respectively.

  15. Recent case histories of food product-metal container interactions using scanning electron microscopy-x-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, J E

    1997-10-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis (EDS) were used to investigate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in plain tinplate food cans, product discoloration, filiform corrosion, pitting/perforation corrosion, and loss of coating adhesion in enameled food cans. Intergranular SCC of uncoated tinplate occurred in canned pineapple juice. This is a rare occurrence in acid food products. The fracture developed in the can headspace only at the product line/metal interface by an interaction of the detinned metal surface with stress-inducing compounds in the product. Black discoloration of rice granules in the can headspace of a chicken and rice product was caused by the formation of metal sulfides. The source of the metal contamination was traced to metallic dirt in the coating on the tin-free-steel end. Blackening of light tan-colored olives and brine occurred after 1 year of storage in enameled tinplate containers as a result of pitting corrosion at the side seam weld. The cause of the pitting was a defective side seam stripe which failed to protect the weld. A perforation problem occurred at the score line of aluminum-tinplate bimetallic cans. The failure was caused by the high chloride content of the fruit product. Filiform corrosion resulted in perforations that occurred on the outside surfaces of two-piece tin-free steel cans packed with tuna. The cause of the corrosion was related to scratch defects in the exterior coating and the presence of chloride and sulfate cannery residues in the corroded areas. An enamel adhesion failure developed inside two-piece tin-free steel cans that contained mushrooms. Wrinkles in the coating which were introduced during can manufacture were cracked. The fractures were pathways for product-steel interaction which resulted in container failure. PMID:9353869

  16. The regulatory framework for preventing cross-contamination of pharmaceutical products: History and considerations for the future.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Flueckiger, Andreas; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Luo, Wendy; Molnar, Lance R; Sandhu, Reena; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Cross-contamination in multi-product pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities can impact both product safety and quality. This issue has been recognized by regulators and industry for some time, leading to publication of a number of continually evolving guidelines. This manuscript provides a historical overview of the regulatory framework for managing cross-contamination in multi-product facilities to provide context for current approaches. Early guidelines focused on the types of pharmaceuticals for which dedicated facilities and control systems were needed, and stated the requirements for cleaning validation. More recent guidelines have promoted the idea of using Acceptable Daily Exposures (ADEs) to establish cleaning limits for actives and other potentially hazardous substances. The ADE approach is considered superior to previous methods for setting cleaning limits such as using a predetermined general limit (e.g., 10 ppm or a fraction of the median lethal dose (LD50) or therapeutic dose). The ADEs can be used to drive the cleaning process and as part of the overall assessment of whether dedicated production facilities are required. While great strides have been made in using the ADE approach, work remains to update good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure that the approaches are clear, consistent with the state-of-the-science, and broadly applicable yet flexible enough for adaptation to unique products and situations. PMID:27230736

  17. History of Physical Terms: "Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term "energy", and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important…

  18. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  19. Metallurgical design basis, qualification testing, and production history of 50 ksi and 60 ksi steel plate for the MARS TLP deck fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sueda, Kyosuke; Iki, Hiroshi; Smith, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The MARS TLP fast-track deck construction project required rapid qualification and production of 50 ksi and 60 ksi steel plate. This paper describes the development of high-performance 4 in. (101.6mm) 50 ksi and 3 in. (76.2mm) 60 ksi steels of a modified API 2W composition and presents the production history for the MARS deck steel order. The same base composition was used for both grades via innovative proprietary TMCP practice. Utilization of the mono-chemistry steel allowed for production of a wide range of thicknesses and grades in a very short time frame via a simplified melting schedule and made it possible to minimize the number of new welding procedures to be developed by the deck fabricator. Extremely low carbon equivalent allowed the implementation of low fabrication preheats, with resultant cost and fabrication schedule savings. The chemical composition of the steel was specifically designed for this project and qualification testing in accordance with API RP 2Z verified high heat-affected zone CTOD toughness free of local brittle zones over a wide range of heat input and interpass temperature. Strict production process control resulted in very tight production property histograms with all steel being verified to have Charpy V-notch transition temperatures below {minus}80 C ({minus}112 F) at the plate mid-width, mid-thickness position. The success of the MARS deck steel rapid qualification, production and delivery was enabled by close teamwork between deck design engineers, construction fabrication contractor, and steelmaker for this steel.

  20. Production history matching to determine reservoir properties of important coal groups in the Upper Pottsville formation, Brookwood and Oak Grove fields, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama is one of the most important coal mining and coalbed methane production areas in the United States. Methane control efforts through degasification that started almost 25 years ago for the sole purpose of ensuring mining safety resulted in more than 5000 coalbed methane wells distributed within various fields throughout the basin. The wells are completed mostly in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation and present a unique opportunity to understand methane reservoir properties of these coals and to improve their degasification performances. The Brookwood and Oak Grove fields in the Black Warrior Basin are probably two of the most important fields in the basin due to current longwall coal mining activities. In this work, methane and water productions of 92 vertical wellbores drilled, some completed 20 years ago, over a current large coal mine district located in these two fields, were analyzed by history matching techniques. The boreholes were completed at the Mary Lee coal group, or at combinations of the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek groups. History matching models were prepared and performed according to properties of each coal group. Decline curve analyses showed that effective exponential decline rates of the wells were between 2% and 25% per year. Results of production history matching showed, although they varied by coal group, that pressure decreased as much as 80% to nearly 25 psi in some areas and resulted in corresponding decreases in methane content. Water saturation in coals decreased from 100% to between 20 and 80%, improving gas relative permeabilities to as much as 0.8. As a result of primary depletion, permeability of coal seams increased between 10 and 40% compared to their original permeability, which varied between 1 and 10 md depending on depth and coal seam. These results not only can be used for diagnostic and interpretation purposes, but can be used as parameter

  1. Why the history of nephrology?

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement. PMID:26913750

  2. The growth and harvesting of kenaf and its conversion to products: Case history of an industrial biomass crop

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    Kenaf`s story is now being told in the fields of South Texas and Southern Louisiana as new fiber processing operation are responding to the public`s demand for more environmentally sound sources of fiber and farmer`s desperate pleas for additional production options. Despite the title, this paper focuses primarily on the {open_quotes}demand{close_quotes} pull from the market place that brings the new crop production/processing system together. Kenaf, an annual hibiscus crop, has been cultivated for several centuries in Asia and Africa, mostly as a substitute for jute fiber in the world`s cordage industry. The crop was first seriously considered in the Americas when jute supplies from Asia were cut off by the War in the Pacific. In the 1960s the US Department of Agriculture selected kenaf as the most promising annual crop source of fiber for the pulp and paper industry. Industry took a look but it wasn`t their priority and the initial USDA effort ceased in the late 1970s. However, almost at the same time some newspaper publishers, who had been following the USDA work, intervened to keep things going. Kenaf International was formed in 1981 as system-oriented company determined to finally put things together on a commercial basis. The company focused on both ends (market and production), hoping to fill in the middle as it went forward. The primary objective at first was to introduce kenaf as an annually renewable fiber source for newsprint manufacturers. That eventually proved to be a very big bite for a small organization to chew, and Kenaf International (and its associates) soon {open_quotes}discovered{close_quotes} other aspects of kenaf`s potential as it pursued its goals. This is where we join The Kenaf Story {open_quotes}in progress.{close_quotes}

  3. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  4. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  5. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  6. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  7. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  8. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  9. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  10. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  11. A High Diversity in Chitinolytic and Chitosanolytic Species and Enzymes and Their Oligomeric Products Exist in Soil with a History of Chitin and Chitosan Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nampally, Malathi; Rajulu, M. B. Govinda; Gillet, Dominique; Suryanarayanan, T. S.; Moerschbacher, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs) have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering. PMID:26273652

  12. Development, pre-qualification, and production history of 60 ksi UOE steel tendon pipe for AUGER tension leg platform

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Izumi; Nishimoto, Koji; Nagase, Makoto; Nishizawa, Masashi; Smith, J.D.; Bowen, K.G. |

    1995-12-31

    AUGER Tension Leg Platform (TLP) tendons consisted of specially designed threaded forged connections welded to thick-walled tubular tendon segments. This paper describes the development, pre-qualification testing, and production properties of the 60ksi-26 in. O.D. x 1.300 in. wall-thickness steel pipes which formed the TLP tendon segments. The tendon pipe segments were manufactured by the UOE process using Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate with double-submerged arc seam welding (DSAW). Stringent mechanical properties and dimensional control requirements were established for the tendon pipes, with special emphasis on weldability and resulting high heat-affected-zone (HAZ) crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness. The weldability (hydrogen delayed cracking resistance) and fracture toughness of the HAZ showed high and stable performance. Tight dimensional control, especially ovality, ensured minimal high-low during the making of girth welds at the construction site. Limiting high-low is an important parameter for lowering local stress-concentration factor (SCF) and increasing fatigue life. These results are discussed with particular reference to the steel Local Brittle Zone (LBZ) concept. Narrow range control of the TMCP steel chemistry, plate manufacturing process, and UOE pipe-forming and seam-welding process insured that all requirements were met for the production quantity.

  13. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  14. "Journey to the Stars": Presenting What Stars Are to Global Planetarium Audiences by Blending Astrophysical Visualizations Into a Single Immersive Production at the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, Carter; Mac Low, M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kinzler, R.; Paglione, T. A. D.; Abbott, B. P.

    2010-01-01

    "Journey to the Stars" is the latest and fourth space show based on storytelling from data visualization at the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History. This twenty five minute, full dome movie production presents to planetarium audiences what the stars are, where they come from, how they vary in type and over time, and why they are important to life of Earth. Over forty scientists from around the world contributed their research to what is visualized into roughly fifteen major scenes. How this production is directed into a consolidated immersive informal science experience with learning goals is an integrative process with many inputs and concerns for scientific accuracy. The goal is a seamless merger of visualizations at varying spatial and temporal scales with acuity toward depth perception, revealing unseen phenomena, and the layering of concepts together to build an understanding of stars; to blend our common experience of them in the sky with the uncommon meaning we have come to know through science. Scripted by Louise Gikow who has worked for Children's Television Workshop, narrated by Whoopie Goldberg, and musically scored by Robert Miller, this production strives to guide audiences through challenging scientific concepts by complimenting the natural beauty the subject matter presents with understandable prose and musical grandeur. "Journey to the Stars" was produced in cooperation with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Heliophysics Division and is in release at major planetariums, worldwide.

  15. Life history, population dynamics and production of eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Pisces, Poeciliidae), in rice fields of the lower Mondego River Valley, western Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João Alexandre; Marques, João Carlos

    1999-11-01

    The introduced population of Gambusia holbrooki from the rice fields of the lower Mondego River Valley, Portugal, was studied for 15 months, relating their life cycle and population dynamics with its production, in order to assess the role of the species in the energy flow and secondary production in this type of agro-ecosystem. Two main annual cohorts (1995 and 1996 cohorts) were identified. The females outnumbered males and the average female/male-ratio was 4. The inspection of ovary developmental stages of this viviparous fish, revealed that the most important reproductive period was between April and August. The first recruits were recorded in June and were present thereafter until October. Males from the parental cohort died before August, whereas parental females could survive until October. Mean adjusted fecundity (number of embryos divided by female standard length) peaked in July 1996 (0.95) and in June 1997 (1.05). Females reached greater sizes, had a higher growth rate and lived longer than males. Annual production was estimated at 3.101 g.m -2.year -1 (ash-free dry weight, AFDW), the average biomass at 2.896 g.m -2 (AFDW), and the P/B ratio was 1.071. A conjugation of life history, population dynamics, production and ecological traits (e.g. fast growth, reduced longevity, viviparity, high productivity, an intermediate position in food chain, and no special habitat requirements for reproduction) clearly show that the populations of G. holbrooki, introduced into rice fields all over the world, may play an important role in the structure and functioning of the biological communities of these important agro-ecosystems.

