Science.gov

Sample records for actual radiation model

  1. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  2. Radiation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, W. G. G.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of both the wave and the corpuscular photon model of light. Suggests that students should be informed that the two models are complementary and that each model successfully describes a wide range of radiation phenomena. Cites 19 references which might be of interest to physics teachers and students. (LC)

  3. Theory of acoustic radiation pressure for actual fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.

    1996-12-01

    A body irradiated by a sound field is known to experience a steady force that is called the acoustic radiation pressure. This force plays an important role in many physical phenomena, such as cavitation, sonoluminescence, acoustic levitation, etc. The existing theory of acoustic radiation pressure neglects dissipative effects. The present paper develops a theory that takes these effects into account, both dissipative mechanisms, viscous and thermal, being considered. It is shown that, when they are no longer negligible, the dissipative effects drastically change the radiation pressure. As a result, its magnitude and sign become different from those predicted by the ``classical'' theory neglecting losses.

  4. Was the Universe actually radiation dominated prior to nucleosynthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, John T.; Kane, Gordon; Nesbit, Eva; Watson, Scott; Zhao, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Maybe not. String theory approaches to both beyond the Standard Model and inflationary model building generically predict the existence of scalars (moduli) that are light compared to the scale of quantum gravity. These moduli become displaced from their low energy minima in the early Universe and lead to a prolonged matter-dominated epoch prior to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In this paper, we examine whether nonperturbative effects such as parametric resonance or tachyonic instabilities can shorten, or even eliminate, the moduli condensate and matter-dominated epoch. Such effects depend crucially on the strength of the couplings, and we find that unless the moduli become strongly coupled, the matter-dominated epoch is unavoidable. In particular, we find that in string and M-theory compactifications where the lightest moduli are near the TeV scale, a matter-dominated epoch will persist until the time of big bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. "The Actualized Neurosurgeon": A Proposed Model of Surgical Resident Development.

    PubMed

    Lipsman, Nir; Khan, Osaama; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2017-03-01

    Modern neurosurgical training is both physically and emotionally demanding, posing significant challenges, new and old, to residents as well as programs attempting to train safe, competent surgeons. Models to describe resident development, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and milestones, address the acquisition of specific skills but largely ignore the stresses and pressures unique to each stage of resident training. We propose an alternative model of resident development adapted from the developmental psychology literature. Our model identifies the challenges that must be met at each stage of junior, intermediate, and senior and chief residency, leading ultimately to an "actualized" neurosurgeon (i.e., one who has maximized his or her potential). Failure to overcome any 1 of these challenges can lead to specific long-lasting consequences, including regret, identity crisis, incompetence, and bitterness. In contrast, the actualized surgeon is one who has successfully acquired the virtues of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, productivity, leadership, competence, and wisdom. The actualized surgeon not only functions safely, confidently, and professionally, but also successfully navigates the challenges of residency and emerges from them having fulfilled his or her maximal potential. This developmental perspective provides an individualized description of healthy surgical development. Our model allows programs to identify the basis for residents who fail to progress, counsel residents during their training, and perhaps help identify resident candidates who are better prepared to meet the developmental challenges of residency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Practical Model of Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Actual Applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhe; Bai, Qingsong; Hu, Jianguo; Hou, Dong

    2017-08-03

    A practical model of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented, which considers both the Gaussian distribution characteristic of mass sensitivity and the influence of electrodes on the mass sensitivity. The equivalent mass sensitivity of 5 MHz and 10 MHz AT-cut QCMs with different sized electrodes were calculated according to this practical model. The equivalent mass sensitivity of this practical model is different from the Sauerbrey's mass sensitivity, and the error between them increases sharply as the electrode radius decreases. A series of experiments which plate rigid gold film onto QCMs were carried out and the experimental results proved this practical model is more valid and correct rather than the classical Sauerbrey equation. The practical model based on the equivalent mass sensitivity is convenient and accurate in actual measurements.

  7. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  8. [3-dimensional models of actual or simulated cesarean sections].

    PubMed

    Patzak, B; Schaller, A

    2001-01-01

    Following upon an etymological and historical introduction, this report refers to two three-dimensional wax models of Caesarean sections, which have recently been acquired by the Pathological-anatomical Federal Museum in Vienna. Information is given on origin, dating and kind of production; questions of indication and operation technique, and--when in doubt--obduction technique, are being considered.

  9. Saturn Radiation (SATRAD) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Saturnian radiation belts have not received as much attention as the Jovian radiation belts because they are not nearly as intense-the famous Saturnian particle rings tend to deplete the belts near where their peak would occur. As a result, there has not been a systematic development of engineering models of the Saturnian radiation environment for mission design. A primary exception is that of Divine (1990). That study used published data from several charged particle experiments aboard the Pioneer 1 1, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 spacecraft during their flybys at Saturn to generate numerical models for the electron and proton radiation belts between 2.3 and 13 Saturn radii. The Divine Saturn radiation model described the electron distributions at energies between 0.04 and 10 MeV and the proton distributions at energies between 0.14 and 80 MeV. The model was intended to predict particle intensity, flux, and fluence for the Cassini orbiter. Divine carried out hand calculations using the model but never formally developed a computer program that could be used for general mission analyses. This report seeks to fill that void by formally developing a FORTRAN version of the model that can be used as a computer design tool for missions to Saturn that require estimates of the radiation environment around the planet. The results of that effort and the program listings are presented here along with comparisons with the original estimates carried out by Divine. In addition, Pioneer and Voyager data were scanned in from the original references and compared with the FORTRAN model s predictions. The results were statistically analyzed in a manner consistent with Divine s approach to provide estimates of the ability of the model to reproduce the original data. Results of a formal review of the model by a panel of experts are also presented. Their recommendations for further tests, analyses, and extensions to the model are discussed.

  10. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  11. A MODEL FOR INTEGRATING ACTUAL NEUROTIC OR UNREPRESENTED STATES AND SYMBOLIZED ASPECTS OF INTRAPSYCHIC CONFLICT.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fredric N

    2017-01-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, the importance of actual neuroses-considered to be devoid of psychic content-diminished as Freud and subsequent analysts focused on unconscious intrapsychic conflict. This paper explores the relationship between actual neurotic and unrepresented states, which are believed to be best addressed through attention to countertransference, intersubjectivity, and enactments rather than interpretation of intrapsychic conflict. Models suggesting how actual neurotic states and symbolized intrapsychic conflict may interact with each other and environmental stressors are described. Symbolizing actual neurotic states and establishing meaningful linkages between somatic/affective experiences and intrapsychic conflict are viewed as necessary for effective treatment of many disorders. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  12. Status of LDEF radiation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

  13. The applicability of a computer model for predicting head injury incurred during actual motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stephan G; Key, Jason S; McGwin, Gerald; Keeley, Jason W; Davidson, James S; Rue, Loring W

    2004-07-01

    Head injury is a significant cause of both morbidity and mortality. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the most common source of head injury in the United States. No studies have conclusively determined the applicability of computer models for accurate prediction of head injuries sustained in actual MVCs. This study sought to determine the applicability of such models for predicting head injuries sustained by MVC occupants. The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was queried for restrained drivers who sustained a head injury. These collisions were modeled using occupant dynamic modeling (MADYMO) software, and head injury scores were generated. The computer-generated head injury scores then were evaluated with respect to the actual head injuries sustained by the occupants to determine the applicability of MADYMO computer modeling for predicting head injury. Five occupants meeting the selection criteria for the study were selected from the CIREN database. The head injury scores generated by MADYMO were lower than expected given the actual injuries sustained. In only one case did the computer analysis predict a head injury of a severity similar to that actually sustained by the occupant. Although computer modeling accurately simulates experimental crash tests, it may not be applicable for predicting head injury in actual MVCs. Many complicating factors surrounding actual MVCs make accurate computer modeling difficult. Future modeling efforts should consider variables such as age of the occupant and should account for a wider variety of crash scenarios.

  14. Feedback Loop of Data Infilling Using Model Result of Actual Evapotranspiration from Satellites and Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdi Hartanto, Isnaeni; Alexandridis, Thomas K.; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Using satellite data in a hydrological model has long been occurring in modelling of hydrological processes, as a source of low cost regular data. The methods range from using satellite products as direct input, model validation, and data assimilation. However, the satellite data frequently face the missing value problem, whether due to the cloud cover or the limited temporal coverage. The problem could seriously affect its usefulness in hydrological model, especially if the model uses it as direct input, so data infilling becomes one of the important parts in the whole modelling exercise. In this research, actual evapotranspiration product from satellite is directly used as input into a spatially distributed hydrological model, and validated by comparing the catchment's end discharge with measured data. The instantaneous actual evapotranspiration is estimated from MODIS satellite images using a variation of the energy balance model for land (SEBAL). The eight-day cumulative actual evapotranspiration is then obtained by a temporal integration that uses the reference evapotranspiration calculated from meteorological data [1]. However, the above method cannot fill in a cell if the cell is constantly having no-data value during the eight-day periods. The hydrological model requires full set of data without no-data cells, hence, the no-data cells in the satellite's evapotranspiration map need to be filled in. In order to fills the no-data cells, an output of hydrological model is used. The hydrological model is firstly run with reference evapotranspiration as input to calculate discharge and actual evapotranspiration. The no-data cells in the eight-day cumulative map from the satellite are then filled in with the output of the first run of hydrological model. The final data is then used as input in a hydrological model to calculate discharge, thus creating a loop. The method is applied in the case study of Rijnland, the Netherlands where in the winter, cloud cover is

  15. Modeling Radiation Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K R, Sreenivas; Mohammad, Rafiuddin

    2016-11-01

    Predicting the fog-onset, its growth and dissipation helps in managing airports and other modes of transport. After sunset, occurrence of fog requires moist air, low wind and clear-sky conditions. Under these circumstances radiative heat transfer plays a vital role in the NBL. Locally, initiation of fog happens when the air temperature falls below the dew-point. Thus, to predict the onset of fog at a given location, one has to compute evolution of vertical temperature profile. Earlier,our group has shown that the presence of aerosols and vertical variation in their number density determines the radiative-cooling and hence development of vertical temperature profile. Aerosols, through radiation in the window-band, provides an efficient path for air layers to lose heat to the cold, upper atmosphere. This process creates cooler air layer between warmer ground and upper air layers and resulting temperature profile facilitate the initiation of fog. Our results clearly indicates that accounting for the presence of aerosols and their radiative-transfer is important in modeling micro-meteorological process of fog formation and its evolution. DST, Govt. INDIA.

  16. Chandra Radiation Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and on-board particle detectors do not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. This presentation will describe the plasma environment data analysis and modeling basis of the CRMFLX engineering environment model developed to predict the proton flux in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere phenomenological regions of geospace. The recently released CRMFLX Version 2 implementation includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum use of limited data obtained during high Kp periods or in areas of the magnetosphere with poor satellite flux measurement coverage.

  17. Intention to Use and Actual Use of Electronic Information Resources: Further Exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-01-01

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct. PMID:20351931

  18. Estimating actual evapotranspiration for forested sites: modifications to the Thornthwaite Model

    Treesearch

    Randall K. Kolka; Ann T. Wolf

    1998-01-01

    A previously coded version of the Thornthwaite water balance model was used to estimate annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) for 29 forested sites between 1900 and 1993 in the Upper Great Lakes area. Approximately 8 percent of the data sets calculated AET in error. Errors were detected in months when estimated AET was greater than potential evapotranspiration. Annual...

  19. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  20. A systematic model to compare nurses' optimal and actual competencies in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Meretoja, Riitta; Koponen, Leena

    2012-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a model to compare nurses' optimal and actual competencies in the clinical setting.   Although future challenge is to focus the developmental and educational targets in health care, limited information is available on methods for how to predict optimal competencies. A multidisciplinary group of 24 experts on perioperative care were recruited to this study. They anticipated the effects of future challenges on perioperative care and specified the level of optimal competencies by using the Nurse Competence Scale before and after group discussions. The expert group consensus discussions were held to achieve the highest possible agreement on the overall level of optimal competencies. Registered Nurses (n = 87) and their nurse managers from five different units conducted assessments of the actual level of nurse competence with the Nurse Competence Scale instrument. Data were collected in 2006-2007. Group consensus discussions solidified experts' anticipations about the optimal competence level. This optimal competence level was significantly higher than the nurses' self-reported actual or nurse managers' assessed level of actual competence. The study revealed some competence items that were seen as key challenges for future education of professional nursing practice. It is important that the multidisciplinary experts in a particular care context develop a share understanding of the future competency requirements of patient care. Combining optimal competence profiles to systematic competence assessments contribute to targeted continual learning and educational interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Comparison of two recent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration using only regularly recorded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. F.; Mawdsley, J. A.

    1987-09-01

    An advection-aridity model for estimating actual evapotranspiration ET is tested with over 700 days of lysimeter evapotranspiration and meteorological data from barley, turf and rye-grass from three sites in the U.K. The performance of the model is also compared with the API model . It is observed from the test that the advection-aridity model overestimates nonpotential ET and tends to underestimate potential ET, but when tested with potential and nonpotential data together, the tendencies appear to cancel each other. On a daily basis the performance level of this model is found to be of the same order as the API model: correlation coefficients were obtained between the model estimates and lysimeter data of 0.62 and 0.68 respectively. For periods greater than one day, generally the performance of the models are improved. Proposed by Mawdsley and Ali (1979)

  2. Modeling the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of interest in space radiation environment modeling. This has been fueled by the growing need to replace long time standard AP-9 and AE-8 trapped particle models, the interplanetary exploration initiative, the modern satellite instrumentation that has led to unprecedented measurement accuracy, and the pervasive use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) microelectronics that require more accurate predictive capabilities. The objective of this viewgraph presentation was to provide basic understanding of the components of the space radiation environment and their variations, review traditional radiation effects application models, and present recent developments.

  3. Patient specific actual size 3D printed models for patient education in glioma treatment: first experiences.

    PubMed

    van de Belt, Tom H; Nijmeijer, Hugo; Grim, David; Engelen, Lucien Jlpg; Vreeken, Rinaldo; van Gelder, Marleen Mmj; Laan, Mark Ter

    2018-06-02

    Cancer patients need high quality information about the disease stage, treatment options and side effects. High quality information can also improve health literacy, shared decision-making and satisfaction. We created patient-specific 3D models of tumours including surrounding functional areas, and assessed what patients with glioma actually value (or fear) about these models when they are used to educate them about the relation between their tumour and specific brain parts, the surgical procedure, and risks. We carried out an explorative study with adult glioma patients, who underwent functional MRI and DTi as part of the pre-operative work-up. All participants received an actual size 3D model, printed based on fMRI and DTi imaging. Semi-structured interviews were held to identify facilitators and barriers for using the model, and perceived effects. A model was successfully created for all 11 participants. A total of 18 facilitators and 8 barriers were identified. The model improved patients' understanding about their situation, that it was easier to ask questions to their neurosurgeon based on their model and that it supported their decision about the preferred treatment. A perceived barrier for using the 3D model was that it could be emotionally confronting, particularly in an early phase of the disease process. Positive effects were related to psychological domains including coping, learning effects and communication. Patient-specific 3D models are promising and simple tools that could help patients with glioma to better understand their situation, treatment options and risks. They have the potential to improve shared decision-making. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of actual and seismologically inferred stress drops in dynamic models of microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. Y.; Lapusta, N.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating source parameters for small earthquakes is commonly based on either Brune or Madariaga source models. These models assume circular rupture that starts from the center of a fault and spreads axisymmetrically with a constant rupture speed. The resulting stress drops are moment-independent, with large scatter. However, more complex source behaviors are commonly discovered by finite-fault inversions for both large and small earthquakes, including directivity, heterogeneous slip, and non-circular shapes. Recent studies (Noda, Lapusta, and Kanamori, GJI, 2013; Kaneko and Shearer, GJI, 2014; JGR, 2015) have shown that slip heterogeneity and directivity can result in large discrepancies between the actual and estimated stress drops. We explore the relation between the actual and seismologically estimated stress drops for several types of numerically produced microearthquakes. For example, an asperity-type circular fault patch with increasing normal stress towards the middle of the patch, surrounded by a creeping region, is a potentially common microseismicity source. In such models, a number of events rupture the portion of the patch near its circumference, producing ring-like ruptures, before a patch-spanning event occurs. We calculate the far-field synthetic waveforms for our simulated sources and estimate their spectral properties. The distribution of corner frequencies over the focal sphere is markedly different for the ring-like sources compared to the Madariaga model. Furthermore, most waveforms for the ring-like sources are better fitted by a high-frequency fall-off rate different from the commonly assumed value of 2 (from the so-called omega-squared model), with the average value over the focal sphere being 1.5. The application of Brune- or Madariaga-type analysis to these sources results in the stress drops estimates different from the actual stress drops by a factor of up to 125 in the models we considered. We will report on our current studies of

  5. Impacts of phenology on estimation of actual evapotranspiration with VegET model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The VegET model provides spatially explicit estimation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Currently, it uses a climatology based on AVHRR NDVI image time series to modulate fluxes during growing seasons (Senay 2008). This step simplifies the model formulation, but it also introduces errors by ignoring the interannual variation in phenology. We report on a study to evaluate the effects of using an NDVI climatology in VegET rather than current season values. Using flux tower data from three sites across the US Corn Belt, we found that currently the model overestimates the duration of season. With the standard deviation of more than one week, the model results in an additional 50 to 70 mm of AET per season, which can account for about 10% of seasonal AET in drier western sites. The model showed only modest sensitivity to variation in growing season weather. This lack of sensitivity greatly decreased model accuracy during drought years: Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values dropped from about 0.7 to 0.5, depending on vegetation type. We also evaluated an alternative approach to drive the canopy component of evapotranspiration, the Event Driven Phenology Model (EDPM). The parameterization of VegET with EDPM-simulated canopy dynamics improved the correlation by 0.1 or more and reduced the RMSE on daily AET estimates by 0.3 mm. By accounting for the progress of phenology during a particular growing season, the EDPM improves AET estimation over an NDVI climatology.

  6. Bulk canopy resistance: Modeling for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration of maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsallah, O.; Corbari, C.; Mancini, M.; Rana, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of water resources, the correct evaluation of water losses by the crops as evapotranspiration (ET) is very important in irrigation management. This work presents a model for estimating actual evapotranspiration on hourly and daily scales of maize crop grown in well water condition in the Lombardia Region (North Italy). The maize is a difficult crop to model from the soil-canopy-atmosphere point of view, due to its very complex architecture and big height. The present ET model is based on the Penman-Monteith equation using Katerji and Perrier approach for modelling the variable canopy resistance value (rc). In fact rc is a primary factor in the evapotranspiration process and needs to be accurately estimated. Furthermore, ET also has an aerodynamic component, hence it depends on multiple factors such as meteorological variables and crop water condition. The proposed approach appears through a linear model in which rc depends on climate variables and aerodynamic resistance [rc/ra = f(r*/ra)] where ra is the aerodynamic resistance, function of wind speed and crop height, and r* is called "critical" or "climatic" resistance. Here, under humid climate, the model has been applied with good results at both hourly and daily scales. In this study, the reached good accuracy shows that the model worked well and are clearly more accurate than those obtained by using the more diffuse and known standard FAO 56 method for well watered and stressed crops.

  7. Evaluation of remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration data for modeling small scale irrigation in Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddele, Y. D.; Ayana, E.; Worqlul, A. W.; Srinivasan, R.; Gerik, T.; Clarke, N.

    2017-12-01

    The research presented in this paper is conducted in Ethiopia, which is located in the horn of Africa. Ethiopian economy largely depends on rainfed agriculture, which employs 80% of the labor force. The rainfed agriculture is frequently affected by droughts and dry spells. Small scale irrigation is considered as the lifeline for the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. Biophysical models are highly used to determine the agricultural production, environmental sustainability, and socio-economic outcomes of small scale irrigation in Ethiopia. However, detailed spatially explicit data is not adequately available to calibrate and validate simulations from biophysical models. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was setup using finer resolution spatial and temporal data. The actual evapotranspiration (AET) estimation from the SWAT model was compared with two remotely sensed data, namely the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The performance of the monthly satellite data was evaluated with correlation coefficient (R2) over the different land use groups. The result indicated that over the long term and monthly the AVHRR AET captures the pattern of SWAT simulated AET reasonably well, especially on agricultural dominated landscapes. A comparison between SWAT simulated AET and AVHRR AET provided mixed results on grassland dominated landscapes and poor agreement on forest dominated landscapes. Results showed that the AVHRR AET products showed superior agreement with the SWAT simulated AET than MODIS AET. This suggests that remotely sensed products can be used as valuable tool in properly modeling small scale irrigation.

  8. An actual load forecasting methodology by interval grey modeling based on the fractional calculus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xue, Dingyü

    2017-07-17

    The operation processes for thermal power plant are measured by the real-time data, and a large number of historical interval data can be obtained from the dataset. Within defined periods of time, the interval information could provide important information for decision making and equipment maintenance. Actual load is one of the most important parameters, and the trends hidden in the historical data will show the overall operation status of the equipments. However, based on the interval grey parameter numbers, the modeling and prediction process is more complicated than the one with real numbers. In order not lose any information, the geometric coordinate features are used by the coordinates of area and middle point lines in this paper, which are proved with the same information as the original interval data. The grey prediction model for interval grey number by the fractional-order accumulation calculus is proposed. Compared with integer-order model, the proposed method could have more freedom with better performance for modeling and prediction, which can be widely used in the modeling process and prediction for the small amount interval historical industry sequence samples. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mars Radiation Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzate, N.; Grande, M.; Matthiae, D.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary Space Weather Services (PSWS) within the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure have been developed following protocols and standards available in Astrophysical, Solar Physics and Planetary Science Virtual Observatories. Several VO-compliant functionalities have been implemented in various tools. The PSWS extends the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. One of the five toolkits developed as part of these services is a model dedicated to the Mars environment. This model has been developed at Aberystwyth University and the Institut fur Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin (DLR Cologne) using modeled average conditions available from Planetocosmics. It is available for tracing propagation of solar events through the Solar System and modeling the response of the Mars environment. The results have been synthesized into look-up tables parameterized to variable solar wind conditions at Mars.

  10. Integrating satellite actual evapotranspiration patterns into distributed model parametrization and evaluation for a mesoscale catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, M. C.; Mai, J.; Stisen, S.; Mendiguren González, G.; Koch, J.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated and evaluated against observations of streamflow. Spatially distributed remote sensing observations offer a great opportunity to enhance spatial model calibration schemes. For that it is important to identify the model parameters that can change spatial patterns before the satellite based hydrologic model calibration. Our study is based on two main pillars: first we use spatial sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters controlling the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Second, we investigate the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM). This distributed model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the calibration of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) directly as input. In addition the simulated AET can be estimated at the spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed using MODIS data. We introduce a new dynamic scaling function employing remotely sensed vegetation to downscale coarse reference evapotranspiration. In total, 17 parameters of 47 mHM parameters are identified using both sequential screening and Latin hypercube one-at-a-time sampling methods. The spatial patterns are found to be sensitive to the vegetation parameters whereas streamflow dynamics are sensitive to the PTF parameters. The results of multi-objective model calibration show that calibration of mHM against observed streamflow does not reduce the spatial errors in AET while they improve only the streamflow simulations. We will further examine the results of model calibration using only multi spatial objective functions measuring the association between observed AET and simulated AET maps and another case including spatial and streamflow metrics together.

  11. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  12. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  13. Do Student Evaluations of University Reflect Inaccurate Beliefs or Actual Experience? A Relative Rank Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M; Ogden, Ruth S; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that student satisfaction ratings are influenced by context in ways that have important theoretical and practical implications. Using questions from the UK's National Student Survey, the study examined whether and how students' expressed satisfaction with issues such as feedback promptness and instructor enthusiasm depends on the context of comparison (such as possibly inaccurate beliefs about the feedback promptness or enthusiasm experienced at other universities) that is evoked. Experiment 1 found strong effects of experimentally provided comparison context—for example, satisfaction with a given feedback time depended on the time's relative position within a context. Experiment 2 used a novel distribution-elicitation methodology to determine the prior beliefs of individual students about what happens in universities other than their own. It found that these beliefs vary widely and that students' satisfaction was predicted by how they believed their experience ranked within the distribution of others' experiences. A third study found that relative judgement principles also predicted students' intention to complain. An extended model was developed to show that purely rank-based principles of judgement can account for findings previously attributed to range effects. It was concluded that satisfaction ratings and quality of provision are different quantities, particularly when the implicit context of comparison includes beliefs about provision at other universities. Quality and satisfaction should be assessed separately, with objective measures (such as actual times to feedback), rather than subjective ratings (such as satisfaction with feedback promptness), being used to measure quality wherever practicable. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25620847

  14. Simple models to predict grassland ecosystem C exchange and actual evapotranspiration using NDVI and environmental variables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Semiarid grasslands contribute significantly to net terrestrial carbon flux as plant productivity and heterotrophic respiration in these moisture-limited systems are correlated with metrics related to water availability (e.g., precipitation, Actual EvapoTranspiration or AET). These variables are als...

  15. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  16. Increasing the Reliability of Circulation Model Validation: Quantifying Drifter Slip to See how Currents are Actually Moving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean circulation forecasts can help answer questions regarding larval dispersal, passive movement of injured sea animals, oil spill mitigation, and search and rescue efforts. Circulation forecasts are often validated with GPS-tracked drifter paths, but how accurately do these drifters actually move with ocean currents? Drifters are not only moved by water, but are also forced by wind and waves acting on the exposed buoy and transmitter; this imperfect movement is referred to as drifter slip. The quantification and further understanding of drifter slip will allow scientists to differentiate between drifter imperfections and actual computer model error when comparing trajectory forecasts with actual drifter tracks. This will avoid falsely accrediting all discrepancies between a trajectory forecast and an actual drifter track to computer model error. During multiple deployments of drifters in Nantucket Sound and using observed wind and wave data, we attempt to quantify the slip of drifters developed by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program. While similar studies have been conducted previously, very few have directly attached current meters to drifters to quantify drifter slip. Furthermore, none have quantified slip of NEFSC drifters relative to the oceanographic-standard "CODE" drifter. The NEFSC drifter archive has over 1000 drifter tracks primarily off the New England coast. With a better understanding of NEFSC drifter slip, modelers can reliably use these tracks for model validation.

  17. Increasing the Reliability of Circulation Model Validation: Quantifying Drifter Slip to See how Currents are Actually Moving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean circulation forecasts can help answer questions regarding larval dispersal, passive movement of injured sea animals, oil spill mitigation, and search and rescue efforts. Circulation forecasts are often validated with GPS-tracked drifter paths, but how accurately do these drifters actually move with ocean currents? Drifters are not only moved by water, but are also forced by wind and waves acting on the exposed buoy and transmitter; this imperfect movement is referred to as drifter slip. The quantification and further understanding of drifter slip will allow scientists to differentiate between drifter imperfections and actual computer model error when comparing trajectory forecasts with actual drifter tracks. This will avoid falsely accrediting all discrepancies between a trajectory forecast and an actual drifter track to computer model error. During multiple deployments of drifters in Nantucket Sound and using observed wind and wave data, we attempt to quantify the slip of drifters developed by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program. While similar studies have been conducted previously, very few have directly attached current meters to drifters to quantify drifter slip. Furthermore, none have quantified slip of NEFSC drifters relative to the oceanographic-standard "CODE" drifter. The NEFSC drifter archive has over 1000 drifter tracks primarily off the New England coast. With a better understanding of NEFSC drifter slip, modelers can reliably use these tracks for model validation.

  18. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  19. Spectral modeling of radiation in combustion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Gopalendu

    Radiation calculations are important in combustion due to the high temperatures encountered but has not been studied in sufficient detail in the case of turbulent flames. Radiation calculations for such problems require accurate, robust, and computationally efficient models for the solution of radiative transfer equation (RTE), and spectral properties of radiation. One more layer of complexity is added in predicting the overall heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems due to nonlinear interactions between turbulent fluctuations and radiation. The present work is aimed at the development of finite volume-based high-accuracy thermal radiation modeling, including spectral radiation properties in order to accurately capture turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI) and predict heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems correctly and efficiently. The turbulent fluctuations of temperature and chemical species concentrations have strong effects on spectral radiative intensities, and TRI create a closure problem when the governing partial differential equations are averaged. Recently, several approaches have been proposed to take TRI into account. Among these attempts the most promising approaches are the probability density function (PDF) methods, which can treat nonlinear coupling between turbulence and radiative emission exactly, i.e., "emission TRI". The basic idea of the PDF method is to treat physical variables as random variables and to solve the PDF transport equation stochastically. The actual reacting flow field is represented by a large number of discrete stochastic particles each carrying their own random variable values and evolving with time. The mean value of any function of those random variables, such as the chemical source term, can be evaluated exactly by taking the ensemble average of particles. The local emission term belongs to this class and thus, can be evaluated directly and exactly from particle ensembles. However, the local absorption term

  20. Estimating solar radiation for plant simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, T.; French, V.; Leduc, S.

    1985-01-01

    Five algorithms producing daily solar radiation surrogates using daily temperatures and rainfall were evaluated using measured solar radiation data for seven U.S. locations. The algorithms were compared both in terms of accuracy of daily solar radiation estimates and terms of response when used in a plant growth simulation model (CERES-wheat). Requirements for accuracy of solar radiation for plant growth simulation models are discussed. One algorithm is recommended as being best suited for use in these models when neither measured nor satellite estimated solar radiation values are available.

  1. Supporting Scientific Modeling Practices in Atmospheric Sciences: Intended and Actual Affordances of a Computer-Based Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based learning tools include design features to enhance learning but learners may not always perceive the existence of these features and use them in desirable ways. There might be a gap between what the tool features are designed to offer (intended affordance) and what they are actually used (actual affordance). This study thus aims at…

  2. Predicting intention to attend and actual attendance at a universal parent-training programme: a comparison of social cognition models.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Sarah; Calam, Rachel

    2011-07-01

    The predictive validity of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were examined in relation to 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at a universal parent-training intervention for parents of children with behavioural difficulties. A validation and reliability study was conducted to develop two questionnaires (N = 108 parents of children aged 4-7).These questionnaires were then used to investigate the predictive validity of the two models in relation to 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at a parent-training intervention ( N = 53 parents of children aged 4-7). Both models significantly predicted 'intention to attend a parent-training group'; however, the TPB accounted for more variance in the outcome variable compared to the HBM. Preliminary investigations highlighted that attendees were more likely to intend to attend the groups, have positive attitudes towards the groups, perceive important others as having positive attitudes towards the groups, and report elevated child problem behaviour scores. These findings provide useful information regarding the belief-based factors that affect attendance at universal parent-training groups. Possible interventions aimed at increasing 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at parent-training groups are discussed.

  3. Predictive models of radiative neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Julio, J., E-mail: julio@lipi.go.id

    2016-06-21

    We discuss two models of radiative neutrino mass generation. The first model features one–loop Zee model with Z{sub 4} symmetry. The second model is the two–loop neutrino mass model with singly- and doubly-charged scalars. These two models fit neutrino oscillation data well and predict some interesting rates for lepton flavor violation processes.

  4. Stress-based animal models of depression: Do we actually know what we are doing?

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Guven, Nuri; Dietis, Nikolas

    2016-12-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability and a significant health-concern worldwide. Much of our current understanding on the pathogenesis of depression and the pharmacology of antidepressant drugs is based on pre-clinical models. Three of the most popular stress-based rodent models are the forced swimming test, the chronic mild stress paradigm and the learned helplessness model. Despite their recognizable advantages and limitations, they are associated with an immense variability due to the high number of design parameters that define them. Only few studies have reported how minor modifications of these parameters affect the model phenotype. Thus, the existing variability in how these models are used has been a strong barrier for drug development as well as benchmark and evaluation of these pre-clinical models of depression. It also has been the source of confusing variability in the experimental outcomes between research groups using the same models. In this review, we summarize the known variability in the experimental protocols, identify the main and relevant parameters for each model and describe the variable values using characteristic examples. Our view of depression and our efforts to discover novel and effective antidepressants is largely based on our detailed knowledge of these testing paradigms, and requires a sound understanding around the importance of individual parameters to optimize and improve these pre-clinical models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  6. COMPARISON OF MEDIUM CONCENTRATION VS. ACTUAL TISSUE DOSE IN IN VITRO NEUROTOXICANT MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro methods have long been used to model the effects of toxicants on the nervous system. Generally, it is assumed that concentrations of toxicant present in the medium surrounding cells in in vitro models are an adequate biomarker of cell or tissue levels. However, this assu...

  7. A rapid radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiang, X.; Smith, E. A.; Justus, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    A rapid analytical radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation in plane-parallel atmospheres is developed based on the Sobolev approach and the delta function transformation technique. A distinct advantage of this model over alternative two-stream solutions is that in addition to yielding the irradiance components, which turn out to be mathematically equivalent to the delta-Eddington approximation, the radiance field can also be expanded in a mathematically consistent fashion. Tests with the model against a more precise multistream discrete ordinate model over a wide range of input parameters demonstrate that the new approximate method typically produces average radiance differences of less than 5%, with worst average differences of approximately 10%-15%. By the same token, the computational speed of the new model is some tens to thousands times faster than that of the more precise model when its stream resolution is set to generate precise calculations.

  8. Modeling Space Radiation with Radiomimetic Agent Bleomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Space radiation consists of proton and helium from solar particle events (SPE) and high energy heavy ions from galactic cosmic ray (GCR). This mixture of radiation with particles at different energy levels has different effects on biological systems. Currently, majority studies of radiation effects on human were based on single-source radiation due to the limitation of available method to model effects of space radiation on living organisms. While NASA Space Radiation Laboratory is working on advanced switches to make it possible to have a mixed field radiation with particles of different energies, the radiation source will be limited. Development of an easily available experimental model for studying effects of mixed field radiation could greatly speed up our progress in our understanding the molecular mechanisms of damage and responses from exposure to space radiation, and facilitate the discovery of protection and countermeasures against space radiation, which is critical for the mission to Mars. Bleomycin, a radiomimetic agent, has been widely used to study radiation induced DNA damage and cellular responses. Previously, bleomycin was often compared to low low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) gamma radiation without defined characteristics. Our recent work demonstrated that bleomycin could induce complex clustered DNA damage in human fibroblasts that is similar to DNA damage induced by high LET radiation. These type of DNA damage is difficult to repair and can be visualized by gamma-H2Ax staining weeks after the initial insult. The survival ratio between early and late plating of human fibroblasts after bleomycin treatment is between low LET and high LET radiation. Our results suggest that bleomycin induces DNA damage and other cellular stresses resembling those resulted from mixed field radiation with both low and high LET particles. We hypothesize that bleomycin could be used to mimic space radiation in biological systems. Potential advantages and limitations of

  9. The Actualization of Literary Learning Model Based on Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hali, Nur Ihsan

    2017-01-01

    This article is inspired by Howard Gardner's concept of linguistic intelligence and also from some authors' previous writings. All of them became the authors' reference in developing ideas on constructing a literary learning model based on linguistic intelligence. The writing of this article is not done by collecting data empirically, but by…

  10. Primary care models for treating opioid use disorders: What actually works? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Bush, Christopher; Heisler, Michele; Chopra, Vineet; Bohnert, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary care-based models for Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) have been shown to reduce mortality for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) and have equivalent efficacy to MAT in specialty substance treatment facilities. Objective The objective of this study is to systematically analyze current evidence-based, primary care OUD MAT interventions and identify program structures and processes associated with improved patient outcomes in order to guide future policy and implementation in primary care settings. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychInfo. Methods We included randomized controlled or quasi experimental trials and observational studies evaluating OUD treatment in primary care settings treating adult patient populations and assessed structural domains using an established systems engineering framework. Results We included 35 interventions (10 RCTs and 25 quasi-experimental interventions) that all tested MAT, buprenorphine or methadone, in primary care settings across 8 countries. Most included interventions used joint multi-disciplinary (specialty addiction services combined with primary care) and coordinated care by physician and non-physician provider delivery models to provide MAT. Despite large variability in reported patient outcomes, processes, and tasks/tools used, similar key design factors arose among successful programs including integrated clinical teams with support staff who were often advanced practice clinicians (nurses and pharmacists) as clinical care managers, incorporating patient “agreements,” and using home inductions to make treatment more convenient for patients and providers. Conclusions The findings suggest that multidisciplinary and coordinated care delivery models are an effective strategy to implement OUD treatment and increase MAT access in primary care, but research directly comparing specific structures and processes of care models is still needed. PMID:29040331

  11. Estimation of Actual Crop ET of Paddy Using the Energy Balance Model SMARET and Validation with Field Water Balance Measurements and a Crop Growth Model (ORYZA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, N. D.; Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources requires reliable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) at fine spatial and temporal resolution. This is significant in the case of rice based irrigation systems, one of the major consumers of surface water resources and where ET forms a major component of water consumption. However huge tradeoff in the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images coupled with lack of adequate number of cloud free images within a growing season act as major constraints in deriving ET at fine spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing based energy balance models. The scale at which ET is determined is decided by the spatial and temporal scale of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which form inputs to energy balance models. In this context, the current study employed disaggregation algorithms (NL-DisTrad and DisNDVI) to generate time series of LST and NDVI images at fine resolution. The disaggregation algorithms aimed at generating LST and NDVI at finer scale by integrating temporal information from concurrent coarse resolution data and spatial information from a single fine resolution image. The temporal frequency of the disaggregated images is further improved by employing composite images of NDVI and LST in the spatio-temporal disaggregation method. The study further employed half-hourly incoming surface insolation and outgoing long wave radiation obtained from the Indian geostationary satellite (Kalpana-1) to convert the instantaneous ET into daily ET and subsequently to the seasonal ET, thereby improving the accuracy of ET estimates. The estimates of ET were validated with field based water balance measurements carried out in Gadana, a subbasin predominated by rice paddy fields, located in Tamil Nadu, India.