  16. History of the development and industrial production of low thermal emissivity coatings for high heat insulating glass units.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Hans J

    2008-05-01

    Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings play a dominate role in high heat insulating multiple glass units with which an essential part of heat energy can be saved in buildings. With such coatings as the main part, and to a lesser part with low thermal conductive filling gases of the units' interspaces, their heat transmittance can be reduced from 6.0 W/m(2)? K for a single glazing--still glazed to a high degree--to 0.4 W/m(2) K for a triple insulating glass unit. This astonishing development is regarded as one of the most important innovations of the flat glass industry in the past century. The roots of low-E coatings in the 1960s, their startup for production in the 1970s, and, most important, further development steps accompanied by, and partly also codesigned actively by the author, are depicted. PMID:18449246

  17. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 1206.180 Section 1206.180 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing...

  18. 27 CFR 19.35 - Application of effective tax rate (Actual).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax rate (Actual). 19.35 Section 19.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Rates § 19.35 Application of effective tax rate (Actual). Any proprietor who does not apply effective... tax rate for each batch of distilled spirits in the processing account on which credit against tax...

  19. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  20. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  1. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  2. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  3. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  4. History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides.

  5. Al-26-production rates and Mn-53/Al-26 production rate ratios in nonantarctic chondrites and their application to bombardment histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpers, U.; Englert, P.

    1983-11-01

    The long-lived spallogenic radionuclides Al-26 and Mn-53 were systematically studied in a large number of nonantarctic meteorites by nondestructive gamma-gamma-coincidence technique and neutron activation, respectively. From the Al-26-activities normalized to the main target element, silicon, an average production rate of 298 + or - 55 (dpm/kg Si/equ/) was derived. Baed on 15 chondrites with exposure ages equal to or greater than 12,000,000 a and depth profiles of Dhurmsala and Keyes, an average production rate ratio (Mn-53/Al-26)(prod) = 1.48 + or - 0.15 (dpm/kg Fe / dpm/kg Si/equ/) was calculated, which seems to be depth-independent for meteorites with preatmospheric radii R less than 35 cm. Mn-53/Al-26-radiation ages for 29 stones with short exposure ages were determined. A comparison of the results with the respective Mn-53 and Ne-21-exposure ages generally shows a good agreement. The cosmic ray bombardment age scale covered by this method is the range for T(rad) from 1,000,000 to 10,000,000 a.

  6. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  7. The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis: the mechanisms underlying the production of symptoms and the natural history of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K J; McDonald, W I

    1999-01-01

    The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis is reviewed, with emphasis on the axonal conduction properties underlying the production of symptoms, and the course of the disease. The major cause of the negative symptoms during relapses (e.g. paralysis, blindness and numbness) is conduction block, caused largely by demyelination and inflammation, and possibly by defects in synaptic transmission and putative circulating blocking factors. Recovery from symptoms during remissions is due mainly to the restoration of axonal function, either by remyelination, the resolution of inflammation, or the restoration of conduction to axons which persist in the demyelinated state. Conduction in the latter axons shows a number of deficits, particularly with regard to the conduction of trains of impulses and these contribute to weakness and sensory problems. The mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of symptoms to changes in body temperature (Uhthoff's phenomenon) are discussed. The origin of 'positive' symptoms, such as tingling sensations, are described, including the generation of ectopic trains and bursts of impulses, ephaptic interactions between axons and/or neurons, the triggering of additional, spurious impulses by the transmission of normal impulses, the mechanosensitivity of axons underlying movement-induced sensations (e.g. Lhermitte's phenomenon) and pain. The clinical course of the disease is discussed, together with its relationship to the evolution of lesions as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The earliest detectable event in the development of most new lesions is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in association with inflammation. Inflammation resolves after approximately one month, at which time there is an improvement in the symptoms. Demyelination occurs during the inflammatory phase of the lesion. An important mechanism determining persistent neurological deficit is axonal degeneration, although persistent conduction block arising from

  8. Life History and Production of the Western Gray Whale’s Prey, Ampelisca eschrichtii Krøyer, 1842 (Amphipoda, Ampeliscidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ampelisca eschrichtii are among the most important prey of the Western North Pacific gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus. The largest and densest known populations of this amphipod occur in the gray whale’s Offshore feeding area on the Northeastern Sakhalin Island Shelf. The remote location, ice cover and stormy weather at the Offshore area have prevented winter sampling. The incomplete annual sampling has confounded efforts to resolve life history and production of A. eschrichtii. Expanded comparisons of population size structure and individual reproductive development between late spring and early fall over six sampling years between 2002 and 2013 however, reveal that A. eschrichtii are gonochoristic, iteroparous, mature at body lengths greater than 15 mm and have a two-year life span. The low frequencies of brooding females, the lack of early stage juveniles, the lack of individual or population growth or biomass increases over late spring and summer, all indicate that growth and reproduction occur primarily in winter, when sampling does not occur. Distinct juvenile and adult size cohorts additionally indicate growth and juvenile production occurs in winter through spring under ice cover. Winter growth thus requires that winter detritus or primary production are critical food sources for these ampeliscid populations and yet, the Offshore area and the Eastern Sakhalin Shelf ampeliscid communities may be the most abundant and productive amphipod population in the world. These A. eschrichtii populations are unlikely to be limited by western gray whale predation. Whether benthic community structure can limit access and foraging success of western gray whales is unclear. PMID:26800185

  9. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  10. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  11. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  12. Mathematics in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics…

  13. Yearbooks as History Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Provides an eight-step plan to help yearbook production staffs research the history of their school and integrate it into the present, allowing students to see the "big picture" of how their school has affected and continues to affect the community in which they reside. (PA)

  14. Anthropology and history: the revaluation of history in anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Colić, S

    1999-12-01

    The main premise of this paper is that the accepted view of history based on written documents (historiography) is marked by hierarchical ordering and evaluation implicit in it. The paper examines the context of the negation of history, and the revaluation of history in anthropological research. The lack of written documents concerning particular social groups on the internal plane, but also particular nations (ethnic groups) on the global plane, earned them the name of "nations (groups) without history". This criterion of historicity--the existence of a writing system and written documents--implies the hypothesis about the inferiority of those nations and groups. The attributes of history seen in this way are modernity, linearity and cumulativeness. This system implies ethnocentrism based on a twofold negation: a) the negation history, and b) the negation of otherness. What we must not forget is that the symbolic universes are social products with a history, and in order to understand their meaning, one must understand the history of their production. It is very important to pay close attention to the historical practice of projecting our cultural practices onto others. The question of who determines the history and which views are presented to a particular audience is a matter of power and contest. contemporary history-oriented sociocultural anthropology focuses on the total reconstruction of the way of life and thinking in particular periods of history: on the everyday life. This brought together the intellectual traditions of "new history", ethnology, sociocultural anthropology and the sociology of culture. While modernism stresses the present change versus the static past, postmodernism denies the past ever being static and hypostatises fluidity and change as permanent condition. Postmodernism strives to undermine the old, Euro-centric notion that "we" have a history but "they" do not; it has also lead to social scientists' renewed interest in history. PMID

  15. "Our Place in History": Inspiring Place-Based Social History in Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, David A.; Koppelman, Nancy; Elam, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a teacher development program that engages history and social studies teachers in making connections between learning and the well-being of places in which people actually live. "Our Place in History" is a three-year, federally-funded professional development institute for twenty teachers from diverse communities in…

  16. Bulletproof History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  17. Arguing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

  18. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  19. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  20. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  1. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  2. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  3. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

  4. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  5. The Ethnic History of South Carolina. American History, South Carolina History. Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide for eighth grade teachers was the product of a Title IX ethnic studies project. The guide was designed to supplement the regular South Carolina state history textbooks and place in a more positive frame of reference the ethnic contributions that specific ethnic groups have made to South Carolina history. Written by teachers, the guide…

  6. History of mathematics and history of science reunited?

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    For some years now, the history of modern mathematics and the history of modern science have developed independently. A step toward a reunification that would benefit both disciplines could come about through a revived appreciation of mathematical practice. Detailed studies of what mathematicians actually do, whether local or broadly based, have often led in recent work to examinations of the social, cultural, and national contexts, and more can be done. Another recent approach toward a historical understanding of the abstractness of modern mathematics has been to see it as a species of modernism, and this thesis will be tested by the raft of works on the history of modern applied mathematics currently under way. PMID:22073775

  7. Fish Research Project Oregon; Aspects of Life History and Production of Juvenile Oncorhynchus Mykiss in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Northeast Oregon, 1995-1999 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Erick S.; Jonnasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2001-07-01

    Rotary screw traps, located at four sites in the Grande Ronde River basin, were used to characterize aspects of early life history exhibited by juvenile Onchorhychus mykiss during migration years 1995-99. The Lostine, Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde traps captured fish as they migrated out of spawning areas into valley rearing habitats. The Grande Ronde Valley trap captured fish as they left valley habitats downstream of Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde River rearing habitats. Dispersal downstream of spawning areas was most evident in fall and spring, but movement occurred during all seasons that the traps were fished. Seaward migration occurred primarily in spring when O. mykiss smolts left overwintering area located in both spawning area and valley habitats. Migration patterns exhibited by O. mykiss suggest that Grande Ronde Valley habitats are used for overwintering and should be considered critical rearing habitat. We were unable to positively differentiate anadromous and resident forms of O. mykiss in the Grande Ronde River basin because both forms occur in our study area. The Grande Ronde Valley trap provided the best information on steelhead production in the basin because it fished below valley habitats where O. mykiss overwinter. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured below upper spawning and rearing habitats showed a bimodal distribution regardless of the season of capture. Scale analyses suggested that each mode represents a different brood year. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured in the Grande Ronde Valley trap were not bimodal, and primarily represented a size range consistent with other researchers' accounts of anadromous smolts.

  8. Characteristic and uncharacteristic earthquakes as possible artifacts: what does the seismic history actually tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Newman, A.

    2004-05-01

    A challenge for tectonic studies and seismic hazard analysis is that the rates and sizes of the largest observed earthquakes in an area may differ significantly from their true long-term values. This especially likely for intraplate areas or others where recurrence intervals are long, so the earthquake record length is comparable to the mean recurrence time of large earthquakes. In many areas, the largest earthquakes - termed characteristic - appear more common than expected from the log-linear frequency-magnitude relation observed for smaller earthquakes. In others, large earthquakes which we term "uncharacteristic" appear less frequently than expected from the small earthquakes. These effects may be real, or may arise from several possible situations. Apparent characteristic earthquakes can occur if earthquake recurrence intervals are distributed about the mean for that magnitude range, because sampling bias makes those with shorter intervals more likely to be observed than those with longer ones (fractions of earthquakes cannot be observed). A second possibility is suggested by the fact that characteristic earthquakes are often inferred because paleoseismic data are discordant with instrumental or historical data. Hence apparent characteristic earthquakes would occur if paleoseismic data overestimate earthquake magnitudes. This appears to have occurred for the New Madrid zone, because paleoliquification data were calibrated assuming the 1811-12 earthquakes were M 8.3 events, whereas more recent analyses find that these earthquakes were low M 7. Conversely, paleoearthquakes in the Wabash seismic zone appear "uncharacteristic", perhaps because or the paleoseismic record captures only some of the large earthquakes.

  9. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  10. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  11. [History of sun protection].

    PubMed

    Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior towards the sun has changed over the years along with trends. Tan succeeded the white complexion. The sunscreens appeared recently in history. It is lining up with the discovery of bad effects due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet at the end of the 19th century. Initially, those products had no signs of efficacy on their packaging, then the solar protection factors increased gradually, up to a limit value of 50+ more recently. PMID:21032925

  12. Virtual History and the History of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Discusses three potential problems in the application of virtual history: (1) extrapolation; (2) critical analysis; and (3) the danger of using it as wishful thinking. Offers comparative history as a possible alternative way to overcome virtual history outcomes. (KDR)

  13. The GAO History Program: A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trask, Roger R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the planning, formation, and history of the General Accounting Office history program. Addresses functions, staff size, organizational placement, and the role of an advisory committee. Stresses oral history, policy research, and identification of documentary sources. (DK)

  14. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  15. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history. PMID:22702165

  16. Using Oral History in the Elementary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    All too often, students see history only as a product--a massive collection of unrelated names and events, dates and places. But if students are presented with history as a process, they can become aware of how the product (written history) is created. Oral history is an excellent means for students to gather information and produce historical…

  17. Teaching Natural History in a Wilderness Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Mikel

    A college honors course called "A Field Study in American Literature and Philosophy" helps students develop foundations for an environmental philosophy, by introducing them to the literature of natural history and exploration, and more importantly, through actual participation in outdoor activities. The class spends at least four days and nights…

  18. Toward a science of history

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Linda J.; Hake, Don F.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific status of History was compared to other sciences in the critical areas event selection, investigative operations, and theory construction. First, in terms of events studied, history is regarded as a quasi-scientific study of past events. However, viewed from the science of behavior's perspective of what historians actually do, history becomes a study of current records. As a study of currently existing records, not the non-existent past, history has potential to become a science. Second, like other scientists, historians may undertake manipulative investigations: they can locate the presence and absence of a condition in records and thereby determine its relation to other recorded phenomena. A limitation has been the lack of quantification that results from emphasis on the uniqueness of things rather than on their communality. Scientific training would facilitate viewing similar things as instances of a larger class that could be counted. Another limitation that cannot be easily overcome is the inability to produce raw data. This limitation has created problems in theoretical practices, the third area of comparison, because theoretical constructions have frequently been substituted for missing data. This problem too could be reduced through scientific training, particularly in other behavior sciences. An authentic science of history is possible. PMID:22478582

  19. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  20. Ras history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  1. Testing two temporal upscaling schemes for the estimation of the time variability of the actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.