  12. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate resultsmore » than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.« less

  13. Modeling and testing of fractionation effects with refrigerant blends in an actual residential heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Biancardi, F.R.; Pandy, D.R.; Sienel, T.H.

    1997-12-31

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry is actively evaluating and testing hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant blends as a means of complying with current and impending national and international environmental regulations restricting the use and disposal of conventional chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants that contribute to the global ozone-depletion effects. While analyses and system performance tools have shown that HFC refrigerant blends offer certain performance, capacity, and operational advantages, there are significant possible service and operational issues that are raised by the use of blends. Many of these issues occur due to the fractionation of the blends. Therefore, the objectivemore » of this program was to conduct analyses and experimental tests aimed at understanding these issues, develop approaches or techniques to predict these effects, and convey to the industry safe and reliable approaches. As a result, analytical models verified by laboratory data have been developed that predict the fractionation effects of HFC refrigerant blends (1) when exposed to selected POE lubricants, (2) during the system charging process from large liquid containers, and (3) during system start-up, operation, and shutdown within various system components (where two-phase refrigerant exists) and during selected system and component leakage scenarios. Model predictions and experimental results are presented for HFC refrigerant blends containing R-32, R-134a, and R-125 and the data are generalized for various operating conditions and scenarios.« less

  14. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium.

    PubMed

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P

    2011-12-01

    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  16. Comparison of the occlusal contact area of virtual models and actual models: a comparative in vitro study on Class I and Class II malocclusion models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyemin; Cha, Jooly; Chun, Youn-Sic; Kim, Minji

    2018-06-19

    The occlusal registration of virtual models taken by intraoral scanners sometimes shows patterns which seem much different from the patients' occlusion. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the accuracy of virtual occlusion by comparing virtual occlusal contact area with actual occlusal contact area using a plaster model in vitro. Plaster dental models, 24 sets of Class I models and 20 sets of Class II models, were divided into a Molar, Premolar, and Anterior group. The occlusal contact areas calculated by the Prescale method and the virtual occlusion by scanning method were compared, and the ratio of the molar and incisor area were compared in order to find any particular tendencies. There was no significant difference between the Prescale results and the scanner results in both the molar and premolar groups (p = 0.083 and 0.053, respectively). On the other hand, there was a significant difference between the Prescale and the scanner results in the anterior group with the scanner results presenting overestimation of the occlusal contact points (p < 0.05). In Molars group, the regression analysis shows that the two variables express linear correlation and has a linear equation with a slope of 0.917. R 2 is 0.930. Groups of Premolars and Anteriors had a week linear relationship and greater dispersion. Difference between the actual and virtual occlusion revealed in the anterior portion, where overestimation was observed in the virtual model obtained from the scanning method. Nevertheless, molar and premolar areas showed relatively accurate occlusal contact area in the virtual model.

  17. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  18. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program Business Model

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a “virtual pharmaceutical firm,” coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  19. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura L.; Vineberg, Karen A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative deliveredmore » doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These

  20. Daily reference crop evapotranspiration with reduced data sets in the humid environments of Azores islands using estimates of actual vapor pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, P.; Fontes, J. C.; Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2017-11-01

    Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) estimations using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (PM-ETo) require a set of weather data including maximum and minimum air temperatures (T max, T min), actual vapor pressure (e a), solar radiation (R s), and wind speed (u 2). However, those data are often not available, or data sets are incomplete due to missing values. A set of procedures were proposed in FAO56 (Allen et al. 1998) to overcome these limitations, and which accuracy for estimating daily ETo in the humid climate of Azores islands is assessed in this study. Results show that after locally and seasonally calibrating the temperature adjustment factor a d used for dew point temperature (T dew) computation from mean temperature, ETo estimations shown small bias and small RMSE ranging from 0.15 to 0.53 mm day-1. When R s data are missing, their estimation from the temperature difference (T max-T min), using a locally and seasonal calibrated radiation adjustment coefficient (k Rs), yielded highly accurate ETo estimates, with RMSE averaging 0.41 mm day-1 and ranging from 0.33 to 0.58 mm day-1. If wind speed observations are missing, the use of the default u 2 = 2 m s-1, or 3 m s-1 in case of weather measurements over clipped grass in airports, revealed appropriated even for the windy locations (u 2 > 4 m s-1), with RMSE < 0.36 mm day-1. The appropriateness of procedure to estimating the missing values of e a, R s, and u 2 was confirmed.

  1. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model (UMOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Martinez-Sierra, Luz Maria; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is the development of a comprehensive radiation model (UMOD) of the Uranian environment for JPL mission planning. The ultimate goal is to provide a description of the high energy electron and proton environments and the magnetic field at Uranus that can be used for engineering design. Currently no model exists at JPL. A preliminary electron radiation model employing Voyager 2 data was developed by Selesnick and Stone in 1991. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model extends that analysis, which modeled electrons between 0.7 MeV and 2.5 MeV based on the Voyager Cosmic Ray Subsystem electron telescope, down to an energy of 0.022 MeV for electrons and from 0.028 MeV to 3.5 MeV for protons. These latter energy ranges are based on measurements by the Applied Physics Laboratory Low Energy Charged Particle Detector on Voyager 2. As in previous JPL radiation models, the form of the Uranian model is based on magnetic field coordinates and requires a conversion from spacecraft coordinates to Uranian-centered magnetic "B-L" coordinates. Two magnetic field models have been developed for Uranus: 1) a simple "offset, tilted dipole" (OTD), and 2) a complex, multi-pole expansion model ("Q3"). A review of the existing data on Uranus and a search of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) were completed to obtain the latest, up to date descriptions of the Uranian high energy particle environment. These data were fit in terms of the Q3 B-L coordinates to extend and update the original Selesnick and Stone electron model in energy and to develop the companion proton flux model. The flux predictions of the new model were used to estimate the total ionizing dose for the Voyager 2 flyby, and a movie illustrating the complex radiation belt variations was produced to document the uses of the model for planning purposes.

  2. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  3. Assessment of diffuse radiation models in Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarreiro, Clarisse; Brito, Miguel; Soares, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measured irradiance databases usually consist of global solar radiation data with limited spatial coverage. Hence, solar radiation models have been developed to estimate the diffuse fraction from the measured global irradiation. This information is critical for the assessment of the potential of solar energy technologies; for example, the decision to use photovoltaic systems with tracking system. The different solar radiation models for this purpose differ on the parameters used as input. The simplest, and most common, are models which use global radiation information only. More sophisticated models require meteorological parameters such as information from clouds, atmospheric turbidity, temperature or precipitable water content. Most of these models comprise correlations with the clearness index, kt (portion of horizontal extra-terrestrial radiation reaching the Earth's surface) to obtain the diffuse fraction kd (portion of diffuse component from global radiation). The applicability of these different models is related to the local atmospheric conditions and its climatic characteristics. The models are not of general validity and can only be applicable to locations where the albedo of the surrounding terrain and the atmospheric contamination by dust are not significantly different from those where the corresponding methods were developed. Thus, models of diffuse fraction exhibit a relevant degree of location dependence: e.g. models developed considering data acquired in Europe are mainly linked to Northern, Central or, more recently, Mediterranean areas. The Azores Archipelago, with its particular climate and cloud cover characteristics, different from mainland Europe, has not yet been considered for the development of testing of such models. The Azorean climate reveals large amounts of cloud cover in its annual cycle, with spatial and temporal variabilities more complex than the common Summer/Winter pattern. This study explores the applicability of different

  4. String Fragmentation Model in Space Radiation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Alfred; Johnson, Eloise (Editor); Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    String fragmentation models such as the Lund Model fit experimental particle production cross sections very well in the high-energy limit. This paper gives an introduction of the massless relativistic string in the Lund Model and shows how it can be modified with a simple assumption to produce formulas for meson production cross sections for space radiation research. The results of the string model are compared with inclusive pion production data from proton-proton collision experiments.

  5. Modeling actual evapotranspiration with routine meteorological variables in the data-scarce region of the Tibetan Plateau: Comparisons and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Yinsheng; Xu, Chong-Yu; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) by in situ measurements and mathematical modeling is a fundamental task for physical understanding of ETa as well as the feedback mechanisms between land and the ambient atmosphere. However, the ETa information in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been greatly impeded by the extremely sparse ground observation network in the region. Approaches for estimating ETa solely from routine meteorological variables are therefore important for investigating spatiotemporal variations of ETa in the data-scarce region of the TP. Motivated by this need, the complementary relationship (CR) and Penman-Monteith approaches were evaluated against in situ measurements of ETa on a daily basis in an alpine steppe region of the TP. The former includes the Nonlinear Complementary Relationship (Nonlinear-CR) as well as the Complementary Relationship Areal Evapotranspiration (CRAE) models, while the latter involves the Katerji-Perrier and the Todorovic models. Results indicate that the Nonlinear-CR, CRAE, and Katerji-Perrier models are all capable of efficiently simulating daily ETa, provided their parameter values were appropriately calibrated. The Katerji-Perrier model performed best since its site-specific parameters take the soil water status into account. The Nonlinear-CR model also performed well with the advantage of not requiring the user to choose between a symmetric and asymmetric CR. The CRAE model, even with a relatively low Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) value, is also an acceptable approach in this data-scarce region as it does not need information of wind speed and ground surface conditions. In contrast, application of the Todorovic model was found to be inappropriate in the dry regions of the TP due to its significant overestimation of ETa as it neglects the effect of water stress on the bulk surface resistance. Sensitivity analysis of the parameter values demonstrated the relative importance of each parameter in the

  6. Multicomponent Dark Matter in Radiative Seesaw Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kaneko, Daiki; Kubo, Jisuke

    2017-11-01

    We discuss radiative seesaw models, in which an exact Z_2¥times Z_2' symmetry is imposed. Due to the exact Z_2¥times Z_2' symmetry, neutrino masses are generated at a two-loop level and at least two extra stable electrically neutral particles are predicted. We consider two models: one has a multi-component dark matter system and the other one has a dark radiation in addition to a dark matter. In the multi-component dark matter system, non-standard dark matter annihilation processes exist. We find that they play important roles in determining the relic abundance and also responsible for the monochromatic neutrino lines resulting from the dark matter annihilation process. In the model with the dark radiation, the structure of the Yukawa coupling is considerably constrained and gives an interesting relationship among cosmology, lepton flavor violating decay of the charged leptons and the decay of the inert Higgs bosons.

  7. Radiation repair models for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Dale, Roger G

    2018-02-28

    A number of newly emerging clinical techniques involve non-conventional patterns of radiation delivery which require an appreciation of the role played by radiation repair phenomena. This review outlines the main models of radiation repair, focussing on those which are of greatest clinical usefulness and which may be incorporated into biologically effective dose assessments. The need to account for the apparent "slowing-down" of repair rates observed in some normal tissues is also examined, along with a comparison of the relative merits of the formulations which can be used to account for such phenomena. Jack Fowler brought valuable insight to the understanding of radiation repair processes and this article includes reference to his important contributions in this area.

  8. Atmospheric radiation model for water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Gaskill, D. W.; Lierzer, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric correction model was extended to account for various atmospheric radiation components in remotely sensed data. Components such as the atmospheric path radiance which results from singly scattered sky radiation specularly reflected by the water surface are considered. A component which is referred to as the virtual Sun path radiance, i.e. the singly scattered path radiance which results from the solar radiation which is specularly reflected by the water surface is also considered. These atmospheric radiation components are coded into a computer program for the analysis of multispectral remote sensor data over the Great Lakes of the United States. The user must know certain parameters, such as the visibility or spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere and the geometry of the sensor with respect to the Sun and the target elements under investigation.

  9. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Kratz, D. P.; Caldwell, J.; Kim, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Mutually consistent line-by-line, narrow-band and broad-band infrared radiation models are presented for methane, a potentially important anthropogenic trace gas within the atmosphere. Comparisons of the modeled band absorptances with existing laboratory data produce the best agreement when, within the band models, spurious band intensities are used which are consistent with the respective laboratory data sets, but which are not consistent with current knowledge concerning the intensity of the infrared fundamental band of methane. This emphasizes the need for improved laboratory band absorptance measurements. Since, when applied to atmospheric radiation calculations, the line-by-line model does not require the use of scaling approximations, the mutual consistency of the band models provides a means of appraising the accuracy of scaling procedures. It is shown that Curtis-Godson narrow-band and Chan-Tien broad-band scaling provide accurate means of accounting for atmospheric temperature and pressure variations.

  10. Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2008-02-04

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) come in many varieties and with a wide range of radiation patterns. We propose a general, simple but accurate analytic representation for the radiation pattern of the light emitted from an LED. To accurately render both the angular intensity distribution and the irradiance spatial pattern, a simple phenomenological model takes into account the emitting surfaces (chip, chip array, or phosphor surface), and the light redirected by both the reflecting cup and the encapsulating lens. Mathematically, the pattern is described as the sum of a maximum of two or three Gaussian or cosine-power functions. The resulting equation is widely applicable for any kind of LED of practical interest. We accurately model a wide variety of radiation patterns from several world-class manufacturers.

  11. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    show a very different response during anisotropic events, leading to variations in aircrew radiation doses that may be significant for dose assessment. To estimate the additional exposure due to solar flares, a model was developed using a Monte-Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX. The model transports an extrapolated particle spectrum based on satellite measurements through the atmosphere using the MCNPX analysis. This code produces the estimated flux at a specific altitude where radiation dose conversion coefficients are applied to convert the particle flux into effective and ambient dose-equivalent rates. A cut-off rigidity model accounts for the shielding effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and actual flight measurements taken with various types of instruments used to measure the mixed radiation field during Ground Level Enhancements 60 and 65. An anisotropy analysis that uses neutron monitor responses and the pitch angle distribution of energetic solar particles was used to identify particle anisotropy for a solar event in December 2006. In anticipation of future commercial use, a computer code has been developed to implement the radiation dose assessment model for routine analysis. Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, Radiation Protection, Space Physics.

  12. Comparing Models of Helper Behavior to Actual Practice in Telephone Crisis Intervention: A Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Chagnon, Francois; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cecile; Campbell, Julie K.; Berman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Models of telephone crisis intervention in suicide prevention and best practices were developed from a literature review and surveys of crisis centers. We monitored 2,611 calls to 14 centers using reliable behavioral ratings to compare actual interventions with the models. Active listening and collaborative problem-solving models describe help…

  13. MONET: multidimensional radiative cloud scene model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervet, Patrick

    1999-12-01

    All cloud fields exhibit variable structures (bulge) and heterogeneities in water distributions. With the development of multidimensional radiative models by the atmospheric community, it is now possible to describe horizontal heterogeneities of the cloud medium, to study these influences on radiative quantities. We have developed a complete radiative cloud scene generator, called MONET (French acronym for: MOdelisation des Nuages En Tridim.) to compute radiative cloud scene from visible to infrared wavelengths for various viewing and solar conditions, different spatial scales, and various locations on the Earth. MONET is composed of two parts: a cloud medium generator (CSSM -- Cloud Scene Simulation Model) developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory, and a multidimensional radiative code (SHDOM -- Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method) developed at the University of Colorado by Evans. MONET computes images for several scenario defined by user inputs: date, location, viewing angles, wavelength, spatial resolution, meteorological conditions (atmospheric profiles, cloud types)... For the same cloud scene, we can output different viewing conditions, or/and various wavelengths. Shadowing effects on clouds or grounds are taken into account. This code is useful to study heterogeneity effects on satellite data for various cloud types and spatial resolutions, and to determine specifications of new imaging sensor.

  14. Modeling and Laboratory Investigations of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Jacob; Laming, J. Martin; Manka, Charles; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Ted; Tam, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    Supernova remnants are often inhomogeneous, with knots or clumps of material expanding in ambient plasma. This structure may be initiated by hydrodynamic instabilities occurring during the explosion, but it may plausibly be amplified by instabilities of the expanding shocks such as, for example, corrugation instabilities described by D’yakov in 1954, Vishniac in 1983, and observed in the laboratory by Grun et al. in 1991. Shock instability can occur when radiation lowers the effective adiabatic index of the gas. In view of the difficulty of modeling radiation in non-equilibrium plasmas, and the dependence of shock instabilities on such radiation, we are performing a laboratory experiment to study radiative shocks. The shocks are generated in a miniature, laser-driven shock tube. The gas density inside the tube at any instant in time is measured using time and space-resolved interferometry, and the emission spectrum of the gas is measured with time-resolved spectroscopy. We simulate the experiment with a 1D code that models time dependent post-shock ionization and non-equilibrium radiative cooling. S. P. D’yakov, Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi Teoreticheskoi Fiziki 27, 288 (1954); see also section 90 in L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann 1987); E.T. Vishniac, Astrophys. J. 236, 880 (1983); J. Grun, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, 2738 (1991)

  15. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  16. The JPL Neptune Radiation Model (NMOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Evans, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is the development of a comprehensive radiation model of the Neptunian environment for JPL mission planning. The ultimate goal is to provide a description of the high-energy electron and proton environments and the magnetic field at Neptune that can be used for engineering design. The JPL Neptune Radiation Model (NMOD) models the high-energy electrons and protons between 0.025 MeV and 5 MeV based on the California Institute of Technology's Cosmic Ray Subsystem and the Applied Physics Laboratory's Low Energy Charged Particle Detector on Voyager 2. As in previous JPL radiation models, the form of the Neptunian model is based on magnetic field coordinates and requires a conversion from spacecraft coordinates to Neptunian-centered magnetic "B-L" coordinates. Two types of magnetic field models have been developed for Neptune: 1) simple "offset, tilted dipoles" (OTD), and 2) a complex, multi-pole expansion model ("O8"). A review of the existing data on Neptune and a search of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) were completed to obtain the most current descriptions of the Neptunian high-energy particle environment. These data were fit in terms of the O8 B-L coordinates to develop the electron and proton flux models. The flux predictions of the new model were used to estimate the total ionizing dose (TID) rate along the Neptunian equator, meridional flux contours for the electrons and protons, and for flux and dose comparisons with the other radiation belts in the Solar System.

  17. Modeling background radiation in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Daniel A.; Burnley, Pamela C.; Adcock, Christopher T.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation envi-ronment is unknown. Two studymore » areas in Southern Nevada have been modeled using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas that are homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th, referred to as background radiation units, are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Lab - Nellis, allowing for the refinement of the technique. By using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide and define radiation background units within alluvium, successful models have been produced for Government Wash, north of Lake Mead, and for the western shore of Lake Mohave, east of Searchlight, NV.« less

  18. Modeling background radiation in Southern Nevada

    DOE PAGES

    Haber, Daniel A.; Burnley, Pamela C.; Adcock, Christopher T.; ...

    2017-02-06

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation envi-ronment is unknown. Two studymore » areas in Southern Nevada have been modeled using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas that are homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th, referred to as background radiation units, are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Lab - Nellis, allowing for the refinement of the technique. By using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide and define radiation background units within alluvium, successful models have been produced for Government Wash, north of Lake Mead, and for the western shore of Lake Mohave, east of Searchlight, NV.« less

  19. A radiation briefer's guide to the PIKE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, Jr, C R

    1990-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-exposure estimates to populations living immediately downwind from the Nevada Test Site have been required for many years by the US Department of Energy (DOE) before each containment-designed nuclear detonation. A highly unlikely worst-case'' scenario is utilized which assumes that there will be an accidental massive venting of radioactive debris into the atmosphere shortly after detonation. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) has supplied DOE with such estimates for the last 25 years using the WSNSO Fallout Scaling Technique (FOST), which employs a worst-case analog event that actually occurred in the past. The PIKE Model'' is the application ofmore » the FOST using the PIKE nuclear event as the analog. This report, which is primarily intended for WSNSO meteorologists who derive radiation estimates, gives a brief history of the model,'' presents the mathematical, radiological, and meteorological concepts upon which it is based, states its limitations, explains it apparent advantages over more sophisticated models, and details how it is used operationally. 10 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  20. Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.

  1. Host Model Uncertainty in Aerosol Radiative Effects: the AeroCom Prescribed Experiment and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Philip; Schutgens, Nick; Bian, Huisheng; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Ghan, Steven; Huneeus, Nicolas; Kinne, Stefan; Lin, Guangxing; Myhre, Gunnar; Penner, Joyce; Randles, Cynthia; Samset, Bjorn; Schulz, Michael; Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Cheng; Bellouin, Nicolas; Ma, Xiaoyan; Yu, Fangqun; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic and natural aerosol radiative effects are recognized to affect global and regional climate. Multi-model "diversity" in estimates of the aerosol radiative effect is often perceived as a measure of the uncertainty in modelling aerosol itself. However, current aerosol models vary considerably in model components relevant for the calculation of aerosol radiative forcings and feedbacks and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual uncertainty in aerosol modelling. In the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in eleven participating models. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained surface albedos, such as sea ice. Our results demonstrate that host model uncertainties are an important component of aerosol forcing uncertainty that require further attention. However, uncertainties in aerosol radiative effects also include short-term and long-term feedback processes that will be systematically explored in future intercomparison studies. Here we will present an overview of the proposals for discussion and results from early scoping studies.

  2. Host Model Uncertainty in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates - The AeroCom Prescribed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, P.; Kinne, S.; Bellouin, N.; Myhre, G.; Takemura, T.; Yu, H.; Randles, C.; Chung, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic and natural aerosol radiative effects are recognized to affect global and regional climate. However, even for the case of identical aerosol emissions, the simulated direct aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity among the AeroCom models (Schulz et al., 2006). Our analysis of aerosol absorption in the AeroCom models indicates a larger diversity in the translation from given aerosol radiative properties (absorption optical depth) to actual atmospheric absorption than in the translation of a given atmospheric burden of black carbon to the radiative properties (absorption optical depth). The large diversity is caused by differences in the simulated cloud fields, radiative transfer, the relative vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and the effective surface albedo. This indicates that differences in host model (GCM or CTM hosting the aerosol module) parameterizations contribute significantly to the simulated diversity of aerosol radiative forcing. The magnitude of these host model effects in global aerosol model and satellites retrieved aerosol radiative forcing estimates cannot be estimated from the diagnostics of the "standard" AeroCom forcing experiments. To quantify the contribution of differences in the host models to the simulated aerosol radiative forcing and absorption we conduct the AeroCom Prescribed experiment, a simple aerosol model and satellite retrieval intercomparison with prescribed highly idealised aerosol fields. Quality checks, such as diagnostic output of the 3D aerosol fields as implemented in each model, ensure the comparability of the aerosol implementation in the participating models. The simulated forcing variability among the models and retrievals is a direct measure of the contribution of host model assumptions to the uncertainty in the assessment of the aerosol radiative effects. We will present the results from the AeroCom prescribed experiment with focus on the attribution to the simulated variability

  3. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki

    2018-03-01

    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  4. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  5. Inflation model selection meets dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tram, Thomas; Vallance, Robert; Vennin, Vincent, E-mail: thomas.tram@port.ac.uk, E-mail: robert.vallance@student.manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: vincent.vennin@port.ac.uk

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how inflation model selection is affected by the presence of additional free-streaming relativistic degrees of freedom, i.e. dark radiation. We perform a full Bayesian analysis of both inflation parameters and cosmological parameters taking reheating into account self-consistently. We compute the Bayesian evidence for a few representative inflation scenarios in both the standard ΛCDM model and an extension including dark radiation parametrised by its effective number of relativistic species N {sub eff}. Using a minimal dataset (Planck low-ℓ polarisation, temperature power spectrum and lensing reconstruction), we find that the observational status of most inflationary models is unchanged. The exceptionsmore » are potentials such as power-law inflation that predict large values for the scalar spectral index that can only be realised when N {sub eff} is allowed to vary. Adding baryon acoustic oscillations data and the B-mode data from BICEP2/Keck makes power-law inflation disfavoured, while adding local measurements of the Hubble constant H {sub 0} makes power-law inflation slightly favoured compared to the best single-field plateau potentials. This illustrates how the dark radiation solution to the H {sub 0} tension would have deep consequences for inflation model selection.« less

  6. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistagemore » carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using

  7. Dynamical and Radiative Modeling of Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.

    2011-09-01

    Sgr A* in our Galactic Center is the closest supermassive black hole (SMBH) with the largest event horizon angular size. Most other SMBHs are likely in the same dormant low-luminosity accretion state as Sgr A*. Thus, the important physical effects in lives of BHs can be best observed and studied in our Galactic Center. One of these effects is electron heat conduction. Conduction may be the main reason why Sgr A* is so dramatically underluminous: it transfers heat outwards from the inner flow and unbinds the outer flow, quenching the accretion. In Chapter 3 I build a realistic model of accretion with conduction, which incorporates feeding by stellar winds. In a model with accretion rate < 1% of the naive Bondi estimate I achieve agreement of the X-ray surface brightness profile and Faraday rotation measure to observations. An earlier model proposed in Chapter 2 with adiabatic accretion of turbulent magnetized medium cannot be tweaked to match the observations. Its accretion rate appears too large, so turbulent magnetic field cannot stop gas from falling in. Low accretion rate leads to a peculiar radiation pattern from near the BH: cyclo-synchrotron polarized radiation is observed in radio/sub-mm. Since it comes from several Schwarzschild radii, the BH spin can be determined, when we overcome all modeling challenges. I fit the average observed radiation spectrum with a theoretical spectrum, which is computed by radiative transfer over a simulation-based model. Relevant plasma effects responsible for the observed polarization state are accurately computed for thermal plasma in Chapter 4. The prescription of how to perform the correct general relativistic polarized radiative transfer is elaborated in Chapter 5. Application of this technique to three-dimensional general relativistic magneto hydrodynamic numerical simulations is reported in Chapter 6. The main results of analysis are that the spin inclination angle is estimated to lie within a narrow range theta est = 50

  8. An assessment on convective and radiative heat transfer modelling in tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz, A.; Sánchez, T.

    Four models of convective and radiative heat transfer inside tubular solid oxide fuel cells are presented in this paper, all of them applicable to multidimensional simulations. The work is aimed at assessing if it is necessary to use a very detailed and complicated model to simulate heat transfer inside this kind of device and, for those cases when simple models can be used, the errors are estimated and compared to those of the more complex models. For the convective heat transfer, two models are presented. One of them accounts for the variation of film coefficient as a function of local temperature and composition. This model gives a local value for the heat transfer coefficients and establishes the thermal entry length. The second model employs an average value of the transfer coefficient, which is applied to the whole length of the duct being studied. It is concluded that, unless there is a need to calculate local temperatures, a simple model can be used to evaluate the global performance of the cell with satisfactory accuracy. For the radiation heat transfer, two models are presented again. One of them considers radial radiation exclusively and, thus, radiative exchange between adjacent cells is neglected. On the other hand, the second model accounts for radiation in all directions but increases substantially the complexity of the problem. For this case, it is concluded that deviations between both models are higher than for convection. Actually, using a simple model can lead to a not negligible underestimation of the temperature of the cell.

  9. Modeling Early Galaxies Using Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This simulation uses a flux-limited diffusion solver to explore the radiation hydrodynamics of early galaxies, in particular, the ionizing radiation created by Population III stars. At the time of this rendering, the simulation has evolved to a redshift of 3.5. The simulation volume is 11.2 comoving megaparsecs, and has a uniform grid of 10243 cells, with over 1 billion dark matter and star particles. This animation shows a combined view of the baryon density, dark matter density, radiation energy and emissivity from this simulation. The multi-variate rendering is particularly useful because is shows both the baryonic matter ("normal") and darkmore » matter, and the pressure and temperature variables are properties of only the baryonic matter. Visible in the gas density are "bubbles", or shells, created by the radiation feedback from young stars. Seeing the bubbles from feedback provides confirmation of the physics model implemented. Features such as these are difficult to identify algorithmically, but easily found when viewing the visualization. Simulation was performed on Kraken at the National Institute for Computational Sciences. Visualization was produced using resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory.« less

  10. Using a Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Model To Determine the Actual Cost of Services Provided by a Transgenic Core.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Philip M; Norinsky, Rada M; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2018-03-01

    Laboratory animal programs and core laboratories often set service rates based on cost estimates. However, actual costs may be unknown, and service rates may not reflect the actual cost of services. Accurately evaluating the actual costs of services can be challenging and time-consuming. We used a time-driven activity-based costing (ABC) model to determine the cost of services provided by a resource laboratory at our institution. The time-driven approach is a more efficient approach to calculating costs than using a traditional ABC model. We calculated only 2 parameters: the time required to perform an activity and the unit cost of the activity based on employee cost. This method allowed us to rapidly and accurately calculate the actual cost of services provided, including microinjection of a DNA construct, microinjection of embryonic stem cells, embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization. We successfully implemented a time-driven ABC model to evaluate the cost of these services and the capacity of labor used to deliver them. We determined how actual costs compared with current service rates. In addition, we determined that the labor supplied to conduct all services (10,645 min/wk) exceeded the practical labor capacity (8400 min/wk), indicating that the laboratory team was highly efficient and that additional labor capacity was needed to prevent overloading of the current team. Importantly, this time-driven ABC approach allowed us to establish a baseline model that can easily be updated to reflect operational changes or changes in labor costs. We demonstrated that a time-driven ABC model is a powerful management tool that can be applied to other core facilities as well as to entire animal programs, providing valuable information that can be used to set rates based on the actual cost of services and to improve operating efficiency.

  11. Introductory Tools for Radiative Transfer Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D.; Kuai, L.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite data are currently so voluminous that, despite their unprecedented quality and potential for scientific application, only a small fraction is analyzed due to two factors: researchers' computational constraints and a relatively small number of researchers actively utilizing the data. Ultimately it is hoped that the terabytes of unanalyzed data being archived can receive scientific scrutiny but this will require a popularization of the methods associated with the analysis. Since a large portion of complexity is associated with the proper implementation of the radiative transfer model, it is reasonable and appropriate to make the model as accessible as possible to general audiences. Unfortunately, the algorithmic and conceptual details that are necessary for state-of-the-art analysis also tend to frustrate the accessibility for those new to remote sensing. Several efforts have been made to have web- based radiative transfer calculations, and these are useful for limited calculations, but analysis of more than a few spectra requires the utilization of home- or server-based computing resources. We present a system that is designed to allow for easier access to radiative transfer models with implementation on a home computing platform in the hopes that this system can be utilized in and expanded upon in advanced high school and introductory college settings. This learning-by-doing process is aided through the use of several powerful tools. The first is a wikipedia-style introduction to the salient features of radiative transfer that references the seminal works in the field and refers to more complicated calculations and algorithms sparingly5. The second feature is a technical forum, commonly referred to as a tiki-wiki, that addresses technical and conceptual questions through public postings, private messages, and a ranked searching routine. Together, these tools may be able to facilitate greater interest in the field of remote sensing.

  12. Theoretical Modelling of Sound Radiation from Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Yusoff, A.; Madlan, M. A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the development of aerospace, automotive and building industries demands the use of lightweight materials such as thin plates. However, the plates can possibly add to significant vibration and sound radiation, which eventually lead to increased noise in the community. So, in this study, the fundamental concept of sound pressure radiated from a simply-supported thin plate (SSP) was analyzed using the derivation of mathematical equations and numerical simulation of ANSYS®. The solution to mathematical equations of sound radiated from a SSP was visualized using MATLAB®. The responses of sound pressure level were measured at far field as well as near field in the frequency range of 0-200 Hz. Result shows that there are four resonance frequencies; 12 Hz, 60 Hz, 106 Hz and 158 Hz were identified which represented by the total number of the peaks in the frequency response function graph. The outcome also indicates that the mathematical derivation correlated well with the simulation model of ANSYS® in which the error found is less than 10%. It can be concluded that the obtained model is reliable and can be applied for further analysis such as to reduce noise emitted from a vibrating thin plate.

  13. An Earth longwave radiation climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model was constructed for radiation budget study. Required information is provided by on empirical 100mb water vapor mixing ratio equation of the mixing ratio interpolation scheme. Cloud top temperature is adjusted so that the calculation would agree with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Both clear sky and cloudy sky cases are calculated and discussed for global average, zonal average and world-wide distributed cases. The results agree well with the satellite observations. The clear sky case shows that the OLWR field is highly modulated by water vapor, especially in the tropics. The strongest longitudinal variation occurs in the tropics. This variation can be mostly explained by the strong water vapor gradient. Although in the zonal average case the tropics have a minimum in OLWR, the minimum is essentially contributed by a few very low flux regions, such as the Amazon, Indonesian and the Congo.

  14. Implications of Self-Deception for Self-Reported Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Dispositions and Actual Learning Performance: A Higher Order Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Thomas, Christopher H.; McNatt, D. Brian

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored implications of individuals' self-deception (a trait) for their self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions and their actual learning performance. In doing so, a higher order structural model was developed and tested in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions were underlying factors that…

  15. [Dose loads on and radiation risk values for cosmonauts on a mission to Mars estimated from actual Martian vehicle engineering development].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Mitrikas, V G; Petrov, V M

    2010-01-01

    The current design philosophy of a Mars orbiting vehicle, takeoff and landing systems and the transport return vehicle was taken into consideration for calculating the equivalent doses imparted to cosmonaut's organs and tissues by galactic cosmic rays, solar rays and the Earth's radiation belts, values of the total radiation risk over the lifespan following the mission and over the whole career period, and possible shortening of life expectancy. There are a number of uncertainties that should be evaluated, and radiation limits specified before setting off to Mars.

  16. Two dimensional model for coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengkun; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects in a bunch compressor requires an accurate model accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters. We extend the well-known 1D CSR analytic model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical model based on the Liénard-Wiechert formula for the CSR field of a coasting beam. This CSR numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in the space charge field calculation present in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic result for free electron laser (FEL) related beam parameters but it can also give a more accurate result for low-energy/large spot size beams and off-axis/transient fields. This 2D CSR model can be used for understanding the limitation of various 1D models and for benchmarking fully electromagnetic multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling.

  17. Radiation Modeling with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Hassan, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Improvements in the modeling of radiation in low density shock waves with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) are the subject of this study. A new scheme to determine the relaxation collision numbers for excitation of electronic states is proposed. This scheme attempts to move the DSMC programs toward a more detailed modeling of the physics and more reliance on available rate data. The new method is compared with the current modeling technique and both techniques are compared with available experimental data. The differences in the results are evaluated. The test case is based on experimental measurements from the AVCO-Everett Research Laboratory electric arc-driven shock tube of a normal shock wave in air at 10 km/s and .1 Torr. The new method agrees with the available data as well as the results from the earlier scheme and is more easily extrapolated to di erent ow conditions.

  18. A Earth Outgoing Longwave Radiation Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Keng

    An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model has been constructed for radiation budget study. The model consists of the upward radiative transfer parameterization of Thompson and Warren (1982), the cloud cover model of Sherr et al. (1968) and a monthly average climatology defined by the data from Crutcher and Meserve (1971) and Taljaard et al. (1969). Additional required information is provided by the empirical 100mb water vapor mixing ratio equation of Harries (1976), and the mixing ratio interpolation scheme of Briegleb and Ramanathan (1982). Cloud top temperature is adjusted so that the calculation would agree with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Both clear sky and cloudy sky cases are calculated and discussed for global average, zonal average and world-wide distributed cases. The results agree well with the satellite observations. The clear sky case shows that the OLWR field is highly modulated by water vapor, especially in the tropics. The strongest longitudinal variation occurs in the tropics. This variation can be mostly explained by the strong water vapor gradient. Although in the zonal average case the tropics have a minimum in OLWR, the minimum is essentially contributed by a few very low flux regions, such as the Amazon, Indonesia and the Congo. There are regions in the tropics such that their OLWR is as large as that of the subtropics. In the high latitudes, where cold air contains less water vapor, OLWR is basically modulated by the surface temperature. Thus, the topographical heat capacity becomes a dominant factor in determining the distribution. Clouds enhance water vapor modulation of OLWR. Tropical clouds have the coldest cloud top temperatures. This again increases the longitudinal variation in the region. However, in the polar region, where temperature inversion is prominent, cloud top temperature is warmer than the surface. Hence, cloud has the effect of increasing OLWR. The implication of this cloud mechanism is that the

  19. Climate modeling. [for use in understanding earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for radiation measurements suitable for the understanding, improvement, and verification of models used in performing climate research are considered. Both zonal energy balance models and three dimensional general circulation models are considered, and certain problems are identified as common to all models. Areas of emphasis include regional energy balance observations, spectral band observations, cloud-radiation interaction, and the radiative properties of the earth's surface.

  20. Modeling shortwave radiative fluxes from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Pinker, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and from those provided by numerical models. Major issues are related to quality of satellite observations, such as the frequent changes in satellite observing systems, degradation of sensors, restricted spectral intervals and viewing geometry of sensors, and changes in the quality of atmospheric inputs that drive the inference schemes. To reduce differences among the satellite based estimates requires, among others, updates to inference schemes so that most recent auxiliary information can be fully utilized. This paper reports on improvements introduced to a methodology developed at the University of Maryland to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmosphere system from satellite observations, the implementation of the approach with newly available auxiliary information, evaluation of the downwelling SW flux against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. Specifically, introduced are: new Narrow to Broadband (N/B) transformations and new Angular Distribution Models (ADM) for clear and cloudy sky that incorporate most recent land use classifications; improved aerosol treatment; separation of clouds by phase; improved sun-earth geometry; and implementation at 0.5° spatial resolution at 3-hourly intervals integrated to daily and monthly time scales. When compared to an earlier version of the model as implemented at 2.5° at global scale and against observations from the globally distributed Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations for a period of six years (at monthly time scale), the bias was reduced from 8.6 (4.6%) to -0.5 (0.3%) W/m2, the standard deviation from 16.6 (8.9%) to 14.5 (7.8%) W/m2while the correlation remained high at 0.98 in both cases. Evaluation was also done over oceanic sites as

  1. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  2. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    A calculational program utilizing data from radiation dosimetry measurements aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite to reduce the uncertainties in current models defining the ionizing radiation environment is in progress. Most of the effort to date has been on using LDEF radiation dose measurements to evaluate models defining the geomagnetically trapped radiation, which has provided results applicable to radiation design assessments being performed for Space Station Freedom. Plans for future data comparisons, model evaluations, and assessments using additional LDEF data sets (LET spectra, induced radioactivity, and particle spectra) are discussed.