    2015-10-01

    Temporal availability of grapes actual evapotranspiration is an emerging issue since vineyards farms are more and more converted from rainfed to irrigated agricultural systems. The manuscript aims to verify the accuracy of the actual evapotranspiration retrieval coupling a single source energy balance approach and two different temporal upscaling schemes. The first scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the main input variables, namely the NDVI, albedo and LST; the second scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the energy balance output, the actual evapotranspiration. The temporal upscaling schemes were implemented on: i) airborne remote sensing data acquired monthly during a whole irrigation season over a Sicilian vineyard; ii) low resolution MODIS products released daily or weekly; iii) meteorological data acquired by standard gauge stations. Daily MODIS LST products (MOD11A1) were disaggregated using the DisTrad model, 8-days black and white sky albedo products (MCD43A) allowed modeling the total albedo, and 8-days NDVI products (MOD13Q1) were modeled using the Fisher approach. Results were validated both in time and space. The temporal validation was carried out using the actual evapotranspiration measured in situ using data collected by a flux tower through the eddy covariance technique. The spatial validation involved airborne images acquired at different times from June to September 2008. Results aim to test whether the upscaling of the energy balance input or output data performed better.

  2. [Assessment of actual benefits of new drugs by the Transparency Committee].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C

    2008-01-01

    When a drug has been granted a marketing authorization, if the pharmaceutical company wants it to be covered by the National Health Insurance, the company has to submit a file with all the studies concerning the drug, especially drug-drug comparative studies, to be assessed by the Transparency Committee. Drugs are assessed on two criteria: actual or expected benefit (AB) and improvement in actual benefit (IAB). Actual benefit mainly takes into account the severity of the disease concerned, the level of efficacy relative to known side effects (risk-benefit ratio), and the place the drug is intended to take in the therapeutic strategy. At the end of the assessment, AB is considered as important, moderate, poor or insufficient (to justify inclusion of the drug on the list of products to be reimbursed). After actual benefit is determined, improvement of actual benefit is assessed, comparing the estimated benefit of this drug with one of drugs with the same indication that is already reimbursed, to assess whether this drug will improve the patient's disease. This can be assessed by direct comparison (two drugs compared in the same clinical trial) or by indirect comparison (separate studies with the same design). There are four levels of added value, from I (major improvement) to IV (minor improvement). Level V represents no improvement. This second assessment is always relative to another drug. It never provides an absolute score. However, IAB is very important for pharmaceutical companies, because it is a fundamental criterion to determine the price of the drug, which is discussed with the Economic Committee of Health Products in a final phase. Actual benefit and improvement in actual benefit are allocated for each indication of a drug. PMID:18401307

  3. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethloff, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

  4. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  5. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  6. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics. PMID:27143300

  7. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  8. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  9. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  10. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  11. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  12. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  13. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  14. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  15. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  17. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  18. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  19. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  20. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  1. Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-03-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography poses a number of challenges, one of which is the production of a defect-free mask. To observe the defects on an EUV mask in a quantitative phase image, we have developed a microcoherent EUV scatterometry microscope. The intensity and phase images of the defects are reconstructed using ptychography. We observe four actual defects on an EUV blank mask using the microscope. The reconstructed shapes of the actual defects correspond well to those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our microscope should therefore function as an essential review tool in characterizing defects.

  2. The Promise of Digital History in the Teaching of Local History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, W. Guy; Lee, John K.

    2004-01-01

    History frequently is taught as a set of facts that must be memorized to either pass a test or become culturally literate (Whelan 1997). Such an approach to history instruction reduces content to a consumable, socially irrelevant product and strips meaning from the classroom. To alleviate the drudgery of typical history instruction, teachers can…

  3. Integrating the New Economic and Social History into the History Curriculum in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Barry W.

    In order to address the significant gap between the ideas emerging from the new economic history and the economics actually taught in secondary school classes, successful strategies from a series of summer institutes are described. Each topic begins with a discussion of basic concepts and recent developments in the economic theory of that…

  4. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  5. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  6. Scaled-up dual anode/cathode microbial fuel cell stack for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    An, Byung-Min; Heo, Yoon; Maitlo, Hubdar-Ali; Park, Joo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop the scale-up microbial fuel cell technology for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment, dual anode/cathode MFC stacks connected in series to achieve any desired current, treatment capacity, and volume capacity. However, after feeding actual wastewater into the MFC, maximum power density decreased while the corresponding internal resistance increased. With continuous electricity production, a stack of eight MFCs in series achieved 96.05% of COD removal and 97.30% of ammonia removal at a flow rate of 15.98L/d (HRT 12h). The scaled-up dual anode/cathode MFC stack system in this research was demonstrated to treat actual ETA wastewater with the added benefit of harvesting electricity energy. PMID:26888335

  7. Historical Bibliography and Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummel, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Considers relationships between the fields of library history and historical bibliography. Topics include the act of reading versus the cultural institutions of reading; description and cataloging; book production; paradigm shifts; classification systems; electronic libraries; and the need for theory to grow out of practice. (LRW)

  8. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  9. What Is Literary "History"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing. (HB)

  10. Self-perceived and actual ability in the functional reach test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryckewaert, Gilles; Luyat, Marion; Rambour, Melanie; Tard, Céline; Noël, Myriam; Defebvre, Luc; Delval, Arnaud

    2015-03-01

    Falls frequently occur during daily activities such as reaching for an object in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Misjudgment is also reported to be one of the circumstances that lead to falls. The functional reach test is an indicator of dynamic balance. The primary objective was to establish whether there is a difference between self-perceived and actual ability to perform the functional reach test in patients with PD who have never fallen. Three groups of participants (all with no history of falls) were studied: young adults, elderly adults and PD patients. The participants first estimated their maximum reaching distance (but without performing the action, i.e. as a motor imagery task) and then actually performed the functional reach test (i.e. as a motor task). No significant overestimation or underestimation was observed. The reaching distance was lower in PD than in the two other groups. There were no differences between PD patients and elderly adults in terms of the forward centre of pressure displacement. Seven PD patients reported a fall in the year following the experiment. The fallers had a longer history of disease. Finally, PD patients adequately estimated their ability in the functional reach test and did not adopt an "at risk" strategy and appeared to be quite conservative (as were healthy elderly adults) in their postural control behavior. Ability to estimate self-performance is preserved in PD patients with no clinical impairments of postural control although they are at risk of future falls. PMID:25600856

  11. The history of venomous spider identification, venom extraction methods and antivenom production: a long journey at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sylvia M

    2015-01-01

    The article provides a historical report on venomous spider identification, venom obtainment methods and serum production at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. It is based on literature and personnal experience during the last 50 years. This result is the discovery that the real species causing potential severe human accidents were the spiders of the genus Loxosceles and Phoneutria. PMID:26085831

  12. Bricolage: Re-Discovering History through Intermediality and Performance. A Report on the UCT/CityVarsity Production of "A Day, Across" at the Cape Town Fringe 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftic, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    "A Day, Across," performed by the CityVarsity School of Creative Arts at the Cape Town Fringe 2014, was a student production that investigated the link between the youth of South Africa and the centennial of the start of World War I. This paper presents a brief analysis of the rehearsal process as well as certain performance sequences in…

  13. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  14. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  15. History Circles: The Doing of Teaching History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake

    2009-01-01

    Lesson planning is a critical task in the education of pre-service teachers, but the author has often questioned the extent to which traditional lesson plan formats truly contribute to the teaching and learning of history. Since current research in history education calls for an emphasis on building "historical thinking" skills and content…

  16. Multidirectional War Narratives in History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vlies, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the field of textbook research by exploring a new approach in textbook analysis. Inspired by Michael Rothberg's concept of multidirectional memory, this article examines multidirectional narratives in history textbooks: narratives that combine different histories, places and times in a productive way. They…

  17. History of Entomopathogenic Nematology

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, G. O.; Grewal, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted. PMID:23482453

  18. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  19. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS...

  20. A comparison of continental actual evaporation estimates for Africa to improve hydrological drought forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambauer, Patricia; Maskey, Shreedhar; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation is a key process in the development of hydrological and agricultural droughts. Although distributed drought indicators are often calculated using estimates of evaporation or soil moisture, the estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flows. On the other hand, other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products; the evaporation results from the HTESSEL model and ERA-Interim (both based on the energy balance approach), both the MOD16 evaporation product (largely derived from MODIS remote sensing images), and the GLEAM product (derived from satellite observations). Three alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. In the first the model structure was amended by introducing an irrigation scheme, while in the second and third forcing data (precipitation and potential evaporation) were modified to assess the impact that the choice of forcing has on the actual evaporation fluxes simulated by the model. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, and derived drought indices were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and using statistical methods. The comparison indicated that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5

  1. An 8000 Year History of Fire and Productivity in a Nutrient-Poor Boreal Landscape Reconstructed from Two Lakes in Central Labrador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.; Camill, P.; Voldal, E.; Gatlin, J.; Butka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in many boreal ecosystems, and fire severity depends on productivity and climate. The boreal forest region of eastern Canada is characterized by both poor soils and a cool, moist climate, suggesting that fire may be less common than in other regions. We collected sediment cores from Canoe (elev. 152 m) and Big Beer (elev. 411 m) lakes and analyzed cores for charcoal, carbon, d15C, biogenic silica, and magnetics. The sediment record for both lakes dated to ~9000 calibrated years BP, and sediment accumulation rates were low for both lakes (40 and 95 yrs cm-1). Biogenic silica and carbon data indicate nearly simultaneous increases in lake and terrestrial productivity from ~8000-7000 BP. As indicated by charcoal, fire was present in the landscape as early as 8500 BP. Fire was more common at the lower elevation Canoe site and largely absent from the higher elevation Big Beer site. Average charcoal accumulation rates at both sites (< 0.01 mm2 cm-2 yr-1) were < 50% of those previously reported for boreal forest sites in more western Canada. Our results support a reduced role for fire in this landscape although it is yet unclear whether poor soils or climate are more directly causal.

  2. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  3. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  4. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  5. An equation to calculate the actual methylene middle parameter as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin

    2015-08-21

    Methylene middle parameter [Formula: see text] , the product of the methylene group's cross-sectional area ( [Formula: see text] ) and the root square of its dispersive free energy ( [Formula: see text] ), is the key parameter to calculate the dispersive surface components of solids (γs(d)) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at different temperatures. The only method reported to calculate [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature is the Dorris-Gray method. However, the conventional values of [Formula: see text] calculated by the Dorris-Gray method depend heavily on theoretical aspects. This paper establishes a novel equation calculating the actual [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature using the latest and most accurate surface parameters of seven successive n-alkanes. The obtained actual [Formula: see text] values are slightly higher those of the conventional [Formula: see text] . At 20°C, the actual [Formula: see text] generates γs(d) values less than those generated using the conventional [Formula: see text] by ∼3%, and this reduction in calculated γs(d) values increases linearly to become ∼5% at 100°C. Therefore, using the new actual [Formula: see text] seems to mitigate the discrepancy between the γs(d) values measured by IGC and those measured by the contact angle method. PMID:26187766

  6. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  7. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  8. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  9. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  10. The Trouble with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John

    1990-01-01

    Cites the problems associated with teaching history: (1) lack of consensus on what and how to teach; (2) the adult perspective from which it is taught; (3) the abstract nature of history content; and (4) the concept of time. Concludes that efforts to include adolescent knowledge, skills, and attitudes should be considered in the history program.…

  11. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  12. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  13. Who Owns History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  14. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  15. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate. PMID:26353442

  16. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  17. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  18. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  19. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  20. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  1. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  2. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  3. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  4. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  5. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  6. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  7. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  8. Uranium, its impact on the national and global energy mix; and its history, distribution, production, nuclear fuel-cycle, future, and relation to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1997-01-01

    The many aspects of uranium, a heavy radioactive metal used to generate electricity throughout the world, are briefly described in relatively simple terms intended for the lay reader. An adequate glossary of unfamiliar terms is given. Uranium is a new source of electrical energy developed since 1950, and how we harness energy from it is explained. It competes with the organic coal, oil, and gas fuels as shown graphically. Uranium resources and production for the world are tabulated and discussed by country and for various energy regions in the United States. Locations of major uranium deposits and power reactors in the United States are mapped. The nuclear fuel-cycle of uranium for a typical light-water reactor is illustrated at the front end-beginning with its natural geologic occurrence in rocks through discovery, mining, and milling; separation of the scarce isotope U-235, its enrichment, and manufacture into fuel rods for power reactors to generate electricity-and at the back end-the reprocessing and handling of the spent fuel. Environmental concerns with the entire fuel cycle are addressed. The future of the use of uranium in new, simplified, 'passively safe' reactors for the utility industry is examined. The present resource assessment of uranium in the United States is out of date, and a new assessment could aid the domestic uranium industry.

  9. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  10. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  11. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  12. Forget the Alamo: Thinking about History in John Sayles' "Lone Star"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anna

    2007-01-01

    John Sayles' film "Lone Star" is an excellent vehicle for teaching about the production and interpretation of history in a high school or introductory level college history class. The film illustrates that history is subjective, that the sorting and arrangement of evidence is what makes history, and that history is not necessarily an inevitable…

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  15. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  16. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  18. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  19. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As...

  20. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As...

  1. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As...

  2. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As...

  3. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As...

  4. Recent Writings in Social History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews current writings relevant to teaching the social history of Canada. Subjects addressed are social protest and conflict, labor history, working class history, women, the city, intellectual history, and regional studies. (KC)

  5. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  6. History of animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  7. The Publication of History Books in Tudor England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodinskii, Mikhail

    The purpose of this study is to examine the number of history books published in England during the 16th century, and attempts to estimate who were the publishers, authors and printers, and intended and actual readers. The main data source for this study was the electronic version of the "English Short Title Catalogue," provided by the Research…

  8. Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

  9. Pupil-Led Historical Enquiry: What Might This Actually Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The current National Curriculum for history requires pupils to "identify and investigate specific historical questions, making and testing hypotheses for themselves". While Kate Hammond relished the encouragement that this gave to her pupils to engage in the process of historical enquiry, she was keen to develop a much clearer sense of what…

  10. Suicide risk characteristics among aborted, interrupted, and actual suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Ammerman, Brooke A; Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-30

    Few studies have investigated suicide risk characteristics associated with interrupted and aborted suicide attempts. The present study aimed to empirically examine whether assessing a history of interrupted and aborted suicide attempts is valuable when assessing suicide risk, given the relative lack of literature in this area to date. To inform this question, the current study examined differences in risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals who have carried out a suicide attempt, individuals who report having a history of only interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts, and non-attempter controls. Approximately 447 undergraduates (M=21.10 years; SD=4.16; 77.6% female) completed measures of carried out suicide attempts, interrupted suicide attempts, aborted suicide attempts, acquired capability for suicide, suicide likelihood, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and non-suicidal self-injury. Results suggest that a faction of individuals endorse interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts (8.7%), but do not endorse carried out suicide attempts, even in non-clinical samples. Furthermore, results suggest that there are few clinically meaningful differences between those with a history of carried out suicide attempts and interrupted/aborted suicide attempts, suggesting that individuals with a history of these lesser studied suicidal behaviors are an important group to target for suicide risk intervention. PMID:27344029

  11. American History Activators (Early American History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Bill

    This document consists of a package of seven separately published "activities" or simulations that allow students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of United States history that have influenced our present institutions and way of life. The seven units include: (1) First Americans Arrive: 11.000 BC; (2) Puritan General Court,…

  12. Teaching History: The Fax about History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, James A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Social studies and history have taken a back seat to other subjects in recent years, but the author argues that there is far too much at stake to allow these important fields to become irrelevant. To drive home the point, in this article, he shares a story about the 9/11 Commission, that made headlines in 2004.

  13. Chapter 8. Avocado history, biodiversity and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.). Avocado has been grown in the neotropics as far back as 10,000 BC. The species are scattered from northern Mexico through the southeastern United States, east through the West Indies and south through Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Pe...

  14. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  15. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  16. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  17. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  18. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  19. Homes in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from the issue relating…

  20. Researching Your Department's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasl, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    In the spirit of the fiftieth anniversary of IACLEA, the author proposes that every campus law enforcement agency conduct an extensive examination for the purpose of documenting their history. After spending many hours online the author discovered that only a few departments have taken time to write their history and no doubt there are a multitude…

  1. Preaching in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.

    This volume of twenty essary by nineteen authors attempts to describe the message, issues, and impact of American preaching as it has interacted with history and shaped American churches and society. The twenty topics, treated by individuals with advanced degrees in theology or speech, are: the role of preaching in American history; Puritan…

  2. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  3. Is World History Teachable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Ross E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the views of Paul Gagnon and his book "Democracy's Untold Story." Examines the drawbacks of teaching the type of Western civilization course advocated by Gagnon and argues that schools should continue the quest for a teachable approach to world history. Includes suggestions for improving the typical world history course. (GEA)

  4. Rethinking TV History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomery, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a rethinking of historical analysis of U. S. television history, to begin at the local level. Offers a case study of the place of Washington, DC, as a site for network news. Notes that, as a community, Washington presents an important site where forces such as migration and suburbanization shaped the early history of television. (SR)

  5. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  6. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  7. History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  8. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  9. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  10. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  11. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  12. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  13. American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

  14. Richard Feynman and the History of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, David; Goodstein, Judith

    This paper deals with two topics. One is the history of superconductivity, and the other is what Richard Feynman had to do with it. The history of superconductivity can be traced back to Michael Faraday and the first liquefaction of a gas in 1823. It is a heroic tale of triumph over cold and resistance, and once the phenomenon was actually discovered in 1911, it would take almost 50 years more before a satisfactory explanation emerged. Although Richard Feynman only authored one published paper on the subject, he worked prodigiously on the problem through much of the 1950s, and his competitors, particularly Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer, fully expected that he would be the one to crack the problem. It did not work out that way.

  15. History of Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As George Sarton, generally acknowledged to be the father of the history of science, so elegantly stated, scientific endeavors and understanding are cumulative in nature. Thus it seems appropriate that scientists within a given discipline should occasionally take a backward glance and examine their heritage. With such a view, a series of AGU symposia were organized, beginning in December 1984, to deal with the history of hydrology. Fifteen papers, largely from the first two such sessions, have been compiled as a special volume of the History of Geophysics Series.

  16. History of reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Rosato, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    This history of reinforced plastics is told by combining the individual histories of each reinforcement and the way in which they added to and changed the direction and rate of growth of the industry. The early history is based on all resins, fillers, and fibers found in nature. Then came the Baekeland revolution with the first synthetic resin which lasted about 25 years, at which time synthetic fiber glass and polyester resin dramatically changed the industry. Now, for the 1980s, the high modulus fibers developed 10 to 20 years ago are reshaping the industry. 32 figures.

  17. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing

    PubMed Central

    HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410

  18. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  19. History of biotechnology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Roehr, M

    2000-01-01

    Austria has contributed significantly to the progress of the biotechnologies in the past and is actively engaged in doing so today. This review describes the early history of biotechnology in Austria, beginning with the Vienna process of baker's yeast manufacture in 1846, up to the achievements of the 20th century, e.g. the submerged vinegar process, penicillin V, immune biotechnology, biomass as a renewable source of fermentation products (power alcohol, biogas, organic acids etc.), biopulping, biopolymers, biocatalysis, mammalian cell technology, nanotechnology of bacterial surface layers, and environmental biotechnology. PMID:11036693

  20. Parallel reservoir automatic history matching using a network of workstations and PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Ouenes, A.; Weiss, W.; Sultan, A.J.; Anwar, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a new computing environment for reservoir automatic history matching. A parallel simulated annealing algorithm is used to estimate geologic and reservoir engineering parameters by automatically ,aching production history of an actual oil reservoir. A complex computer set-up using two networks of workstations simultaneously, located at the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is used to test the concept of distributed optimization. A heterogeneous cluster of two workstations (HP and SUN) is used at the PRRC and a homogeneous cluster of six IBM RISC 6000 workstations is used at LANL. At each site (PRCC and LANL), a Parallel Virtual Machine is created by using the message passing software, PVM. Communication between the two parallel virtual machines located at the PRRC and LANL is achieved with a simple e-mail protocol. In this new environment, the total time required to complete a 22 well oil reservoir study lead to the following observation: two-thirds of the time was devoted to geologic, core, and well log analyses, and one-third of the time to history matching.

  1. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  2. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  3. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  4. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  5. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  6. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions. PMID:26265050

  7. History of Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of stellar interferometry from the suggestion of Fizeau that stellar interferometry was possible,to the use of the Mark I, II and III for astrometry. Photographs, and parts of original articles are presented.

  8. Singing American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  9. History and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  10. History Begins at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that high school history can be more interesting and useful if students are taught to formulate, evaluate, and use historical statements on the basis of evidence available in primary sources. Outlines a curriculum based on this thesis. (AV)

  11. History of Chiropractic Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Districts Public Policies Committees American Chiropractic Foundation Elections Origins and History of Chiropractic Care The word ‘Chiropractic’ ... chiropractic as a health care profession. Many other countries also recognize and regulate chiropractic, including Canada, Mexico, ...

  12. The history of nuclear fear

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, S.

    1993-04-01

    The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities.

  13. Living history biography

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, T.T.

    1994-11-15

    A living history biography is presented of Theodore T. Puck. This history is intimately involved with the progress towards mapping of the human genome through research at the forefront of molecular cytogenetics. A review of historical research aims such as human genetics studies based on somatic cells, isolation of mutants as genetic markers, complementation analysis, gene mapping and the measurement of mutation is presented. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Design aspects of zeppelin operations from case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiersperger, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Some widely held beliefs concerning the practicability of rigid airships in air carrier operations are discussed. It is shown by a review of past operational experience, and some basic aerostatic theory, their actual record and the reasons for their demise. Problems of atmospheric density and temperature variations, meteorological factors, aerodynamic stability and control, and mooring difficulties are discussed and related to actual case histories. Structural and flight efficiencies are compared to airplane efficiencies for airplanes contemporary with the zeppelin as well as modern designs. The difficulty of supporting new, commercial airship developments on an economic basis is made clear.

  15. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  16. Has the connection between polyploidy and diversification actually been tested?

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Many major clades of angiosperms have several whole genome duplications (polyploidization events) in their distant past, suggesting that polyploidy drives or at least permits diversification. However, data on recently diverged groups are more equivocal, finding little evidence of elevated diversification following polyploidy. The discrepancy may be attributable at least in part to methodology. Many studies use indirect methods, such as chromosome numbers, genome size, and Ks plots, to test polyploidy, although these approaches can be misleading, and often lack sufficient resolution. A direct test of diversification following polyploidy requires a sequence-based approach that traces the history of nuclear genomes rather than species. These methods identify the point of coalescence of ancestral genomes, but may be misleading about the time and thus the extent of diversification. Limitations of existing methods mean that the connection between polyploidy and diversification has not been rigorously tested and remains unknown. PMID:26855304

  17. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  18. Case history--installation of high volume pumping equipment in Talco Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.D.; Etheridge, K.T.; Wilson, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    The paper presents a case history study of Exxon's high volume artificial lift program at Talco Field in Franklin and Titus Counties, Texas. The field, discovered in 1936, produces heavy crude oil from the Paluxy Sandstone at an approximate depth of 4200 feet. All wells required artificial lift installation soon after the field was discovered due to rapid salt water breakthrough. Primary recovery efficiency is expected to be only about 35 percent of the original oil in place, attributed to reservoir heterogeneity and the adverse water-oil mobility ratio. Through installation of high volume artificial lift equipment, current data indicate that significant additional recovery benefits may be realized. The paper details the practical experience Exxon has gained since the first high volume electric submersible pump was installed at Talco in 1974. Included are screening parameters used to optimize the selection of particular high volume artificial lift equipment. Also included are representative production flowstreams to quantify the additional recovery expected of typical electric submersible pump and large capacity beam pumping unit installations. An analysis of the incremental expenses and costs associated with electric submersible pumps and large capacity beam pumping units is presented. Also discussed are case production histories and operational problems encountered with actual installations.