  3. Angular radiation models for earth-atmosphere system. Volume 2: Longwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    The longwave angular radiation models that are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. The models contain limb-darkening characteristics and mean fluxes. Limb-darkening characteristics are the longwave anisotropic factor and the standard deviation of the longwave radiance. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) data set is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the limb-darkening and mean-flux models.

  4. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    PubMed

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  5. A Comparison between High-Energy Radiation Background Models and SPENVIS Trapped-Particle Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We have been assessing the effects of background radiation in low-Earth orbit for the next generation of X-ray and Cosmic-ray experiments, in particular for International Space Station orbit. Outside the areas of high fluxes of trapped radiation, we have been using parameterizations developed by the Fermi team to quantify the high-energy induced background. For the low-energy background, we have been using the AE8 and AP8 SPENVIS models to determine the orbit fractions where the fluxes of trapped particles are too high to allow for useful operation of the experiment. One area we are investigating is how the fluxes of SPENVIS predictions at higher energies match the fluxes at the low-energy end of our parameterizations. I will summarize our methodology for background determination from the various sources of cosmogenic and terrestrial radiation and how these compare to SPENVIS predictions in overlapping energy ranges.

  6. Comparing models of helper behavior to actual practice in telephone crisis intervention: a Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cécile; Campbell, Julie K; Berman, Alan

    2007-06-01

    Models of telephone crisis intervention in suicide prevention and best practices were developed from a literature review and surveys of crisis centers. We monitored 2,611 calls to 14 centers using reliable behavioral ratings to compare actual interventions with the models. Active listening and collaborative problem-solving models describe help provided. Centers vary greatly in the nature of interventions and their quality according to predetermined criteria. Helpers do not systematically assess suicide risk. Some lives may have been saved but occasionally unacceptable responses occur. Recommendations include the need for quality assurance, development of standardized practices and research relating intervention processes to outcomes.

  7. Cavity radiation model for solar central receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipps, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Energy Laboratory of the University of Houston has developed a computer simulation program called CREAM (i.e., Cavity Radiations Exchange Analysis Model) for application to the solar central receiver system. The zone generating capability of CREAM has been used in several solar re-powering studies. CREAM contains a geometric configuration factor generator based on Nusselt's method. A formulation of Nusselt's method provides support for the FORTRAN subroutine NUSSELT. Numerical results from NUSSELT are compared to analytic values and values from Sparrow's method. Sparrow's method is based on a double contour integral and its reduction to a single integral which is approximatedmore » by Guassian methods. Nusselt's method is adequate for the intended engineering applications, but Sparrow's method is found to be an order of magnitude more efficient in many situations.« less

  8. Statistical Modeling for Radiation Hardness Assurance: Toward Bigger Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, R.; Campola, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    New approaches to statistical modeling in radiation hardness assurance are discussed. These approaches yield quantitative bounds on flight-part radiation performance even in the absence of conventional data sources. This allows the analyst to bound radiation risk at all stages and for all decisions in the RHA process. It also allows optimization of RHA procedures for the project's risk tolerance.

  9. Radiative Transfer Modeling and Retrievals for Advanced Hyperspectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel radiative transfer model and a physical inversion algorithm based on principal component analysis will be presented. Instead of dealing with channel radiances, the new approach fits principal component scores of these quantities. Compared to channel-based radiative transfer models, the new approach compresses radiances into a much smaller dimension making both forward modeling and inversion algorithm more efficient.

  10. Angular radiation models for Earth-atmosphere system. Volume 1: Shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Staylor, W. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Young, D. F.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are shortwave angular radiation models which are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those fro the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models consist of both bidirectional and directional parameters. The bidirectional parameters are anisotropic function, standard deviation of mean radiance, and shortwave-longwave radiance correlation coefficient. The directional parameters are mean albedo as a function of Sun zenith angle and mean albedo normalized to overhead Sun. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data sets is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the bidirectional and directional modes.

  11. Invasive Species Distribution Modeling (iSDM): Are absence data and dispersal constraints needed to predict actual distributions?

    Treesearch

    Tomáš Václavík; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2009-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) based on statistical relationships between occurrence data and underlying environmental conditions are increasingly used to predict spatial patterns of biological invasions and prioritize locations for early detection and control of invasion outbreaks. However, invasive species distribution models (iSDMs) face special challenges...

  12. Modelling of the Saturnian Kilometric Radiation (SKR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Lamy, L.; Prangé, R.; Zarka, P.; Hess, S.; Clarke, J. T.; Nichols, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Saturnian Kilometric Radiation (SKR), discovered by the Voyager spacecraft in the 1980's, is observed quasi-continuously by Cassini since 2003. Study of 3 years of SKR observations by RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) revealed three recurrent features of SKR dynamic spectra : (i) discrete arcs, presumably caused by the anisotropy of the radio emission pattern combined to the observer's motion, (ii) an equatorial shadow zone around the planet (observed near perikrones) and (iii) signal extinctions at high northern latitudes. We model these features using the code PRES (Planetary Radio Emission Simulator) that assumes radio emissions to be generated via the Cyclotron Maser Instability for simulating observed dynamic spectra. We show that observed arc-like structures imply radio sources in partial (~90%) corotation, located on magnetic field lines of invariant latitude 70° to 75°, and emitting at oblique angle from the local magnetic field with a cone angle that varies with frequency. Then, based on the previously demonstrated conjugacy between UV and SKR sources, we successfully model the equatorial shadow zone as well as northern latitude SKR extinctions assuming time variable radio sources distributed along field lines with footprints along the daily UV oval measured from HST images.

  13. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  14. An effective hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond: an approach integrating artificial chemistry and an actual terrestrial life system.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Tsutomu; Ueno, Osamu; Maekawa, Tadao; Kawai, Norie; Nishina, Emi; Honda, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Under the AChem paradigm and the programmed self-decomposition (PSD) model, we propose a hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond (HBCB model). This model assumes that terrestrial organisms arrange their biomolecules in a hierarchical structure according to the energy strength of their covalent bonds. It also assumes that they have evolutionarily selected the PSD mechanism of turning biological polymers (BPs) into biological monomers (BMs) as an efficient biomolecular recycling strategy We have examined the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model by coordinating two complementary approaches: biological experiments using existent terrestrial life, and simulation experiments using an AChem system. Biological experiments have shown that terrestrial life possesses a PSD mechanism as an endergonic, genetically regulated process and that hydrolysis, which decomposes a BP into BMs, is one of the main processes of such a mechanism. In simulation experiments, we compared different virtual self-decomposition processes. The virtual species in which the self-decomposition process mainly involved covalent bond cleavage from a BP to BMs showed evolutionary superiority over other species in which the self-decomposition process involved cleavage from BP to classes lower than BM. These converging findings strongly support the existence of PSD and the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model.

  15. Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.

  16. Competition both drives and impedes diversification in a model adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Susan F.; Dettman, Jeremy R.; Rainey, Paul B.; Kassen, Rees

    2013-01-01

    Competitors are known to be important in governing the outcome of evolutionary diversification during an adaptive radiation, but the precise mechanisms by which they exert their effects remain elusive. Using the model adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, we show experimentally that the effect of competition on diversification of a focal lineage depends on both the strength of competition and the ability of the competitors to diversify. We provide evidence that the extent of diversification in the absence of interspecific competitors depends on the strength of resource competition. We also show that the presence of competitors can actually increase diversity by increasing interspecific resource competition. Competitors that themselves are able to diversify prevent diversification of the focal lineage by removing otherwise available ecological opportunities. These results suggest that the progress of an adaptive radiation depends ultimately on the strength of resource competition, an effect that can be exaggerated or impeded by the presence of competitors. PMID:23843392

  17. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shock Layer Radiation Modeling and Uncertainty for Mars Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A model for simulating nonequilibrium radiation from Mars entry shock layers is presented. A new chemical kinetic rate model is developed that provides good agreement with recent EAST and X2 shock tube radiation measurements. This model includes a CO dissociation rate that is a factor of 13 larger than the rate used widely in previous models. Uncertainties in the proposed rates are assessed along with uncertainties in translational-vibrational relaxation modeling parameters. The stagnation point radiative flux uncertainty due to these flowfield modeling parameter uncertainties is computed to vary from 50 to 200% for a range of free-stream conditions, with densities ranging from 5e-5 to 5e-4 kg/m3 and velocities ranging from of 6.3 to 7.7 km/s. These conditions cover the range of anticipated peak radiative heating conditions for proposed hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (HIADs). Modeling parameters for the radiative spectrum are compiled along with a non-Boltzmann rate model for the dominant radiating molecules, CO, CN, and C2. A method for treating non-local absorption in the non-Boltzmann model is developed, which is shown to result in up to a 50% increase in the radiative flux through absorption by the CO 4th Positive band. The sensitivity of the radiative flux to the radiation modeling parameters is presented and the uncertainty for each parameter is assessed. The stagnation point radiative flux uncertainty due to these radiation modeling parameter uncertainties is computed to vary from 18 to 167% for the considered range of free-stream conditions. The total radiative flux uncertainty is computed as the root sum square of the flowfield and radiation parametric uncertainties, which results in total uncertainties ranging from 50 to 260%. The main contributors to these significant uncertainties are the CO dissociation rate and the CO heavy-particle excitation rates. Applying the baseline flowfield and radiation models developed in this work, the

  19. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  20. Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

  1. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1990-01-01

    The continued development and improvement of the viscous shock layer (VSL) nonequilibrium chemistry blunt body engineering code, the incorporation in a coupled manner of radiation models into the VSL code, and the initial development of appropriate precursor models are presented.

  2. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  3. Trapped Radiation Model Uncertainties: Model-Data and Model-Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The standard AP8 and AE8 models for predicting trapped proton and electron environments have been compared with several sets of flight data to evaluate model uncertainties. Model comparisons are made with flux and dose measurements made on various U.S. low-Earth orbit satellites (APEX, CRRES, DMSP, LDEF, NOAA) and Space Shuttle flights, on Russian satellites (Photon-8, Cosmos-1887, Cosmos-2044), and on the Russian Mir Space Station. This report gives the details of the model-data comparisons-summary results in terms of empirical model uncertainty factors that can be applied for spacecraft design applications are given in a combination report. The results of model-model comparisons are also presented from standard AP8 and AE8 model predictions compared with the European Space Agency versions of AP8 and AE8 and with Russian-trapped radiation models.

  4. Trapped Radiation Model Uncertainties: Model-Data and Model-Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The standard AP8 and AE8 models for predicting trapped proton and electron environments have been compared with several sets of flight data to evaluate model uncertainties. Model comparisons are made with flux and dose measurements made on various U.S. low-Earth orbit satellites (APEX, CRRES, DMSP. LDEF, NOAA) and Space Shuttle flights, on Russian satellites (Photon-8, Cosmos-1887, Cosmos-2044), and on the Russian Mir space station. This report gives the details of the model-data comparisons -- summary results in terms of empirical model uncertainty factors that can be applied for spacecraft design applications are given in a companion report. The results of model-model comparisons are also presented from standard AP8 and AE8 model predictions compared with the European Space Agency versions of AP8 and AE8 and with Russian trapped radiation models.

  5. Finite element modeling of arachnid slit sensilla: II. Actual lyriform organs and the face deformations of the individual slits.

    PubMed

    Hössl, Bernhard; Böhm, Helmut J; Schaber, Clemens F; Rammerstorfer, Franz G; Barth, Friedrich G

    2009-09-01

    Arachnid slit sensilla respond to minute strains in the exoskeleton. After having applied finite element (FE) analysis to simplified arrays of five straight slits (Hössl et al. J Comp Physiol A 193:445-459, 2007) we now present a computational study of the effects of more subtle natural variations in geometry, number and arrangement of slits on the slit face deformations. Our simulations show that even minor variations in these parameters can substantially influence a slit's directional response. Using white-light interferometric measurements of the surface deformations of a lyriform organ, it is shown that planar FE models are capable of predicting the principal characteristics of the mechanical responses. The magnitudes of the measured and calculated slit face deformations are in good agreement. At threshold, they measure between 1.7 and 43 nm. In a lyriform organ and a closely positioned loose group of slits, the detectable range of loads increases to approximately 3.5 times the range of the lyriform organ alone. Stress concentration factors (up to ca. 29) found in the vicinity of the slits were evaluated from the models. They are mitigated due to local thickening of the exocuticle and the arrangement of the chitinous microfibers that prevents the formation of cracks under physiological loading conditions.

  6. Actual and apparent elitism in the environmental-conservation movement: analysis through a theoretical model of political participation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohai, P.

    1983-01-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1960's dealing with the nature of environmental concern and activism in the environmental movement have tended to be of two types: (a) analyses of the membership composition of voluntary environmental organizations and (b) analyses of survey data of various types and scope. Although the results of these studies have invariably been ambiguous and conflicting, a number of these studies have been consistently cited to support the assertion that environmental values are predominantly upper-middle class values and that the environmental movement is an elitist, upper-middle class movement. A review of these core studies reveals significant weaknessesmore » in the data used and in the data analyses, which appear to make the results of these studies tenuous at best. In this study, weaknesses of the earlier core studies are examined. The conclusion of environmental elitism is then challenged by making a distinction between those who are environmentally concerned and those who are politically active in environmental issues. This distinction is explained through a theoretical model of political participation, which is constructed from a unique integration of traditional social psychological and resource mobilization perspectives. Use of the model makes it possible to predict and account for the likelihood of individuals becoming politically active and provides a framework for testing whether conservation-environmental concern is related to socio-economic status.« less

  7. 3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for Use in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.

  8. 3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for use in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.

  9. 3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model For Use in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.

  10. Summary of the Manufacture, Testing and Model Validation of a Full-Scale Radiator for Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Calder, James; Siamidis, John

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale radiator for a lunar fission surface power application was manufactured by Material innovations, Inc., for the NASA Glenn Research Center. The radiator was designed to reject 6 kWt with an inlet water temperature of 400 K and a water mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. While not flight hardware, the radiator incorporated many potential design features and manufacturing techniques for future flight hardware. The radiator was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center for heat rejection performance. The results showed that the radiator design was capable of rejecting over 6 kWt when operating at the design conditions. The actual performance of the radiator as a function of operational manifolds, inlet water temperature and facility sink temperature was compared to the predictive model developed by NASA Glenn Research Center. The results showed excellent agreement with the model with the actual average face sheet temperature being within 1% of the predicted value. The results will be used in the design and production of NASA s next generation fission power heat rejection systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center s Technology Demonstration Unit will be the first project to take advantage of the newly developed manufacturing techniques and analytical models.

  11. Radiation model predictions and validation using LDEF satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Predictions and comparisons with the radiation dose measurements on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) by thermoluminescent dosimeters were made to evaluate the accuracy of models currently used in defining the ionizing radiation environment for low Earth orbit missions. The calculations include a detailed simulation of the radiation exposure (altitude and solar cycle variations, directional dependence) and shielding effects (three-dimensional LDEF geometry model) so that differences in the predicted and observed doses can be attributed to environment model uncertainties. The LDEF dose data are utilized to assess the accuracy of models describing the trapped proton flux, the trapped proton directionality, and the trapped electron flux.

  12. Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana; Marshak, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to validation of the Poisson stochastic radiative transfer method is proposed. In contrast to other validations of stochastic models, the main parameter of the Poisson model responsible for cloud geometrical structure - cloud aspect ratio - is determined entirely by matching measurements and calculations of the direct solar radiation. If the measurements of the direct solar radiation is unavailable, it was shown that there is a range of the aspect ratios that allows the stochastic model to accurately approximate the average measurements of surface downward and cloud top upward fluxes. Realizations of the fractionally integrated cascade model are taken as a prototype of real measurements.

  13. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  14. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  15. Leaf optical system modeled as a stochastic process. [solar radiation interaction with terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Garratt, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A stochastic leaf radiation model based upon physical and physiological properties of dicot leaves has been developed. The model accurately predicts the absorbed, reflected, and transmitted radiation of normal incidence as a function of wavelength resulting from the leaf-irradiance interaction over the spectral interval of 0.40-2.50 micron. The leaf optical system has been represented as Markov process with a unique transition matrix at each 0.01-micron increment between 0.40 micron and 2.50 micron. Probabilities are calculated at every wavelength interval from leaf thickness, structure, pigment composition, and water content. Simulation results indicate that this approach gives accurate estimations of actual measured values for dicot leaf absorption, reflection, and transmission as a function of wavelength.

  16. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  17. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  18. Modeling Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Chandan; Sircar, Arpan; Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian

    Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for amore » full-load (peak pressure ~200 bar) heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.« less

  19. Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in an Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Radiation is an important means of heat transfer inside an electric arc furnace (EAF). To gain insight into the complex processes of heat transfer inside the EAF vessel, not only radiation from the surfaces but also emission and absorption of the gas phase and the dust cloud need to be considered. Furthermore, the radiative heat exchange depends on the geometrical configuration which is continuously changing throughout the process. The present paper introduces a system model of the EAF which takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the surfaces and the participating medium. This is attained by the development of a simplified geometrical model, the use of a weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, and a simplified consideration of dust radiation. The simulation results were compared with the data of real EAF plants available in literature.

  20. Models of Jovian decametric radiation. [astronomical models of decametric waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of theoretical models of Jovian decametric radiation, with particular emphasis on the Io-modulated emission. The problem is divided into three broad aspects: (1) the mechanism coupling Io's orbital motion to the inner exosphere, (2) the consequent instability mechanism by which electromagnetic waves are amplified, and (3) the subsequent propagation of the waves in the source region and the Jovian plasmasphere. At present there exists no comprehensive theory that treats all of these aspects quantitatively within a single framework. Acceleration of particles by plasma sheaths near Io is proposed as an explanation for the coupling mechanism, while most of the properties of the emission may be explained in the context of cyclotron instability of a highly anisotropic distribution of streaming particles.

  1. Implementing Badhwar-O'Neill Galactic Cosmic Ray Model for the Analysis of Space Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Slaba, Tony C.

    2014-01-01

    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, accurate energy spectrum of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is necessary. Characterization of the ionizing radiation environment is challenging because the interplanetary plasma and radiation fields are modulated by solar disturbances and the radiation doses received by astronauts in interplanetary space are likewise influenced. A model of the Badhwar-O'Neill 2011 (BO11) GCR environment, which is represented by GCR deceleration potential theta, has been derived by utilizing all of the GCR measurements from balloons, satellites, and the newer NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). In the BO11 model, the solar modulation level is derived from the mean international sunspot numbers with time-delay, which has been calibrated with actual flight instrument measurements to produce better GCR flux data fit during solar minima. GCR fluxes provided by the BO11 model were compared with various spacecraft measurements at 1 AU, and further comparisons were made for the tissue equivalent proportional counters measurements at low Earth orbits using the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code and various GCR models. For the comparison of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent calculations with the measurements by Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) at Gale crater on Mars, the intensities and energies of GCR entering the heliosphere were calculated by using the BO11 model, which accounts for time-dependent attenuation of the local interstellar spectrum of each element. The BO11 model, which has emphasized for the last 24 solar minima, showed in relatively good agreement with the RAD data for the first 200 sols, but it was resulted in to be less well during near the solar maximum of solar cycle 24 due to subtleties in the changing heliospheric conditions. By performing the error analysis of the BO11 model and the optimization in reducing overall uncertainty, the resultant BO13 model

  2. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the ionizing radiation dosimetry aboard LDEF provide a unique opportunity for assessing the accuracy of current space radiation models and in identifying needed improvements for future mission applications. Details are given of the LDEF data available for radiation model evaluations. The status is given of model comparisons with LDEF data, along with future directions of planned modeling efforts and data comparison assessments. The methodology is outlined which is related to modeling being used to help insure that the LDEF ionizing radiation results can be used to address ionizing radiation issues for future missions. In general, the LDEF radiation modeling has emphasized quick-look predictions using simplified methods to make comparisons with absorbed dose measurements and induced radioactivity measurements of emissions. Modeling and LDEF data comparisons related to linear energy transfer spectra are of importance for several reasons which are outlined. The planned modeling and LDEF data comparisons for LET spectra is discussed, including components of the LET spectra due to different environment sources, contribution from different production mechanisms, and spectra in plastic detectors vs silicon.

  3. Animal Models of Ionizing Radiation Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Phagocytosis, Bacterio/. Proc., p. 92-98, 1967. 27. Mukherjee, A.K., B. Paul, R. Strauss , and A.J. Sbarra, The Role of the Phagncyte in Host-parasite...29. Paul, B., R. Strauss , and A.J. Sbarra, The Role of the Phagocyte in Host-parasite Interactions. XVI. Effect of X-irradiation on H202 Production in...1960. 156. Madrazo, A., J. Churg , and Y. Suzuki, Radiation Nephritis. Acute Changes Following High Doses of Radiation, Am. J. Path., 54:507-527, 1969

  4. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    To account for the thermal and chemical effects associated with the high CO2 concentrations in an oxy-combustion atmosphere, several refined gas-phase chemistry and radiative property models have been formulated for laminar to highly turbulent systems. This thesis examines the accuracies of several chemistry and radiative property models employed in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar to transitional oxy-methane diffusion flames by comparing their predictions against experimental data. Literature review about chemistry and radiation modeling in oxy-combustion atmospheres considered turbulent systems where the predictions are impacted by the interplay and accuracies of the turbulence, radiation and chemistry models. Thus, by considering a laminar system we minimize the impact of turbulence and the uncertainties associated with turbulence models. In the first section of this thesis, an assessment and validation of gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model in oxy-combustion scenarios was undertaken. Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. However, there were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The results of this section confirm that non-gray model predictions of radiative heat fluxes are more accurate than gray model predictions especially at steeper temperature gradients. In the second section, the accuracies of three gas-phase chemistry models were assessed by comparing their predictions against experimental measurements of temperature, species concentrations and flame lengths. The chemistry was modeled employing the Eddy

  5. A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

    2010-05-12

    A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a 'darker' atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

  6. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  7. The virtual enhancements - solar proton event radiation (VESPER) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminalragia-Giamini, Sigiava; Sandberg, Ingmar; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Jiggens, Piers

    2018-02-01

    A new probabilistic model introducing a novel paradigm for the modelling of the solar proton environment at 1 AU is presented. The virtual enhancements - solar proton event radiation model (VESPER) uses the European space agency's solar energetic particle environment modelling (SEPEM) Reference Dataset and produces virtual time-series of proton differential fluxes. In this regard it fundamentally diverges from the approach of existing SPE models that are based on probabilistic descriptions of SPE macroscopic characteristics such as peak flux and cumulative fluence. It is shown that VESPER reproduces well the dataset characteristics it uses, and further comparisons with existing models are made with respect to their results. The production of time-series as the main output of the model opens a straightforward way for the calculation of solar proton radiation effects in terms of time-series and the pairing with effects caused by trapped radiation and galactic cosmic rays.

  8. An Improved Radiative Transfer Model for Climate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications, we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  9. Radiative transfer model validations during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Breon, Francois-Marie; Gautier, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    Two simple radiative transfer models, the 5S model based on Tanre et al. (1985, 1986) and the wide-band model of Morcrette (1984) are validated by comparing their outputs with results obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment on concomitant radiosonde, aerosol turbidity, and radiation measurements and sky photographs. Results showed that the 5S model overestimates the short-wave irradiance by 13.2 W/sq m, whereas the Morcrette model underestimated the long-wave irradiance by 7.4 W/sq m.

  10. Evaluation of simple model for net radiation estimates above various vegetation covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of submitted study was to calibrate and verify the simple model for net radiation (Rn) estimates during the growing periods of selected agricultural crops. In the same time the soil heat flux (G) measurements were analysed. The model needs incoming solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure measurements and information about albedo as input. The net radiation is determined as difference between the incoming net shortwave radiation (Rns) and the outgoing net longwave radiation (Rnl). The Rns is estimated from incoming solar radiation using albedo. The Rnl is estimated from daily maximum and minimum temperature, vapour pressure, incoming solar radiation and derived clear-sky radiation. The accuracy of the model was assessed on the basis of radiation balance measurements (by Net radiometer Schenk 8110) at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (i.e. Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. The parameter G was measured by Hukseflux Thermal Sensor HFP01. For the purpose of mentioned analyses the measurements were conducted during the growing season of spring barley, winter wheat, winter rape, grass, poplars and above field after harvest of cereals (after/without tillage). These covers are very common type of surface within agricultural landscape in Central Europe. The enhanced method of Rn and G estimation were then used for the SoilClim model runs. The present version of SoilClim uses very simple algorithm for radiation balance and should be modified to be closer to reality. Namely the estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and soil water content could be substantially improved by this way. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of

  11. Solar Radiation Estimated Through Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio Leandro; Costa, Alexandre Araújo; Ramalho, Fernando Pinto; de Maria, Paulo Henrique Santiago

    2009-03-01

    The use of renewable energy sources, like solar, wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years, with solar radiation as a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. A proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy planning in Brazil, serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploitation. This work presents a methodology for mapping the incoming solar radiation at ground level for Northeast Brazil, using a mesoscale atmospheric model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System—RAMS), calibrated and validated using data from the network of automatic surface stations from the State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources from Ceará (Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos- FUNCEME). The results showed that the model exhibits systematic errors, overestimating surface radiation, but that, after the proper statistical corrections, using a relationship between the model-predicted cloud fraction, the ground-level observed solar radiation and the incoming solar radiation estimated at the top of the atmosphere, a correlation of 0.92 with a confidence interval of 13.5 W/m2 is found for monthly data. Using this methodology, we found an estimate for annual average incoming solar radiation over Ceará of 215 W/m2 (maximum in October: 260 W/m2).

  12. A space radiation shielding model of the Martian radiation environment experiment (MARIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, W.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft was launched towards Mars on April 7, 2001. Onboard the spacecraft is the Martian radiation environment experiment (MARIE), which is designed to measure the background radiation environment due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar protons in the 20-500 MeV/n energy range. We present an approach for developing a space radiation-shielding model of the spacecraft that includes the MARIE instrument in the current mapping phase orientation. A discussion is presented describing the development and methodology used to construct the shielding model. For a given GCR model environment, using the current MARIE shielding model and the high-energy particle transport codes, dose rate values are compared with MARIE measurements during the early mapping phase in Mars orbit. The results show good agreement between the model calculations and the MARIE measurements as presented for the March 2002 dataset. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of human radiation exchange models in outdoor areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E.

    2011-10-01

    Results from the radiation components of seven different human thermal exchange models/methods are compared. These include the Burt, COMFA, MENEX, OUT_SET* and RayMan models, the six-directional method and the new Park and Tuller model employing projected area factors ( f p) and effective radiation area factors ( f eff) determined from a sample of normal- and over-weight Canadian Caucasian adults. Input data include solar and longwave radiation measured during a clear summer day in southern Ontario. Variations between models came from differences in f p and f eff and different estimates of longwave radiation from the open sky. The ranges between models for absorbed solar, net longwave and net all-wave radiation were 164, 31 and 187 W m-2, respectively. These differentials between models can be significant in total human thermal exchange. Therefore, proper f p and f eff values should be used to make accurate estimation of radiation on the human body surface.

  14. Improved Solar-Radiation-Pressure Models for GPS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    A report describes a series of computational models conceived as an improvement over prior models for determining effects of solar-radiation pressure on orbits of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These models are based on fitting coefficients of Fourier functions of Sun-spacecraft- Earth angles to observed spacecraft orbital motions.

  15. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  16. Modeling and parameterization of horizontally inhomogeneous cloud radiative properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in modeling cloud fields is the large variability of cloud optical properties (liquid water content, reflectance, emissivity). The stratocumulus and cirrus clouds, under special consideration for FIRE, exhibit spatial variability on scales of 1 km or less. While it is impractical to model individual cloud elements, the research direction is to model a statistical ensembles of cloud elements with mean-cloud properties specified. The major areas of this investigation are: (1) analysis of cloud field properties; (2) intercomparison of cloud radiative model results with satellite observations; (3) radiative parameterization of cloud fields; and (4) development of improved cloud classification algorithms.

  17. Radiation arteriopathy in the transgenic arteriovenous fistula model.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Michael T; Arnold, Christine M; Kim, Yung J; Bogarin, Ernesto A; Stewart, Campbell L; Wulfstat, Amanda A; Derugin, Nikita; Deen, Dennis; Young, William L

    2008-05-01

    The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model, surgically constructed with transgenic mouse aorta interposed in common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein fistulae in nude rats, has a 4-month experimental window because patency and transgenic phenotype are lost over time. We adapted this model to investigate occlusive arteriopathy in brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery by radiating grafted aorta before insertion in the fistula. We hypothesized that high-dose radiation would reproduce the arteriopathy observed clinically within the experimental time window and that deletions of endoglin (ENG) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes would modify the radiation response. Radiation arteriopathy in the common carotid arteries of 171 wild-type mice was examined with doses of 25, 80, 120, or 200 Gy (Experiment 1). Radiation arteriopathy in 68 wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was examined histologically and morphometrically with preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 2). Radiation arteriopathy in 51 transgenic arteriovenous fistulae (36 ENG and 15 eNOS knock-out fistulae) was examined using preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 3). High-dose radiation (200 Gy) of mouse common carotid arteries induced only mild arteriopathy (mean score, 0.66) without intimal hyperplasia and with high mortality (68%). Radiation arteriopathy in wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was severe (mean score, 3.5 at 200 Gy), with intimal hyperplasia and medial disruption at 3 months, decreasing luminal areas with increasing dose, and no mortality. Arteriopathy was robust in transgenic arteriovenous fistulae with ENG +/- and with eNOS +/-, with thick intimal hyperplasia in the former and distinct smooth muscle cell proliferation in the latter. The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model can be adapted to rapidly reproduce radiation arteriopathy observed in resected brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery. High

  18. AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu

    2012-09-20

    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions formore » the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.« less

  19. Comparison of actual oxygen delivery kinetics to those predicted by mathematical modeling following stage 1 palliation just prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Koichi; DiNardo, James A

    2015-02-01

    Optimizing systemic oxygen delivery (DO2) and hemodynamics in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a clinical challenge. Mathematical modeling of the HLHS circulation has been used to determine the relationship between oxygen kinetic parameters and DO2 and to determine how DO2 might be optimized. The model demonstrates that neither arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) nor mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) alone accurately predicts DO2. Oxygen delivery kinetics predicted by previously described mathematical modeling were compared with actual patients' hemodynamic data. We sought to determine which patient derived parameters correlated best with DO2. Patients with HLHS who underwent cardiac catheterization prior to surgery to create a superior cavopulmonary anastomosis from 2007 to 2011 were identified. Hemodynamic data obtained were compared with the data derived from the mathematical model. Correlations between SaO2, SvO2, SaO2-SvO2, SaO2/(SaO2-SvO2), pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio (Qp/Qs), and DO2 were evaluated using both linear and nonlinear analyses, and R(2) was calculated. Patients' data fit most aspects of the mathematical model. DO2 had the best correlation with SaO2/(SaO2-SvO2; R(2) = 0.8755) followed by SaO2 -SvO2 (R(2) = 0.8063), while SaO2 or SvO2 alone did not demonstrate a significant correlation as predicated by the mathematical model (R(2) = 0.09564 and 0.4831, respectively). SaO2/(SaO2 -SvO2) would be useful clinically to track changes in DO2 that occur with changes in patient condition or with interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Tracing Actual Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-08

    actual values for variables in the SEM ), and an event e with M ,~u |= e, our definition answers the question : Which paths of the causal network G( M ...for each variable and a directed edge from vari- able X to Y if the equation for computing X uses Y . Given an SEM M , a context ~u (that supplies the...caused the event e1? Our definition answers this question as a set of causal slices, where each causal slice is a subgraph of G( M ). All paths in each

  1. Linear No-Threshold Model VS. Radiation Hormesis

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data have been used in the past to justify the use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for estimating the carcinogenic effects of low dose radiation. An analysis of the recently updated atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality dose-response data shows that the data no longer support the LNT model but are consistent with a radiation hormesis model when a correction is applied for a likely bias in the baseline cancer mortality rate. If the validity of the phenomenon of radiation hormesis is confirmed in prospective human pilot studies, and is applied to the wider population, it could result in a considerable reduction in cancers. The idea of using radiation hormesis to prevent cancers was proposed more than three decades ago, but was never investigated in humans to determine its validity because of the dominance of the LNT model and the consequent carcinogenic concerns regarding low dose radiation. Since cancer continues to be a major health problem and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rates have declined by only ∼10% in the past 45 years, it may be prudent to investigate radiation hormesis as an alternative approach to reduce cancers. Prompt action is urged. PMID:24298226

  2. Model-Based Assurance Case+ (MBAC+): Tutorial on Modeling Radiation Hardness Assurance Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Rebekah; Label, Ken A.; Sampson, Mike J.; Evans, John; Witulski, Art; Sierawski, Brian; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Schrimpf, Ron; Reed, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will cover why modeling is useful for radiation hardness assurance cases, and also provide information on Model-Based Assurance Case+ (MBAC+), NASAs Reliability Maintainability Template, and Fault Propagation Modeling.

  3. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Statistical Model Of 10.7-cm Solar Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved mathematical model simulates short-term fluctuations of flux of 10.7-cm-wavelength solar radiation during 91-day averaging period. Called "F10.7 flux", important as measure of solar activity and because it is highly correlated with ultraviolet radiation causing fluctuations in heating and density of upper atmosphere. F10.7 flux easily measureable at surface of Earth.

  5. Numerical model of solar dynamic radiator for parametric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    1989-01-01

    Growth power requirements for Space Station Freedom will be met through addition of 25 kW solar dynamic (SD) power modules. Extensive thermal and power cycle modeling capabilities have been developed which are powerful tools in Station design and analysis, but which prove cumbersome and costly for simple component preliminary design studies. In order to aid in refining the SD radiator to the mature design stage, a simple and flexible numerical model was developed. The model simulates heat transfer and fluid flow performance of the radiator and calculates area mass and impact survivability for many combinations of flow tube and panel configurations, fluid and material properties, and environmental and cycle variations.

  6. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J. M.; Loftsdóttir, Á.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wüstefeld, G.; Hübers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-08-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSYII storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission.

  7. Modeling quasar central engine as a relativistic radiating star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ksh. Newton; Pant, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Long ago Hoyle & Fowler attempted to model the central engine of quasars as hot super-massive stars supported by radiation pressure. Whereas the model of Hoyle & Fowler was Newtonian, here we make a toy model of quasar central engines as ultra relativistic ultrahot plasma or as a ball of radiation. Accordingly, we consider general relativistic gravitational collapse including emission of radiation. More specifically, we discuss a new class of radiating fluid ball exact solution in conformally-flat metric which is quasi-static and contracting at negligible rate. The problem is solved by assuming that the metric potential is separable in to radial and time dependent parts. It is found the gravitational mass of the radiating ball M→0 as comoving time t→∞ in conformity of the idea of an "Eternally Collapsing Object" (ECO) which has been claimed to be the true nature of the so-called "Black Holes". In particular, we consider here a quasi-static radiation ball having M≈9.507×107 M ⊙, a radius of ≈2×1014 km, and a luminosity L ∞≈9.1×1046 erg/s. Prima-facie, such an ECO solution is compatible with the central compact object of a quasar having comoving lifetime of ≈107 yr and a distantly observed lifetime ( u) which could be higher by many orders of magnitude.

  8. Six-Tube Freezable Radiator Testing and Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Navarro, Moses

    2011-01-01

    Freezable radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the spacecraft s surroundings and because of different thermal loads rejected during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recovering) a freezable radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. These predictions are a critical step in gaining the capability to quickly design and produce optimized freezable radiators for a range of mission requirements. This paper builds upon previous efforts made to correlate a Thermal Desktop(TradeMark) model with empirical testing data from two test articles, with additional model modifications and empirical data from a sub-component radiator for a full scale design. Two working fluids were tested, namely MultiTherm WB-58 and a 50-50 mixture of DI water and Amsoil ANT.

  9. Six-Tube Freezable Radiator Testing and Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilibridge, Sean T.; Navarro, Moses

    2012-01-01

    Freezable Radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the spacecraft?s surroundings and because of different thermal loads rejected during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recov ering) a freezable radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. These predictions are a critical step in gaining the capability to quickly design and produce optimized freezable radiators for a range of mission requirements. This paper builds upon previous efforts made to correlate a Thermal Desktop(TM) model with empirical testing data from two test articles, with additional model modifications and empirical data from a sub-component radiator for a full scale design. Two working fluids were tested: MultiTherm WB-58 and a 50-50 mixture of DI water and Amsoil ANT.

  10. Radiation-induced segregation in model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, T.; Wakai, E.; Oshima, R.

    2000-12-01

    The dependence of the size factor of solutes on radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was studied. Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn, Ni-Pd, and Ni-Nb binary solid solution alloys were irradiated with electrons in a high voltage electron microscope at the same irradiation conditions. A focused beam and a grain boundary were utilized to generate a flow of point defects to cause RIS. From the concentration profile obtained by an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the amount of RIS was calculated. The amount of RIS decreased as the size of the solute increased up to about 10%. However, as the size increased further, the amount of RIS increased. This result shows that RIS is not simply determined by the size effect rule.

  11. Modelling massive star feedback with Monte Carlo radiation hydrodynamics: photoionization and radiation pressure in a turbulent cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad; Harries, Tim J.; Douglas, Thomas A.