  19. Can Regular-Fat Meat Products Actually Be Good for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chee Syen

    2005-01-01

    One of the core competencies in the new IFT Education standards is for students to achieve competency in communication skills (that is, oral and written communication, listening, interviewing, and so on). According to the IFT guidelines, by the time students graduate, they should not only be able to search for and condense information, but also be…

  20. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  1. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. PMID:24634058

  2. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  4. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  5. History Day in California in Today's Classroom--Meeting the California Content Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In its 20th year, History Day in California, a statewide program, is a history-based learning experience for students from grades 4-12. Through participation in History Day, students not only learn about issues, ideas, people, and events in history, but they apply what they have learned through creative and original productions and by developing…

  6. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  7. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  8. Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2012-11-01

    The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

  9. History of hydrology archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    There has long been concern over how to archive important material related to the history of hydrology. Bill Back (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.), past chairman of the AGU Committee on History and Heritage of Hydrology, has made contact with the American Heritage Center, which has been collecting such material for nearly 20 years. They now have an expanding program and are most enthusiastic about helping us preserve historical material. They would like to receive files, manuscripts, photographs, and similar material from hydrologists throughout the United States and other countries.

  10. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  11. History of psychology.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844648

  12. Legal History Meets the Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "Law and Culture" course that he developed to teach in the Butler University Honors Program. The course looks at some landmark periods or events in legal history and explores how those events were the product of their culture, and how they affected their culture. Among the events or periods that the author…

  13. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  14. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  15. Are presolar dust grains from novae actually from supernovae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Hoppe, P.

    2005-05-01

    Meteorites contain presolar stardust grains that formed in prior generations of stars and exhibit large isotopic anomalies reflecting the nuclear processes that occurred in their individual parent stars. RGB and AGB stars and supernovae are well established as sources of many of these grains. Novae have been proposed as sources for a few SiC and graphite grains with low 12}C/{13C and 14}N/{15N ratios and unusual Si isotopic ratios (Amari et al., ApJ, 551, 1065). We have found three SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite with C and N isotopic ratios similar to the previously-reported putative nova grains. However, the isotopic signatures of Si, Ca, Al and Ti in one of the grains (334-2) clearly indicate a supernova origin, especially excess 28Si correlated with excess 44Ca. The latter signature is attributable to in situ decay of (half-life=50yr) 44Ti. Another 13C- and 15N-rich grain (151-4) has a large 47Ti enrichment. This signature is not expected for nova nucleosynthesis. Thus, the new isotopic data raise the possibility that the grains previously reported to have formed in novae actually formed in supernovae, and that novae have not left a record in the presolar grain populations that have been so far studied. Moreover, the results in grain 334-2 indicate that supernovae contain regions highly enriched in both 13C and 15N. This is not predicted by current models but may bear on the cosmic origin of 15N. This work was funded in part by NASA.

  16. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  17. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Miosge, Lisa A; Field, Matthew A; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C; Andrews, T Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Each person's genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation's functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  18. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Miosge, Lisa A.; Field, Matthew A.; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M.; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Andrews, T. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Each person’s genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation’s functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  19. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  20. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

  1. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  2. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  3. Reconstructing Community History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Amy

    2004-01-01

    History is alive and well in Lebanon, Missouri. Students in this small town in the southwest region of the state went above and beyond the community's expectations on this special project. This article describes this historical journey which began when students in a summer mural class reconstructed a mural that was originally created by a…

  4. History of Vietnamese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong Quang Ham

    This is the first of a two-volume textbook, covering the official program of the Ministry of Education, of the secondary curriculum for the history of Vietnamese literature. It is divided into three main sections. The first section "First Year of the Secondary Cycle (Grade 11)" deals with (1) popular literature; (2) the influence of China, (3)…

  5. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  6. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  7. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  8. Observing Children Learning History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the suitability of two kinds of history curricula for the varying levels of cognitive development of 9- to 11-year-olds. Fifteen British students studied the Victorian Era using transcripts of original documents, while 15 classmates used standard textbooks. The documents seemed to give students greater awareness of the evidence sources.…

  9. Social Studies: Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressler, Joe, Comp.

    Elementary and secondary school teachers interested in developing a local history unit can adapt this fourth grade program created for three school districts in Cortland County, New York. Material is divided into 13 chapters. Chapter 1 charts the New York fourth grade curriculum by concept and content and outlines specific community study…

  10. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  11. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  12. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  13. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  14. A History of Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Larry Kenneth

    The history of multimedia and descriptions of various multimedia events from 1900 to 1972 are presented. The development of multimedia events is described for four eras and four main classifications of events: multiscreen presentations, electronic media and performers, environmental theater, and environments. Five appendixes include a discussion…

  15. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  16. Narrative History and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  17. What Is World History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  18. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  19. What Is Art History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bradford R.

    1991-01-01

    Defines art history by examining visual and contextual information and distinguishes between the fine and applied arts. Discusses scientific neutrality and the personal and social uses of art. Concludes that it is impossible for art historians to be truly objective, but this should not be problematic because art historians interpret art works for…

  20. Redefining American Literary History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown, Ed.; Ward, Jerry W., Jr., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays which provide starting points for a redefinition of American literary history based on a multiethnic and multiracial, rather than European, theory of culture. After an introduction by the editors, essays in the book are: "The Literatures of America: A Comparative Discipline" (Paul Lauter); "Defining the Canon"…

  1. Music in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on music as an art using sound in time to express ideas and emotions and contains articles featuring appreciations of some of Iowa's renowned musical artists. The first article gives an overview of music in Iowa's history. The next article describes Antonin Dvorak's summer sojourn in Spillville where he…

  2. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  3. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  4. The Holocaust and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn, a Holocaust Survivor"…

  5. A History of Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodroof, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the history of private liberal arts junior colleges, from the founding of Lasell Female Academy in 1851, to their zenith in the mid-1940s, and their decline in numbers and enrollments in the 1970s. Emphasizes their role in the development of egalitarianism within U.S. higher education. (DMM)

  6. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  7. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and mentors, the program's…

  8. Student Grade History System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…

  9. A Little History (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Seeds of the Blue Book were planted in Cambridge, MA in the early 1960's, and variants thereof in Boulder, Colorado and Tucson, Arizona at a somewhat later date. However, flowering and cross-pollination did not occur until 1984 with the fruit ripening in 1991. We will briefly review this obscure history, search for lessons learned, and ponder what comes next.

  10. The History Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifman, Eli

    In addition to briefly intoducing the History Education Project (HEP) sponsored by the American Historical Association and Indiana University, and funded by USOE, this report announces the establishment (Spring, 1970) of a regional HEP team at Stony Brook, describes its tentative plan of operation, and solicits assistance from the community. The…

  11. A History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Evan L.

    Any study of the history of psychology must first determine what is to be considered psychology, whether to stick to the relatively continuous Western tradition or to include others (e.g., Eastern, Oriental), and whether to investigate the impact of the socio-cultural events of the time on the views of that period or consider those views in a…

  12. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  13. History in Present Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrewsky, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…

  14. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  15. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  16. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  17. History of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Examines the history of biology in the United States by considering: (1) general trends about the nature of American biology; (2) sources of information; (3) biographies; (4) biological institutions; and (5) disciplinary studies. Indicates that the field is dominated by internalists who focus on particular persons and topics. (JN)

  18. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  19. Actuality of transcendental æsthetics for modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitot, Jean

    1. The more mathematics and physics unify themselves in the physico-mathematical modern theories, the more an objective epistemology becomes necessary. Only such a transcendental epistemology is able to thematize correctly the status of the mathematical determination of physical reality. 2. There exists a transcendental history of the synthetic a priori and of the construction of physical categories. 3. The transcendental approach allows to supersed Wittgenstein's and Carnap's antiplatonist thesis according to which pure mathematics are physically applicable only if they lack any descriptive, cognitive or objective, content and reduce to mere prescriptive and normative devices. In fact, pure mathematics are prescriptive-normative in physics because: (i) the categories of physical objectivity are prescriptive-normative, and (ii) their categorial content is mathematically “constructed” through a Transcendental Aesthetics. Only a transcendental approach make compatible, in the one hand, a grammatical conventionalism of Wittgensteinian or Carnapian type and, on the other hand, a platonist realism of Gödelian type. Mathematics are not a grammar of the world but a mathematical hermeneutics of the intuitive forms and of the categorial grammar of the world.

  20. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  1. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  2. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  3. History and classification of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; de Weck, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis as the maximal variant of an acute systemic hypersensitivity reaction can involve several organ systems, particularly the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. The severity of anaphylactic reaction is variable and can be classified into severity grades I-IV. Some reactions are fatal. Most frequent elicitors of anaphylaxis are foods in childhood, later insect stings and drugs. The phenomenon itself has been described in ancient medical literature, but was actually recognized and named at the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Richet and Paul Portier. In the course of experiments starting on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco and continued in the laboratory in Paris, they tried to immunize dogs with extracts of Physalia species in an attempt to develop an antitoxin to the venom of the Portuguese man-of-war. While Charles Richet believed that anaphylaxis was a 'lack of protection', it has become clear that an exaggerated immune reaction, especially involving immunoglobulin E antibodies, is the underlying pathomechanism in allergic anaphylaxis besides immune complex reactions. Non-immunologically mediated reactions leading to similar clinical symptomatology have been called 'anaphylactoid' or 'pseudo-allergic'--especially by Paul Kallos--and are now called 'non-immune anaphylaxis' according to a consensus of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). The distinction of different pathophysiological processes is important since non-immune anaphylaxis cannot be detected by skin test or in vitro allergy diagnostic procedures. History and provocation tests are crucial. The intensity of the reaction is not only influenced by the degree of sensitization but also by concomitant other factors as age, simultaneous exposure to other allergens, underlying infection, physical exercise or psychological stress or concomitant medication (e.g. beta-blockers, NSAIDs); this phenomenon has been called augmentation or summation

  4. One Hong Kong, Two Histories: "History" and "Chinese History" in the Hong Kong School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Flora; Vickers, Edward

    2002-01-01

    The history curriculum in Hong Kong schools is unique in having separate subjects--history and Chinese history--with distinct content, pedagogy, and assumptions about the discipline of history. In contrast to conventional theories of colonial education, this may have been a mutually convenient collaboration between the government and local…

  5. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual... disqualification is employed to resolve an apparent or actual conflict of interest, the disqualified employee...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual Repayment Disclosures (a) Calculating actual...

  7. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  8. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... individual, shall be considered as actually owned by such person for the purpose of again applying such...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Adjustment (Actual Method). 52.222-32 Section 52.222-32 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-32 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method). As prescribed in 22.407(g), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method) (DEC 2001) (a) The...