    2018-07-01

    We simulate a self-gravitating, turbulent cloud of 1000 M⊙ with photoionization and radiation pressure feedback from a 34 M⊙ star. We use a detailed Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme alongside the hydrodynamics to compute photoionization and thermal equilibrium with dust grains and multiple atomic species. Using these gas temperatures, dust temperatures, and ionization fractions, we produce self-consistent synthetic observations of line and continuum emission. We find that all material is dispersed from the (15.5 pc)3 grid within 1.6 Myr or 0.74 free-fall times. Mass exits with a peak flux of 2 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, showing efficient gas dispersal. The model without radiation pressure has a slight delay in the breakthrough of ionization, but overall its effects are negligible. 85 per cent of the volume, and 40 per cent of the mass, become ionized - dense filaments resist ionization and are swept up into spherical cores with pillars that point radially away from the ionizing star. We use free-free emission at 20 cm to estimate the production rate of ionizing photons. This is almost always underestimated: by a factor of a few at early stages, then by orders of magnitude as mass leaves the volume. We also test the ratio of dust continuum surface brightnesses at 450 and 850 µm to probe dust temperatures. This underestimates the actual temperature by more than a factor of 2 in areas of low column density or high line-of-sight temperature dispersion; the H II region cavity is particularly prone to this discrepancy. However, the probe is accurate in dense locations such as filaments.

  12. Modelling massive-star feedback with Monte Carlo radiation hydrodynamics: photoionization and radiation pressure in a turbulent cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad; Harries, Tim J.; Douglas, Thomas A.

    2018-04-01

    We simulate a self-gravitating, turbulent cloud of 1000M⊙ with photoionization and radiation pressure feedback from a 34M⊙ star. We use a detailed Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme alongside the hydrodynamics to compute photoionization and thermal equilibrium with dust grains and multiple atomic species. Using these gas temperatures, dust temperatures, and ionization fractions, we produce self-consistent synthetic observations of line and continuum emission. We find that all material is dispersed from the (15.5pc)3 grid within 1.6Myr or 0.74 free-fall times. Mass exits with a peak flux of 2× 10-3M⊙yr-1, showing efficient gas dispersal. The model without radiation pressure has a slight delay in the breakthrough of ionization, but overall its effects are negligible. 85 per cent of the volume, and 40 per cent of the mass, become ionized - dense filaments resist ionization and are swept up into spherical cores with pillars that point radially away from the ionizing star. We use free-free emission at 20cm to estimate the production rate of ionizing photons. This is almost always underestimated: by a factor of a few at early stages, then by orders of magnitude as mass leaves the volume. We also test the ratio of dust continuum surface brightnesses at 450 and 850μ to probe dust temperatures. This underestimates the actual temperature by more than a factor of 2 in areas of low column density or high line-of-sight temperature dispersion; the HII region cavity is particularly prone to this discrepancy. However, the probe is accurate in dense locations such as filaments.

  13. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Meier, Matthias M.; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis suggests

  14. NASA Radiation Belt Models AP-8 and AE-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    MeV). The quiet day solar cycle variation is defined by taking the ratio of the omni-directional flux measured from solar minimum to a standard...Note 1: Model Evaluation, TREND issued at IASB , Printed at MATRA, ESTEC/Contract #8011/88/NIJMAC, 28 June 1989. "Models of the Trapped Radiation

  15. Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    grey). Right: reconstructed 3D BRDF . ........................................................ 14 Figure 6. Results of fitting the decay model to...in Section 3.2.5 and 4.2.2 that the decay model can allow the use of auxiliary H0 measurements. 2.2 RESULTS 2.2.1 BRDF FOR GOLD AND ALUMINUM Our...Reflectance Angle () R ef le ct an ce Meas. BRDF Lambertian 15 Figure 6. Results of fitting the decay model to angular reflectance for rough aluminum

  16. Radiative Transport Modelling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-24

    of being able to extract useful data. To account for this deficiency, the purpose of this project is to improve models for use in OCT measurements ...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Lumium optical precision measurement solutions...coefficients. Further, the model will need to take into account the effects of interface reflections and a multilayer structure. Such a model is of

  17. Predicting Chandra CCD Degradation with the Chandra Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C.; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Grant, Catherine E.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Wolk, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Not long after launch of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, it was discovered that the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector was rapidly degrading due to radiation. Analysis by Chandra personnel showed that this degradation was due to 10w energy protons (100 - 200 keV) that scattered down the optical path onto the focal plane. In response to this unexpected problem, the Chandra Team developed a radiation-protection program that has been used to manage the radiation damage to the CCDs. This program consists of multiple approaches - scheduled sating of the ACIS detector from the radiation environment during passage through radiation belts, real-time monitoring of space weather conditions, on-board monitoring of radiation environment levels, and the creation of a radiation environment model for use in computing proton flux and fluence at energies that damage the ACIS detector. This radiation mitigation program has been very successful. The initial precipitous increase in the CCDs' charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) resulting from proton damage has been slowed dramatically, with the front-illuminated CCDS having an increase in CTI of only 2.3% per year, allowing the ASIS detector's expected lifetime to exceed requirements. This paper concentrates on one aspect of the Chandra radiation mitigation program, the creation of the Chandra Radiation Model (CRM). Because of Chandra's highly elliptical orbit, the spacecraft spends most of its time outside of the trapped radiation belts that present the severest risks to the ACIS detector. However, there is still a proton flux environment that must be accounted for in all parts of Chandra's orbit. At the time of Chandra's launch there was no engineering model of the radiation environment that could be used in the outer regions of the spacecraft's orbit, so the CRM was developed to provide the flux environment of 100 - 200 keV protons in the outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and solar wind regions of geospace. This

  18. [Comparison of three daily global solar radiation models].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Zhao, Ying-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Three daily global solar radiation estimation models ( Å-P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al.) were analyzed and compared using data of 13 weather stations from 1982 to 2012 from three northeastern provinces and eastern Inner Mongolia. After cross-validation analysis, the result showed that mean absolute error (MAE) for each model was 1.71, 2.83 and 1.68 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1) respectively, showing that Å-P model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. which used percentage of sunshine had an advantage over Thornton-Running model which didn't use percentage of sunshine. Model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. played a good effect on the situation of non-sunshine, and its MAE and bias percentage were 18.5% and 33.8% smaller than those of Å-P model, respectively. High precision results could be obtained by using the simple linear model of Å-P. Å-P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. overvalued daily global solar radiation by 12.2%, 19.2% and 9.9% respectively. MAE for each station varied little with the spatial change of location, and annual MAE decreased with the advance of years. The reason for this might be that the change of observation accuracy caused by the replacement of radiation instrument in 1993. MAEs for rainy days, non-sunshine days and warm seasons of the three models were greater than those for days without rain, sunshine days and cold seasons respectively, showing that different methods should be used for different weather conditions on estimating solar radiation with meteorological elements.

  19. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  20. Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.

  1. Individual-based model for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    A mathematical model is developed which enables one to predict the life span probability for mammals exposed to radiation. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of an organism's critical system. To calculate the dynamics of the latter, the respective mathematical model is used too. This approach is applied to describe the effects of low level chronic irradiation on mice when the hematopoietic system (namely, thrombocytopoiesis) is the critical one. For identification of the joint model, experimental data on hematopoiesis in nonirradiated and irradiated mice, as well as on mortality dynamics of those in the absence of radiation are utilized. The life span probability and life span shortening predicted by the model agree with corresponding experimental data. Modeling results show the significance of ac- counting the variability of the individual radiosensitivity of critical system cells when estimating the radiation risk. These findings are corroborated by clinical data on persons involved in the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe after- effects. All this makes it feasible to use the model for radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony. In this case the model coefficients have to be determined by making use of the available data for humans. Scenarios for the dynamics of dose accumulation during space flights should also be taken into account.

  2. Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer schemes in global aerosol modeling: results from the AeroCom Radiative Transfer Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; Kinne, S.; Myhre, G.; Schulz, M.; Stier, P.; Fischer, J.; Doppler, L.; Highwood, E.; Ryder, C.; Harris, B.; Huttunen, J.; Ma, Y.; Pinker, R. T.; Mayer, B.; Neubauer, D.; Hitzenberger, R.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Pitari, G.; Di Genova, G.; Quaas, J.; Rose, Fred G.; Kato, S.; Rumbold, S. T.; Vardavas, I.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Yu, H.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Lu, P.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we examine the performance of 31 global model radiative transfer schemes in cloud-free conditions with prescribed gaseous absorbers and no aerosols (Rayleigh atmosphere), with prescribed scattering-only aerosols, and with more absorbing aerosols. Results are compared to benchmark results from high-resolution, multi-angular line-by-line radiation models. For purely scattering aerosols, model bias relative to the line-by-line models in the top-of-the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing ranges from roughly -10 to 20%, with over- and underestimates of radiative cooling at higher and lower sun elevation, respectively. Inter-model diversity (relative standard deviation) increases from ~10 to 15% as sun elevation increases. Inter-model diversity in atmospheric and surface forcing decreases with increased aerosol absorption, indicating that the treatment of multiple-scattering is more variable than aerosol absorption in the models considered. Aerosol radiative forcing results from multi-stream models are generally in better agreement with the line-by-line results than the simpler two-stream schemes. Considering radiative fluxes, model performance is generally the same or slightly better than results from previous radiation scheme intercomparisons. However, the inter-model diversity in aerosol radiative forcing remains large, primarily as a result of the treatment of multiple-scattering. Results indicate that global models that estimate aerosol radiative forcing with two-stream radiation schemes may be subject to persistent biases introduced by these schemes, particularly for regional aerosol forcing.

  3. Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer schemes in global aerosol modeling: results from the AeroCom Radiative Transfer Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; Kinne, S.; Myhre, G.; Schulz, M.; Stier, P.; Fischer, J.; Doppler, L.; Highwood, E.; Ryder, C.; Harris, B.; Huttunen, J.; Ma, Y.; Pinker, R. T.; Mayer, B.; Neubauer, D.; Hitzenberger, R.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Pitari, G.; Di Genova, G.; Quaas, J.; Rose, F. G.; Kato, S.; Rumbold, S. T.; Vardavas, I.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Yu, H.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Lu, P.

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examine the performance of 31 global model radiative transfer schemes in cloud-free conditions with prescribed gaseous absorbers and no aerosols (Rayleigh atmosphere), with prescribed scattering-only aerosols, and with more absorbing aerosols. Results are compared to benchmark results from high-resolution, multi-angular line-by-line radiation models. For purely scattering aerosols, model bias relative to the line-by-line models in the top-of-the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing ranges from roughly -10 to 20%, with over- and underestimates of radiative cooling at lower and higher solar zenith angle, respectively. Inter-model diversity (relative standard deviation) increases from ~10 to 15% as solar zenith angle decreases. Inter-model diversity in atmospheric and surface forcing decreases with increased aerosol absorption, indicating that the treatment of multiple-scattering is more variable than aerosol absorption in the models considered. Aerosol radiative forcing results from multi-stream models are generally in better agreement with the line-by-line results than the simpler two-stream schemes. Considering radiative fluxes, model performance is generally the same or slightly better than results from previous radiation scheme intercomparisons. However, the inter-model diversity in aerosol radiative forcing remains large, primarily as a result of the treatment of multiple-scattering. Results indicate that global models that estimate aerosol radiative forcing with two-stream radiation schemes may be subject to persistent biases introduced by these schemes, particularly for regional aerosol forcing.

  4. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. To provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraft were used as the predictors. Model explanatory parameters were selected from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L ≧ 4.8 and L ≧ 5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≦ L ≦ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. A test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.

  5. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. In order to provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraftmore » were used as the predictors. Furthermore, we selected model explanatory parameters from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L≥4.8 and L ≥5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≤ L ≤ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the K P index is better than Dst. Finally, a test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.« less

  6. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    DOE PAGES

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; ...

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. In order to provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraftmore » were used as the predictors. Furthermore, we selected model explanatory parameters from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L≥4.8 and L ≥5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≤ L ≤ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the K P index is better than Dst. Finally, a test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.« less

  7. Convenient models of the atmosphere: optics and solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Ginsburg; Victor, Frolkis; Irina, Melnikova; Sergey, Novikov; Dmitriy, Samulenkov; Maxim, Sapunov

    2017-11-01

    Simple optical models of clear and cloudy atmosphere are proposed. Four versions of atmospheric aerosols content are considered: a complete lack of aerosols in the atmosphere, low background concentration (500 cm-3), high concentrations (2000 cm-3) and very high content of particles (5000 cm-3). In a cloud scenario, the model of external mixture is assumed. The values of optical thickness and single scattering albedo for 13 wavelengths are calculated in the short wavelength range of 0.28-0.90 µm, with regard to the molecular absorption bands, that is simulated with triangle function. A comparison of the proposed optical parameters with results of various measurements and retrieval (lidar measurement, sampling, processing radiation measurements) is presented. For a cloudy atmosphere models of single-layer and two-layer atmosphere are proposed. It is found that cloud optical parameters with assuming the "external mixture" agrees with retrieved values from airborne observations. The results of calculating hemispherical fluxes of the reflected and transmitted solar radiation and the radiative divergence are obtained with the Delta-Eddington approach. The calculation is done for surface albedo values of 0, 0.5, 0.9 and for spectral values of the sandy surface. Four values of solar zenith angle: 0°, 30°, 40° and 60° are taken. The obtained values are compared with data of radiative airborne observations. Estimating the local instantaneous radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols and clouds for considered models is presented together with the heating rate.

  8. Numerical model of solar dynamic radiator for parametric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    1989-01-01

    Growth power requirements for Space Station Freedom will be met through addition of 25 kW solar dynamic (SD) power modules. The SD module rejects waste heat from the power conversion cycle to space through a pumped-loop, multi-panel, deployable radiator. The baseline radiator configuration was defined during the Space Station conceptual design phase and is a function of the state point and heat rejection requirements of the power conversion unit. Requirements determined by the overall station design such as mass, system redundancy, micrometeoroid and space debris impact survivability, launch packaging, costs, and thermal and structural interaction with other station components have also been design drivers for the radiator configuration. Extensive thermal and power cycle modeling capabilities have been developed which are powerful tools in Station design and analysis, but which prove cumbersome and costly for simple component preliminary design studies. In order to aid in refining the SD radiator to the mature design stage, a simple and flexible numerical model was developed. The model simulates heat transfer and fluid flow performance of the radiator and calculates area mass and impact survivability for many combinations of flow tube and panel configurations, fluid and material properties, and environmental and cycle variations. A brief description and discussion of the numerical model, it's capabilities and limitations, and results of the parametric studies performed is presented.

  9. Statistical Modeling for Radiation Hardness Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    We cover the models and statistics associated with single event effects (and total ionizing dose), why we need them, and how to use them: What models are used, what errors exist in real test data, and what the model allows us to say about the DUT will be discussed. In addition, how to use other sources of data such as historical, heritage, and similar part and how to apply experience, physics, and expert opinion to the analysis will be covered. Also included will be concepts of Bayesian statistics, data fitting, and bounding rates.

  10. Acoustic dipole radiation model for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Ling; Ma, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Dong; Xia, Rong-Min

    2011-08-01

    An acoustic dipole radiation model for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is proposed, based on the analyses of one-dimensional tissue vibration, three-dimensional acoustic dipole radiation and acoustic waveform detection with a planar piston transducer. The collected waveforms provide information about the conductivity boundaries in various vibration intensities and phases due to the acoustic dipole radiation pattern. Combined with the simplified back projection algorithm, the conductivity configuration of the measured layer in terms of shape and size can be reconstructed with obvious border stripes. The numerical simulation is performed for a two-layer cylindrical phantom model and it is also verified by the experimental results of MAT-MI for a tissue-like sample phantom. The proposed model suggests a potential application of conductivity differentiation and provides a universal basis for the further study of conductivity reconstruction for MAT-MI.

  11. Modelling radiation damage to ESA's Gaia satellite CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, George; Holland, Andrew; Cropper, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in late 2011. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will not achieve its scientific requirements without detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate the effect of radiation damage, charge trapping, which causes charge transfer inefficiency. The key to calculating the probability of a photoelectron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for Gaia CCD pixels. In this paper, the first of a series, we motivate the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outline how its future results will fit into Gaia's overall radiation calibration strategy.

  12. Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18-20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.

  13. Photo- and radiation chemical induced degradation of lignin model compounds.

    PubMed

    Lanzalunga; Bietti, M

    2000-07-01

    The basic mechanistic aspects of the photo- and radiation chemistry of lignin model compounds (LMCs) are discussed with respect to important processes related to lignin degradation. Several reactions occur after direct irradiation, photosensitized or radiation chemically induced oxidation of LMCs. Direct irradiation studies on LMCs have provided supportive evidence for the involvement of hydrogen abstraction reactions from phenols, beta-cleavage of substituted alpha-aryloxyacetophenones and cleavage of ketyl radicals (formed by photoreduction of aromatic ketones or hydrogen abstraction from arylglycerol beta-aryl ethers) in the photoyellowing of lignin rich pulps. Photosensitized and radiation chemically induced generation of reactive oxygen species and their reaction with LMCs are reviewed. The side-chain reactivity of LMC radical cations, generated by radiation chemical means, is also discussed in relation with the enzymatic degradation of lignin.

  14. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    the MSRO surface , the local spherical coordinate system with a normal n is entered. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows 10 - 30 RTO...for each simulated photon group. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows 10 - 52 RTO-EN-AVT-162 There are two algorithms. In the first...Tubes and Entry Flows RTO-EN-AVT-162 10 - 57 all surfaces of the spatial finite-difference mesh should be calculated. This is illustrated in Figure

  15. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary accomplishments of the project were as follows: (1) From an overall standpoint, the primary accomplishment of this research was the development of a complete gasdynamic-radiatively coupled nonequilibrium viscous shock layer solution method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. This method can be used for rapid engineering modeling of nonequilibrium re-entry flowfields over a wide range of conditions. (2) Another significant accomplishment was the development of an air radiation model that included local thermodynamic nonequilibrium (LTNE) phenomena. (3) As part of this research, three electron-electronic energy models were developed. The first was a quasi-equilibrium electron (QEE) model which determined an effective free electron temperature and assumed that the electronic states were in equilibrium with the free electrons. The second was a quasi-equilibrium electron-electronic (QEEE) model which computed an effective electron-electronic temperature. The third model was a full electron-electronic (FEE) differential equation model which included convective, collisional, viscous, conductive, vibrational coupling, and chemical effects on electron-electronic energy. (4) Since vibration-dissociation coupling phenomena as well as vibrational thermal nonequilibrium phenomena are important in the nonequilibrium zone behind a shock front, a vibrational energy and vibration-dissociation coupling model was developed and included in the flowfield model. This model was a modified coupled vibrational dissociation vibrational (MCVDV) model and also included electron-vibrational coupling. (5) Another accomplishment of the project was the usage of the developed models to investigate radiative heating. (6) A multi-component diffusion model which properly models the multi-component nature of diffusion in complex gas mixtures such as air, was developed and incorporated into the blunt body model. (7) A model was developed to predict the magnitude and characteristics of the shock

  16. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  17. Radiative transfer model for contaminated rough slabs.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, François; Douté, Sylvain; Schmidt, Frédéric; Schmitt, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    We present a semi-analytical model to simulate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a rough slab layer containing impurities. This model has been optimized for fast computation in order to analyze massive hyperspectral data by a Bayesian approach. We designed it for planetary surface ice studies but it could be used for other purposes. It estimates the bidirectional reflectance of a rough slab of material containing inclusions, overlaying an optically thick media (semi-infinite media or stratified media, for instance granular material). The inclusions are assumed to be close to spherical and constituted of any type of material other than the ice matrix. It can be any other type of ice, mineral, or even bubbles defined by their optical constants. We assume a low roughness and we consider the geometrical optics conditions. This model is thus applicable for inclusions larger than the considered wavelength. The scattering on the inclusions is assumed to be isotropic. This model has a fast computation implementation and thus is suitable for high-resolution hyperspectral data analysis.

  18. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data.

  19. Modelling spatial connectivity in epidemiological systems, dengue fever in Thailand on networks from radiation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Götz, Thomas; Mateus, Luis; Wijaya, Putra; Willems, David; Skwara, Urszula; Marguta, Ramona; Ghaffari, Peyman; Aguiar, Maíra

    2016-06-01

    We model the connectivity between Thai provinces in terms of human mobility via a radiation model in order to describe dengue fever spreading in Thailand, for which long term epidemiological data are available.

  20. A review of surface energy balance models for estimating actual evapotranspiration with remote sensing at high spatiotemporal resolution over large extents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McShane, Ryan R.; Driscoll, Katelyn P.; Sando, Roy

    2017-09-27

    Many approaches have been developed for measuring or estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and research over many years has led to the development of remote sensing methods that are reliably reproducible and effective in estimating ETa. Several remote sensing methods can be used to estimate ETa at the high spatial resolution of agricultural fields and the large extent of river basins. More complex remote sensing methods apply an analytical approach to ETa estimation using physically based models of varied complexity that require a combination of ground-based and remote sensing data, and are grounded in the theory behind the surface energy balance model. This report, funded through cooperation with the International Joint Commission, provides an overview of selected remote sensing methods used for estimating water consumed through ETa and focuses on Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop), two energy balance models for estimating ETa that are currently applied successfully in the United States. The METRIC model can produce maps of ETa at high spatial resolution (30 meters using Landsat data) for specific areas smaller than several hundred square kilometers in extent, an improvement in practice over methods used more generally at larger scales. Many studies validating METRIC estimates of ETa against measurements from lysimeters have shown model accuracies on daily to seasonal time scales ranging from 85 to 95 percent. The METRIC model is accurate, but the greater complexity of METRIC results in greater data requirements, and the internalized calibration of METRIC leads to greater skill required for implementation. In contrast, SSEBop is a simpler model, having reduced data requirements and greater ease of implementation without a substantial loss of accuracy in estimating ETa. The SSEBop model has been used to produce maps of ETa over very large extents (the

  1. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both withmore » two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.« less

  2. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R2. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  3. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1993-01-01

    The period from Jan. 1993 thru Aug. 1993 is covered. The primary tasks during this period were the development of a single and multi-vibrational temperature preferential vibration-dissociation coupling model, the development of a normal shock nonequilibrium radiation-gasdynamic coupling model based upon the blunt body model, and the comparison of results obtained with these models with experimental data. In addition, an extensive series of computations were conducted using the blunt body model to develop a set of reference results covering a wide range of vehicle sizes, altitudes, and entry velocities.

  4. A new dynamical atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for epidemiological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Goldhagen, P. E.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    A new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) model is currently being developed for use in radiation dose evaluation in epidemiological studies targeted to atmospheric flight personnel such as civilian airlines crewmembers. The model will allow computing values for biologically relevant parameters, e.g. dose equivalent and effective dose, for individual flights from 1945. Each flight is described by its actual three dimensional flight profile, i.e. geographic coordinates and altitudes varying with time. Solar modulated primary particles are filtered with a new analytical fully angular dependent geomagnetic cut off rigidity model, as a function of latitude, longitude, arrival direction, altitude and time. The particle transport results have been obtained with a technique based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA, with a special procedure to deal with HZE particles. Particle fluxes are transformed into dose-related quantities and then integrated all along the flight path to obtain the overall flight dose. Preliminary validations of the particle transport technique using data from the AIR Project ER-2 flight campaign of measurements are encouraging. Future efforts will deal with modeling of the effects of the aircraft structure as well as inclusion of solar particle events. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  5. Clouds-radiation interactions in a general circulation model - Impact upon the planetary radiation balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Laura D.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneously conducted observations of the earth radiation budget and the cloud amount estimates, taken during the June 1979 - May 1980 Nimbus 7 mission were used to show interactions between the cloud amount and raidation and to verify a long-term climate simulation obtained with the latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). The parameterization of the radiative, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes produced the mean radiation and cloud quantities that were in reasonable agreement with satellite observations, but at the expense of simulating their short-term fluctuations. The results support the assumption that the inclusion of the cloud liquid water (ice) variable would be the best mean to reduce the blinking of clouds in NCAR CCM.

  6. Highly Physical Solar Radiation Pressure Modeling During Penumbra Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Robert V.

    Solar radiation pressure (SRP) is one of the major non-gravitational forces acting on spacecraft. Acceleration by radiation pressure depends on the radiation flux; on spacecraft shape, attitude, and mass; and on the optical properties of the spacecraft surfaces. Precise modeling of SRP is needed for dynamic satellite orbit determination, space mission design and control, and processing of data from space-based science instruments. During Earth penumbra transitions, sunlight is passing through Earth's lower atmosphere and, in the process, its path, intensity, spectral composition, and shape are significantly affected. This dissertation presents a new method for highly physical SRP modeling in Earth's penumbra called Solar radiation pressure with Oblateness and Lower Atmospheric Absorption, Refraction, and Scattering (SOLAARS). The fundamental geometry and approach mirrors past work, where the solar radiation field is modeled using a number of light rays, rather than treating the Sun as a single point source. This dissertation aims to clarify this approach, simplify its implementation, and model previously overlooked factors. The complex geometries involved in modeling penumbra solar radiation fields are described in a more intuitive and complete way to simplify implementation. Atmospheric effects due to solar radiation passing through the troposphere and stratosphere are modeled, and the results are tabulated to significantly reduce computational cost. SOLAARS includes new, more efficient and accurate approaches to modeling atmospheric effects which allow us to consider the spatial and temporal variability in lower atmospheric conditions. A new approach to modeling the influence of Earth's polar flattening draws on past work to provide a relatively simple but accurate method for this important effect. Previous penumbra SRP models tend to lie at two extremes of complexity and computational cost, and so the significant improvement in accuracy provided by the complex

  7. Modelling Gravitational Radiation from Binary Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The final merger and coalescence of binary black holes is a key source of strong gravitational waves for the LISA mission. Observing these systems will allow us to probe the formation of cosmic structure to high redshifts and test general relativity directly in the strong-field, dynamical regime. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in modeling black hole mergers using numerical relativity. This talk will survey these exciting developments, focusing on the gravitational waveforms and the recoil kicks produced from non-equal mass mergers.

  8. Nuclear model calculations and their role in space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation requires accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through thick absorbers. These quantitative methods are also needed for characterizing accelerator beams used in space radiobiology studies. Because of the impracticality/impossibility of measuring these altered radiation fields inside critical internal body organs of biological test specimens and humans, computational methods rather than direct measurements must be used. Since composition changes in the fields arise from nuclear interaction processes (elastic, inelastic and breakup), knowledge of the appropriate cross sections and spectra must be available. Experiments alone cannot provide the necessary cross section and secondary particle (neutron and charged particle) spectral data because of the large number of nuclear species and wide range of energies involved in space radiation research. Hence, nuclear models are needed. In this paper current methods of predicting total and absorption cross sections and secondary particle (neutrons and ions) yields and spectra for space radiation protection analyses are reviewed. Model shortcomings are discussed and future needs presented. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All right reserved.

  9. Radiative striped wind model for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D.; Pe'er, A.; Lyubarsky, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the striped wind model in which the wind is accelerated by magnetic reconnection. In our treatment, radiation is included as an independent component, and two scenarios are considered. In the first one, radiation cannot stream efficiently through the reconnection layer, while the second scenario assumes that radiation is homogeneous in the striped wind. We show how these two assumptions affect the dynamics. In particular, we find that the asymptotic radial evolution of the Lorentz factor is not strongly modified whether radiation can stream through the reconnection layer or not. On the other hand, we show that the width, density and temperature of the reconnection layer are strongly dependent on these assumptions. We then apply the model to the gamma-ray burst context and find that photons cannot diffuse efficiently through the reconnection layer below radius r_D^{Δ } ˜ 10^{10.5} cm, which is about an order of magnitude below the photospheric radius. Above r_D^{Δ }, the dynamics asymptotes to the solution of the scenario in which radiation can stream through the reconnection layer. As a result, the density of the current sheet increases sharply, providing efficient photon production by the Bremsstrahlung process that could have profound influence on the emerging spectrum. This effect might provide a solution to the soft photon problem in gamma-ray bursts.

  10. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A user's manual was prepared for the computer program of a solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model. The following information was included: (1) structure of the program, (2) input information required, (3) examples of input cards and output printout, (4) program characteristics, and (5) program listing.

  11. Model-based optical coherence elastography using acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat; Wang, Shang; Karpiouk, Andrei; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) stimulation is actively used in ultrasound elastography to estimate mechanical properties of tissue. Compared with ultrasound imaging, OCT provides advantage in both spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, a combination of ARF and OCT technologies can provide a unique opportunity to measure viscoelastic properties of tissue, especially when the use of high intensity radiation pressure is limited for safety reasons. In this presentation we discuss a newly developed theoretical model of the deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to an acoustic radiation force of short duration. An acoustic impulse was considered as an axisymmetric force generated on the upper surface of the medium. An analytical solution of this problem was obtained using the Hankel transform in frequency domain. It was demonstrated that layers at different depths introduce different frequency responses. To verify the developed model, experiments were performed using tissue-simulating, inhomogeneous phantoms of varying mechanical properties. The Young's modulus of the phantoms was varied from 5 to 50 kPa. A single-element focused ultrasound transducer (3.5 MHz) was used to apply the radiation force with various durations on the surface of phantoms. Displacements on the phantom surface were measured using a phase-sensitive OCT at 25 kHz repetition frequency. The experimental results were in good agreement with the modeling results. Therefore, the proposed theoretical model can be used to reconstruct the mechanical properties of tissue based on ARF/OCT measurements.

  12. Modeling the Inner Magnetosphere: Radiation Belts, Ring Current, and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The space environment is a complex system defined by regions of differing length scales, characteristic energies, and physical processes. It is often difficult, or impossible, to treat all aspects of the space environment relative to a particular problem with a single model. In our studies, we utilize several models working in tandem to examine this highly interconnected system. The methodology and results will be presented for three focused topics: 1) Rapid radiation belt electron enhancements, 2) Ring current study of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), Dst, and plasma composition, and 3) Examination of the outflow of ionospheric ions. In the first study, we use a coupled MHD magnetosphere - kinetic radiation belt model to explain recent Akebono/RDM observations of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. In the second study, we present initial results of a ring current study using a newly coupled kinetic ring current model with an MHD magnetosphere model. Results of a dst study for four geomagnetic events are shown. Moreover, direct comparison with TWINS ENA images are used to infer the role that composition plays in the ring current. In the final study, we directly model the transport of plasma from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We especially focus on the role of photoelectrons and and wave-particle interactions. The modeling methodology for each of these studies will be detailed along with the results.

  13. A new Mars radiation environment model with visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Singleterry, R. C.; Wilson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    A new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (OCR) has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for Mars conditions are transported through the Martian atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account. The Martian atmosphere has been modeled by using the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model--version 2001 (Mars-GRAM 2001). The altitude to compute the atmospheric thickness profile has been determined by using a model for the topography based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The Mars surface composition has been modeled based on averages over the measurements obtained from orbiting spacecraft and at various landing sites, taking into account the possible volatile inventory (e.g., CO2 ice, H2O ice) along with its time variation throughout the Martian year. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code. The Mars Radiation Environment Model has been made available worldwide through the Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools (SIREST) website, a project of NASA Langley Research Center. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  15. New Modeling Approaches to Investigate Cell Signaling in Radiation Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem L.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation damages individual cells and tissues leading to harmful biological effects. Among many radiation-induced lesions, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered the key precursors of most early and late effects [1] leading to direct mutation or aberrant signal transduction processes. In response to damage, a flow of information is communicated to cells not directly hit by the radiation through signal transduction pathways [2]. Non-targeted effects (NTE), which includes bystander effects and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells and tissues, may be particularly important for space radiation risk assessment [1], because astronauts are exposed to a low fluence of heavy ions and only a small fraction of cells are traversed by an ion. NTE may also have important consequences clinical radiotherapy [3]. In the recent years, new simulation tools and modeling approaches have become available to study the tissue response to radiation. The simulation of signal transduction pathways require many elements such as detailed track structure calculations, a tissue or cell culture model, knowledge of biochemical pathways and Brownian Dynamics (BD) propagators of the signaling molecules in their micro-environment. Recently, the Monte-Carlo simulation code of radiation track structure RITRACKS was used for micro and nano-dosimetry calculations [4]. RITRACKS will be used to calculate the fraction of cells traversed by an ion and delta-rays and the energy deposited in cells in a tissue model. RITRACKS also simulates the formation of chemical species by the radiolysis of water [5], notably the .OH radical. This molecule is implicated in DNA damage and in the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF), a signaling molecule involved in NTE. BD algorithms for a particle near a membrane comprising receptors were also developed and will be used to simulate trajectories of signaling molecules in the micro-environment and characterize autocrine

  16. A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these

  17. Analysis of Terminal Deletions using a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a model that can simulate different types of radiation induced chromosomal aberrations (CA's) and can provide predictions on the frequency and size of chromosomes with terminal deletions. Chromosomes with terminal deletions lack telomeres and this can elicit sister chromatid unions and the prolonged breakage/fusion/bridge (B/F/B) cycles that have been observed in mammalian tumors. The loss of a single telomere has been shown to cause extensive genomic instability through the B/F/B cycle process. Our model uses a stochastic process of DNA broken end joining, in which a realistic spectrum of CA's is created from improperly joined DNA free ends formed by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The distribution of the DNA free ends is given by a mechanistic model that takes into account the chromatin structure and track structure for high-LET radiation. The model allows for DSB clustering from high-LET radiation and simulates the formation of CA's in stages that correspond to the actual time after radiation exposure. The time scale for CA formation is derived from experimental data on DSB repair kinetics. At any given time a nucleus may have intact chromosomes, CA's, and/or unrepaired fragments, some of which are defined as terminal deletions, if they are capped by one telomere. The model produces a spectrum of terminal deletions with their corresponding probabilities and size distributions for different heavy ions exposures for the first division after exposure. This data provides valuable information because there is limited experimental data available in the literature on the on the actual size of terminal deletions. We compare our model output to the available experimental data and make a reasonable extrapolation on the number of chromosomes lacking telomeres in human lymphocytes exposed to heavy ions. This model generates data which may lead to predictions on the rate of genomic instability in cells after exposure to high charge and energy nuclei

  18. Explicit validation of a surface shortwave radiation balance model over snow-covered complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, N.; Löwe, H.; Mayer, B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-09-01

    A model that computes the surface radiation balance for all sky conditions in complex terrain is presented. The spatial distribution of direct and diffuse sky radiation is determined from observations of incident global radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at a single measurement location. Incident radiation under cloudless sky is spatially derived from a parameterization of the atmospheric transmittance. Direct and diffuse sky radiation for all sky conditions are obtained by decomposing the measured global radiation value. Spatial incident radiation values under all atmospheric conditions are computed by adjusting the spatial radiation values obtained from the parametric model with the radiation components obtained from the decomposition model at the measurement site. Topographic influences such as shading are accounted for. The radiosity approach is used to compute anisotropic terrain reflected radiation. Validations of the shortwave radiation balance model are presented in detail for a day with cloudless sky. For a day with overcast sky a first validation is presented. Validation of a section of the horizon line as well as of individual radiation components is performed with high-quality measurements. A new measurement setup was designed to determine terrain reflected radiation. There is good agreement between the measurements and the modeled terrain reflected radiation values as well as with incident radiation values. A comparison of the model with a fully three-dimensional radiative transfer Monte Carlo model is presented. That validation reveals a good agreement between modeled radiation values.

  19. A Fast Infrared Radiative Transfer Model for Overlapping Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, Jianguo; Yang, Ping; Huang, Huang-Lung; Davies, James E.; Li, Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.

    2006-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer model (FIRTM2) appropriate for application to both single-layered and overlapping cloud situations is developed for simulating the outgoing infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In FIRTM2 a pre-computed library of cloud reflectance and transmittance values is employed to account for one or two cloud layers, whereas the background atmospheric optical thickness due to gaseous absorption can be computed from a clear-sky radiative transfer model. FIRTM2 is applicable to three atmospheric conditions: 1) clear-sky, 2) single-layered ice or water cloud, and 3) two simultaneous cloud layers in a column (e.g., ice cloud overlying water cloud). Moreover, FIRTM2 outputs the derivatives (i.e., Jacobians) of the TOA brightness temperature with respect to cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the performance of FIRTM2 for two spectral regions, namely the longwave (LW) band (587.3 - 1179.5/cm) and the short-to-medium wave (SMW) band (1180.1 - 2228.9/cm). The assessment is carried out in terms of brightness temperature differences (BTD) between FIRTM2 and the well-known discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT), henceforth referred to as BTD (F-D). The BTD (F-D) values for single-layered clouds are generally less than 0.8 K. For the case of two cloud layers (specifically ice cloud over water cloud), the BTD(F-D) values are also generally less than 0.8 K except for the SMW band for the case of a very high altitude (>15 km) cloud comprised of small ice particles. Note that for clear-sky atmospheres, FIRTM2 reduces to the clear-sky radiative transfer model that is incorporated into FIRTM2, and the errors in this case are essentially those of the clear-sky radiative transfer model.

  20. Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    One of the biological processes affecting the carcinogenesis is a response of humoral immune system to an antigen of malignant cells. Humoral immunity involves the production of protein molecules, antibodies, which can specifically bind to a certain antigen. This body system is radiosensitive. Therefore when simulating the radiation carcinogenesis, it is important to take into account the radiation effects on humoral immunity. To this end, a model of humoral immune response in irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts. The model represents a system of nonlinear differential equations whose variables are the concentrations of antigen-sensitive immuno-competent cells carrying surface receptors and their bone-marrow precursor cells, as well as the concentrations of antibody-producing cells, antibodies, and an antigen. The dose of acute exposure and the dose rate of chronic exposure are the variable parameters in our approach. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of Pasteurella pestis) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). The model simulates the processes of the damage and recovery of the system of humoral immunity after acute exposure and predicts an adaptation of this system to low-level long-term chronic irradiation. These results give evidence that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be incorporated into a model of radiation carcinogenesis in humans. Together with a model of cellular immunity, such joined model will give capability to estimate the risk of radiation carcinogenesis for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.

  1. SMRT: A new, modular snow microwave radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Ghislain; Sandells, Melody; Löwe, Henning; Dumont, Marie; Essery, Richard; Floury, Nicolas; Kontu, Anna; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Maslanka, William; Mätzler, Christian; Morin, Samuel; Wiesmann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Forward models of radiative transfer processes are needed to interpret remote sensing data and derive measurements of snow properties such as snow mass. A key requirement and challenge for microwave emission and scattering models is an accurate description of the snow microstructure. The snow microwave radiative transfer model (SMRT) was designed to cater for potential future active and/or passive satellite missions and developed to improve understanding of how to parameterize snow microstructure. SMRT is implemented in Python and is modular to allow easy intercomparison of different theoretical approaches. Separate modules are included for the snow microstructure model, electromagnetic module, radiative transfer solver, substrate, interface reflectivities, atmosphere and permittivities. An object-oriented approach is used with carefully specified exchanges between modules to allow future extensibility i.e. without constraining the parameter list requirements. This presentation illustrates the capabilities of SMRT. At present, five different snow microstructure models have been implemented, and direct insertion of the autocorrelation function from microtomography data is also foreseen with SMRT. Three electromagnetic modules are currently available. While DMRT-QCA and Rayleigh models need specific microstructure models, the Improved Born Approximation may be used with any microstructure representation. A discrete ordinates approach with stream connection is used to solve the radiative transfer equations, although future inclusion of 6-flux and 2-flux solvers are envisioned. Wrappers have been included to allow existing microwave emission models (MEMLS, HUT, DMRT-QMS) to be run with the same inputs and minimal extra code (2 lines). Comparisons between theoretical approaches will be shown, and evaluation against field experiments in the frequency range 5-150 GHz. SMRT is simple and elegant to use whilst providing a framework for future development within the

  2. Who is Self-Actualized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify Maslow's concept of self-actualization as it relates to human motivation, a class of educational psychology students wrote essays describing a self-actualized person and then attempted to decide whether public schools contribute to the production of self-actualized persons. Two-thirds of the students decided that schools…

  3. Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds: Observations Versus Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Minnis, P.; Corsetti, L.; Dutton, E. G.; Forgan, B. W.; Garber, D. P.; Gates, W. L.; Hack, J. J.; Harrison, E. F.; hide

    1995-01-01

    There has been a long history of unexplained anomalous absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Collocated satellite and surface measurements of solar radiation at five geographically diverse locations showed significant solar absorption by clouds, resulting in about 25 watts per square meter more global-mean absorption by the cloudy atmosphere than predicted by theoretical models. It has often been suggested that tropospheric aerosols could increase cloud absorption. But these aerosols are temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas the observed cloud absorption is remarkably invariant with respect to season and location. Although its physical cause is unknown, enhanced cloud absorption substantially alters our understanding of the atmosphere's energy budget.

  4. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. H.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model, capable of defining the influence of the plume flowfield structure on the magnitude and distribution of thermal radiation leaving the plume, was prepared and documented. Radiant heating rates may be calculated for a single SRB plume or for the dual SRB plumes astride the space shuttle. The plumes may be gimbaled in the yaw and pitch planes. Space shuttle surface geometries are simulated with combinations of quadric surfaces. The effect of surface shading is included. The computer program also has the capability to calculate view factors between the SRB plumes and space shuttle surfaces as well as surface-to-surface view factors.

  5. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1990-01-01

    The primary tasks during January 1990 to June 1990 have been the development and evaluation of various electron and electron-electronic energy equation models, the continued development of improved nonequilibrium radiation models for molecules and atoms, and the continued development and investigation of precursor models and their effects. In addition, work was initiated to develop a vibrational model for the viscous shock layer (VSL) nonequilibrium chemistry blunt body engineering code. Also, an effort was started associated with the effects of including carbon species, say from an ablator, in the flowfield.

  6. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Korkin, Sergey; Ota, Yoshifumi; Labonnote, Laurent C.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    The polarization state of electromagnetic radiation scattered by atmospheric particles such as aerosols, cloud droplets, or ice crystals contains much more information about the optical and microphysical properties than the total intensity alone. For this reason an increasing number of polarimetric observations are performed from space, from the ground and from aircraft. Polarized radiative transfer models are required to interpret and analyse these measurements and to develop retrieval algorithms exploiting polarimetric observations. In the last years a large number of new codes have been developed, mostly for specific applications. Benchmark results are available for specific cases, but not for more sophisticated scenarios including polarized surface reflection and multi-layer atmospheres. The International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to fill this gap. This paper presents the results of the first phase A of the IPRT project which includes ten test cases, from simple setups with only one layer and Rayleigh scattering to rather sophisticated setups with a cloud embedded in a standard atmosphere above an ocean surface. All scenarios in the first phase A of the intercomparison project are for a one-dimensional plane-parallel model geometry. The commonly established benchmark results are available at the IPRT website.

  7. Modeling radiation induced segregation in Iron-Chromium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Senninger, Oriane; Soisson, Frederic; Martinez Saez, Enrique; ...

    2015-10-16

    Radiation induced segregation in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys is studied by Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include di usion of chemical species by vacancy and interstitial migration, recombination, and elimination at sinks. The parameters of the di usion model are tted to DFT calculations. Transport coe cients that control the coupling between di usion of defects and chemical species are measured in dilute and concentrated alloys. Radiation induced segregation near grain boundaries is directly simulated with this model. We nd that the di usion of vacancies toward sinks leads to a Cr depletion. Meanwhile, the di usion of self-interstitials causesmore » an enrichment of Cr in the vicinity of sinks. For concentrations lower than 15%Cr, we predict that sinks will be enriched with Cr for temperatures lower than a threshold. When the temperature is above this threshold value, the sinks will be depleted in Cr. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and models. Cases of radiation induced precipitation and radiation accelerated precipitation are considered.« less

  8. Reduction of collisional-radiative models for transient, atomic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, Richard June; Karagozian, Ann; Bilyeu, David; Le, Hai

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between plasmas and any radiation field, whether by lasers or plasma emissions, introduce many computational challenges. One of these computational challenges involves resolving the atomic physics, which can influence other physical phenomena in the radiated system. In this work, a collisional-radiative (CR) model with reduction capabilities is developed to capture the atomic physics at a reduced computational cost. Although the model is made with any element in mind, the model is currently supplemented by LANL's argon database, which includes the relevant collisional and radiative processes for all of the ionic stages. Using the detailed data set as the true solution, reduction mechanisms in the form of Boltzmann grouping, uniform grouping, and quasi-steady-state (QSS), are implemented to compare against the true solution. Effects on the transient plasma stemming from the grouping methods are compared. Distribution A: Approved for public release; unlimited distribution, PA (Public Affairs) Clearance Number 17449. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Grant Number 17RQCOR463 (Dr. Jason Marshall).

  9. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Radiation Within a Particulate Medium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modeling of electromagnetic radiation with a particulate medium. Understanding the effect of particulate media and coatings on electromagnetic radiation is key to understanding the effects of multiple scattering on the spectra of geologic materials. Multiple radiative transfer theories have been developed that provide a good approximation to these effects [1,2]. However, approximations regarding particle size, distribution, shape, and other parameters need to be made and in some cases, the theory is limited to specific geometries [2]. In this work, we seek to develop an numerical radiative transfer algorithm to simulate the passage of light through a particulate medium. The code allows arbitrary particle size distributions (uniform, bimodal, trimodal, composition dependent), compositions, and viewing geometries, as well as arbitrary coating thicknesses and compositions. Here, we report on the the status of our model and present comparisons of model predictions with the spectra of well-characterize minerals and mixtures. Future work will include particle size-dependent effects of diffraction as well as particle emittance due to fluorescence and Raman excitation. [1] Hapke, B. (2012). Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 528 p. [2] Shkuratov et al. (1999) Icarus 137

  10. SST algorithm based on radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Jafri, Mohd Z.; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Bahari, Alui

    2001-03-01

    An algorithm for measuring sea surface temperature (SST) without recourse to the in-situ data for calibration has been proposed. The algorithm which is based on the recorded infrared signal by the satellite sensor is composed of three terms, namely, the surface emission, the up-welling radiance emitted by the atmosphere, and the down-welling atmospheric radiance reflected at the sea surface. This algorithm requires the transmittance values of thermal bands. The angular dependence of the transmittance function was modeled using the MODTRAN code. Radiosonde data were used with the MODTRAN code. The expression of transmittance as a function of zenith view angle was obtained for each channel through regression of the MODTRAN output. The Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) data from the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS) were used in this study. The study area covers the seas of the North West of Peninsular Malaysia region. The in-situ data (ship collected SST values) were used for verification of the results. Cloud contaminated pixels were masked out using the standard procedures which have been applied to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The cloud free pixels at the in-situ sites were extracted for analysis. The OCTS data were then substituted in the proposed algorithm. The appropriate transmittance value for each channel was then assigned in the calculation. Assessment for the accuracy was made by observing the correlation and the rms deviations between the computed and the ship collected values. The results were also compared with the results from OCTS multi- channel sea surface temperature algorithm. The comparison produced high correlation values. The performance of this algorithm is comparable with the established OCTS algorithm. The effect of emissivity on the retrieved SST values was also investigated. SST map was generated and contoured manually.

  11. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  12. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  13. Radiative transfer model of snow for bare ice regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, T.; Aoki, T.; Niwano, M.; Hosaka, M.; Shimada, R.; Hori, M.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling a radiative transfer (RT) for coupled atmosphere-snow-bare ice systems is of fundamental importance for remote sensing applications to monitor snow and bare ice regions in the Greenland ice sheet and for accurate climate change predictions by regional and global climate models. Recently, the RT model for atmosphere-snow system was implemented for our regional and global climate models. However, the bare ice region where recently it has been expanded on the Greenland ice sheet due to the global warming, has not been implemented for these models, implying that this region leads miscalculations in these climate models. Thus, the RT model of snow for bare ice regions is needed for accurate climate change predictions. We developed the RT model for coupled atmosphere-snow-bare ice systems, and conducted a sensitivity analysis of the RT model to know the effect of snow, bare ice and geometry parameters on the spectral radiant quantities. The RT model considers snow and bare-ice inherent optical properties (IOPs), including snow grain size, air bubble size and its concentration and bare ice thickness. The conventional light scattering theory, Mie theory, was used for IOP calculations. Monte Carlo method was used for the multiple scattering. The sensitivity analyses showed that spectral albedo for the bare ice increased with increasing the concentration of the air bubble in the bare ice for visible wavelengths because the air bubble is scatterer with no absorption. For near infrared wavelengths, spectral albedo has no dependence on the air bubble due to the strong light absorption by ice. When increasing solar zenith angle, the spectral albedo were increased for all wavelengths. This is the similar trend with spectral snow albedo. Cloud cover influenced the bare ice spectral albedo by covering direct radiation into diffuse radiation. The purely diffuse radiation has an effective solar zenith angle near 50°. Converting direct into diffuse radiation reduces the

  14. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, I. S.; Janeschitz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  15. Computational Challenges of 3D Radiative Transfer in Atmospheric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakub, Fabian; Bernhard, Mayer

    2017-04-01

    The computation of radiative heating and cooling rates is one of the most expensive components in todays atmospheric models. The high computational cost stems not only from the laborious integration over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum but also from the fact that solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for monochromatic light is already rather involved. This lead to the advent of numerous approximations and parameterizations to reduce the cost of the solver. One of the most prominent one is the so called independent pixel approximations (IPA) where horizontal energy transfer is neglected whatsoever and radiation may only propagate in the vertical direction (1D). Recent studies implicate that the IPA introduces significant errors in high resolution simulations and affects the evolution and development of convective systems. However, using fully 3D solvers such as for example MonteCarlo methods is not even on state of the art supercomputers feasible. The parallelization of atmospheric models is often realized by a horizontal domain decomposition, and hence, horizontal transfer of energy necessitates communication. E.g. a cloud's shadow at a low zenith angle will cast a long shadow and potentially needs to communication through a multitude of processors. Especially light in the solar spectral range may travel long distances through the atmosphere. Concerning highly parallel simulations, it is vital that 3D radiative transfer solvers put a special emphasis on parallel scalability. We will present an introduction to intricacies computing 3D radiative heating and cooling rates as well as report on the parallel performance of the TenStream solver. The TenStream is a 3D radiative transfer solver using the PETSc framework to iteratively solve a set of partial differential equation. We investigate two matrix preconditioners, (a) geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning(MG+GAMG) and (b) block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization. The

  16. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Yang, Sungwoo; Bhatia, Bikram; Strobach, Elise; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-02-01

    Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM). Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation). To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm) of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel's microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  17. Modelling of radiation field around spent fuel container.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Opalovsky, V A; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Operation of nuclear reactors leads to the production of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). There are two basic strategies of SNF management: ultimate disposal of SNF in geological formations and recycle or repeated utilisation of reprocessed SNF. In both options, there is an urgent necessity to study radiation properties of SNF. Information about SNF radiation properties is required at all stages of SNF management. In order to reach more effective utilisation of nuclear materials, new fuel cycles are under development based on uranium-plutonium, uranium-thorium and some other types of nuclear fuel. These promising types of nuclear fuel are characterised by quite different radiation properties at all the stages of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) listed above. So, comparative analysis is required for radiation properties of different nuclear fuel types at different NFC stages. The results presented here were obtained from the numerical analysis of the radiation field around transport containers of different SNF types and in SNF storage. The calculations are carried out with the application of the computer code packages SCALE-4.3 and MCNP-4C. Comparison of the dose parameters obtained for different models of the transport container with experimental data allowed us to make certain conclusions about the errors of numerical results caused by the approximate geometrical description of the transport container.

  18. Modeling the Radiation Belts During a Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.; Toth, G.

    2009-05-01

    We utilize the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model to simulate the radiation belt electrons during a geomagnetic storm. Particularly, we focus on the relative contribution of whistler mode wave-particle interactions and radial diffusion associated with rapid changes in the magnetospheric magnetic field. In our study, the RBE model obtains a realistic magnetic field from the BATS-R-US magnetosphere model at a regular, but adjustable, cadence. We simulate the storm with and without wave particle interactions, and with different frequencies for updating the magnetic field. The impacts of the wave-particle interactions, and the rapid variations in the magnetospheric magnetic field, can then be studied. Simulation results are also extracted along various satellite trajectories for direct comparison where appropriate.

  19. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  20. Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom prescribed intercomparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, P.; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Bian, H.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Ghan, S.; Huneeus, N.; Kinne, S.; Lin, G.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J. E.; Randles, C.; Samset, B.; Schulz, M.; Yu, H.; Zhou, C.

    2012-09-01

    Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as measure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in nine participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties, simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.51 W m-2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.70 W m-2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 15%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.26 W m-2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.21 W m-2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 96%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption is low, with relative standard deviations of 9% clear-sky and 12% all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative forcing in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment, demonstrates that host model uncertainties could explain about half of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.13 W m-2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained surface albedos, such as sea ice. Our results demonstrate that host

  1. Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, P.; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Bellouin, N.; Bian, H.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Ghan, S.; Huneeus, N.; Kinne, S.; Lin, G.; Ma, X.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J. E.; Randles, C. A.; Samset, B.; Schulz, M.; Takemura, T.; Yu, F.; Yu, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-03-01

    Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as a measure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in twelve participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties, simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.47 Wm-2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.55 Wm-2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 12%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.04 Wm-2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.01 W-2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 97%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption (subtracting the scattering case from the case with scattering and absorption) is low, with absolute (relative) standard deviations of 0.45 Wm-2 (8%) clear-sky and 0.62 Wm-2 (11%) all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative forcing in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment demonstrates that host model uncertainties could explain about 36% of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.11 Wm-2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus

  2. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  3. A review of surface energy balance models for estimating actual evapotranspiration with remote sensing at high spatiotemporal resolution over large extents

    Treesearch

    Ryan R. McShane; Katelyn P. Driscoll; Roy Sando

    2017-01-01

    Many approaches have been developed for measuring or estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and research over many years has led to the development of remote sensing methods that are reliably reproducible and effective in estimating ETa. Several remote sensing methods can be used to estimate ETa at the high spatial resolution of agricultural fields and the large...

  4. Radiative transfer modeling and analysis of spatially variant and coherent illumination for undersea object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Bernard Charles

    Increasing the optical range of target detection and recognition continues to be an area of great interest in the ocean environment. Light attenuation limits radiative and information transfer for image formation in water. These limitations are difficult to surmount in conventional underwater imaging system design. Methods for the formation of images in scattering media generally rely upon temporal or spatial methodologies. Some interesting designs have been developed in an attempt to circumvent or overcome the scattering problem. This document describes a variation of the spatial interferometric technique that relies upon projected spatial gratings with subsequent detection against a coherent return signal for the purpose of noise reduction and image enhancement. A model is developed that simulates the projected structured illumination through turbid water to a target and its return to a detector. The model shows an unstructured backscatter superimposed on a structured return signal. The model can predict the effect on received signal to noise of variations in the projected spatial frequency and turbidity. The model has been extended to predict what a camera would actually see so that various noise reduction schemes can be modeled. Finally, some water tank tests are presented validating original hypothesis and model predictions. The method is advantageous in not requiring temporal synchronization between reference and signal beams and may use a continuous illumination source. Spatial coherency of the beam allows detection of the direct return, while scattered light appears as a noncoherent noise term. Both model and illumination method should prove to be valuable tools in ocean research.

  5. Modeling Gravitational Radiation Waveforms from Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. G.; Centrelia, J. M.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; VanMeter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from merging binary black hole systems is anticipated as a key source for gravitational wave observations. Ground-based instruments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) may observe mergers of stellar-scale black holes, while the space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) observatory will be sensitive to mergers of massive galactic-center black holes over a broad range of mass scales. These cataclysmic events may emit an enormous amount of energy in a brief time. Gravitational waves from comparable mass mergers carry away a few percent of the system's mass-energy in just a few wave cycles, with peak gravitational wave luminosities on the order of 10^23 L_Sun. Optimal analysis and interpretation of merger observation data will depend on developing a detailed understanding, based on general relativistic modeling, of the radiation waveforms. We discuss recent progress in modeling radiation from equal mass mergers using numerical simulations of Einstein's gravitational field equations, known as numerical relativity. Our simulations utilize Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to allow high-resolution near the black holes while simultaneously keeping the outer boundary of the computational domain far from the black holes, and making it possible to read out gravitational radiation waveforms in the weak-field wave zone. We discuss the results from simulations beginning with the black holes orbiting near the system's innermost stable orbit, comparing the recent simulations with earlier "Lazarus" waveform estimates based on an approximate hybrid numerical/perturbative technique.

  6. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    2004-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for characterizing the radiation dose and internal charging environments in the solar wind. The SSRE model defines the 0.01 keV to 1 MeV charged particle environment for use in testing the radiation dose vulnerability of candidate solar sail materials and for use in evaluating the internal charging effects in the interplanetary environment. Solar wind and energetic particle instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft provide the particle data used to derive the environments for the high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar sail missions. Ulysses is the only spacecraft to sample high latitude solar wind environments far from the ecliptic plane and is therefore uniquely capable of providing the information necessary for defining radiation environments for the Solar Polar Imager spacecraft. Cold plasma moments are used to derive differential flux spectra based on Kappa distribution functions. Energetic particle flux measurements are used to constrain the high energy, non-thermal tails of the distribution functions providing a comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra from less than 0.01 keV to a few MeV.

  7. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  8. Animal models for acute radiation syndrome drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Berg, Allison N; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-05-01

    Although significant scientific advances have been made over the past six decades in developing safe, nontoxic and effective radiation/medical countermeasures (MCMs) for acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. The availability of adequate animal models is a prime requisite under the criteria established by the FDA 'animal rule' for the development of novel MCMs for ARS and the discovery of biomarkers for radiation exposure. This article reviews the developments of MCMs to combat ARS, with particular reference to the various animal models (rodents: mouse and rat; canine: beagle; minipigs and nonhuman primates [NHPs]) utilized for the in-depth evaluation. The objective, pathways and challenges of the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule are also discussed. There are a number of well-defined animal models, the mouse, canine and NHP, that are being used for the development of MCMs. Additional animal models, such as the minipig, are under development to further assist in the identification, efficacy testing and approval of MCMs under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule.

  9. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration in the Nagqu river basin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mijun; Zhong, Lei; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Yuanyuan; Feng, Lu

    2018-05-01

    As a critical component of the energy and water cycle, terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ET) can be influenced by many factors. This study was mainly devoted to providing accurate and continuous estimations of actual ET for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and analyzing the effects of its impact factors. In this study, summer observational data from the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) for 2003 to 2004 was selected to determine actual ET and investigate its relationship with energy, hydrological, and dynamical parameters. Multiple-layer air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation flux, wind speed, precipitation, and soil moisture were used to estimate actual ET. The regression model simulation results were validated with independent data retrieved using the combinatory method. The results suggested that significant correlations exist between actual ET and hydro-meteorological parameters in the surface layer of the Nagqu river basin, among which the most important factors are energy-related elements (net radiation flux and air temperature). The results also suggested that how ET is eventually affected by precipitation and two-layer wind speed difference depends on whether their positive or negative feedback processes have a more important role. The multivariate linear regression method provided reliable estimations of actual ET; thus, 6-parameter simplified schemes and 14-parameter regular schemes were established.

  10. Development of a new global radiation belt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Angelica; Boscher, Daniel; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Rolland, Guy; Standarovski, Denis

    2017-04-01

    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version of this new model is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2model, which provides high energy proton flux values at low altitudes. As most of these models were developed using more than a solar cycle of measurements, these measurements being checked, cross calibrated and filtered, we have no doubt that the obtained averages are more accurate than AP8 and AE8 for these particular locations. These local models were validated along different orbit with independent data sets or effect measurements. We will use a cache file system to switch between models, in order to obtain at each location in space and energy point the most reliable value. Of course, the way the model is developed is well suited to add new local developments or to include international partnership. The first beta version of this new Global radiation belt model will be presented during the conference.

  11. A cloud model-radiative model combination for determining microwave TB-rain rate relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szejwach, Gerard; Adler, Robert F.; Jobard, Esabelle; Mack, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a cloud model-radiative transfer model combination for computing average brightness temperature, T(B), is discussed. The cloud model and radiative transfer model used in this study are described. The relations between rain rate, cloud and rain water, cloud and precipitation ice, and upwelling radiance are investigated. The effects of the rain rate relations on T(B) under different climatological conditions are examined. The model-derived T(B) results are compared to the 92 and 183 GHz aircraft observations of Hakkarinen and Adler (1984, 1986) and the radar-estimated rain rate of Hakkarinen and Adler (1986); good correlation between the data is detected.

  12. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  13. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  14. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  15. Radiation cooler for 10 micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver model no. 7172, serial no. 201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a radiative cooler are described. This cooler is an engineering model suitable for bench testing in the laboratory as a part of the 10-micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver, and conforms to the standard radiative cooler configuration, except that the inner stage and its support system were redesigned to accommodate the larger, heavier SAT detector. This radiative cooler will cool the detector to cryogenic temperature levels when the receiver is in a space environment or in a suitable thermal vacuum chamber. Equipment specifications are given along with the results of thermal tests, vibration tests, and electrical integrity tests.

  16. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry using a radiation damage accumulation and annealing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Rebecca M.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Shuster, David L.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2009-04-01

    damage accumulation followed by reheating and partial helium loss. Under common circumstances the RDAAM predicts (U-Th)/He dates that are older, sometimes much older, than corresponding fission-track dates. Nonlinear positive correlations between apatite (U-Th)/He date and eU in apatites subjected to the same temperature history are a diagnostic signature of the RDAAM for many but not all thermal histories. Observed date-eU correlations in four different localities can be explained with the RDAAM using geologically reasonable thermal histories consistent with independent fission-track datasets. The existence of date-eU correlations not only supports a radiation damage based kinetic model, but can significantly limit the range of acceptable time-temperature paths that account for the data. In contrast, these datasets are inexplicable using the Durango diffusion model. The RDAAM helps reconcile enigmatic data in which apatite (U-Th)/He dates are older than expected using the Durango model when compared with thermal histories based on apatite fission-track data or other geological constraints. It also has the potential to explain at least some cases in which (U-Th)/He dates are actually older than the corresponding fission-track dates.

  17. Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. A.

    A mathematical model of humoral immune response in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts in this field. The model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which describe the dynamics of concentrations of antibody and antigen molecules, immunocompetent B lymphocytes, and the rest blood lymphocytes, as well as the bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors. The interaction of antigen molecules with antibodies and with antibody-like receptors on immunocompetent cells is also incorporated. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of plague microbe) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). It describes the peculiarities of the humoral immune response in CBA mice exposed to acute radiation before or after introducing antigen. The model predicts an adaptation of humoral immune system to low dose rate chronic irradiation in the result of which the intensity of immune response relaxes to a new, lower than normal, stable level. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are revealed. The results obtained show that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be used to predict the effects of acute and low-level long-term irradiation on the system of humoral immunity in humans. Employment of the mathematical model identified in the proper way should be important in estimating the radiation risk for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.

  18. Theoretical models for duct acoustic propagation and radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The development of computational methods in acoustics has led to the introduction of analysis and design procedures which model the turbofan inlet as a coupled system, simultaneously modeling propagation and radiation in the presence of realistic internal and external flows. Such models are generally large, require substantial computer speed and capacity, and can be expected to be used in the final design stages, with the simpler models being used in the early design iterations. Emphasis is given to practical modeling methods that have been applied to the acoustical design problem in turbofan engines. The mathematical model is established and the simplest case of propagation in a duct with hard walls is solved to introduce concepts and terminologies. An extensive overview is given of methods for the calculation of attenuation in uniform ducts with uniform flow and with shear flow. Subsequent sections deal with numerical techniques which provide an integrated representation of duct propagation and near- and far-field radiation for realistic geometries and flight conditions.

  19. Community Radiative Transfer Model for Satellite Radiance Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; van Delst, P.; Weng, F.

    2007-12-01

    The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) [Weng et al., 2005], developed at U.S. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), has been used for the satellite radiance simulation and the radiance derivatives to the surface/atmospheric parameters in the physical retrieval [Boukabara et al., 2007], data assimilation [Le Marshall et al., 2006] and many others [Han et al., 2006; Liu and Weng, 2006]. CRTM has been become a key component in U.S. data assimilation at the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) [Okamoto and. Derber, 2006]. It is a core engine for NOAA/NESDIS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) [Boukabara et al., 2007]. The CRTM has also been implemented into Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. The CRTM is known as modular program development [van Delst et al., 2006], which breaks down the radiative transfer model into components, each of which is encapsulated in one or several program modules and can be developed independently of the others. The key components of the CRTM are the advanced surface emissivity and reflectivity models [van Delst and Wu, 2000; English 1999; Weng et al. 2001] including a polarimetric surface emissivity model [Liu and Weng, 2003], the fast Optical Path Transmittance (OPTRAN) model [Xiong et al., 2006], the cloud absorption/scattering look-up tables [Yang et al., 2000], and the advanced radiative solver [Liu and Weng, 2006]. The CRTM can also compute aerosol radiance. The CRTM can deal with Zeeman splitting effect, the energy received in the channels for the stratosphere and mesosphere depends strongly on the geomagnetic field and its orientation with respect to the direction of observation [Han et al., 2007]. We will also present the applications of the CRTM in hurricane detection and forecasting, in the determination of stratospheric temperature, a key contributing factor to photochemical ozone depletion, and in reanalysis and climate studies.

  20. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  1. Status of GRMHD simulations and radiative models of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościbrodzka, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The Galactic center is a perfect laboratory for testing various theoretical models of accretion flows onto a supermassive black hole. Here, I review general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations that were used to model emission from the central object - Sgr A*. These models predict dynamical and radiative properties of hot, magnetized, thick accretion disks with jets around a Kerr black hole. Models are compared to radio-VLBI, mm-VLBI, NIR, and X-ray observations of Sgr A*. I present the recent constrains on the free parameters of the model such as accretion rate onto the black hole, the black hole angular momentum, and orientation of the system with respect to our line of sight.

  2. Stagnation Point Nonequilibrium Radiative Heating and the Influence of Energy Exchange Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, Lin C.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    A nonequilibrium radiative heating prediction method has been used to evaluate several energy exchange models used in nonequilibrium computational fluid dynamics methods. The radiative heating measurements from the FIRE II flight experiment supply an experimental benchmark against which different formulations for these exchange models can be judged. The models which predict the lowest radiative heating are found to give the best agreement with the flight data. Examination of the spectral distribution of radiation indicates that despite close agreement of the total radiation, many of the models examined predict excessive molecular radiation. It is suggested that a study of the nonequilibrium chemical kinetics may lead to a correction for this problem.

  3. A Meteorological Model's Dependence on Radiation Update Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Joseph L.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Kumar, Sujay; Tian, Yudong; Lang, Stephen E.; Zeng, Xiping

    2004-01-01

    Numerical weather models are used to simulate circulations in the atmosphere including clouds and precipitation by applying a set of mathematical equations over a three-dimensional grid. The grid is composed of discrete points at which the meteorological variables are defined. As computing power continues to rise these models are being used at finer grid spacing, but they must still cover a wide range of scales. Some of the physics that must be accounted for in the model cannot be explicitly resolved, and their effects, therefore, must be estimated or "parameterized". Some of these parameterizations are computationally expensive. To alleviate the problem, they are not always updated at the time resolution of the model with the assumption being that the impact will be small. In this study, a coupled land-atmosphere model is used to assess the impact of less frequent updates of the computationally expensive radiation physics for a case on June 6, 2002, that occurred during a field experiment over the central plains known as International H20 Project (IHOP). The model was tested using both the original conditions, which were dry, and with modified conditions wherein moisture was added to the lower part of the atmosphere to produce clouds and precipitation (i.e., a wet case). For each of the conditions (i.e., dry and wet), four set of experiments were conducted wherein the model was run for a period of 24 hours and the radiation fields (including both incoming solar and outgoing longwave) were updated every 1, 3, 10, and 100 time steps. Statistical tests indicated that average quantities of surface variables for both the dry and wet cases were the same for the various update frequencies. However, spatially the results could be quite different especially in the wet case after it began to rain. The near-surface wind field was found to be different most of the time even for the dry case. In the wet case, rain intensities and average vertical profiles of heating associated

  4. A Model for Shear Layer Effects on Engine Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, V.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of aircraft engine noise is an important aspect of addressing the issues of community noise and cabin noise control. The development of physics based methodologies for performing such predictions has been a focus of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). A recent example of code development in this area is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. Included within the code is a duct radiation model that is based on the solution of FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation with a penetrable data surface. Testing of this equation for many acoustic problems has shown it to provide generally better results than the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces. Currently, the data surface is taken to be the inlet or exhaust plane for inlet or aft-fan cases, respectively. While this provides reasonable results in many situations, these choices of data surface location lead to a few limitations. For example, the shear layer between the bypass ow and external stream can refract the sound waves radiated to the far field. Radiation results can be improved by including this effect, as well as the rejection of the sound in the bypass region from the solid surface external to the bypass duct surrounding the core ow. This work describes the implementation, and possible approximation, of a shear layer boundary condition within CDUCT-LaRC. An example application also illustrates the improvements that this extension offers for predicting noise radiation from complex inlet and bypass duct geometries, thereby providing a means to evaluate external treatments in the vicinity of the bypass duct exhaust plane.

  5. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  6. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducourthial, A.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subject to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1], the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is essential in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects on the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

  7. RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS MODELS OF THE INNER RIM IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.; Turner, N. J.; Fromang, S.

    2016-08-20

    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host star’s mass. These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric and includemore » starlight heating; silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density; and accretion stresses parameterizing the results of MHD magnetorotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rim’s location. A small optically thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops near the location of thermal ionization at temperatures of about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.« less

  8. Seasonal radiative modeling of Titan's stratospheric temperatures at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Achterberg, Richard K.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a seasonal radiative-dynamical model of Titan's stratosphere to investigate the temporal variation of temperatures in the 0.2-4 mbar range observed by the Cassini/CIRS spectrometer. The model incorporates gas and aerosol vertical profiles derived from Cassini/CIRS and Huygens/DISR data to calculate the radiative heating and cooling rate profiles as a function of time and latitude. At 20°S in 2007, the heating rate is larger than the cooling rate at all altitudes, and more specifically by 20-35% in the 0.1-5 mbar range. A new calculation of the radiative relaxation time as a function of pressure level is presented, leading to time constants significantly lower than previous estimates. At 6°N around spring equinox, the radiative equilibrium profile is warmer than the observed one at all levels. Adding adiabatic cooling in the energy equation, with a vertical upward velocity profile approximately constant in pressure coordinates below the 0.02-mbar level (corresponding to 0.03-0.05 cm s-1 at 1 mbar), allows us to reproduce the observed profile quite well. The velocity profile above the ∼0.5-mbar level is however affected by uncertainties in the haze density profile. The model shows that the change in insolation due to Saturn's orbital eccentricity is large enough to explain the observed 4-K decrease in equatorial temperatures around 1 mbar between 2009 and 2016. At 30°N and S, the radiative model predicts seasonal variations of temperature much larger than observed. A seasonal modulation of adiabatic cooling/heating is needed to reproduce the temperature variations observed from 2005 to 2016 between 0.2 and 4 mbar. At 1 mbar, the derived vertical velocities vary in the range -0.05 (winter solstice) to 0.16 (summer solstice) cm s-1 at 30°S, -0.01 (winter solstice) to 0.14 (summer solstice) cm s-1 at 30°N, and 0.03-0.07 cm s-1 at the equator.

  9. Dynamic Electrothermal Model of a Sputtered Thermopile Thermal Radiation Detector for Earth Radiation Budget Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weckmann, Stephanie

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a program sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aimed at evaluating the global energy balance. Current scanning radiometers used for CERES consist of thin-film thermistor bolometers viewing the Earth through a Cassegrain telescope. The Thermal Radiation Group, a laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, is currently studying a new sensor concept to replace the current bolometer: a thermopile thermal radiation detector. This next-generation detector would consist of a thermal sensor array made of thermocouple junction pairs, or thermopiles. The objective of the current research is to perform a thermal analysis of the thermopile. Numerical thermal models are particularly suited to solve problems for which temperature is the dominant mechanism of the operation of the device (through the thermoelectric effect), as well as for complex geometries composed of numerous different materials. Feasibility and design specifications are studied by developing a dynamic electrothermal model of the thermopile using the finite element method. A commercial finite element-modeling package, ALGOR, is used.

  10. MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander; Anderson, Gail P.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Acharya, Prabhat K.; Dothe, H.; Matthew, Michael W.; Adler-Golden, Steven M.; Chetwynd, James H.; Richtsmeier, Steven C.; Pukall, Brian; Allred, Clark L.; Jeong, Laila S.; Hoke, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    MODTRAN4, the latest publicly released version of MODTRAN, provides many new and important options for modeling atmospheric radiation transport. A correlated-k algorithm improves multiple scattering, eliminates Curtis-Godson averaging, and introduces Beer's Law dependencies into the band model. An optimized 15 cm(superscript -1) band model provides over a 10-fold increase in speed over the standard MODTRAN 1 cm(superscript -1) band model with comparable accuracy when higher spectral resolution results are unnecessary. The MODTRAN ground surface has been upgraded to include the effects of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) and Adjacency. The BRDFs are entered using standard parameterizations and are coupled into line-of-sight surface radiance calculations.

  11. Radiation induced genome instability: multiscale modelling and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Genome instability (GI) is thought to be an important step in cancer induction and progression. Radiation induced GI is usually defined as genome alterations in the progeny of irradiated cells. The aim of this report is to demonstrate an opportunity for integrative analysis of radiation induced GI on the basis of multiscale modelling. Integrative, systems level modelling is necessary to assess different pathways resulting in GI in which a variety of genetic and epigenetic processes are involved. The multilevel modelling includes the Monte Carlo based simulation of several key processes involved in GI: DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generation in cells initially irradiated as well as in descendants of irradiated cells, damage transmission through mitosis. Taking the cell-cycle-dependent generation of DNA/chromosome breakage into account ensures an advantage in estimating the contribution of different DNA damage response pathways to GI, as to nonhomologous vs homologous recombination repair mechanisms, the role of DSBs at telomeres or interstitial chromosomal sites, etc. The preliminary estimates show that both telomeric and non-telomeric DSB interactions are involved in delayed effects of radiation although differentially for different cell types. The computational experiments provide the data on the wide spectrum of GI endpoints (dicentrics, micronuclei, nonclonal translocations, chromatid exchanges, chromosome fragments) similar to those obtained experimentally for various cell lines under various experimental conditions. The modelling based analysis of experimental data demonstrates that radiation induced GI may be viewed as processes of delayed DSB induction/interaction/transmission being a key for quantification of GI. On the other hand, this conclusion is not sufficient to understand GI as a whole because factors of DNA non-damaging origin can also induce GI. Additionally, new data on induced pluripotent stem cells reveal that GI is acquired in normal mature

  12. Projection of actual evapotranspiration using the COSMO-CLM regional climate model under global warming scenarios of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C in the Tarim River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Buda; Jian, Dongnan; Li, Xiucang; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Anqian; Wen, Shanshan; Tao, Hui; Hartmann, Heike

    2017-11-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is an important component of the water cycle. The goals for limiting global warming to below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and aspiring to 1.5 °C were negotiated in the Paris Agreement in 2015. In this study, outputs from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) for the Tarim River basin (TRB) were used to calculate ETa with an advection-aridity model, and changes in ETa under global warming scenarios of 1.5 °C (2020 to 2039) and 2.0 °C (2040 to 2059) were analyzed. Comparison of warming at the global and regional scale showed that regional 1.5 °C warming would occur later than the global average, while regional 2.0 °C warming would occur earlier than the global average. For global warming of 1.5 °C, the average ETa in the TRB is about 222.7 mm annually, which represents an increase of 6.9 mm relative to the reference period (1986-2005), with obvious increases projected for spring and summer. The greatest increases in ETa were projected for the northeast and southwest. The increment in the annual ETa across the TRB considering a warming of 1.5 °C was 4.3 mm less than that for a warming of 2.0 °C, and the reduction between the two levels of warming was most pronounced in the summer, when ETa was 3.4 mm smaller. The reduction in the increment of annual ETa for warming of 1.5 °C relative to warming of 2.0 °C was most pronounced in the southwest and northeast, where it was projected to be 8.2 mm and 9.3 mm smaller, respectively. It is suggested that the higher ETa under a warming of 2.0 °C mainly results from an increase in the sunshine duration (net radiation) in the southwestern basin and an increase in precipitation in the northeastern basin. Vapor is removed from the limited surface water supplies by ETa. The results of this study are therefore particularly relevant for water resource planning in the TRB.