  10. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... (actual method). Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  11. Potential and actual uses of zeolites in crop protection.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Caroline; Someus, Edward; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-10-01

    In this review, it is demonstrated that zeolites have a potential to be used as crop protection agents. Similarly to kaolin, zeolites can be applied as particle films against pests and diseases. Their honeycomb framework, together with their carbon dioxide sorption capacity and their heat stress reduction capacity, makes them suitable as a leaf coating product. Furthermore, their water sorption capacity and their smaller particle sizes make them effective against fungal diseases and insect pests. Finally, these properties also ensure that zeolites can act as carriers of different active substances, which makes it possible to use zeolites for slow-release applications. Based on the literature, a general overview is provided of the different basic properties of zeolites as promising products in crop protection. PMID:25727795

  12. Winnipegosis case history: Tableland Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, N.E.; Martindale, W.

    1988-02-01

    The geology and history of exploration in the Tableland area of southeast Saskatchewan will be reviewed in relation to a major Middle Devonian Winnipegosis oil discovery made in 1986 by Home Oil. Southern Saskatchewan is underlain by the northern third of the Williston basin. Although rich oil deposits have been found in the Devonian of the basin on the American side, dry holes have been the rule in Saskatchewan except for the Hummingbird Upper Devonian Birdbear discovery in 1966. The long history of failures in the Winnipegosis Formation had led to a general reluctance in the industry to drill deep wells especially with today's lower crude prices. Based on geology, seismic data, and modeling, Home Oil drilled Tableland 08-22-002-09W2M in february 1986 and encountered an oil-bearing Winnipegosis reef. This well has the highest production rate of any well in Saskatchewan and is the first commercially significant Winnipegosis well in a basinal setting within the Williston basin. A state-of-the-art pseudo 3-D processing of all the existing 2-D seismic data was performed to aid in choosing development well locations. As a result of this discovery, deep exploration plays in southeast Saskatchewan are now being pursued aggressively by many companies.

  13. Bismuth-based Superconducting Wires for Actual Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi; Nakashima, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Kohei; Sato, Ken-Ichi

    The bismuth-based superconducting wires (Bi-2223) have been produced as commercial products since 2004. Bi-2223 superconducting wires have been applied to cables, motors, magnets, and current leads. In particular, current leads have been used in a large accelerator, and magnets have been used in a B-H curve tracer for permanent magnets and magnetic billet heaters for hot extrusion. Motors and cables have been developed and evaluated as real sized apparatus.

  14. Operational actual wetland evapotranspiration estimation for the Everglades using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa; Cereon, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems with varied functions and structures. Humans have drained wetlands and altered the structure and functions of wetlands for various uses. Wetland restoration efforts require assessment of the level of ecohydrological restoration for the intended functions. Among the various indicators of success in wetland restoration, achieving the desired water level (hydrology) is the most important, faster to achieve and easier to monitor than the establishment of the hydric soils and wetland vegetation. Monitoring wetland hydrology using remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) is a useful tool and approach since point measurements for understanding the temporal (before and after restoration) and spatial (impacted and restored) parts of the wetland are not effective for large areas. Evapotranspiration accounts over 80% of the water budget of the wetlands necessitating the need for spatiotemporal monitoring of ET flux. A study employing remotely sensed data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and modeling tools was conducted for a weekly spatial estimation of Everglades ET. Weekly surface temperature data were generated from the MODIS thermal band and evaporative fraction was estimated using the simplified surface energy balance (SSEB) approach. Based on the Simple Method, potential ET (PET) was estimated. Actual weekly wetland ET was computed as the (product of the PET and evaporative fraction). The ET product will be useful information for environmental restoration and wetland hydrology managers. The on-going restoration and monitoring work in the Everglades will benefit from this product and assist in evaluating progress and success in the restoration.

  15. Pu speciation in actual and simulated aged wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS) at the Pu L{sub II/III} edge was used to determine the speciation of this element in (1) Hanford Z-9 Pu crib samples, (2) deteriorated waste resins from a chloride process ion-exchange purification line, and (3) the sediments from two Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Liter Scale simulant brine systems. The Pu speciation in all of these samples except one is within the range previously displayed by PuO{sub 2+x-2y}(OH){sub y}{center_dot}zH{sub 2}O compounds, which is expected based on the putative thermodynamic stability of this system for Pu equilibrated with excess H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} under environmental conditions. The primary exception was a near neutral brine experiment that displayed evidence for partial substitution of the normal O-based ligands with Cl{sup -} and a concomitant expansion of the Pu-Pu distance relative to the much more highly ordered Pu near neighbor shell in PuO{sub 2}. However, although the Pu speciation was not necessarily unusual, the Pu chemistry identified via the history of these samples did exhibit unexpected patterns, the most significant of which may be that the presence of the Pu(V)-oxo species may decrease rather than increase the overall solubility of these compounds. Several additional aspects of the Pu speciation have also not been previously observed in laboratory-based samples. The molecular environmental chemistry of Pu is therefore likely to be more complicated than would be predicted based solely on the behavior of PuO{sub 2} under laboratory conditions.

  16. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics: Physics Textbooks Don't Always Tell the Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Anyone who studies the history of physics quickly realizes that the history of physics presented in physics textbooks is often inaccurate. This is not necessarily a bad thing. The purpose of textbooks is to help students learn physics. An inaccurate history may serve a pedagogical purpose. It may help to explain concepts more clearly than the actual history. I believe, however, that it is important for those of us who teach physics to know the accurate history. In this talk I will discuss two episodes from the history of modern physics, Millikan's experiments on the photoelectric effect and the Ellis-Wooster experiment on the energy spectrum in β decay. Everyone knows that Millikan's work established the photon theory of light. The problem is that what everyone knows is wrong. The Ellis-Wooster experiment, on the other hand, is rarely discussed in physics texts, but it should be. In this talk I will present a more accurate history of these experiments.

  17. History of Oriental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

    2002-12-01

    This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

  18. History of interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Paul, William E

    2015-09-01

    The history of the discovery and the development of our knowledge of IL-4 exemplifies the path of progress in biomedical science. There are unanticipated twists and turns although progress is made, sometimes quickly, other times far too slowly. Illustrative is the extended time from the first report of IL-4 in 1982 to the establishment of the efficacy of blocking IL-4 and its congener IL-13 in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma and atopic dermatitis, a period of 31years. The author was "present at the creation" and has been a participant or a witness to virtually all the major advances and recounts here his recollection of this history. PMID:25814340

  19. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  20. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. PMID:25064423

  1. A passion for history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Robin

    2008-02-01

    While walking through the recently refurbished physics department at Manchester University with its newly painted walls and gleaming windows, a sense of history is never far behind. Many famous physicists have worked and studied at the university, including Ernest Rutherford, J J Thomson, William Bragg and James Chadwick. Indeed, when Albert Einstein came to the UK in 1921, it was at Manchester that he gave his first lecture to a British audience.

  2. Brief History of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, SR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin. PMID:24653750

  3. Life history dependent morphometric variation in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The time course of morphometric variation among life histories for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr (age-0+ to age-2+) was analyzed. Possible life histories were combinations of parr maturity status in the autumn (mature or immature) and age at outmigration (smolt at age-2+ or later age). Actual life histories expressed with enough fish for analysis in the 1997 cohort were immature/age-2+ smolt, mature/age-2 +smolt, and mature/age-2+ non-smolt. Tagged fish were assigned to one of the three life histories and digital pictures from the field were analyzed using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Results indicated that successful grouping of fish according to life history varied with fish age, but that fish could be grouped before the actual expression of the life histories. By March (age-1+), fish were successfully grouped using a descriptive discriminant function and successful assignment ranged from 84 to 97% for the remainder of stream residence. A jackknife of the discriminant function revealed an average life history prediction success of 67% from age-1+ summer to smolting. Low sample numbers for one of the life histories may have limited prediction success. A MANOVA on the shape descriptors (relative warps) also indicated significant differences in shape among life histories from age-1+ summer through to smolting. Across all samples, shape varied significantly with size. Within samples, shape did not vary significantly with size for samples from December (age-0+) to May (age-1+). During the age-1+ summer however, shape varied significantly with size, but the relationship between shape and size was not different among life histories. In the autumn (age-1+) and winter (age-2+), life history differences explained a significant portion of the change in shape with size. Life history dependent morphometric variation may be useful to indicate the timing of early expressions of life history variation and as a tool to explore temporal and

  4. How Secondary History Teachers Use and Think about Museums: Current Practices and Untapped Promise for Promoting Historical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Alan S.; Levine, Thomas H.; Grenier, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    Museums have great potential to help secondary students develop a deep understanding of the past; however, we know little about what history teachers actually do or want to accomplish when they utilize museums. In this study, the authors draw on questionnaire and interview data from 94 secondary history teachers in Connecticut in an effort to…

  5. Brief history of electronic stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-02-01

    A brief history of recent developments in electronic stereoscopic displays is given concentrating on products that have succeeded in the market place and hence have had a significant influence on future implementations. The concentration is on plano-stereoscopic (two-view) technology because it is now the dominant display modality in the marketplace. Stereoscopic displays were created for the motion picture industry a century ago, and this technology influenced the development of products for science and industry, which in turn influenced product development for entertainment.

  6. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  7. Lanolin allergy: history, epidemiology, responsible allergens, and management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bailey; Warshaw, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to lanolin has been recognized by dermatologists for decades. This review summarizes the history, epidemiology, and allergenicity of lanolin and its derivatives. "The lanolin paradox" and the safety of pharmaceutical-grade lanolin products are also discussed. PMID:18413106

  8. Relating actual with subfossil chironomid assemblages. Holocene habitat changes and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrats, Pol; Rieradevall, Maria; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Analyses of subfossil and actual macroinvertebrate fauna and Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera) assemblages of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees, Spain, 1914 m a.s.l.) improves the environmental calibration for lake paleoreconstruction and allow to infer lake habitat changes throughout the Holocene. The results of the actual Chironomidae community are consistent with other mountain lake studies (either in the Pyrenees or other regions), with a few mismatching due to lake specific conditions. The actual and the subfossil Chironomidae taxa present in Basa de la Mora Lake are the same, which is an essential requirement to apply the analogue methods. Although we could not find habitat-specific taxa, significant differences between the different habitats present in the lake were found. This circumstance allowed applying the Modern Analogue Technique (MAT) to infer lake habitat changes. The MAT method relates the actual community, defined from the species abundance matrix and an environmental variable (which is the object of the inference), and the past community, defined from the species abundance matrix downcore. Because the first axis of DCA carried out for the study of the actual Chironomidae larvae explained the assemblage changes between the different habitats, the scores of this first axis were used as representative of the environmental variable (dominant habitat type) to be inferred. The application of the MAT has allowed identifying two periods of lake productivity increase through the Holocene: i) around 2800 cal. yrs BP, which coincides with the first documented human occupation of the area, and ii) the last four centuries, synchronous to the maximum population of mountain areas in the Pyrenees and development of stockbreeding activities.

  9. Evolution of life history variation among female mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Charnov, E L

    1991-01-01

    A unified approach is developed for the evolutionary structure of mammalian life histories; it blends together three basic components (individual growth or production rate as a function of body size, natural selection on age of maturity, and stable demography) to predict both the powers and the intercepts of the scaling allometry of life history variables to adult size. The theory also predicts the signs (+, -) of the correlations between life history variables when body size is held constant. Finally, the approach allows us to eliminate body size to predict the dimensionless relationships between the life history variables themselves. PMID:1996315

  10. Functions of History Education: History Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate history teacher trainees' views and perceptions of the functions of history education. 36 teacher trainees participated in the study. All of the participants were registered to the History Education masters degree (without dissertation), within the Secondary Education Social Sciences discipline at…

  11. From Written Film History to Visual Film History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petric, Vladimir

    The poor quality of most university courses in film history is due to several factors, among them the fact that there is insufficient analytical documentation and direct cinematic illustration in existent written film histories. These histories examine films on a thematic level, offering noncinematic interpretation such as literary meaning, social…

  12. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as well as by…

  13. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  14. Integrating Men's History into Women's History: A Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Melinda S.

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, "The History Teacher" published several articles on the importance and process of integrating women's history into "regular history." Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the author suggests to add a new perspective as to how teachers think about and teach gender in the classroom. Many teachers not only…

  15. Amityville Memorial High School History Journal Advance Placement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F., Ed.

    The history of Amityville, New York, compiled by 11th and 12th grade advance placement history students, is presented in journal form. Six papers focus on: (1) South Oaks: The Long Island Home; (2) A History of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Amityville; (3) Amityville: A Vacationland; (4) Amityville School System from 1904 to Present;…

  16. Teaching About Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to the survival and reproduction of its possessors. Finally, adaptation has been defined as a process, as well. Consequently, two questions arise: the first is a philosophical one and focuses on what adaptation actually is; the second is a pedagogical one and focuses on what science teachers and educators should teach about it. In this article, the various definitions of adaptation are discussed and their uses in some textbooks are presented. It is suggested that, given elementary students' intuitions about purpose and design in nature and secondary students' teleological explanations for the origin of adaptations, any definition of adaptation as a trait should include some information about its evolutionary history.