  13. Radiative Transfer Modeling in Proto-planetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kloster, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are rich astronomical research environments. Planets form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust around YSOs. With ever increasing capabilities of the observational instruments designed to look at these proto-planetary disks, most notably GPI, SPHERE, and ALMA, more accurate interfaces must be made to connect modeling of the disks with observation. PaRTY (Parallel Radiative Transfer in YSOs) is a code developed previously to model the observable density and temperature structure of such a disk by self-consistently calculating the structure of the disk based on radiative transfer physics. We present upgrades we are implementing to the PaRTY code to improve its accuracy and flexibility. These upgrades include: creating a two-sided disk model, implementing a spherical coordinate system, and implementing wavelength-dependent opacities. These upgrades will address problems in the PaRTY code of infinite optical thickness, calculation under/over-resolution, and wavelength-independent photon penetration depths, respectively. The upgraded code will be used to better model disk perturbations resulting from planet formation.

  14. Relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhutayeva, Yu. R.; Khatipov, S. A.

    1999-05-01

    The paper suggests a relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in polymers. According to the model, the transfer of charges generated in the polymer volume by ionizing radiation takes place with the participation of molecular relaxation processes. The mechanism of electron transport consists in the transfer of the charge directly between traps when they draw close to one another due to the rotation of macromolecule segments. The numerical solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations for different distribution functions Q( τ) of the times of molecular relaxation and for different functions of the probability P( τ, τ') of charge transfer in the `overlapping' regions of the diffusion spheres of the segments are analyzed. The relaxation model provides an explanation of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the RIC temperature dependence, the power dependence of RIC on the dose rate with a power index in the interval 0.5-1.0, the appearance of maxima in the curves of the RIC temporal dependence and their irreversible character in the region of large dose rates (more than 1 Gy/s). The model can be used for interpreting polymer RIC in conditions of kinetic mobility of macromolecules.

  15. Distributed Seismic Moment Fault Model, Spectral Characteristics and Radiation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani-Kadmiel, Shahar; Tsesarsky, Michael; Gvirtzman, Zohar

    2014-05-01

    We implement a Distributed Seismic Moment (DSM) fault model, a physics-based representation of an earthquake source based on a skewed-Gaussian slip distribution over an elliptical rupture patch, for the purpose of forward modeling of seismic-wave propagation in 3-D heterogeneous medium. The elliptical rupture patch is described by 13 parameters: location (3), dimensions of the patch (2), patch orientation (1), focal mechanism (3), nucleation point (2), peak slip (1), rupture velocity (1). A node based second order finite difference approach is used to solve the seismic-wave equations in displacement formulation (WPP, Nilsson et al., 2007). Results of our DSM fault model are compared with three commonly used fault models: Point Source Model (PSM), Haskell's fault Model (HM), and HM with Radial (HMR) rupture propagation. Spectral features of the waveforms and radiation patterns from these four models are investigated. The DSM fault model best incorporates the simplicity and symmetry of the PSM with the directivity effects of the HMR while satisfying the physical requirements, i.e., smooth transition from peak slip at the nucleation point to zero at the rupture patch border. The implementation of the DSM in seismic-wave propagation forward models comes at negligible computational cost. Reference: Nilsson, S., Petersson, N. A., Sjogreen, B., and Kreiss, H.-O. (2007). Stable Difference Approximations for the Elastic Wave Equation in Second Order Formulation. SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 45(5), 1902-1936.

  16. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Acronyms and Symbols ARA Applied Research Associates, Inc. ARS Acute radiation syndrome d Days DE Differential Evolution DTRA Defense Threat...04-08-2016 Technical Report A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures HDTRA1...epithelial cells to acute radiation alone. The model has been modified for improved radiation response, and an addition to the model allows for thermal injury

  17. Development of response models for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) sensors. Part 1: Dynamic models and computer simulations for the ERBE nonscanner, scanner and solar monitor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Choi, Sang H.; Chrisman, Dan A., Jr.; Samms, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic models and computer simulations were developed for the radiometric sensors utilized in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models were developed to understand performance, improve measurement accuracy by updating model parameters and provide the constants needed for the count conversion algorithms. Model simulations were compared with the sensor's actual responses demonstrated in the ground and inflight calibrations. The models consider thermal and radiative exchange effects, surface specularity, spectral dependence of a filter, radiative interactions among an enclosure's nodes, partial specular and diffuse enclosure surface characteristics and steady-state and transient sensor responses. Relatively few sensor nodes were chosen for the models since there is an accuracy tradeoff between increasing the number of nodes and approximating parameters such as the sensor's size, material properties, geometry, and enclosure surface characteristics. Given that the temperature gradients within a node and between nodes are small enough, approximating with only a few nodes does not jeopardize the accuracy required to perform the parameter estimates and error analyses.

  18. Use of statistical study methods for the analysis of the results of the imitation modeling of radiation transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, M. A.; Gendrina, I. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, due to the abundance of various types of observational data in the systems of vision through the atmosphere and the need for their processing, the use of various methods of statistical research in the study of such systems as correlation-regression analysis, dynamic series, variance analysis, etc. is actual. We have attempted to apply elements of correlation-regression analysis for the study and subsequent prediction of the patterns of radiation transfer in these systems same as in the construction of radiation models of the atmosphere. In this paper, we present some results of statistical processing of the results of numerical simulation of the characteristics of vision systems through the atmosphere obtained with the help of a special software package.1

  19. Spectral model for clear sky atmospheric longwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengying; Liao, Zhouyi; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2018-04-01

    An efficient spectrally resolved radiative model is used to calculate surface downwelling longwave (DLW) radiation (0 ∼ 2500 cm-1) under clear sky (cloud free) conditions at the ground level. The wavenumber spectral resolution of the model is 0.01 cm-1 and the atmosphere is represented by 18 non-uniform plane-parallel layers with pressure in each layer determined on a pressure-based coordinate system. The model utilizes the most up-to-date (2016) HITRAN molecular spectral data for 7 atmospheric gases: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, O2 and N2. The MT_CKD model is used to calculate water vapor and CO2 continuum absorption coefficients. Longwave absorption and scattering coefficients for aerosols are modeled using Mie theory. For the non-scattering atmosphere (aerosol free), the surface DLW agrees within 2.91% with mean values from the InterComparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) program, with spectral deviations below 0.035 W cm m-2. For a scattering atmosphere with typical aerosol loading, the DLW calculated by the proposed model agrees within 3.08% relative error when compared to measured values at 7 climatologically diverse SURFRAD stations. This relative error is smaller than a calibrated parametric model regressed from data for those same 7 stations, and within the uncertainty (+/- 5 W m-2) of pyrgeometers commonly used for meteorological and climatological applications. The DLW increases by 1.86 ∼ 6.57 W m-2 when compared with aerosol-free conditions, and this increment decreases with increased water vapor content due to overlap with water vapor bands. As expected, the water vapor content at the layers closest to the surface contributes the most to the surface DLW, especially in the spectral region 0 ∼ 700 cm-1. Additional water vapor content (mostly from the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere) contributes to the spectral range of 400 ∼ 650 cm-1. Low altitude aerosols ( ∼ 3.46 km or less) contribute to the surface value of DLW mostly in the

  20. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.; Henderson, M. G.; Camporeale, E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-10-01

    a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) "Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge," a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15 October 1990 and 1 February to 31 July 1991. The 3D diffusion model, developed as part of the Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) project, includes radial, pitch angle, and momentum diffusion and mixed pitch angle-momentum diffusion, which are driven by dynamic wave databases from the statistical CRRES wave data, including plasmaspheric hiss, lower-band, and upper-band chorus. By comparing the DREAM3D model outputs to the CRRES electron phase space density (PSD) data, we find that, with a data-driven boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, the electron enhancements can generally be explained by radial diffusion, though additional local heating from chorus waves is required. Because the PSD reductions are included in the boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, our model captures the fast electron dropouts over a large L range, producing better model performance compared to previous published results. Plasmaspheric hiss produces electron losses inside the plasmasphere, but the model still sometimes overestimates the PSD there. Test simulations using reduced radial diffusion coefficients or increased pitch angle diffusion coefficients inside the plasmasphere suggest that better wave models and more realistic radial diffusion coefficients, both inside and outside the plasmasphere, are needed to improve the model performance. Statistically, the results show that, with the data-driven outer boundary condition, including radial diffusion and plasmaspheric hiss is sufficient to model the electrons during geomagnetically quiet times, but to best capture the radiation belt variations during active times, pitch angle and momentum diffusion from chorus waves are required.

  1. Analogue Hawking radiation in an exactly solvable model of BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parola, Alberto; Tettamanti, Manuele; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2017-09-01

    Hawking radiation, the spontaneous emission of thermal photons from an event horizon, is one of the most intriguing and elusive predictions of field theory in curved spacetimes. A formally analogue phenomenon occurs at the supersonic transition of a fluid: in this respect, ultracold gases stand out among the most promising systems but the theoretical modelling of this effect has always been carried out in semiclassical approximation, borrowing part of the analysis from the gravitational analogy. Here we discuss the exact solution of a one-dimensional Bose gas flowing against an obstacle, showing that spontaneous phonon emission (the analogue of Hawking radiation) is predicted without reference to the gravitational analogy. Long after the creation of the obstacle, the fluid settles into a stationary state displaying the emission of sound waves (phonons) in the upstream direction. A careful analysis shows that a precise correspondence between this phenomenon and the spontaneous emission of radiation from an event horizon requires additional conditions to be met in future experiments aimed at identifying the occurrence of the Hawking-like mechanism in Bose-Einstein condensates.

  2. On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from trinification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Morais, António P.; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a trinification-based grand unified theory incorporating a global SU(3) family symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a left-right symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the renormalisation group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and fermion mass hierarchies.

  3. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. W.; Teague, M. J.; Schofield, N. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated.

  4. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ωdark ~ Ωvisible when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter ΛQCD. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like "nanoflares" in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.

  5. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  6. Radiative-hydrodynamic Modeling of the SL-9 Plume Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, D.; Harrington, J.

    1998-09-01

    We are developing a model for the plume-infall phase of the SL-9/Jupiter collision. The modeling takes place in two steps. The first step is a ballistic Monte-Carlo simulation of the ejecta from the collision, based on a power-law distribution of ejecta velocities. Parameters from this simulation are adjusted to best reproduce the appearance of the ejecta plume above the jovian limb, and the debris patterns on the disk, as seen by HST. Results of those calculations are reported in a paper by Harrington and Deming (this meeting). In this paper we report results from the second step, wherein the ballistic Monte-Carlo plume simulations are coupled to the Zeus-3D hydrodynamic code. Zeus is used in a 2-D mode to follow both the radial and z-component motions of the infalling plume material, and model the resultant shock-heating of the ambient atmosphere. Zeus was modified to include radiative transport in the gray approximation. We discuss the results as concerns: 1) the temperatures and other physical conditions in the radiating upper atmospheric shocks, 2) the morphology of the light curve, including the nature of secondary maxima, and 3) the structure of the post-collision jovian atmosphere.

  7. Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

  8. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  9. Radiatively induced neutrino mass model with flavor dependent gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SangJong; Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    We study a radiative seesaw model at one-loop level with a flavor dependent gauge symmetry U(1) μ - τ, in which we consider bosonic dark matter. We also analyze the constraints from lepton flavor violations, muon g - 2, relic density of dark matter, and collider physics, and carry out numerical analysis to search for allowed parameter region which satisfy all the constraints and to investigate some predictions. Furthermore we find that a simple but adhoc hypothesis induces specific two zero texture with inverse mass matrix, which provides us several predictions such as a specific pattern of Dirac CP phase.

  10. Modified empirical Solar Radiation Pressure model for IRNSS constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaiah, K.; Manamohan, K.; Nirmala, S.; Ratnakara, S. C.

    2017-11-01

    Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC) also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is India's regional navigation system designed to provide position accuracy better than 20 m over India and the region extending to 1500 km around India. The reduced dynamic precise orbit estimation is utilized to determine the orbit broadcast parameters for IRNSS constellation. The estimation is mainly affected by the parameterization of dynamic models especially Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) model which is a non-gravitational force depending on shape and attitude dynamics of the spacecraft. An empirical nine parameter solar radiation pressure model is developed for IRNSS constellation, using two-way range measurements from IRNSS C-band ranging system. The paper addresses the development of modified SRP empirical model for IRNSS (IRNSS SRP Empirical Model, ISEM). The performance of the ISEM was assessed based on overlap consistency, long term prediction, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals and compared with ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 models developed by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). For IRNSS Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites, ISEM has shown promising results with overlap RMS error better than 5.3 m and 3.5 m respectively. Long term orbit prediction using numerical integration has improved with error better than 80%, 26% and 7.8% in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively. Further, SLR based orbit determination with ISEM shows 70%, 47% and 39% improvement over 10 days orbit prediction in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively and also highlights the importance of wide baseline tracking network.

  11. Image-based modeling of radiation-induced foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costes, Sylvain; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chen, James; Chou, William; Gascard, Philippe

    Several proteins involved in the response to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) form microscopically visible nuclear domains, or foci, after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced foci (RIF) are believed to be located where DNA damage occurs. To test this assumption, we used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the spatial distribution of DSB in human nuclei exposed to high or low-LET radiation. We then compared these predictions to the distribution patterns of three DNA damage sensing proteins, i.e. 53BP1, phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX in human mammary epithelial. The probability to induce DSB can be derived from DNA fragment data measured experimentally by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We first used this probability in Monte Carlo simulations to predict DSB locations in synthetic nuclei geometrically described by a complete set of human chromosomes, taking into account microscope optics from real experiments. Simulations showed a very good agreement for high-LET, predicting 0.7 foci/µm along the path of a 1 GeV/amu Fe particle against measurement of 0.69 to 0.82 foci/µm for various RIF 5 min following exposure (LET 150 keV/µm). On the other hand, discrepancies were shown in foci frequency for low-LET, with measurements 20One drawback using a theoretical model for the nucleus is that it assumes a simplistic and static pattern for DNA densities. However DNA damage pattern is highly correlated to DNA density pattern (i.e. the more DNA, the more likely to have a break). Therefore, we generalized our Monte Carlo approach to real microscope images, assuming pixel intensity of DAPI in the nucleus was directly proportional to the amount of DNA in that pixel. With such approach we could predict DNA damage pattern in real images on a per nucleus basis. Since energy is randomly deposited along high-LET particle paths, RIF along these paths should also be randomly distributed. As expected, simulations produced DNA-weighted random (Poisson) distributions. In

  12. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  13. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  14. Computational Modeling of Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Radiation Dose Response

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Daniel L.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) involves giving radiation to the entire brain with the goals of reducing the incidence of brain metastasis and improving overall survival. Experimentally, we have demonstrated that PCI prevents brain metastases in a breast cancer mouse model. We developed a computational model to expand on and aid in the interpretation of our experimental results. Methods and Materials: MATLAB was used to develop a computational model of brain metastasis and PCI in mice. Model input parameters were optimized such that the model output would match the experimental number of metastases per mouse from the unirradiated group. Anmore » independent in vivo–limiting dilution experiment was performed to validate the model. The effect of whole brain irradiation at different measurement points after tumor cells were injected was evaluated in terms of the incidence, number of metastases, and tumor burden and was then compared with the corresponding experimental data. Results: In the optimized model, the correlation between the number of metastases per mouse and the experimental fits was >95. Our attempt to validate the model with a limiting dilution assay produced 99.9% correlation with respect to the incidence of metastases. The model accurately predicted the effect of whole-brain irradiation given 3 weeks after cell injection but substantially underestimated its effect when delivered 5 days after cell injection. The model further demonstrated that delaying whole-brain irradiation until the development of gross disease introduces a dose threshold that must be reached before a reduction in incidence can be realized. Conclusions: Our computational model of mouse brain metastasis and PCI correlated strongly with our experiments with unirradiated mice. The results further suggest that early treatment of subclinical disease is more effective than irradiating established disease.« less

  15. Competing Risk Analysis of Neurologic versus Nonneurologic Death in Patients Undergoing Radiosurgical Salvage After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Failure: Who Actually Dies of Their Brain Metastases?

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, John T., E-mail: jolucas@wakehealth.edu; Colmer, Hentry G.; White, Lance

    Purpose: To estimate the hazard for neurologic (central nervous system, CNS) and nonneurologic (non-CNS) death associated with patient, treatment, and systemic disease status in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) failure, using a competing risk model. Patients and Methods: Of 757 patients, 293 experienced recurrence or new metastasis following WBRT. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression identified covariates for consideration in the multivariate model. Competing risks multivariable regression was performed to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for both CNS and non-CNS death after adjusting for patient, disease, and treatment factors. The resultantmore » model was converted into an online calculator for ease of clinical use. Results: The cumulative incidence of CNS and non-CNS death at 6 and 12 months was 20.6% and 21.6%, and 34.4% and 35%, respectively. Patients with melanoma histology (relative to breast) (aHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0), brainstem location (aHR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and number of metastases (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.2) had increased aHR for CNS death. Progressive systemic disease (aHR 0.55, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) and increasing lowest margin dose (aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.9-0.99) were protective against CNS death. Patients with lung histology (aHR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and progressive systemic disease (aHR 2.14, 95% CI 1.5-3.0) had increased aHR for non-CNS death. Conclusion: Our nomogram provides individual estimates of neurologic death after salvage stereotactic radiosurgery for patients who have failed prior WBRT, based on histology, neuroanatomical location, age, lowest margin dose, and number of metastases after adjusting for their competing risk of death from other causes.« less

  16. Monte Carlo modeling of the scatter radiation doses in IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, Eugene; He, Wenjun; Huda, Walter; Yao, Hai; Selby, Bayne

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo techniques to compute the scatter radiation dose distribution patterns around patients undergoing Interventional Radiological (IR) examinations. Method: MCNP was used to model the scatter radiation air kerma (AK) per unit kerma area product (KAP) distribution around a 24 cm diameter water cylinder irradiated with monoenergetic x-rays. Normalized scatter fractions (SF) were generated defined as the air kerma at a point of interest that has been normalized by the Kerma Area Product incident on the phantom (i.e., AK/KAP). Three regions surrounding the water cylinder were investigated consisting of the area below the water cylinder (i.e., backscatter), above the water cylinder (i.e., forward scatter) and to the sides of the water cylinder (i.e., side scatter). Results: Immediately above and below the water cylinder and in the side scatter region, values of normalized SF decreased with the inverse square of the distance. For z-planes further away, the decrease was exponential. Values of normalized SF around the phantom were generally less than 10-4. Changes in normalized SF with x-ray energy were less than 20% and generally decreased with increasing x-ray energy. At a given distance from region where the x-ray beam enters the phantom, the normalized SF was higher in the backscatter regions, and smaller in the forward scatter regions. The ratio of forward to back scatter normalized SF was lowest at 60 keV and highest at 120 keV. Conclusion: Computed SF values quantify the normalized fractional radiation intensities at the operator location relative to the radiation intensities incident on the patient, where the normalization refers to the beam area that is incident on the patient. SF values can be used to estimate the radiation dose received by personnel within the procedure room, and which depend on the imaging geometry, patient size and location within the room. Monte Carlo techniques have the potential for simulating normalized SF values

  17. GERMcode: A Stochastic Model for Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    A new computer model, the GCR Event-based Risk Model code (GERMcode), was developed to describe biophysical events from high-energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) particles that have been studied at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) for the purpose of simulating space radiation biological effects. In the GERMcode, the biophysical description of the passage of HZE particles in tissue and shielding materials is made with a stochastic approach that includes both particle track structure and nuclear interactions. The GERMcode accounts for the major nuclear interaction processes of importance for describing heavy ion beams, including nuclear fragmentation, elastic scattering, and knockout-cascade processes by using the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model. The QMSFRG model has been shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. For NSRL applications, the GERMcode evaluates a set of biophysical properties, such as the Poisson distribution of particles or delta-ray hits for a given cellular area and particle dose, the radial dose on tissue, and the frequency distribution of energy deposition in a DNA volume. By utilizing the ProE/Fishbowl ray-tracing analysis, the GERMcode will be used as a bi-directional radiation transport model for future spacecraft shielding analysis in support of Mars mission risk assessments. Recent radiobiological experiments suggest the need for new approaches to risk assessment that include time-dependent biological events due to the signaling times for activation and relaxation of biological processes in cells and tissue. Thus, the tracking of the temporal and spatial distribution of events in tissue is a major goal of the GERMcode in support of the simulation of biological processes important in GCR risk assessments. In order to validate our approach, basic radiobiological responses such as cell survival curves, mutation, chromosomal

  18. Studies in the parameterization of cloudiness in climate models and the analysis of radiation fields in general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1990-01-01

    Broad-band parameterizations for atmospheric radiative transfer were developed for clear and cloudy skies. These were in the shortwave and longwave regions of the spectrum. These models were compared with other models in an international effort called ICRCCM (Intercomparison of Radiation Codes for Climate Models). The radiation package developed was used for simulations of a General Circulation Model (GCM). A synopsis is provided of the research accomplishments in the two areas separately. Details are available in the published literature.

  19. Quantum Black Hole Model and HAWKING’S Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Victor

    The black hole model with a self-gravitating charged spherical symmetric dust thin shell as a source is considered. The Schroedinger-type equation for such a model is derived. This equation appeared to be a finite differences equation. A theory of such an equation is developed and general solution is found and investigated in details. The discrete spectrum of the bound state energy levels is obtained. All the eigenvalues appeared to be infinitely degenerate. The ground state wave functions are evaluated explicitly. The quantum black hole states are selected and investigated. It is shown that the obtained black hole mass spectrum is compatible with the existence of Hawking’s radiation in the limit of low temperatures both for large and nearly extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. The above mentioned infinite degeneracy of the mass (energy) eigenvalues may appeared helpful in resolving the well known information paradox in the black hole physics.

  20. Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-11-01

    The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.

  1. ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

  2. A physical model of the photo- and radiation-induced degradation of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Mady, Franck, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Duchez, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr; Mebrouk, Yasmine, E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr

    2014-10-21

    We propose a model to describe the photo- or/and the radiation-induced darkening of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. This model accounts for the well-established experimental features of photo-darkening. Degradation behaviors predicted for fibers pumped in harsh environments are also fully confirmed by experimental data reported in the work by Duchez et al. (this proceeding), which gives a detailed characterization of the interplay between the effects of the pump and those of a superimposed ionizing irradiation (actual operation conditions in space-based applications for instance). In particular, dependences of the darkening build-up on the pump power, the total ionizing dose and the dosemore » rate are all correctly reproduced. The presented model is a ‘sufficient’ one, including the minimal physical ingredients required to reproduce experimental features. Refinements could be proposed to improve, e.g., quantitative kinetics.« less

  3. Modeling Planet-Building Stellar Disks with Radiative Transfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol A.; Wagner, Kevin Robert; Champney, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Alexa N.; Warren, Chelsea C.; Russell, Ray W.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Lisse, Casey M.; Cure, Michel; Kraus, Stefan; Fukagawa, Misato; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Monnier, John D.; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Wilner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the many planetary systems found outside of our own solar system cannot be completed without knowledge of the beginnings these systems. By detecting planets in very young systems and modeling the disks of material around stars from which they form, we can gain a better understanding of planetary origin and evolution. The efforts presented here have been in modeling two pre-transitional disk systems using a radiative transfer code. With the first of these systems, V1247 Ori, a model that fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) well and whose parameters are consistent with existing interferometry data (Kraus et al 2013) has been achieved. The second of these two systems, SAO 206462, has presented a different set of challenges but encouraging SED agreement between the model and known data gives hope that the model can produce images that can be used in future interferometry work. This work was supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX09AC73G, and the IR&D program at The Aerospace Corporation.

  4. Applications of amorphous track models in radiation biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The average or amorphous track model uses the response of a system to gamma-rays and the radial distribution of dose about an ion's path to describe survival and other cellular endpoints from proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiation. This model has been used for over 30 years to successfully fit many radiobiology data sets. We review several extensions of this approach that address objections to the original model, and consider applications of interest in radiobiology and space radiation risk assessment. In the light of present views of important cellular targets, the role of target size as manifested through the relative contributions from ion-kill (intra-track) and gamma-kill (inter-track) remains a critical question in understanding the success of the amorphous track model. Several variations of the amorphous model are discussed, including ones that consider the radial distribution of event-sizes rather than average electron dose, damage clusters rather than multiple targets, and a role for repair or damage processing.

  5. Space radiation-associated lung injury in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Arguiri, Evguenia; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; McCarthy, Maureen; Corbitt, Astrid; Alwood, Joshua S; Yu, Yongjia; Globus, Ruth K; Solomides, Charalambos C; Ullrich, Robert L; Petrache, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in identifying health risks to crewmembers related to exposure to galactic/cosmic rays and solar particle events (SPE) during space travel, its long-term effects on the pulmonary system are unknown. We used a murine risk projection model to investigate the impact of exposure to space-relevant radiation (SR) on the lung. C3H mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays, protons (acute, low-dose exposure mimicking the 1972 SPE), 600 MeV/u (56)Fe ions, or 350 MeV/u (28)Si ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Animals were irradiated at the age of 2.5 mo and evaluated 23.5 mo postirradiation, at 26 mo of age. Compared with age-matched nonirradiated mice, SR exposures led to significant air space enlargement and dose-dependent decreased systemic oxygenation levels. These were associated with late mild lung inflammation and prominent cellular injury, with significant oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) in the lung parenchyma. SR, especially high-energy (56)Fe or (28)Si ions markedly decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and Akt- and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, depleted anti-senescence sirtuin-1 and increased biochemical markers of autophagy. Exposure to SR caused dose-dependent, pronounced late lung pathological sequelae consistent with alveolar simplification and cellular signaling of increased injury and decreased repair. The associated systemic hypoxemia suggested that this previously uncharacterized space radiation-associated lung injury was functionally significant, indicating that further studies are needed to define the risk and to develop appropriate lung-protective countermeasures for manned deep space missions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. A time-dependent radiative model of HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iro, N.; Bézard, B.; Guillot, T.

    2005-06-01

    We present a time-dependent radiative model of the atmosphere of HD 209458b and investigate its thermal structure and chemical composition. In a first step, the stellar heating profile and radiative timescales were calculated under planet-averaged insolation conditions. We find that 99.99% of the incoming stellar flux has been absorbed before reaching the 7 bar level. Stellar photons cannot therefore penetrate deeply enough to explain the large radius of the planet. We derive a radiative time constant which increases with depth and reaches about 8 h at 0.1 bar and 2.3 days at 1 bar. Time-dependent temperature profiles were also calculated, in the limit of a zonal wind that is independent of height (i.e. solid-body rotation) and constant absorption coefficients. We predict day-night variations of the effective temperature of ~600 K, for an equatorial rotation rate of 1 km s-1, in good agreement with the predictions by Showmann & Guillot (2002). This rotation rate yields day-to-night temperature variations in excess of 600 K above the 0.1-bar level. These variations rapidly decrease with depth below the 1-bar level and become negligible below the ~5-bar level for rotation rates of at least 0.5 km s-1. At high altitudes (mbar pressures or less), the night temperatures are low enough to allow sodium to condense into Na2S. Synthetic transit spectra of the visible Na doublet show a much weaker sodium absorption on the morning limb than on the evening limb. The calculated dimming of the sodium feature during planetary transites agrees with the value reported by Charbonneau et al. (2002).

  7. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  8. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons. PMID:29209192

  9. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  10. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Friedrich; Drusch, Matthias; Kaleschke, Lars; Maaß, Nina; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  11. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Radiation Environment Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W. C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Smith, Shawn; Swift, Wesley R.; ODell, Stephen L.; Cameron, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is an environmental risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and the on-board Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) does not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. In addition to the concerns arising from the radiation belts, substorm injections of plasma from the magnetotail may increase the protons flux by orders of magnitude in this energy range. The Earth's magnetosphere is a dynamic entity, with the size and location of the magnetopause driven by the highly variable solar wind parameters (number density, velocity, and magnetic field components). Operational times for the telescope must be made weeks in advance, decisions which are complicated by the variability of the environment. CRMFLX is an engineering model developed to address these problems and provides proton flux and fluence statistics for the terrestrial outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and solar wind for use in scheduling ACIS operations. CRMFLX implements a number of standard models to predict the bow shock, magnetopause, and plasma sheet boundaries based on the sampling of historical solar wind data sets. Measurements from the GEOTAIL and POLAR spacecraft are used to create the proton flux database. This paper describes the recently released CRMFLX v2 implementation that includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions in electric and magnetic fields. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum

  12. Solar radiation, cloudiness and longwave radiation over low-latitude glaciers: implications for mass-balance modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Thomas; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Kaser, Georg

    Broadband radiation schemes (parameterizations) are commonly used tools in glacier mass-balance modelling, but their performance at high altitude in the tropics has not been evaluated in detail. Here we take advantage of a high-quality 2 year record of global radiation (G) and incoming longwave radiation (L↓) measured on Kersten Glacier, Kilimanjaro, East Africa, at 5873 m a.s.l., to optimize parameterizations of G and L↓. We show that the two radiation terms can be related by an effective cloud-cover fraction neff, so G or L↓ can be modelled based on neff derived from measured L↓ or G, respectively. At neff = 1, G is reduced to 35% of clear-sky G, and L↓ increases by 45-65% (depending on altitude) relative to clear-sky L↓. Validation for a 1 year dataset of G and L↓ obtained at 4850 m on Glaciar Artesonraju, Peruvian Andes, yields a satisfactory performance of the radiation scheme. Whether this performance is acceptable for mass-balance studies of tropical glaciers is explored by applying the data from Glaciar Artesonraju to a physically based mass-balance model, which requires, among others, G and L↓ as forcing variables. Uncertainties in modelled mass balance introduced by the radiation parameterizations do not exceed those that can be caused by errors in the radiation measurements. Hence, this paper provides a tool for inclusion in spatially distributed mass-balance modelling of tropical glaciers and/or extension of radiation data when only G or L↓ is measured.

  13. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

    SciTech Connect

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-10

    The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfermore » models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t {sub cool} and then drops with time t approximately as T ≅ T {sub 0}[(3/5)t/t {sub cool} + 2/5]{sup –5/3} for t > t {sub cool}. The time at which this temperature drop starts t {sub cool} depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.« less

  14. Cloud cover models derived from satellite radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using daily measurement of day and night infrared and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a TIROS satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four three-month periods, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained for each grid location. The (a,b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a,b) estimates were in the same region in the (a,b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world was thus divided into separate cloud cover types. Using estimates of mean cloud cover for each season, the world was again divided into separate cloud cover types. The process was repeated for standard deviations. Thus for each season, three separate cloud cover models were obtained using the criteria of shape of frequency distribution, mean cloud cover, and variability of cloud cover. The cloud cover statistics were derived from once-a-day, near-local-noon satellite radiation measurements.

  15. Incorporation of multiple cloud layers for ultraviolet radiation modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charache, Darryl H.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Kuhn, William R.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud data sets compiled from surface observations were used to develop an algorithm for incorporating multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. Aerosol extinction and ozone data sets were also incorporated to estimate the seasonally averaged ultraviolet (UV) flux reaching the surface of the Earth in the Detroit, Michigan, region for the years 1979-1991, corresponding to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 6 ozone observations. The calculated UV spectrum was convolved with an erythema action spectrum to estimate the effective biological exposure for erythema. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by approximately 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. A comparison of the UV radiation budget at the surface between a single cloud layer method and a multiple cloud layer method presented here is discussed, along with limitations of each technique. With improved parameterization of cloud properties, and as knowledge of biological effects of UV exposure increase, inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.

  16. Mesoscale modeling of smoke radiative feedback over the Sahel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Zhang, F.; Yue, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This study employs satellite observations and a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to study the smoke radative feedback on surface energy budget, boundary layer processes, and atmospheric lapse rate in February 2008 over the Sahel region. The smoke emission inventories we use come from various sources, including but not limited to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) developed by NRL and the Fire Energetic and Emissions Research (FEER) developed by NASA GSFC. Model performance is evaluated using numerous satellite and ground-based datasets: MODIS true color images, ground-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements from AERONET, MODIS AOD retrievals, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) atmospheric backscattering and extinction products. Specification of smoke injection height of 650 m in WRF-Chem yields aerosol vertical profiles that are most consistent with CALIOP observations of aerosol layer height. Statistically, 5% of the CALIPSO valid measurements of aerosols in February 2008 show aerosol layers either above the clouds or between the clouds, reinforcing the importance of the aerosol vertical distribution for quantifying aerosol impact on climate in the Sahel region. The results further show that the smoke radiative feedbacks are sensitive to assumptions of black carbon and organic carbon ratio in the particle emission inventory. Also investigated is the smoke semi-direct effect as a function of cloud fraction.

  17. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara; Burnley, Pamela

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation:more » D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.« less

  18. Cloud radiative effects and changes simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In

    2017-07-01

    Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.

  19. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  20. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  1. Nonspherical Radiation Driven Wind Models Applied to Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauxo, F. X.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. In this work we present a model for the structure of a radiatively driven wind in the meridional plane of a hot star. Rotation effects and simulation of viscous forces were included in the motion equations. The line radiation force is considered with the inclusion of the finite disk correction in self-consistent computations which also contain gravity darkening as well as distortion of the star by rotation. An application to a typical BlV star leads to mass-flux ratios between equator and pole of the order of 10 and mass loss rates in the range 5.l0 to Mo/yr. Our envelope models are flattened towards the equator and the wind terminal velocities in that region are rather high (1000 Km/s). However, in the region near the star the equatorial velocity field is dominated by rotation. RESUMEN. Se presenta un modelo de la estructura de un viento empujado radiativamente en el plano meridional de una estrella caliente. Se incluyeron en las ecuaciones de movimiento los efectos de rotaci6n y la simulaci6n de fuerzas viscosas. Se consider6 la fuerza de las lineas de radiaci6n incluyendo la correcci6n de disco finito en calculos autoconsistentes los cuales incluyen oscurecimiento gravitacional asi como distorsi6n de la estrella por rotaci6n. La aplicaci6n a una estrella tipica BlV lleva a cocientes de flujo de masa entre el ecuador y el polo del orden de 10 de perdida de masa en el intervalo 5.l0 a 10 Mo/ano. Nuestros modelos de envolvente estan achatados hacia el ecuador y las velocidads terminales del viento en esa regi6n son bastante altas (1000 Km/s). Sin embargo, en la regi6n cercana a la estrella el campo de velocidad ecuatorial esta dominado por la rotaci6n. Key words: STARS-BE -- STARS-WINDS

  2. "Inner electron" radiation belt: problems of model creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnyi, V.

    The contents of intensive fluxes of trapped electrons J_e with energies E_e>40 keV in center of the inner terrestrial radiation belt is remains uncertain in model Vette AE-8, 1991. It is explained by methodical difficulties of discrete measurements of electrons by narrow-angle spectrometers with background from omnidirectional penetrating protons with energies E_p>40 MeV and electrons with E_e>1 MeV after STARFISH burst. The results of integral measurements of trapped electrons by 2 groups: Krassovsky V.I. on III Soviet satellite (May 1958) and J. Van Allen on EXPLORER-IV (July-August 1958) and on INJUN-1 (1961) heave given a performances concerning electron energy fluxes I_e(E_e>20 keV) ˜ (20-100) erg cm-2 c-1 into inner radiation belt. Improved integral measurements of electrons by Krassovsky group on satellites KOSMOS-3,-5 and ELECTRON-1,-3 (1962-1964) allow to determine the distributions of their intensities in the whole inner belt. They can add the central part of inner belt of AE-8 model (see report Bolunova et al., COSPAR-1965, publ. in SPACE RESEARCH VI, 1967, p. 649-661). From these data a maximum of trapped electrons J_e(E_e>40 keV)=2\\cdot10^9 cm-2 c-1 is placed on L=1,6, B/B_0=1. Intensities up to 2\\cdot10^7 cm-2 c-1 are determined only by coordinates (L, B). For smaller intensities become essential dependence from longitude along a drift shell. So, in the center of the inner radiation belt the energy fluxes I_e(E_e>40 keV) reach 500 erg cm-2 c-1 and density n_e=0,2 cm-3 while for trapped protons I_p(E_p>40 MeV) is less than 3 erg cm-2 c-1 and n_p< 5\\cdot10-6 cm-3. It forces to search a more powerful sources trapped electron than beta-decay of neutrons albedo of cosmic rays.

  3. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: the development of detailed nonequilibrium radiation models for molecules along with appropriate models for atoms; the inclusion of nongray radiation gasdynamic coupling in the VSL (Viscous Shock Layer) code; the development and evaluation of various electron-electronic energy models; and an examination of the effects of shock slip.