  17. La novela historica hispanoamericana actual: Carpentier, Fuentes y Galeano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Ocasio, Gladys

    1998-10-01

    This dissertation studies the evolution of the historical novel in Spanish America during the second half of the twentieth century, focusing on the following works: El siglo de las luces (1962) by the Cuban Alejo Carpentier, Terra nostra (1975), by the Mexican Carlos Fuentes, and Memoria del fuego (1982-1986), by the Uruguayan Eduardo Galeano. The thesis' aim is to describe, analyze and suggest the causes for the breakdown of the modern historical narrative, decade by decade, from the sixties to the present. The line between what the dissertation identifies as modern and postmodern historical novels is drawn by radical changes in the structure of the aesthetic representation of history. Taking as its point of departure the implicit and sometimes explicit rules or poetics that conditioned the historical novel as a subgenre since Scott and Manzoni, the thesis explores how the new, postmodern novel, shatters the twin columns that supported that modern model: verisimilitude and linearity. This is the thesis's main work on the formal or aesthetic sphere of the recent Spanish American historical novel. But the aesthetic is intimately tied to two other spheres: the cosmological and the ontological (political and moral). If, on the one hand, the catastrophic state that the postmodern novel exhibits (the acceleration of its narrative particles, as it were) reveals itself as the mirror image of postmodern paradigms such as the fragment and catastrophe itself, on the other, its chaotic liberation reflects the historical ``spirit'' within it is produced. This is so because not only in its content, but also in its very form, the postmodern novel is part of that catastrophe. The postmodern novel's chaotic text posits the disintegration of all versionas of the emancipation project, or of the pursuit of an identity, that (the Cuban Revolution included) is closely allied to the totalizing drive that characterizes the spirit of modern times. The dissertation's hypothesis is that

  18. Separating habitat invasibility by alien plants from the actual level of invasion.

    PubMed

    Chytrý, Milan; Jarosik, Vojtech; Pysek, Petr; Hájek, Ondrej; Knollová, Ilona; Tichý, Lubomír; Danihelka, Jií

    2008-06-01

    Habitats vary considerably in the level of invasion (number or proportion of alien plant species they contain), which depends on local habitat properties, propagule pressure, and climate. To determine the invasibility (susceptibility to invasions) of different habitats, it is necessary to factor out the effects of any confounding variables such as propagule pressure and climate on the level of invasion. We used 20 468 vegetation plots from 32 habitats in the Czech Republic to compare the invasibility of different habitats. Using regression trees, the proportion of alien plants, including archaeophytes (prehistoric to medieval invaders) and neophytes (recent invaders), was related to variables representing habitat properties, propagule pressure, and climate. The propagule pressure was expressed as the proportion of surrounding urban and industrial or agricultural land, human population density, distance from a river, and history of human colonization in the region. Urban and industrial land use had a positive effect on the proportion of both archaeophytes and neophytes. Agricultural land use, higher population density, and longer history of human impact positively affected the proportion of archaeophytes. Disturbed human-made habitats with herbaceous vegetation were most invaded by both groups of aliens. Neophytes were also relatively common in disturbed woody vegetation, such as broad-leaved plantations, forest clearings, and riverine scrub. These habitats also had the highest proportion of aliens after removing the effect of propagule pressure and climate, indicating that they are not only the most invaded, but also most invasible. These habitats experience recurrent disturbances and are rich, at least temporarily, in available nutrients, which supports the hypothesis that fluctuating resources are the major cause of habitat invasibility. The least invaded habitats were mires and alpine-subalpine grasslands and scrub. After removing the effect of propagule

  19. How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons From 50 Years of Extraordinary Demographic History

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

  20. Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2

  1. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  2. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  3. Your company's history as a leadership tool.

    PubMed

    Seaman, John T; Smith, George David

    2012-12-01

    When the history of an organization comes up, it's usually in connection with an anniversary--just part of the "balloons and fireworks" (as one business leader characterized his company's bicentennial celebration, knowing that the investment of time and money would have little staying power). A fast-changing world leaves little time for nostalgia and irrelevant details--or, worse, strategies for winning the last war. But the authors, business historians at the Winthrop Group, assert that leaders with no patience for history are missing a vital truth: A sophisticated understanding of the past is one of the most powerful tools they have for shaping the future. The job of leaders, most would agree, is to inspire collective efforts and devise smart strategies for the future. History can be profitably employed on both fronts. As a leader strives to get people working together productively, communicating the history of the enterprise can instill a sense of identity and purpose and suggest the goals that will resonate. In its most familiar form, as a narrative about the past, history is a rich explanatory tool with which executives can make a case for change and motivate people to overcome challenges. Taken to a higher level, it also serves as a potent problem-solving tool, one that offers pragmatic insights, valid generalizations, and meaningful perspectives--a way to cut through management fads and the noise of the moment to what really matters. PMID:23227578

  4. Pais Prize Lecture: History and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, John

    2006-04-01

    Modern history and experimental physics entered the university together, in the course of the eighteenth century. They shared several practices and projects. Historians began to emphasize physical factors, and so drew on, and occasionally contributed to, meteorology and physical geography; and they developed ancillary disciplines, like numismatics, diplomatics, and paleography, which required the analysis of metals, paper, and inks, and the careful comparison of material objects. In physics, historical reviews of newer subject matters, such as electricity, optics, and pneumatics, guided instruction where neither the facts nor their interpretation compelled consensus. The inherently historical science, geology, was a favorite subject of the age: the earth received a history, and the cosmos, too; evolutionary ideas found applications everywhere. The new physics and the new history became potent weapons of Enlightenment. A product of their collaboration is the lengthiest history of physics ever written, J.G. Fischer's Geschichte der Physik (8 vols., 1801-1808). It appeared within a series edited by Johnn Gottfried Eichhorn, Germany's leading exponent of the ``higher criticism,'' the corrosive application of historical and literary considerations to the stories of the Old Testament. The writings of historians like Eichhorn were more subversive than the work reported by Fischer in so far as humans are more concerned with their place in the world than with the details of its behavior. The coincidental matriculation of modern history and experimental physics, and its consequences, will be discussed.

  5. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  6. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. PMID:25725914

  7. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  8. Subjective spacetime derived from a causal histories approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Haruna, Taichi; Uragami, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Asaki

    2009-10-01

    The internal description of spacetime can reveal ambiguity regarding an observer’s perception of the present, where an observer can refer to the present as if he were outside spacetime while actually existing in the present. This ambiguity can be expressed as the compatibility between an element and a set, and is here called a/{a}-compatibility. We describe a causal set as a lattice and a causal history as a quotient lattice, and implement the a/{a}-compatibility in the framework of a causal histories approach. This leads to a perpetual change of a pair of causal set and causal history, and can be used to describe subjective spacetime including the déjà vu experience and/or schizophrenic time.

  9. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  10. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  11. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post Impressionists"; and "The Biography Channel Study…

  12. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  13. The History of Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jayesh B.

    2012-01-01

    The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. This brief history of wound healing has been compiled for the benefit of readers. It is amazing to see that some of the basic principles of wound healing have been known since 2000 bc. PMID:24525756

  14. Women's History Curriculum Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    These resources, designed for recognizing Women's History Week in Vermont elementary and secondary classrooms, are suitable for use nationwide. Oral history materials include recommended strategies for conducting oral history projects, a list of general interview questions, sample questionnaires for interviews concerning women's work and immigrant…

  15. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  16. Recasting History: The Public Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  17. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  18. Build Skills by Doing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  19. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

  20. REVIEW: History of tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, T. R.

    2006-07-01

    Tomotherapy is the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy using rotational delivery of a fan beam in the manner of a CT scanner. In helical tomotherapy the couch and gantry are in continuous motion akin to a helical CT scanner. Helical tomotherapy is inherently capable of acquiring CT images of the patient in treatment position and using this information for image guidance. This review documents technological advancements of the field concentrating on the conceptual beginnings through to its first clinical implementation. The history of helical tomotherapy is also a story of technology migration from academic research to a university-industrial partnership, and finally to commercialization and widespread clinical use.

  1. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  2. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  3. The history of happiness.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience. PMID:22299510

  4. History of gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure. PMID:16818090

  5. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  6. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  7. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  8. History of Disaster Medicine.

    PubMed

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations. PMID:27437524

  9. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  10. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  11. History of physical terms: ‘energy’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-09-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term ‘energy’, and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important role played by advancements in animal physiology in the concept’s elaboration. A unique example of cross-fertilization between historically separate fields, the history of the studies on animal heat, is recounted here. The recount starts from the early experiments by Boyle and Hooke on the effect of void on living beings and from Lavoisier’s revolutionary interpretation of respiration as a ‘slow combustion’ process, touching on the contributions by Spallanzani, von Humboldt and Liebig. It ends with the first enunciation of an energy conservation law by two German physicians, Meyer and Helmholtz, in advance of the elaboration of a coherent thermodynamic framework by Kelvin.

  12. A History-based Estimation for LHCb job requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschmayr, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of a Workload Management System (WMS) is to find and allocate resources for the given tasks. The more and better job information the WMS receives, the easier will be to accomplish its task, which directly translates into higher utilization of resources. Traditionally, the information associated with each job, like expected runtime, is defined beforehand by the Production Manager in best case and fixed arbitrary values by default. In the case of LHCb's Workload Management System no mechanisms are provided which automate the estimation of job requirements. As a result, much more CPU time is normally requested than actually needed. Particularly, in the context of multicore jobs this presents a major problem, since single- and multicore jobs shall share the same resources. Consequently, grid sites need to rely on estimations given by the VOs in order to not decrease the utilization of their worker nodes when making multicore job slots available. The main reason for going to multicore jobs is the reduction of the overall memory footprint. Therefore, it also needs to be studied how memory consumption of jobs can be estimated. A detailed workload analysis of past LHCb jobs is presented. It includes a study of job features and their correlation with runtime and memory consumption. Following the features, a supervised learning algorithm is developed based on a history based prediction. The aim is to learn over time how jobs’ runtime and memory evolve influenced due to changes in experiment conditions and software versions. It will be shown that estimation can be notably improved if experiment conditions are taken into account.

  13. History of the internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Somerscales, E.F.C. ); Zagotta, A.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The study of engineering history by the practioners of engineering is not well-developed. This is unfortunate, because if nothing else, it is the culture of our profession, but even more importantly, it provides us with a proper understanding of current and future engineering. Without an adequate historical background the engineer could, for example, respond incorrectly to problems that might arise in some device or make inappropriate changes in the design. History can also suggest the path that might be followed by a new product, and thereby guide the development and marketing. Because of the fuller appreciation of the art and science of engineering that is provided by an awareness of engineering history, it seems appropriate for the ASME to recognize the role in our profession. The papers in this volume, which deal and various aspects of the history of the internal combustion engine, were presented in a session at the Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division held in Dearborn, Michigan on October 17, 1989. The session was jointly sponsored and arranged by the Internal Combustion Engine Division and by the History and Heritage Committee of ASME. It is the first in what the latter hopes will be a regular series of sessions at various Society meetings jointly sponsored with the different divisions of the Society. It is hoped in this way to raise the consciousness of the engineering community to its history and to encourage in particular the preparation of historical papers by engineer-historians, who are involved in the practice of engineering. An approximate chronological order has been chosen for the arrangement of the papers, with the first, by H.O. Hardenberg, being on the gunpowder engines, which were experimented with from the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century.

  14. The history of COSPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Peter

    The Space Age started with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1958, during the International Geophysical Year and at the height of the Cold War. The International Geophysical Year showed the power and spirit of which international collaboration in science was capable in a world just emerging from the Second World War, which had now become again deeply riven by the Cold War. COSPAR was born out of a determination to harness the former in spite of the latter. By the 1980's, the moderation of the Cold War meant this was no longer a reason for COSPAR's continued existence and new forms and objectives needed to be formulated. That debate has continued right until the Paris Assembly of 2004 and we now see COSPAR revitalized and, by objective measures, once more growing. This history will be reviewed from, in the early years, a rather personal viewpoint.