  4. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ω{sub dark} ∼ Ω{sub visible} when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of mattermore » which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter Λ{sub QCD}. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like 'nanoflares' in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.« less

  5. Advanced Machine Learning Emulators of Radiative Transfer Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps-Valls, G.; Verrelst, J.; Martino, L.; Vicent, J.

    2017-12-01

    Physically-based model inversion methodologies are based on physical laws and established cause-effect relationships. A plethora of remote sensing applications rely on the physical inversion of a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM), which lead to physically meaningful bio-geo-physical parameter estimates. The process is however computationally expensive, needs expert knowledge for both the selection of the RTM, its parametrization and the the look-up table generation, as well as its inversion. Mimicking complex codes with statistical nonlinear machine learning algorithms has become the natural alternative very recently. Emulators are statistical constructs able to approximate the RTM, although at a fraction of the computational cost, providing an estimation of uncertainty, and estimations of the gradient or finite integral forms. We review the field and recent advances of emulation of RTMs with machine learning models. We posit Gaussian processes (GPs) as the proper framework to tackle the problem. Furthermore, we introduce an automatic methodology to construct emulators for costly RTMs. The Automatic Gaussian Process Emulator (AGAPE) methodology combines the interpolation capabilities of GPs with the accurate design of an acquisition function that favours sampling in low density regions and flatness of the interpolation function. We illustrate the good capabilities of our emulators in toy examples, leaf and canopy levels PROSPECT and PROSAIL RTMs, and for the construction of an optimal look-up-table for atmospheric correction based on MODTRAN5.

  6. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  7. Internal and external radiative widths in the combined R -matrix and potential-model formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak, Bertulani, C. A.; Hao, T. V. Nhan

    2017-02-01

    By using the R -matrix approach we calculate the radiative width for a resonance decaying to a bound state through electric-dipole E 1 transitions. The total radiative width is determined by the interference of the nuclear internal and external radiative width amplitudes. For a given channel radius the external radiative width amplitude is model independent and is determined by the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the bound state to which the resonance decays. It also depends on the partial resonance width. To calculate the internal radiative width amplitude we show that a single-particle-potential model is appropriate. We compare our results with a few experimental data.

  8. Enhancing Cloud Radiative Processes and Radiation Efficiency in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Iacono, Michael J.

    The objective of this research has been to evaluate and implement enhancements to the computational performance of the RRTMG radiative transfer option in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Efficiency is as essential as accuracy for effective numerical weather prediction, and radiative transfer is a relatively time-consuming component of dynamical models, taking up to 30-50 percent of the total model simulation time. To address this concern, this research has implemented and tested a version of RRTMG that utilizes graphics processing unit (GPU) technology (hereinafter RRTMGPU) to greatly improve its computational performance; thereby permitting eithermore » more frequent simulation of radiative effects or other model enhancements. During the early stages of this project the development of RRTMGPU was completed at AER under separate NASA funding to accelerate the code for use in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Earth Observing System GEOS-5 global model. It should be noted that this final report describes results related to the funded portion of the originally proposed work concerning the acceleration of RRTMG with GPUs in WRF. As a k-distribution model, RRTMG is especially well suited to this modification due to its relatively large internal pseudo-spectral (g-point) dimension that, when combined with the horizontal grid vector in the dynamical model, can take great advantage of the GPU capability. Thorough testing under several model configurations has been performed to ensure that RRTMGPU improves WRF model run time while having no significant impact on calculated radiative fluxes and heating rates or on dynamical model fields relative to the RRTMG radiation. The RRTMGPU codes have been provided to NCAR for possible application to the next public release of the WRF forecast model.« less

  9. Detailed modeling analysis for soot formation and radiation in microgravity gas jet diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, LI; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation heat transfer in combustion systems has been receiving increasing interest. In the case of hydrocarbon fuels, a significant portion of the radiation comes from soot particles, justifying the need for detailed soot formation model and radiation transfer calculations. For laminar gas jet diffusion flames, results from this project (4/1/91 8/22/95) and another NASA study show that flame shape, soot concentration, and radiation heat fluxes are substantially different under microgravity conditions. Our emphasis is on including detailed soot transport models and a detailed solution for radiation heat transfer, and on coupling them with the flame structure calculations. In this paper, we will discuss the following three specific areas: (1) Comparing two existing soot formation models, and identifying possible improvements; (2) A simple yet reasonably accurate approach to calculating total radiative properties and/or fluxes over the spectral range; and (3) Investigating the convergence of iterations between the flame structure solver and the radiation heat transfer solver.

  10. Cataractogenesis from high-LET radiation and the Casarett model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. B.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, J. G.

    Space radiations, especially heavy ions, constitute significant hazards to astronauts. These hazards will increase as space missions lengthen. Moreover, the dangers to astronauts will be enhanced by the persistence, or even the progression, of biological damage throughout their subsequent life spans. To assist in the assessment of risks to astronauts, we are investigating the long-term effects of heavy ions on specific animal tissues. In one study, the eyes of rabbits of various ages were exposed to a single dose of Bragg plateau 20Ne ions (LET∞ ≅ 30 keV/μm). The development of cataracts has shown a pronounced age-related response during the first year after irradiation, and will be followed for two more years. In other studies, mice were exposed to single or fractionated doses of 12C ions (4-cm spread-out Bragg peak; dose-averaged LET∞ = 70-80 keV/μm) or 60Co γ-photons (LET∞ = 0.3 keV/μm). Measurements of the frequency of posterior lens opacification have shown that the tissue sparing observed with dose fractionation of γ-photons was absent when 12C-ion doses were fractionated. Development of posterior lens cataracts was also followed for long periods (up to 21 months) in mice exposed to single doses of Bragg plateau HZE particles (40Ar, 20Ne and 12C ions: LET∞ ≅ 100, 30 and 10 keV/μm, respectively) or 225 kVp X-rays. Based on average cataract levels at the different observation times, the RBE's (RBE = relative biological effectiveness) for the ions were circa 5, 3 and 1-2, respectively, over the range of doses used (0.05-0.9 Gy). Investigations of cataractogenesis are useful for exploring the model of radiation damage proposed by Casarett [1] and by Rubin and Casarett [2] with a tissue not connected directly to the vasculature.

  11. Estimation of Asian Dust Aerosol Effect on Cloud Radiation Forcing Using Fu-Liou Radiative Model and CERES Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Jing; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Minnis, Patrick; Ge, Jinming; Bi, Jianrong

    2008-01-01

    The impact of Asian dust on cloud radiative forcing during 2003-2006 is studied by using the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget Scanner (CERES) data and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Analysis of satellite data shows that the dust aerosol significantly reduced the cloud cooling effect at TOA. In dust contaminated cloudy regions, the 4-year mean values of the instantaneous shortwave, longwave and net cloud radiative forcing are -138.9, 69.1, and -69.7 Wm(sup -2), which are 57.0, 74.2, and 46.3%, respectively, of the corresponding values in more pristine cloudy regions. The satellite-retrieved cloud properties are significantly different in the dusty regions and can influence the radiative forcing indirectly. The contributions to the cloud radiation forcing by the dust direct, indirect and semi-direct effects are estimated using combined satellite observations and Fu-Liou model simulation. The 4-year mean value of combination of indirect and semi-direct shortwave radiative forcing (SWRF) is 82.2 Wm(sup -2), which is 78.4% of the total dust effect. The direct effect is only 22.7 Wm(sup -2), which is 21.6% of the total effect. Because both first and second indirect effects enhance cloud cooling, the aerosol-induced cloud warming is mainly the result of the semi-direct effect of dust.

  12. The effect of radiation dose on the onset and progression of radiation-induced brain necrosis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Brad A; Ma, Htet S W; Hansen, Katherine S; Perks, Julian; Kent, Michael S; Fragoso, Ruben C; Marcu, Laura

    2017-07-01

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of how the selection of radiation dose affects the temporal and spatial progression of radiation-induced necrosis in the rat model. Necrosis was induced with a single fraction of radiation exposure, at doses ranging between 20 and 60 Gy, to the right hemisphere of 8-week-old Fischer rats from a linear accelerator. The development and progression of necrosis in the rats was monitored and quantified every other week with T1- and T2-weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI studies. The time to onset of necrosis was found to be dose-dependent, but after the initial onset, the necrosis progression rate and total volume generated was constant across different doses ranging between 30 and 60 Gy. Radiation doses less than 30 Gy did not develop necrosis within 33 weeks after treatment, indicating a dose threshold existing between 20 and 30 Gy. The highest dose used in this study led to the shortest time to onset of radiation-induced necrosis, while producing comparable disease progression dynamics after the onset. Therefore, for the radiation-induced necrosis rat model using a linear accelerator, the most optimum results were generated from a dose of 60 Gy.

  13. Bridging the Radiative Transfer Models for Meteorology and Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative transfer models are used to compute solar radiation reaching the earth surface and play an important role in both meteorology and solar energy studies. Therefore, they are designed to meet the needs of specialized applications. For instance, radiative transfer models for meteorology seek to provide more accurate cloudy-sky radiation compared to models used in solar energy that are geared towards accuracy in clear-sky conditions associated with the maximum solar resource. However, models for solar energy applications are often computationally faster, as the complex solution of the radiative transfer equation is parameterized by atmospheric properties that can be acquired from surface- or satellite-based observations. This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to combine the advantages of radiative transfer models designed for meteorology and solar energy applictions. A fast all-sky radiation model, FARMS-NIT, was developed to efficiently compute narrowband all-sky irradiances over inclined photovoltaic (PV) panels. This new model utilizes the optical preperties from a solar energy model, SMARTS, to computes surface radiation by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. For cloudy-sky conditions, cloud bidirectional transmittance functions (BTDFs) are provided by a precomputed lookup table (LUT) by LibRadtran. Our initial results indicate that FARMS-NIT has an accuracy that is similar to LibRadtran, a highly accurate multi-stream model, but is significantly more efficient. The development and validation of this model will be presented.

  14. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Hypochondria as an actual neurosis.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Bernd

    2017-09-27

    Freud defined hypochondria as an actual neurosis. In this paper the actual neurosis will be interpreted as unbound traumatic elements which threaten the self. In severe hypochondria, breakdowns have occurred, as outlined by Winnicott. The nameless traumatic elements of the breakdown have been encapsulated. The moment these encapsulated elements are liberated, an actual dynamic takes place which threatens the self with annihilation. Projective identification is not possible because no idea of containment exists. The self tries to evacuate these elements projectively, thus triggering a disintegrative regression. However, the object of this projection, which becomes a malign introject, is felt to remove the remaining psychical elements, forcing the worthless residue back into the self. In a final re-introjection, the self is threatened by unintegration. To save the self, these elements are displaced into an organ which becomes hypochondriacal, an autistoid object, protecting itself against unintegration and decomposition. An autistoid dynamic develops between the hypochondriac organ, the ego and the introject. Two short clinical vignettes illustrate the regressive dynamical and metapsychological considerations. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. A Generalized Radiation Model for Human Mobility: Spatial Scale, Searching Direction and Trip Constraint.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chaogui; Liu, Yu; Guo, Diansheng; Qin, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We generalized the recently introduced "radiation model", as an analog to the generalization of the classic "gravity model", to consolidate its nature of universality for modeling diverse mobility systems. By imposing the appropriate scaling exponent λ, normalization factor κ and system constraints including searching direction and trip OD constraint, the generalized radiation model accurately captures real human movements in various scenarios and spatial scales, including two different countries and four different cities. Our analytical results also indicated that the generalized radiation model outperformed alternative mobility models in various empirical analyses.

  17. Spatiotemporal exposure modeling of ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    VoPham, Trang; Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Sun, Zhibin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2016-11-24

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation plays a multifaceted role in human health, inducing DNA damage and representing the primary source of vitamin D for most humans; however, current U.S. UV exposure models are limited in spatial, temporal, and/or spectral resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) residual kriging is a geostatistical method that can be used to create a spatiotemporal exposure model by downscaling from an area- to point-level spatial resolution using fine-scale ancillary data. A stratified ATP residual kriging approach was used to predict average July noon-time erythemal UV (UV Ery ) (mW/m 2 ) biennially from 1998 to 2012 by downscaling National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) gridded remote sensing images to a 1 km spatial resolution. Ancillary data were incorporated in random intercept linear mixed-effects regression models. Modeling was performed separately within nine U.S. regions to satisfy stationarity and account for locally varying associations between UV Ery and predictors. Cross-validation was used to compare ATP residual kriging models and NASA grids to UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) measurements (gold standard). Predictors included in the final regional models included surface albedo, aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, ozone, surface incoming shortwave flux, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), year, and interactions between year and surface albedo, AOD, cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, and SO 2 . ATP residual kriging models more accurately estimated UV Ery at UVMRP monitoring stations on average compared to NASA grids across the contiguous U.S. (average mean absolute error [MAE] for ATP, NASA: 15.8, 20.3; average root mean square error [RMSE]: 21.3, 25.5). ATP residual kriging was associated with positive percent relative improvements in MAE (0.6-31.5%) and RMSE (3.6-29.4%) across all regions compared to NASA

  18. Regional scale net radiation estimation by means of Landsat and TERRA/AQUA imagery and GIS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.

    2009-04-01

    Net radiation (Rn) is one of the most important variables for the estimation of surface energy budget and is used for various applications including agricultural meteorology, climate monitoring and weather prediction. Moreover, net radiation is an essential input variable for potential as well as actual evapotranspiration modeling. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute net radiation at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a regional scale estimation of the daily Rn on clear days, (Catalonia, NE of the Iberian Peninsula), using a set of 22 Landsat images (17 Landsat-5 TM and 5 Landsat-7 ETM+) and 171 TERRA/AQUA images MODIS from 2000 to 2007 period. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected three different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily Rn: daily LST product, daily calibrated reflectances product and daily atmospheric water vapour product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Rn has been estimated through the

  19. Models for Total-Dose Radiation Effects in Non-Volatile Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    The objective of this work is to develop models to predict radiation effects in non- volatile memory: flash memory and ferroelectric RAM. In flash memory experiments have found that the internal high-voltage generators (charge pumps) are the most sensitive to radiation damage. Models are presented for radiation effects in charge pumps that demonstrate the experimental results. Floating gate models are developed for the memory cell in two types of flash memory devices by Intel and Samsung. These models utilize Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot electron injection to charge and erase the floating gate. Erase times are calculated from the models andmore » compared with experimental results for different radiation doses. FRAM is less sensitive to radiation than flash memory, but measurements show that above 100 Krad FRAM suffers from a large increase in leakage current. A model for this effect is developed which compares closely with the measurements.« less

  20. A metabolomics and mouse models approach to study inflammatory and immune responses to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fornace, Albert J.; Li, Henghong

    2013-12-02

    The three-year project entitled "A Metabolomics and Mouse Models Approach to Study Inflammatory and Immune Responses to Radiation" was initiated in September 2009. The overall objectives of this project were to investigate the acute and persistent effects of low dose radiation on T cell lymphocyte function and physiology, as well the contributions of these cells to radiation-induced inflammatory responses. Inflammation after ionizing radiation (IR), even at low doses, may impact a variety of disease processes, including infectious disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other potentially inflammatory disorders. There were three overall specific aims: 1. To investigate acute and persistent effects ofmore » low dose radiation on T cell subsets and function; 2. A genetic approach with mouse models to investigate p38 MAPK pathways that are involved in radiation-induced inflammatory signaling; 3. To investigate the effect of radiation quality on the inflammatory response. We have completed the work proposed in these aims.« less

  1. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Assessment and characterization of forcing to enable feedback studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, R.; Stevens, B. B.; Forster, P.; Collins, W.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Assessment and characterization of forcing to enable feedback studies An enormous amount of attention has been paid to the diversity of responses in the CMIP and other multi-model ensembles. This diversity is normally interpreted as a distribution in climate sensitivity driven by some distribution of feedback mechanisms. Identification of these feedbacks relies on precise identification of the forcing to which each model is subject, including distinguishing true error from model diversity. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) aims to disentangle the role of forcing from model sensitivity as determinants of varying climate model response by carefully characterizing the radiative forcing to which such models are subject and by coordinating experiments in which it is specified. RFMIP consists of four activities: 1) An assessment of accuracy in flux and forcing calculations for greenhouse gases under past, present, and future climates, using off-line radiative transfer calculations in specified atmospheres with climate model parameterizations and reference models 2) Characterization and assessment of model-specific historical forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, based on coordinated diagnostic output from climate models and off-line radiative transfer calculations with reference models 3) Characterization of model-specific effective radiative forcing, including contributions of model climatology and rapid adjustments, using coordinated climate model integrations and off-line radiative transfer calculations with a single fast model 4) Assessment of climate model response to precisely-characterized radiative forcing over the historical record, including efforts to infer true historical forcing from patterns of response, by direct specification of non-greenhouse-gas forcing in a series of coordinated climate model integrations This talk discusses the rationale for RFMIP, provides an overview

  2. Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFRUV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFRUV and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.

  3. Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) Infrared (Clear-Sky) Line-by Line Radiative Fluxes (DB1002)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arking, A.; Ridgeway, B.; Clough, T.; Iacono, M.; Fomin, B.; Trotsenko, A.; Freidenreich, S.; Schwarzkopf, D.

    1994-01-01

    The intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) study was launched under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy to document differences in results obtained with various radiation codes and radiation parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs). ICRCCM produced benchmark, longwave, line-by-line (LBL) fluxes that may be compared against each other and against models of lower spectral resolution. During ICRCCM, infrared fluxes and cooling rates for several standard model atmospheres with varying concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone were calculated with LBL methods at resolutions of 0.01 cm-1 or higher. For comparison with other models, values were summed for the IR spectrum and given at intervals of 5 or 10 cm-1. This archive contains fluxes for ICRCCM-prescribed clear-sky cases. Radiative flux and cooling-rate profiles are given for specified atmospheric profiles for temperature, water vapor, and ozone-mixing ratios. The archive contains 328 files, including spectral summaries, formatted data files, and a variety of programs (i.e., C-shell scripts, FORTRAN codes, and IDL programs) to read, reformat, and display data. Collectively, these files require approximately 59 MB of disk space.

  4. Development and validation of a prediction model for adenoma detection during screening and surveillance colonoscopy with comparison to actual adenoma detection rates

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Julia E.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Siersema, Peter D.; Rex, Douglas K.; Wallace, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The adenoma detection rate (ADR) varies widely between physicians, possibly due to patient population differences, hampering direct ADR comparison. We developed and validated a prediction model for adenoma detection in an effort to determine if physicians’ ADRs should be adjusted for patient-related factors. Materials and methods Screening and surveillance colonoscopy data from the cross-sectional multicenter cluster-randomized Endoscopic Quality Improvement Program-3 (EQUIP-3) study (NCT02325635) was used. The dataset was split into two cohorts based on center. A prediction model for detection of ≥1 adenoma was developed using multivariable logistic regression and subsequently internally (bootstrap resampling) and geographically validated. We compared predicted to observed ADRs. Results The derivation (5 centers, 35 physicians, overall-ADR: 36%) and validation (4 centers, 31 physicians, overall-ADR: 40%) cohort included respectively 9934 and 10034 patients (both cohorts: 48% male, median age 60 years). Independent predictors for detection of ≥1 adenoma were: age (optimism-corrected odds ratio (OR): 1.02; 95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.03), male sex (OR: 1.73; 95%-CI: 1.60–1.88), body mass index (OR: 1.02; 95%-CI: 1.01–1.03), American Society of Anesthesiology physical status class (OR class II vs. I: 1.29; 95%-CI: 1.17–1.43, OR class ≥III vs. I: 1.57; 95%-CI: 1.32–1.86), surveillance versus screening (OR: 1.39; 95%-CI: 1.27–1.53), and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (OR: 1.13; 95%-CI: 1.00–1.27). The model’s discriminative ability was modest (C-statistic in the derivation: 0.63 and validation cohort: 0.60). The observed ADR was considerably lower than predicted for 12/66 (18.2%) physicians and 2/9 (22.2%) centers, and considerably higher than predicted for 18/66 (27.3%) physicians and 4/9 (44.4%) centers. Conclusion The substantial variation in ADRs could only partially be explained by patient-related factors. These data

  5. A three-dimensional model of solar radiation transfer in a non-uniform plant canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashova, N. T.; Mukhartova, Yu V.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of solar radiation transfer in a non-uniform plant canopy was developed. It is based on radiative transfer equations and a so-called turbid medium assumption. The model takes into account the multiple scattering contributions of plant elements in radiation fluxes. These enable more accurate descriptions of plant canopy reflectance and transmission in different spectral bands. The model was applied to assess the effects of plant canopy heterogeneity on solar radiation transmission and to quantify the difference in a radiation transfer between photosynthetically active radiation PAR (=0.39-0.72 μm) and near infrared solar radiation NIR (Δλ = 0.72-3.00 μm). Comparisons of the radiative transfer fluxes simulated by the 3D model within a plant canopy consisted of sparsely planted fruit trees (plant area index, PAI - 0.96 m2 m-2) with radiation fluxes simulated by a one-dimensional (1D) approach, assumed horizontal homogeneity of plant and leaf area distributions, showed that, for sunny weather conditions with a high solar elevation angle, an application of a simplified 1D approach can result in an underestimation of transmitted solar radiation by about 22% for PAR, and by about 26% for NIR.

  6. Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces: A Framework for Detection System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    STOCHASTIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL FOR CONTAMINATED ROUGH SURFACES: A...of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid ...COVERED (From - To) Jan 2013 - Sep 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces: A Framework for

  7. Uncertainties in Carbon Dioxide Radiative Forcing in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M.-H.; Potter, G. L.; Gates, W. L.; Taylor, K. E.; Barker, H. W.; Colman, R. A.; Fraser, J. R.; McAvaney, B. J.; Dazlich, D. A.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.

  8. Observed and modelled solar radiation components in sugarcane crop grown under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcos A. dos; Souza, José L. de; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Teodoro, Iêdo; Ferreira, Ricardo A.; Santos Almeida, Alexsandro C. dos; Lyra, Guilherme B.; Souza, Renan C. de; Lemes, Marco A. Maringolo

    2017-04-01

    The net radiation over vegetated surfaces is one of the major input variables in many models of soil evaporation, evapotranspiration as well as leaf wetness duration. In the literature there are relatively few studies on net radiation over sugarcane crop in tropical climates. The main objective of the present study was to assess the solar radiation components measured and modelled for two crop stages of a sugarcane crop in the region of Rio Largo, Alagoas, North-eastern Brazil. The measurements of the radiation components were made with a net radiometer during the dry and rainy seasons and two models were used to estimate net radiation: the Ortega-Farias model and the Monteith and Unsworth model. The highest values of net radiation were observed at the crop development stage, due mainly to the high indices of incoming solar radiation. The daily average albedos of sugarcane at the crop development and mid-season stages were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Both models showed a better fit for the crop development stage than for the mid-season stage. When they were inter-compared, Monteith and Unsworth model was more efficient than Ortega-Farias model, despite the dispersion of their simulated radiation components which was similar.

  9. A scalable plant-resolving radiative transfer model based on optimized GPU ray tracing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new model for radiative transfer in participating media and its application to complex plant canopies is presented. The goal was to be able to efficiently solve complex canopy-scale radiative transfer problems while also representing sub-plant heterogeneity. In the model, individual leaf surfaces ...

  10. Integration of the radiation belt environment model into the space weather modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Fok, M.; Gombosi, T.; Liemohn, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have integrated the Fok radiation belt environment (RBE) model into the space weather modeling framework (SWMF). RBE is coupled to the global magnetohydrodynamics component (represented by the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US, code) and the Ionosphere Electrodynamics component of the SWMF, following initial results using the Weimer empirical model for the ionospheric potential. The radiation belt (RB) model solves the convection-diffusion equation of the plasma in the energy range of 10 keV to a few MeV. In stand-alone mode RBE uses Tsyganenko's empirical models for the magnetic field, and Weimer's empirical model for the ionospheric potential. In the SWMF the BATS-R-US model provides the time dependent magnetic field by efficiently tracing the closed magnetic field-lines and passing the geometrical and field strength information to RBE at a regular cadence. The ionosphere electrodynamics component uses a two-dimensional vertical potential solver to provide new potential maps to the RBE model at regular intervals. We discuss the coupling algorithm and show some preliminary results with the coupled code. We run our newly coupled model for periods of steady solar wind conditions and compare our results to the RB model using an empirical magnetic field and potential model. We also simulate the RB for an active time period and find that there are substantial differences in the RB model results when changing either the magnetic field or the electric field, including the creation of an outer belt enhancement via rapid inward transport on the time scale of tens of minutes.

  11. Use of Proteomic and Hematology Biomarkers for Prediction of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity in Baboon Radiation Models.

    PubMed

    Blakely, William F; Bolduc, David L; Debad, Jeff; Sigal, George; Port, Matthias; Abend, Michael; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Hérodin, Francis

    2018-07-01

    Use of plasma proteomic and hematological biomarkers represents a promising approach to provide useful diagnostic information for assessment of the severity of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Eighteen baboons were evaluated in a radiation model that underwent total-body and partial-body irradiations at doses of Co gamma rays from 2.5 to 15 Gy at dose rates of 6.25 cGy min and 32 cGy min. Hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity levels determined by an analysis of blood count changes measured up to 60 d after irradiation were used to gauge overall hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity classifications. A panel of protein biomarkers was measured on plasma samples collected at 0 to 28 d after exposure using electrochemiluminescence-detection technology. The database was split into two distinct groups (i.e., "calibration," n = 11; "validation," n = 7). The calibration database was used in an initial stepwise regression multivariate model-fitting approach followed by down selection of biomarkers for identification of subpanels of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome-responsive biomarkers for three time windows (i.e., 0-2 d, 2-7 d, 7-28 d). Model 1 (0-2 d) includes log C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001), log interleukin-13 (p < 0.0054), and procalcitonin (p < 0.0316) biomarkers; model 2 (2-7 d) includes log CD27 (p < 0.0001), log FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (p < 0.0001), log serum amyloid A (p < 0.0007), and log interleukin-6 (p < 0.0002); and model 3 (7-28 d) includes log CD27 (p < 0.0012), log serum amyloid A (p < 0.0002), log erythropoietin (p < 0.0001), and log CD177 (p < 0.0001). The predicted risk of radiation injury categorization values, representing the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity outcome for the three models, produced least squares multiple regression fit confidences of R = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.75, respectively. The resultant algorithms support the proof of concept that plasma proteomic biomarkers can supplement

  12. Nominal vs. actual supersaturation of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Following the formalism of the Classical Nucleation Theory beyond the dilute solution approximation, this paper considers a difference between the actual solute supersaturation (given by the present-to-saturated solute activity ratio) and the nominal supersaturation (given by the present-to-saturated solute concentration ratio) due to formation of subcritical transient solute clusters, called heterophase fluctuations. Based on their distribution function, we introduce an algebraic equation of supersaturation that couples the nominal supersaturation of a binary metastable solution with its actual supersaturation and a function of the specific interface energy and temperature. The applicability of this approach is validated by comparison to simulation data [(Clouet et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 064109 (2004)] on nucleation of Al3Zr and Al3Sc in model binary Al alloys.

  13. Developing a new solar radiation estimation model based on Buckingham theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Can; Teke, Ismail

    2018-06-01

    While the value of solar radiation can be expressed physically in the days without clouds, this expression becomes difficult in cloudy and complicated weather conditions. In addition, solar radiation measurements are often not taken in developing countries. In such cases, solar radiation estimation models are used. Solar radiation prediction models estimate solar radiation using other measured meteorological parameters those are available in the stations. In this study, a solar radiation estimation model was obtained using Buckingham theorem. This theory has been shown to be useful in predicting solar radiation. In this study, Buckingham theorem is used to express the solar radiation by derivation of dimensionless pi parameters. This derived model is compared with temperature based models in the literature. MPE, RMSE, MBE and NSE error analysis methods are used in this comparison. Allen, Hargreaves, Chen and Bristow-Campbell models in the literature are used for comparison. North Dakota's meteorological data were used to compare the models. Error analysis were applied through the comparisons between the models in the literature and the model that is derived in the study. These comparisons were made using data obtained from North Dakota's agricultural climate network. In these applications, the model obtained within the scope of the study gives better results. Especially, in terms of short-term performance, it has been found that the obtained model gives satisfactory results. It has been seen that this model gives better accuracy in comparison with other models. It is possible in RMSE analysis results. Buckingham theorem was found useful in estimating solar radiation. In terms of long term performances and percentage errors, the model has given good results.

  14. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  15. Modeling natural space ionizing radiation effects on external materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.

    2000-10-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment, model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  16. Modeling gamma radiation dose in dwellings due to building materials.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that calculates the absorbed dose rate in air of gamma radiation emitted by building materials in a rectangular body construction. The basis for these calculations is formed by a fixed set of specific absorbed dose rates (the dose rate per Bq kg(-1) 238U, 232Th, and 40K), as determined for a standard geometry with the dimensions 4 x 5 x 2.8 m3. Using the computer codes Marmer and MicroShield, correction factors are assessed that quantify the influence of several room and material related parameters on the specific absorbed dose rates. The investigated parameters are the position in the construction; the thickness, density, and dimensions of the construction parts; the contribution from the outer leave; the presence of doors and windows; the attenuation by internal partition walls; the contribution from building materials present in adjacent rooms; and the effect of non-equilibrium due to 222Rn exhalation. To verify the precision, the proposed method is applied to three Dutch reference dwellings, i.e., a row house, a coupled house, and a gallery apartment. The averaged difference with MCNP calculations is found to be 4%.

  17. Stationary Solutions of A One-dimensional Thermodynamic Radiative Sea Ice Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D.; Feltham, D. L.

    A one-dimensional thermodynamic model of sea ice is coupled to a two-stream radi- ation model and the stationary (time-independent) solutions analysed. The stationary model represents the state of the sea ice subjected to persistent or slowly varying forc- ing. Two physically realisable stationary solutions (real and positive ice thickness) occur for a large range of positive oceanic heat flux ( 20,Wm-2). The two station- ary solutions are due to the two-stream radiation model, which allows radiation to be reflected at the ice-ocean interface. Thick ice ( 1,m) only absorbs radiation near its surface, whereas thin ice ( 0.1,m) absorbs radiation across its entire depth. The two stationary solutions are caused by these two different radiative regimes. The results of this analysis have relevance to the interpretation and implementation of thermody- namic models of sea ice and the interpretation of thickness data.

  18. A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong

    2015-11-01

    A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors.

  19. Determining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at Lampedusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, Daniela; di Sarra, Alcide; Brogniez, Gérard; Denjean, Cyrielle; De Silvestri, Lorenzo; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Formenti, Paola; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Mallet, Marc; Pace, Giandomenico; Sferlazzo, Damiano M.

    2018-03-01

    Detailed measurements of radiation, atmospheric and aerosol properties were carried out in summer 2013 during the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) campaign in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) experiment. This study focusses on the characterization of infrared (IR) optical properties and direct radiative effects of mineral dust, based on three vertical profiles of atmospheric and aerosol properties and IR broadband and narrowband radiation from airborne measurements, made in conjunction with radiosonde and ground-based observations at Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean. Satellite IR spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) are also included in the analysis. The atmospheric and aerosol properties are used as input to a radiative transfer model, and various IR radiation parameters (upward and downward irradiance, nadir and zenith brightness temperature at different altitudes) are calculated and compared with observations. The model calculations are made for different sets of dust particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index (RI), derived from observations and from the literature. The main results of the analysis are that the IR dust radiative forcing is non-negligible and strongly depends on PSD and RI. When calculations are made using the in situ measured size distribution, it is possible to identify the refractive index that produces the best match with observed IR irradiances and brightness temperatures (BTs). The most appropriate refractive indices correspond to those determined from independent measurements of mineral dust aerosols from the source regions (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) of dust transported over Lampedusa, suggesting that differences in the source properties should be taken into account. With the in situ size distribution and the most appropriate refractive index the estimated dust IR radiative forcing

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of radiative disks in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picogna, G.; Marzari, F.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks in binaries are perturbed by the companion gravity causing significant alterations of the disk morphology. Spiral waves due to the companion tidal force also develop in the vertical direction and affect the disk temperature profile. These effects may significantly influence the process of planet formation. Aims: We perform 3D numerical simulations of disks in binaries with different initial dynamical configurations and physical parameters. Our goal is to investigate their evolution and their propensity to grow planets. Methods: We use an improved version of the SPH code VINE modified to better account for momentum and energy conservation via variable smoothing and softening length. The energy equation includes a flux-limited radiative transfer algorithm. The disk cooling is obtained with the use of "boundary particles" populating the outer surfaces of the disk and radiating to infinity. We model a system made of star/disk + star/disk where the secondary star (and relative disk) is less massive than the primary. Results: The numerical simulations performed for different values of binary separation and disk density show that trailing spiral shock waves develop when the stars approach their pericenter. Strong hydraulic jumps occur at the shock front, in particular for small separation binaries, creating breaking waves, and a consistent mass stream between the two disks. Both shock waves and mass transfer cause significant heating of the disk. At apocenter these perturbations are reduced and the disks are cooled down and less eccentric. Conclusions: The disk morphology is substantially affected by the companion perturbations, in particular in the vertical direction. The hydraulic jumps may slow down or even halt the dust coagulation process. The disk is significantly heated up by spiral waves and mass transfer, and the high gas temperature may prevent the ice condensation by moving the "snow line" outward. The disordered motion triggered by

  1. STARLIFE - An International Campaign to Study the Role of Galactic Cosmic Radiation in Astrobiological Model Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Leuko, Stefan; Berger, Thomas; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Fujimori, Akira; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Horneck, Gerda

    2017-02-01

    In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum. Low- and high-energy charged particle radiation experiments have been conducted at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. X-rays or γ rays were used as reference radiation at the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne, Germany) or Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS, Wiehl, Germany) to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. All samples were exposed under identical conditions to the same dose and qualities of ionizing radiation (i) allowing a direct comparison between the tested specimens and (ii) providing information on the impact of the space radiation environment on currently used astrobiological model organisms.

  2. Non-Grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/Sindaworks TFAWS06-1009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Paine, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the non-grey radiation modeling capabilities of Cullimore and Ring's Thermal Desktop(Registered TradeMark) Version 4.8 SindaWorks software. The non-grey radiation analysis theory implemented by Sindaworks and the methodology used by the software are outlined. Representative results from a parametric trade study of a radiation shield comprised of a series of v-grooved shaped deployable panels is used to illustrate the capabilities of the SindaWorks non-grey radiation thermal analysis software using emissivities with temperature and wavelength dependency modeled via a Hagen-Rubens relationship.

  3. On the Modeling of Thermal Radiation at the Top Surface of a Vacuum Arc Remelting Ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzant, P.-O.; Baqué, B.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2018-02-01

    Two models have been implemented for calculating the thermal radiation emitted at the ingot top in the VAR process, namely, a crude model that considers only radiative heat transfer between the free surface and electrode tip and a more detailed model that describes all radiative exchanges between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall using a radiosity method. From the results of the second model, it is found that the radiative heat flux at the ingot top may depend heavily on the arc gap length and the electrode radius, but remains almost unaffected by variations of the electrode height. Both radiation models have been integrated into a CFD numerical code that simulates the growth and solidification of a VAR ingot. The simulation of a Ti-6-4 alloy melt shows that use of the detailed radiation model leads to some significant modification of the simulation results compared with the simple model. This is especially true during the hot-topping phase, where the top radiation plays an increasingly important role compared with the arc energy input. Thus, while the crude model has the advantage of its simplicity, use of the detailed model should be preferred.

  4. On the Modeling of Thermal Radiation at the Top Surface of a Vacuum Arc Remelting Ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzant, P.-O.; Baqué, B.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2018-06-01

    Two models have been implemented for calculating the thermal radiation emitted at the ingot top in the VAR process, namely, a crude model that considers only radiative heat transfer between the free surface and electrode tip and a more detailed model that describes all radiative exchanges between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall using a radiosity method. From the results of the second model, it is found that the radiative heat flux at the ingot top may depend heavily on the arc gap length and the electrode radius, but remains almost unaffected by variations of the electrode height. Both radiation models have been integrated into a CFD numerical code that simulates the growth and solidification of a VAR ingot. The simulation of a Ti-6-4 alloy melt shows that use of the detailed radiation model leads to some significant modification of the simulation results compared with the simple model. This is especially true during the hot-topping phase, where the top radiation plays an increasingly important role compared with the arc energy input. Thus, while the crude model has the advantage of its simplicity, use of the detailed model should be preferred.

  5. Impact on total population health and societal cost, and the implication on the actual cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study.

    PubMed

    Tran-Duy, An; Boonen, Annelies; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental CE of anti-TNF agents using a closed cohort while budget impact studies are mainly lacking. Notwithstanding, information on impact on total population health and societal budget as well as on actual incremental CE for a given decision time span are important for decision makers. This study aimed at quantifying, for different decision time spans starting from January 1, 2014 in the Dutch society, (1) impact of sequential drug treatment strategies without and with inclusion of anti-TNF agents (Strategies 1 and 2, respectively) on total population health and societal cost, and (2) the actual incremental CE of Strategy 2 compared to Strategy 1. Dynamic population modelling was used to capture total population health and cost, and the actual incremental CE. Distinguishing the prevalent AS population on January 1, 2014 and the incident AS cohorts in the subsequent 20 years, the model tracked individually an actual number of AS patients until death or end of the simulation time. During the simulation, data on patient characteristics, history of drug use, costs and health at discrete time points were generated. In Strategy 1, five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were available but anti-TNF agents withdrawn. In Strategy 2, five NSAIDs and two anti-TNF agents continued to be available. The predicted size of the prevalent AS population in the Dutch society varied within the range of 67,145-69,957 with 44-46 % of the patients receiving anti-TNF agents over the period 2014-2034. The use of anti-TNF agents resulted in an increase in the annual drug costs (168.54-205.28 million Euros), but at the same time caused a decrease in the annual productivity costs (12.58-31.21 million Euros) and in annual costs of

  6. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging Without Harmful Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the detection of transmitted radiation, the spatial organization and composition of materials in the body can be ascertained. In this paper, we describe an original apparatus that teaches these concepts by utilizing near infrared radiation and an up-converting phosphorescent screen to safely probe the contents of an opaque enclosure.