  15. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  16. History of forest hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, James S. G.; Robinson, Mark

    1993-10-01

    Hydrology as a science and a technology is examined, as are some of the myths on the role of forests in hydrology and water resources. The history of catchment area research is traced, in Europe, in the USA and in East Africa, with particular reference to forest hydrology and, in the earlier years, to water quantity rather than water quality. The importance of associating physical process studies with hydrological systems' investigations, to enhance understanding of why particular catchments behave as they do, is stressed. Recent advances in hydrochemistry have been exploited to elucidate water flow paths within experimental catchments. Stimulated by requirements for research into acidification of surface waters, research catchments have proved to be valuable outdoor laboratories from which a much improved understanding of the flow processes has been achieved. Conflicting claims about the impacts of forestry are described and discussed.

  17. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  18. Hysterectomy throughout history.

    PubMed

    Sparić, Radmila; Hudelist, Gernot; Berisava, Milica; Gudović, Aleksandra; Buzadzić, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Hysterectomy, which is one of the most common surgeries performed on women, dates back to ancient times. The history of hysterectomy comprises biographies of many humble men and the significant individual efforts that they made to fight the skepticism of the medical communities of their times. Many of the pioneers were ignored. Although there are a number of alternatives to hysterectomy available, it remains one of the most frequently performed gynaecological operations. The introduction of antisepsis, anaesthesia, antibiotics and blood transfusion made hysterectomy a safe procedure. Nowadays, we distinguish three different surgical approaches to hysterectomy: vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic. The limitations of conventional laparoscopy have led to the development of robotic surgery, which has evolved over the past decade from simple adjustable arms to support cameras in laparoscopic surgery to more sophisticated four-armed machines now being in use worldwide. PMID:22519184

  19. Nostalgia: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Fuentenebro de Diego, Filiberto; Valiente Ots, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    The term nostalgia was first proposed in 1688 by Johannes Hofer as equivalent to the German term Heimweh. It referred to a state of moral pain associated with the forced separation from family and social environment. Consecutive clinical descriptions from the seventeenth century up to the present day have been subjected to the aetiopathogenic and clinical paradigms of each period. Golden-age descriptions of nostalgia that are of particular interest were derived from the observation of conscript soldiers in Napoleonic campaigns by authors such as Gerbois and Larrey. In 1909 Jaspers devoted his doctoral thesis to this topic (Nostalgia und Verbrechen). From a cultural history point of view, it could be considered today as an example of 'transient illness'. The nosological relay has taken place through clinical pictures such as the pathology associated with exile, forced displacements and psychosis of captivity. PMID:25395438

  20. Lunar thermal history revisited.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, R. K., Jr.; Gast, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    New information is used to demonstrate that better models for the thermal history of the moon are required. As a first step, account is taken of (1) a nonuniform initial composition in terms of fraction of low melting to high melting phase present, and for variation in the uranium, potassium, and thorium contents as a function of depth, (2) partitioning of the radioactive elements between the melt and the solid phases, and (3) a cutoff value of melt which must be exceeded before magma can move to the surface. The results of several attempts to determine whether reasonable conditions, composition, and thermal properties can be expected to give rise to two separate periods of volcanism are discussed. Two models with somewhat different distributions of radioactive heat sources and different conductivities are examined.

  1. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423

  2. History of pain theories.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun

    2011-10-01

    The concept of pain has remained a topic of long debate since its emergence in ancient times. The initial ideas of pain were formulated in both the East and the West before 1800. Since 1800, due to the development of experimental sciences, different theories of pain have emerged and become central topics of debate. However, the existing theories of pain may be appropriate for the interpretation of some aspects of pain, but are not yet comprehensive. The history of pain problems is as long as that of human beings; however, the understanding of pain mechanisms is still far from sufficient. Thus, intensive research is required. This historical review mainly focuses on the development of pain theories and the fundamental discoveries in this field. Other historical events associated with pain therapies and remedies are beyond the scope of this review. PMID:21934730

  3. Does history count?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Katharine

    2006-12-01

    The Census of Marine Life is an international and inter-disciplinary collaboration that seeks to map ocean life of the past, present and future. From the Arctic to the abyssal zones, it is producing a stream of newsworthy science, literally pushing the study of biodiversity to new depths. This fascinating and far-reaching endeavour offers a rich set of insights that can illuminate our changing ideas about the oceans. But one section of the Census deserves special attention--the History of Marine Animal Populations. It provides a unique focus for debates about collaboration and big science, about historical methods and about the study of current science by historians of science. PMID:17112591

  4. Dentition and lesion history.

    PubMed

    Eggertsson, H; Ferreira-Zandona, A

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a process that typically keeps recurring throughout life, and the consequences are too often seen as irreversible damage to the dentition. At various stages of life, different parts of the dentition are affected, and the effects continue to be seen in the dentition long after the events took place. They bear witness to previous occurrences of this process throughout the lifetime of an individual. This chapter reviews the linkage between the caries process and the dental caries lesion history of the human dentition. The prevalence and distribution of the caries burden are very variable and closely tied to cultural aspects. In the primary dentition, income and education have been found to be inversely associated with: (1) any early childhood caries and (2) the maxillary incisor caries pattern. A positive association between these caries patterns and minority ethnicity/race status was also identified. These patterns are different from those of the permanent dentition. Well-documented changes in caries prevalence have been observed throughout history, most closely tied to availability and amount of refined sugar consumed. Changes in caries rates are also well documented in the 20th century, mainly with the advent of fluoride in several forms, first as a steep decline and recently as being relatively unchanged. It is likely that there will be dramatic changes in the rates and distribution of dental caries in the future, due to changes in behavioural factors and therapeutic measures. The description drawn is based on the dental caries pattern experienced in modern western societies. PMID:19494678

  5. A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

    correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

  6. A history of the oil business in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hares, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a historical account of the discovery and development of the Big Horn Basin. It discusses the exploration and drilling history; government purchases and leasing programs; development of geophysical survey techniques; oil and gas market history; impacts of World War II; and production history.

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  8. A Researcher's Dilemma: A Comparison of Estimated versus Actual College G.P.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Nelson, Gena C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared college student reported grade point averages (GPA) with actual GPA as recorded at the Registrar's Office to determine the accuracy of student reported GPA. Results indicated that, on average, students reported slightly higher GPA than their actual GPA. Additionally, females were virtually as accurate as males and students with…

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... work. For each labor classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined... classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined) paid and the wage and...

  10. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. 73.735-904 Section 73.735-904 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest....

  12. Self-Actualizations and Experience with Zen Meditation: Is a Learning Period Necessary for Meditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, William C.; Becker, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the practice of Zen meditation and a measure of self-actualization in experienced (N=36) and inexperienced (N=34) meditator groups. Analysis of data showed that a learning period (or selection period) exists for Zen meditation during which there is no increase in group self-actualization. (LLL)

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  15. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile home, but may be eligible for a payment for moving personal property from the mobile home. (b... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... reason of the application of the option rule provided in section 544(a)(3) shall be considered...

  17. 26 CFR 1.318-4 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership as actual ownership... Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions. (a) In general. Section 318(a)(5)(A) provides that... B are beneficiaries of a trust and the trust has an option to buy stock from A, B is...

  18. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  19. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual owner. When...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations... information and procedures you must use to determine the actual HAP loss from your leather finishing operation. By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the actual HAP loss in pounds from your...

  6. Evaluating Empathy in Interviewing: Comparing Self-Report with Actual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamburrino, Marijo B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared medical students' self-assessments of patient interview behavior with external ratings of actual interviews. Focus was on behaviors reflecting empathy. Results suggest the self-report questionnaire is not an adequate measure of actual interviewing skills. (MSE)

  7. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  8. History Matching in Parallel Computational Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Bryant; Sanjay Srinivasan; Alvaro Barrera; Sharad Yadav

    2004-08-31

    In the probabilistic approach for history matching, the information from the dynamic data is merged with the prior geologic information in order to generate permeability models consistent with the observed dynamic data as well as the prior geology. The relationship between dynamic response data and reservoir attributes may vary in different regions of the reservoir due to spatial variations in reservoir attributes, fluid properties, well configuration, flow constrains on wells etc. This implies probabilistic approach should then update different regions of the reservoir in different ways. This necessitates delineation of multiple reservoir domains in order to increase the accuracy of the approach. The research focuses on a probabilistic approach to integrate dynamic data that ensures consistency between reservoir models developed from one stage to the next. The algorithm relies on efficient parameterization of the dynamic data integration problem and permits rapid assessment of the updated reservoir model at each stage. The report also outlines various domain decomposition schemes from the perspective of increasing the accuracy of probabilistic approach of history matching. Research progress in three important areas of the project are discussed: {lg_bullet}Validation and testing the probabilistic approach to incorporating production data in reservoir models. {lg_bullet}Development of a robust scheme for identifying reservoir regions that will result in a more robust parameterization of the history matching process. {lg_bullet}Testing commercial simulators for parallel capability and development of a parallel algorithm for history matching.

  9. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  10. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  11. Probing Our Heliospheric History II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, S.

    2012-05-01

    A physical relationship between our local interstellar medium (ISM), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and our planetary environment has long been a subject of interest to the astronomical community. Clouds of sufficient density to compress the heliosphere to within 1 AU are commonly seen throughout the galactic environment, including within the Local Bubble (LB). Such a compression would lead to an increase in the GCR flux at 1 AU and would have drastic consequences for many planetary processes such as atmospheric chemistry, lightning production, cloud cover, and DNA mutation rates for surface organisms. Prior to this work, we derived a column density profile of the ISM toward 49 bright stars along a narrow cone centered on the historical solar path. High resolution spectra were taken of NaI and CaII absorption out to a distance of 610 pc, with a median separation distance of 11 pc between adjacent stars. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the LB), but a complex number of absorbers is seen beyond. We now present the detection of several distinct clouds, their associated column densities, radial velocities, inferred distances, and size constraints. This combination of cloud properties allows us to derive a volume density profile of the ISM in the Sun's “rear-view mirror,” which represents one plausible record of actual ISM encounters for the Sun. We also make use of empirical relations to determine the effect these clouds would have on the historical heliosphere. Our analysis suggests that within the last 10 million years, if the Sun encountered a cloud with the same properties as we have detected along the solar historical trajectory, the Sun's termination shock would have resided inside the orbit of Uranus, with a GCR flux at Earth an order of magnitude greater than it is currently.

  12. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  13. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  14. Behavioral Management of Medical Compliance: Its Role in the History of Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    Most histories of psychology and psychiatry attribute the first group psychotherapy to Joseph Pratt's 1905 class for tuberculosis patients. Pratt's actual treatment procedures are examined. They are shown to have consisted primarily of operant and social-learning techniques, aimed at increasing patient compliance with a demanding therapeutic…

  15. Designing and Producing "A History of Nebraska Media CD-ROM."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Peter E.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the principal steps involved throughout the development of a CD-ROM on the history of Nebraska's media explaining the reasons for producing the software, its contents and features, selection of material, and the actual design process. Provides recommendations that may help other teachers considering a similar project. (CMK)

  16. Physics Teachers' Challenges in Using History and Philosophy of Science in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Andreas; Höttecke, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science teaching is widely accepted, but the actual state of implementation in schools is still poor. This article investigates possible reasons for this discrepancy. The demands science teachers associate with HPS-based teaching play an important role, since these determine teachers'…

  17. Longing for the Present in the History of History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Kaat; Verschaffel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The public debates on history education that occurred in many countries over the past decades have given rise to the idea that people live in an age of "history wars". While these wars are primarily fought on a national level, they are increasingly looked at as a global phenomenon. In most cases, they are the expression of tensions between the…

  18. A New History, Macrohistory, and Structure in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Mark F.

    Toward the improvement of teaching history and to provide student insights into the study of history, a course involving structure, relevancy, an interdisciplinary approach, and innovation is suggested which advocates analyzing what has happened in the past as a whole, as revealed by the various sciences of archaeology, anthropology, paleontology,…

  19. Recovering our Histories: Studying Educational History through Stories and Memoirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…

  20. Resources for History Day 1991: "Rights in History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter issue brings to students' attention some of the topics they could explore in working toward an award that the Arab World and Islamic Resources and School Services (AWAIR) organization presented to students participating in History Day 1991. The special category of the awards is Arab or Islamic history. The topics presented were not…