  7. Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads

  8. A Generalized Radiation Model for Human Mobility: Spatial Scale, Searching Direction and Trip Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chaogui; Liu, Yu; Guo, Diansheng; Qin, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We generalized the recently introduced “radiation model”, as an analog to the generalization of the classic “gravity model”, to consolidate its nature of universality for modeling diverse mobility systems. By imposing the appropriate scaling exponent λ, normalization factor κ and system constraints including searching direction and trip OD constraint, the generalized radiation model accurately captures real human movements in various scenarios and spatial scales, including two different countries and four different cities. Our analytical results also indicated that the generalized radiation model outperformed alternative mobility models in various empirical analyses. PMID:26600153

  9. Significance of radiation models in investigating the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    Formulation is presented to demonstrate the significance of a simplified radiation model in investigating the flow phenomena in the viscous radiating shock layer of a Jovian entry body. The body configurations used are a 55 degree sphere cone and 50 degree hyperboloid. A nongray absorption model for hydrogen-helium gas is developed which consists of 30 steps over the spectral range of 0 to 20 eV. By employing this model, results were obtained for temperature, pressure, density, the shock layer and along the body surface. These are compared with results of two sophisticated radiative transport models available in the literature.

  10. CODE's new solar radiation pressure model for GNSS orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D.; Meindl, M.; Beutler, G.; Dach, R.; Schaer, S.; Lutz, S.; Prange, L.; Sośnica, K.; Mervart, L.; Jäggi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM) of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which was developed in the early 1990s, is widely used in the International GNSS Service (IGS) community. For a rather long time, spurious spectral lines are known to exist in geophysical parameters, in particular in the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and in the estimated geocenter coordinates, which could recently be attributed to the ECOM. These effects grew creepingly with the increasing influence of the GLONASS system in recent years in the CODE analysis, which is based on a rigorous combination of GPS and GLONASS since May 2003. In a first step we show that the problems associated with the ECOM are to the largest extent caused by the GLONASS, which was reaching full deployment by the end of 2011. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and combined GPS/GLONASS solutions using the observations in the years 2009-2011 of a global network of 92 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers were analyzed for this purpose. In a second step we review direct solar radiation pressure (SRP) models for GNSS satellites. We demonstrate that only even-order short-period harmonic perturbations acting along the direction Sun-satellite occur for GPS and GLONASS satellites, and only odd-order perturbations acting along the direction perpendicular to both, the vector Sun-satellite and the spacecraft's solar panel axis. Based on this insight we assess in the third step the performance of four candidate orbit models for the future ECOM. The geocenter coordinates, the ERP differences w. r. t. the IERS 08 C04 series of ERPs, the misclosures for the midnight epochs of the daily orbital arcs, and scale parameters of Helmert transformations for station coordinates serve as quality criteria. The old and updated ECOM are validated in addition with satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations and by comparing the orbits to those of the IGS and other analysis centers. Based on all tests, we present a new extended ECOM which

  11. Radiative modelling by the zonal method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.

  12. Mathematical modelling of solar ultraviolet radiation induced optical degradation in anodized aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruley, John D.

    1986-01-01

    In the design of spacecraft for proper thermal balance, accurate information on the long-term optical behavior of the spacecraft outer skin materials is necessary. A phenomenological model for such behavior is given. The underlying principles are explained and some examples are given of the model's fit to actual measurements under simulated Earth-orbit conditions. Comments are given on the applicability of the model to materials testing and thermal modelling.

  13. Horizon state, Hawking radiation, and boundary Liouville model.

    PubMed

    Solodukhin, Sergey N

    2004-02-13

    We demonstrate that the near-horizon physics, the Hawking radiation, and the reflection off the radial potential barrier can be understood entirely within a conformal field theory picture in terms of one- and two-point functions in the boundary Liouville theory. An important element in this demonstration is the notion of horizon state, the Hawking radiation being interpreted as a result of the transition of horizon state to the ordinary states propagating outside the black hole horizon.

  14. Gravity versus radiation models: on the importance of scale and heterogeneity in commuting flows.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Serras, Joan; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2013-08-01

    We test the recently introduced radiation model against the gravity model for the system composed of England and Wales, both for commuting patterns and for public transportation flows. The analysis is performed both at macroscopic scales, i.e., at the national scale, and at microscopic scales, i.e., at the city level. It is shown that the thermodynamic limit assumption for the original radiation model significantly underestimates the commuting flows for large cities. We then generalize the radiation model, introducing the correct normalization factor for finite systems. We show that even if the gravity model has a better overall performance the parameter-free radiation model gives competitive results, especially for large scales.

  15. Evolution analysis of EUV radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas based on a radiation hydrodynamics model

    PubMed Central

    Su, M. G.; Min, Q.; Cao, S. Q.; Sun, D. X.; Hayden, P.; O’Sullivan, G.; Dong, C. Z.

    2017-01-01

    One of fundamental aims of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is to maximize brightness or conversion efficiency of laser energy to radiation at specific wavelengths from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) of specific elements for matching to available multilayer optical systems. Tin LPPs have been chosen for operation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. For an investigation of EUV radiation of laser-produced tin plasmas, it is crucial to study the related atomic processes and their evolution so as to reliably predict the optimum plasma and experimental conditions. Here, we present a simplified radiation hydrodynamic model based on the fluid dynamic equations and the radiative transfer equation to rapidly investigate the evolution of radiation properties and dynamics in laser-produced tin plasmas. The self-absorption features of EUV spectra measured at an angle of 45° to the direction of plasma expansion have been successfully simulated and explained, and the evolution of some parameters, such as the plasma temperature, ion distribution and density, expansion size and velocity, have also been evaluated. Our results should be useful for further understanding of current research on extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray source development for applications such as lithography, metrology and biological imaging. PMID:28332621

  16. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-basedmore » treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal

  17. Normal tissue complication probability modeling of radiation-induced hypothyroidism after head-and-neck radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi; Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-02-01

    To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with α/β = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D(50) estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the

  18. Evaluation of different models to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.

    2012-04-01

    Global and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and daily diffuse solar irradiation from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar global radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between global measured solar radiation and global estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.

  19. Mathematical model of solar radiation based on climatological data from NASA SSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Masolov, V. G.

    2018-05-01

    An original model of solar radiation arriving at the arbitrarily oriented surface has been developed. The peculiarity of the model is that it uses numerical values of the atmospheric transparency index and the surface albedo from the NASA SSE database as initial data. The model is developed in the MatLab/Simulink environment to predict the main characteristics of solar radiation for any geographical point in Russia, including those for territories with no regular actinometric observations.

  20. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Three-dimensional test cases (phase B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Wang, Zhen; Labonotte, Laurent C.; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    Initially unpolarized solar radiation becomes polarized by scattering in the Earth's atmosphere. In particular molecular scattering (Rayleigh scattering) polarizes electromagnetic radiation, but also scattering of radiation at aerosols, cloud droplets (Mie scattering) and ice crystals polarizes. Each atmospheric constituent produces a characteristic polarization signal, thus spectro-polarimetric measurements are frequently employed for remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties. Retrieval algorithms require efficient radiative transfer models. Usually, these apply the plane-parallel approximation (PPA), assuming that the atmosphere consists of horizontally homogeneous layers. This allows to solve the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) efficiently. For remote sensing applications, the radiance is considered constant over the instantaneous field-of-view of the instrument and each sensor element is treated independently in plane-parallel approximation, neglecting horizontal radiation transport between adjacent pixels (Independent Pixel Approximation, IPA). In order to estimate the errors due to the IPA approximation, three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer models are required. So far, only a few such models exist. Therefore, the International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to provide benchmark results for polarized radiative transfer. The group has already performed an intercomparison for one-dimensional (1D) multi-layer test cases [phase A, 1]. This paper presents the continuation of the intercomparison project (phase B) for 2D and 3D test cases: a step cloud, a cubic cloud, and a more realistic scenario including a 3D cloud field generated by a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model and typical background aerosols. The commonly established benchmark results for 3D polarized radiative transfer are available at the IPRT website (http

  1. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  2. Realistic NLTE Radiative Transfer for Modeling Stellar Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Philip D.

    1999-01-01

    This NASA grant supported the development of codes to solve the non-LTE multi-level spherical radiative transfer problem in the presence of velocity fields. Much of this work was done in collaboration with Graham Harper (CASA, University of Colorado). These codes were developed for application to the cool, low-velocity winds of evolved late-type stars. Particular emphasis was placed on modeling the wind of lambda Velorum (K4 lb), the brightest K supergiant in the sky, based on extensive observations of the ultraviolet spectrum with the HST/GHRS from GO program 5307. Several solution techniques were examined, including the Eddington factor Approach described in detail by Bennett & Harper (1997). An Eddington factor variant of Harper's S-MULTI code (Harper 1994) for stationary atmospheres was developed and implemented, although full convergence was not realized. The ratio of wind terminal velocity to turbulent velocity is large (approx. 0.3-0.5) in these cool star winds so this assumption of stationarity provides reasonable starting models. Final models, incorporating specified wind laws, were converged using the comoving CRD S-MULTI code. Details of the solution procedure were published by Bennett & Harper (1997). Our analysis of the wind of lambda Vel, based on wind absorption superimposed on chromospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet, can be found in Carpenter et al. (1999). In this paper, we compare observed wind absorption features to an exact CRD calculation in the comoving frame, and also to a much quicker, but approximate, method using the SEI (Sobolev with Exact Integration) code of Lamers, Cerruti-Sola, & Perinotto (1987). Carpenter et al. (1999) provide detailed comparisons of the exact CRD and approximate SEI results and discuss when SEI is adequate to use for computing wind line profiles. Unfortunately, the observational material is insufficient to unambiguously determine the wind acceleration law for lambda Vel. Relatively few unblended Fe II lines

  3. 3D photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2014-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) photomechanical model of human tooth enamel ablation is described. It takes into account: the structural peculiarities of enamel, Er-laser beam energy spatial distribution and laser radiation attenuation in the tissue. Dynamics change of enamel coefficient of absorption during ablation is also discussed. We consider the 3D photomechanical model of incomplete removal (modification) of the enamel rods by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation, and complete removal (ablation) of the enamel rods as result of hydroxyapatite heated by laser radiation and evaporation. Modeling results are in close agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Box-wing model approach for solar radiation pressure modelling in a multi-GNSS scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Guillermo; Jesús García, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The solar radiation pressure force is the largest orbital perturbation after the gravitational effects and the major error source affecting GNSS satellites. A wide range of approaches have been developed over the years for the modelling of this non gravitational effect as part of the orbit determination process. These approaches are commonly divided into empirical, semi-analytical and analytical, where their main difference relies on the amount of knowledge of a-priori physical information about the properties of the satellites (materials and geometry) and their attitude. It has been shown in the past that the pre-launch analytical models fail to achieve the desired accuracy mainly due to difficulties in the extrapolation of the in-orbit optical and thermic properties, the perturbations in the nominal attitude law and the aging of the satellite's surfaces, whereas empirical models' accuracies strongly depend on the amount of tracking data used for deriving the models, and whose performances are reduced as the area to mass ratio of the GNSS satellites increases, as it happens for the upcoming constellations such as BeiDou and Galileo. This paper proposes to use basic box-wing model for Galileo complemented with empirical parameters, based on the limited available information about the Galileo satellite's geometry. The satellite is modelled as a box, representing the satellite bus, and a wing representing the solar panel. The performance of the model will be assessed for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo constellations. The results of the proposed approach have been analyzed over a one year period. In order to assess the results two different SRP models have been used. Firstly, the proposed box-wing model and secondly, the new CODE empirical model, ECOM2. The orbit performances of both models are assessed using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements, together with the evaluation of the orbit prediction accuracy. This comparison shows the advantages and disadvantages of

  5. A toy model linking atmospheric thermal radiation and sea ice growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorndike, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of sea ice growth is presented where the atmosphere is in thermal radiative equilibrium with the ice. This makes the downwelling longwave radiation reaching the ice surface an internal variable rather than a specified forcing. Analytical results demonstrate how the ice state depends on properties of the ice and on the externally specified climate.

  6. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurements on the shuttle of the LET spectra of galactic cosmic radiation and comparison with the radiation transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Braby, L. A.; Konradi, A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A new class of tissue-equivalent proportional counters has been flown on two space shuttle flights. These detectors and their associated electronics cover a lineal energy range from 0.4 to 1250 keV/microns with a multichannel analyzer resolution of 0.1 keV/microns from 0.4 to 20 keV/microns and 5 keV/microns from 20 to 1250 keV/microns. These detectors provide the most complete dynamic range and highest resolution of any technique currently in use. On one mission, one detector was mounted in the Shuttle payload bay and another older model in the mid-deck, thus providing information on the depth dependence of the lineal energy spectrum. A detailed comparison of the observed lineal energy and calculated LET spectra for galactic cosmic radiation shows that, although the radiation transport models provide a rather accurate description of the dose (+/- 15%) and equivalent dose (+/- 15%), the calculations significantly underestimate the frequency of events below about 100 keV/microns. This difference cannot be explained by the inclusion of the contribution of splash protons. The contribution of the secondary pions, kaons and electrons produced in the Shuttle shielding, if included in the radiation transport model, may explain these differences. There are also significant differences between the model predictions and observations above 140 keV/microns, particularly for 28.5 degrees inclination orbit.

  8. Cloud Radiation Forcings and Feedbacks: General Circulation Model Tests and Observational Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee,Wan-Ho; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Using an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud radiation parameterizations have been investigated. In addition to the original cloud radiation scheme of CCM2, four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water were tested: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. The authors' numerical experiments employ perpetual July integrations driven by globally constant sea surface temperature forcings of two degrees, both positive and negative. A diagnostic radiation calculation has been applied to investigate the partial contributions of high, middle, and low cloud to the total cloud radiative forcing, as well as the contributions of water vapor, temperature, and cloud to the net climate feedback. The high cloud net radiative forcing is positive, and the middle and low cloud net radiative forcings are negative. The total net cloud forcing is negative in all of the model versions. The effect of interactive cloud radiative properties on global climate sensitivity is significant. The net cloud radiative feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between the schemes with interactive cloud radiative properties and the schemes with specified properties. The increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle- and low-level clouds and in turn to negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative schemes, while the decrease in cloud amount simply produces a positive shortwave feedback for the schemes with a specified cloud water path. For the longwave feedbacks, the decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while for the other cases, the longwave feedback is positive. These cloud radiation

  9. Laminar flow studies of a low-temperature space radiator model using D-shaped tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintula, T. C.; Prok, G. M.; Johnston, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    Test results of a low-temperature space radiator model are presented. Radiator performance is evaluated with a low-thermal-conductivity fluid in laminar flow in D-shaped cross-section tubes. The test covered a Reynolds number range from 50 to 4500 and a fluid temperature range from 294 to 414 K (70 to 286 F). For low-temperature radiators, the fluid-to-surface temperature differential was predominately influenced by fluid temperature in laminar flow. Heat transfer and pressure drop for the radiator tube could be predicted within engineering accuracy from existing correlations.

  10. Application of New Chorus Wave Model from Van Allen Probe Observations in Earth's Radiation Belt Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Shprits, Y.; Spasojevic, M.; Zhu, H.; Aseev, N.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    In situ satellite observations, theoretical studies and model simulations suggested that chorus waves play a significant role in the dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. In this study, we developed new wave frequency and amplitude models that depend on Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-, L-shell, latitude- and geomagnetic conditions indexed by Kp for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves using measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes. Utilizing the quasi-linear full diffusion code, we calculated corresponding diffusion coefficients in each MLT sector (1 hour resolution) for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves according to the new developed wave models. Compared with former parameterizations of chorus waves, the new parameterizations result in differences in diffusion coefficients that depend on energy and pitch angle. Utilizing obtained diffusion coefficients, lifetime of energetic electrons is parameterized accordingly. In addition, to investigate effects of obtained diffusion coefficients in different MLT sectors and under different geomagnetic conditions, we performed simulations using four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt simulations and validated results against observations.

  11. Standardization Process for Space Radiation Models Used for Space System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Daly, Eamonn; Brautigam, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The space system design community has three concerns related to models of the radiation belts and plasma: 1) AP-8 and AE-8 models are not adequate for modern applications; 2) Data that have become available since the creation of AP-8 and AE-8 are not being fully exploited for modeling purposes; 3) When new models are produced, there is no authorizing organization identified to evaluate the models or their datasets for accuracy and robustness. This viewgraph presentation provided an overview of the roadmap adopted by the Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models.

  12. Ecopa: actual status and plans.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Ecopa, the European Consensus Platform on alternatives, is an international not-for-profit organization, based in Belgium and complying with Belgium law. It is the only quadripartite organization at EU level, which is promoting the 3R-Alternatives at the European level. Ecopa brings together National Consensus Platforms on alternative methods. Consensus means that all parties concerned are represented: animal welfare, industry, academia and governmental institutions. Ecopa actually counts 14 National Platforms of Member States (or future Member States), (8 full members, platforms of Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom and six associate members being Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Norway, Poland and Sweden) and has three working groups. The fields of interest of these working groups change according to the needs and were until now concerned with (i) the 6th Framework Programme of the EC for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities, (ii) the EC White Paper Strategy for a Future EU Chemicals Policy and (iii) the formation & educational programmes on alternative methods. Ecopa is thus uniquely placed and has huge expertise to offer to the debate around scientific and politically-linked topics. It has to be considered a key stakeholder by the European Commission and Parliament (http://ecopa.vub.ac.be) or http://ecopa.tsx.org).

  13. [Actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Chousleb Mizrahi, Elias; Chousleb Kalach, Alberto; Shuchleib Chaba, Samuel

    2004-08-01

    Since the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1988, the management of gall-bladder disease has changed importantly. This technique was rapidly popularized in the U.S. as well as in Europe. Multiple studies have proved its feasibility, safeness and great advantages. Analyze usefulness and recent advances of endoscopic surgery in the management of gallbladder disease. We did a review of the recent medical literature to determine the actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in the digestive tract. During the year 2001, 1,100,000 cholecystectomies were done in the U.S., 85% were done laparoscopically. In Mexico cholecystectomy in government hospitals is done laparoscopically in 50% of the cases, while in private hospitals it reaches 90%. There are multiple prospective controlled studies showing superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in times of recovery, costs, return to normal activity, pain, morbidity, esthetics among other advantages. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the treatment of the great majority of cases of gallbladder disease, nevertheless in developing countries open cholecystectomy is still done frequently.

  14. The Response of a Spectral General Circulation Model to Refinements in Radiative Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Pitcher, Eric J.; Malone, Robert C.; Blackmon, Maurice L.

    1983-03-01

    We present here results and analyses of a series of numerical experiments performed with a spectral general circulation model (GCM). The purpose of the GCM experiments is to examine the role of radiation/cloud processes in the general circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere. The experiments were primarily motivated by the significant improvements in the GCM zonal mean simulation as refinements were made in the model treatment of clear-sky radiation and cloud-radiative interactions. The GCM with the improved cloud/radiation model is able to reproduce many observed features, such as: a clear separation between the wintertime tropospheric jet and the polar night jet; winter polar stratospheric temperatures of about 200 K; interhemispheric and seasonal asymmetries in the zonal winds.In a set of sensitivity experiments, we have stripped the cloud/radiation model of its improvements, the result being a significant degradation of the zonal mean simulations by the GCM. Through these experiments we have been able to identify the processes that are responsible for the improved GCM simulations: (i) careful treatment of the upper boundary condition for O3 solar heating; (ii) temperature dependence of longwave cooling by CO2 15 m bands., (iii) vertical distribution of H2O that minimizes the lower stratospheric H2O longwave cooling; (iv) dependence of cirrus emissivity on cloud liquid water content.Comparison of the GCM simulations, with and without the cloud/radiation improvements, reveals the nature and magnitude of the following radiative-dynamical interactions: (i) the temperature decrease (due to errors in radiative heating) within the winter polar stratosphere is much larger than can be accounted for by purely radiative adjustment; (ii) the role of dynamics in maintaining the winter polar stratosphere thermal structure is greatly diminished in the GCM with the degraded treatment of radiation; (iii) the radiative and radiative-dynamical response times of the

  15. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Han, Bing; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevatedmore » alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.« less

  16. Skill Assessment of a Spectral Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson, W.; Casey, Nancy W.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton, detrital material, and water absorb and scatter light spectrally. The Ocean- Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is intended to provide surface irradiance over the oceans with sufficient spectral resolution to support ocean ecology, biogeochemistry, and heat exchange investigations, and of sufficient duration to support inter-annual and decadal investigations. OASIM total surface irradiance (integrated 200 nm to 4 microns) was compared to in situ data and three publicly available global data products at monthly 1-degree resolution. OASIM spectrally-integrated surface irradiance had root mean square (RMS) difference= 20.1 W/sq m (about 11%), bias=1.6 W/sq m (about 0.8%), regression slope= 1.01 and correlation coefficient= 0.89, when compared to 2322 in situ observations. OASIM had the lowest bias of any of the global data products evaluated (ISCCP-FD, NCEP, and ISLSCP 11), and the best slope (nearest to unity). It had the second best RMS, and the third best correlation coefficient. OASIM total surface irradiance compared well with ISCCP-FD (RMS= 20.7 W/sq m; bias=-11.4 W/sq m, r=0.98) and ISLSCP II (RMS =25.2 W/sq m; bias= -13.8 W/sq m; r=0.97), but less well with NCEP (RMS =43.0 W/sq m ;bias=-22.6 W/sq m; x=0.91). Comparisons of OASIM photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) with PAR derived from SeaWiFS showed low bias (-1.8 mol photons /sq m/d, or about 5%), RMS (4.25 mol photons /sq m/d ' or about 12%), near unity slope (1.03) and high correlation coefficient (0.97). Coupled with previous estimates of clear sky spectral irradiance in OASIM (6.6% RMS at 1 nm resolution), these results suggest that OASIM provides reasonable estimates of surface broadband and spectral irradiance in the oceans, and can support studies on ocean ecosystems, carbon cycling, and heat exchange.

  17. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  18. Ethylene Decomposition Initiated by Ultraviolet Radiation from Low Pressure Mercury Lamps: Kinetics Model Prediction and Experimental Verification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwiak, Zbigniew Boguslaw

    1995-01-01

    Ethylene is an important auto-catalytic plant growth hormone. Removal of ethylene from the atmosphere surrounding ethylene-sensitive horticultural products may be very beneficial, allowing an extended period of storage and preventing or delaying the induction of disorders. Various ethylene removal techniques have been studied and put into practice. One technique is based on using low pressure mercury ultraviolet lamps as a source of photochemical energy to initiate chemical reactions that destroy ethylene. Although previous research showed that ethylene disappeared in experiments with mercury ultraviolet lamps, the reactions were not described and the actual cause of ethylene disappearance remained unknown. Proposed causes for this disappearance were the direct action of ultraviolet rays on ethylene, reaction of ethylene with ozone (which is formed when air or gas containing molecular oxygen is exposed to radiation emitted by this type of lamp), or reactions with atomic oxygen leading to formation of ozone. The objective of the present study was to determine the set of physical and chemical actions leading to the disappearance of ethylene from artificial storage atmosphere under conditions of ultraviolet irradiation. The goal was achieved by developing a static chemical model based on the physical properties of a commercially available ultraviolet lamp, the photochemistry of gases, and the kinetics of chemical reactions. The model was used to perform computer simulations predicting time dependent concentrations of chemical species included in the model. Development of the model was accompanied by the design of a reaction chamber used for experimental verification. The model provided a good prediction of the general behavior of the species involved in the chemistry under consideration; however the model predicted lower than measured rate of ethylene disappearance. Some reasons for the model -experiment disagreement are radiation intensity averaging, the experimental

  19. Impact of state-specific flowfield modeling on atomic nitrogen radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Panesi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    A hypersonic flowfield model that treats electronic levels of the dominant afterbody radiator N as individual species is presented. This model allows electron-ion recombination rate and two-temperature modeling improvements, the latter which are shown to decrease afterbody radiative heating by up to 30%. This decrease is primarily due to the addition of the electron-impact excitation energy-exchange term to the energy equation governing the vibrational-electronic electron temperature. This model also allows the validity of the often applied quasi-steady-state (QSS) approximation to be assessed. The QSS approximation is shown to fail throughout most of the afterbody region for lower electronic states, although this impacts the radiative intensity reaching the surface by less than 15%. By computing the electronic-state populations of N within the flowfield solver, instead of through the QSS approximation in the radiation solver, the coupling of nonlocal radiative transition rates to the species continuity equations becomes feasible. Implementation of this higher-fidelity level of coupling between the flowfield and radiation solvers is shown to increase the afterbody radiation by up to 50% relative to the conventional model.

  20. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B.; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk.

  1. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiative Heat Transfer modelling in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Chandan; Sircar, Arpan; Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian

    Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for amore » heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.« less

  3. Combined Injury Modeling: Radiation and Burn Workshop Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    the effects manifest from 6-12 months post exposure, which is later than the lung and GI effects. Liver effects may also play a prominent role...when radiation exposure is combined with burn. For instance, in the Chernobyl accident, hepatic encephalopathy was a major cause of death in patients

  4. Modeling Trends in Tropospheric Aerosol Burden & Its Radiative Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large changes in emissions of aerosol precursors have occurred across the southeast U.S., North America, as well as the northern hemisphere. The spatial heterogeneity and contrasting trends in the aerosol burden is resulting in differing effects on regional radiative balance. Mul...

  5. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  6. Use of Existing CAD Models for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Barzilla, J. E.; Wilson, P.; Davis, A.; Zachman, J.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of a radiation exposure analysis depends not only on the accuracy of the underlying particle transport code, but also on the accuracy of the geometric representations of both the vehicle used as radiation shielding mass and the phantom representation of the human form. The current NASA/Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) process to determine crew radiation exposure in a vehicle design incorporates both output from an analytic High Z and Energy Particle Transport (HZETRN) code and the properties (i.e., material thicknesses) of a previously processed drawing. This geometry pre-process can be time-consuming, and the results are less accurate than those determined using a Monte Carlo-based particle transport code. The current work aims to improve this process. Although several Monte Carlo programs (FLUKA, Geant4) are readily available, most use an internal geometry engine. The lack of an interface with the standard CAD formats used by the vehicle designers limits the ability of the user to communicate complex geometries. Translation of native CAD drawings into a format readable by these transport programs is time consuming and prone to error. The Direct Accelerated Geometry -United (DAGU) project is intended to provide an interface between the native vehicle or phantom CAD geometry and multiple particle transport codes to minimize problem setup, computing time and analysis error.

  7. [Theoretical grounds of a structural and functional model for quality assurance of radiation diagnostics under conditions of development of the modern health care system in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Korop, Oleg A; Lenskykh, Sergiy V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Modern changes in the health care system of Ukraine are focused on financial support in providing medical and diagnostic care to the population and are based on deep and consistent structural and functional transformations. They are aimed at providing adequate quality care, which is the main target function and a principal criterion for operation of health care system. The urgency of this problem is increasing in the context of reforming the health care system and global changes in the governmental financial guarantees for the provision of medical services to the population. The aim of the work is to provide theoretical grounds for a structural and functional model of quality assurance of radiation diagnostics at all levels of medical care given to the population under the current health care reform in Ukraine. Materials and methods: The object of the study is organizing the operation of the radiation diagnostic service; the information is based on the actual data on the characteristics of radiation diagnosis at different levels of medical care provision. Methods of systematic approach, system analysis and structural and functional analysis of the operating system of radiation diagnostics are used. Review: The basis of the quality assurance model is the cyclical process, which includes the stages of the problem identifition, planning of its solution, organization of the system for implementation of decisions, monitoring the quality management process of the radiation diagnostics, and factors influencing the quality of the radiation diagnostics service. These factors include the quality of the structure, process, results, organization of management and control of current processes and the results of radiation diagnostics management. Conclusions: The advantages of the proposed model for ensuring the quality of the radiation diagnostics service are its systemacy and complexity, elimination of identified defects and deficiencies, and achievement of

  8. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  9. Modeling and characterization of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner and scanner sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is making high-absolute-accuracy measurements of the reflected solar and Earth-emitted radiation as well as the incoming solar radiation from three satellites: ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10. Each satellite has four Earth-looking nonscanning radiometers and three scanning radiometers. A fifth nonscanner, the solar monitor, measures the incoming solar radiation. The development of the ERBE sensor characterization procedures are described using the calibration data for each of the Earth-looking nonscanners and scanners. Sensor models for the ERBE radiometers are developed including the radiative exchange, conductive heat flow, and electronics processing for transient and steady state conditions. The steady state models are used to interpret the sensor outputs, resulting in the data reduction algorithms for the ERBE instruments. Both ground calibration and flight calibration procedures are treated and analyzed. The ground and flight calibration coefficients for the data reduction algorithms are presented.

  10. The radiative impact of cumulus cloudiness in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, C. H.; Randall, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cumulus cloudiness on the radiational heating and, on other aspects of the climate were simulated by the GLAS Climate Model. An experiment in which the cumulus cloudiness is neglected completely for purposes of the solar and terrestrial radiation parameterizations was performed. The results are compared with those of a control run, in which 100% cumulus cloud cover is assumed. The net solar radiation input into the Earth atmosphere system is more realistic in the experiment, and the model's underprediction of the global mean outgoing thermal radiation at the top of the atmosphere is reduced. The results suggest that there is a positive feedback between cumulus convection and the radiation field. The upper troposphere is warmer in the experiment, the surface air temperature increases over land, and the thermal lows over the continents intensity.

  11. New empirically-derived solar radiation pressure model for GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Y.; Kuang, D.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure force is the second largest perturbation acting on GPS satellites, after the gravitational attraction from the Earth, Sun, and Moon. It is the largest error source in the modeling of GPS orbital dynamics.

  12. Introducing Subrid-scale Cloud Feedbacks to Radiation for Regional Meteorological and Cllimate Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Convection systems and associated cloudiness directly influence regional and local radiation budgets, and dynamics and thermodynamics through feedbacks. However, most subgrid-scale convective parameterizations in regional weather and climate models do not consider cumulus cloud ...

  13. Comparison of radiation parametrizations within the HARMONIE-AROME NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, Laura; Lindfors, Anders V.

    2018-05-01

    Downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface (SWDS, global solar radiation flux), given by three different parametrization schemes, was compared to observations in the HARMONIE-AROME numerical weather prediction (NWP) model experiments over Finland in spring 2017. Simulated fluxes agreed well with each other and with the observations in the clear-sky cases. In the cloudy-sky conditions, all schemes tended to underestimate SWDS at the daily level, as compared to the measurements. Large local and temporal differences between the model results and observations were seen, related to the variations and uncertainty of the predicted cloud properties. The results suggest a possibility to benefit from the use of different radiative transfer parametrizations in a NWP model to obtain perturbations for the fine-resolution ensemble prediction systems. In addition, we recommend usage of the global radiation observations for the standard validation of the NWP models.

  14. TRANSPORT, RADIATIVE, AND DYNAMICAL EFFECTS OF THE ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE: A GFDL "SKYHI" MODEL EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The GFDL 'SKYHI' general circulation model has been used to simulate the effect of the Antarctic "ozone hole" phenomenon on the radiative and dynamical environment of the lower stratosphere. oth the polar ozone destruction and photochemical restoration chemistries are calculated ...

  15. REE radiation fault model: a tool for organizing and communication radiation test data and construction COTS based spacebourne computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Some, R.

    2002-01-01

    The growth in data rates of instruments on future NASA spacecraft continues to outstrip the improvement in communications bandwidth and processing capabilities of radiation-hardened computers. Sophisticated autonomous operations strategies will further increase the processing workload. Given the reductions in spacecraft size and available power, standard radiation hardened computing systems alone will not be able to address the requirements of future missions. The REE project was intended to overcome this obstacle by developing a COTS- based supercomputer suitable for use as a science and autonomy data processor in most space environments. This development required a detailed knowledge of system behavior in the presence of Single Event Effect (SEE) induced faults so that mitigation strategies could be designed to recover system level reliability while maintaining the COTS throughput advantage. The REE project has developed a suite of tools and a methodology for predicting SEU induced transient fault rates in a range of natural space environments from ground-based radiation testing of component parts. In this paper we provide an overview of this methodology and tool set with a concentration on the radiation fault model and its use in the REE system development methodology. Using test data reported elsewhere in this and other conferences, we predict upset rates for a particular COTS single board computer configuration in several space environments.

  16. Mathematical modeling of radiative-conductive heat transfer in semitransparent medium with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvinova, Nadezhda A.; Sleptsov, Semen D.; Rubtsov, Nikolai A.

    2017-11-01

    A mathematical phase change model is a formulation of the Stefan problem. Various formulations of the Stefan problem modeling of radiative-conductive heat transfer during melting or solidification of a semitransparent material are presented. Analysis of numerical results show that the radiative heat transfer has a significant effect on temperature distributions during melting (solidification) of the semitransparent material. In this paper conditions for application of various statements of the Stefan problem are analyzed.

  17. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 – “How does the Earth system respond to forcing?” – suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment ofmore » the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present. Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. In conclusion, the search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.« less

  18. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-09-27

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 – “How does the Earth system respond to forcing?” – suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment ofmore » the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present. Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. In conclusion, the search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.« less

  19. Improvement and Application of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for Prediction of the Climatic Effects of Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models. To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications, we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  20. Improvement and Application of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for Prediction of the Climatic Effects of Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models. To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  1. Modeling the Interaction of Radiation Between Vegetation and the Seasonal Snowcover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribbeck, M. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Morris, E. M.; Pearson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Prediction of meltwater runoff is crucial to communities where the seasonal snowpack is the major water supply. Water is itself a vital resource and it carries nutrients both in solution and in suspension. Simulation of snowpack depletion at a point in open areas has previously been shown to produce accurate results using physically based models such as SNTHERM. However, the radiation balance is more complex under a forest canopy as radiation is scattered and absorbed by canopy elements. This can alter the timing and magnitude of snowpack runoff substantially. The interaction of radiation between a forest canopy and its underlying snowcover is modeled by the coupling of a physically based snow model and an optical and thermal radiation canopy model. The snow model, which is based on SNTHERM (Jordan, 1991), is a discrete, multi-layer, one-dimensional mass and energy budget model for snow and is formulated with an adaptive grid system that compresses with the compacting snowpack and allows retention of snowpack stratigraphy. The vegetation canopy model approximates the canopy as a series of discrete, randomly orientated elements that scatter and absorb optical and thermal radiation. Multiple scattering of radiation between canopy and snow surface is modeled to conserve energy. The coupled model SNOWCAN differs from other vegetation-snow models such as GORT or SNOBAL as it models the albedo feedback mechanism. This is important as the albedo both affects and is affected by (through grain growth) the radiation balance. SNOWCAN is driven by standard atmospheric variables (including incident solar and thermal radiation) measured outside of the canopy and simulates snowpack properties such as temperature and density profiles as well as the sub-canopy radiation balance. The coupled snow and vegetation energy budget model was used to simulate snow depth at an old jack pine site during the 1994 BOREAS campaign. Measured and simulated snow depth showed good agreement

  2. Principles of the radiosity method versus radiative transfer for canopy reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstl, Siegfried A. W.; Borel, Christoph C.

    1992-01-01

    The radiosity method is introduced to plant canopy reflectance modeling. We review the physics principles of the radiosity method which originates in thermal radiative transfer analyses when hot and cold surfaces are considered within a given enclosure. The radiosity equation, which is an energy balance equation for discrete surfaces, is described and contrasted with the radiative transfer equation, which is a volumetric energy balance equation. Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the radiosity method and the radiative transfer method, we conclude that both methods are complementary to each other. Results of sample calculations are given for canopy models with up to 20,000 discrete leaves.

  3. Physical-mathematical model of optical radiation interaction with biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Kolisnik, Peter F.; Zlepko, Sergey M.; Titova, Natalia V.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Omiotek, Zbigniew; Kozhambardiyeva, Miergul; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan

    2017-08-01

    Remote photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging is an optical technique to remotely assess the local coetaneous microcirculation. In this paper, we present a model and supporting experiments confirming the contribution of skin inhomogeneity to the morphology of PPG waveforms. The physical-mathematical model of distribution of optical radiation in biological tissues was developed. It allows determining the change of intensity of optical radiation depending on such parameters as installation angle of the sensor, biological tissue thickness and the wavelength. We obtained graphics which represent changes of the optical radiation intensity that is registered by photodetector depending on installation angle of the sensor, biological tissue thickness and the extinction coefficient.

  4. Pathophysiological Responses in Rat and Mouse Models of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lianhong; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Guoqian; Li, Yi; Wu, Rong; Cheng, Jinping; Tang, Yamei

    2017-03-01

    The brain is the major dose-limiting organ in patients undergoing radiotherapy for assorted conditions. Radiation-induced brain injury is common and mainly occurs in patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant head and neck tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or lung cancer-derived brain metastases. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury are largely unknown. Although many treatment strategies are employed for affected individuals, the effects remain suboptimal. Accordingly, animal models are extremely important for elucidating pathogenic radiation-associated mechanisms and for developing more efficacious therapies. So far, models employing various animal species with different radiation dosages and fractions have been introduced to investigate the prevention, mechanisms, early detection, and management of radiation-induced brain injury. However, these models all have limitations, and none are widely accepted. This review summarizes the animal models currently set forth for studies of radiation-induced brain injury, especially rat and mouse, as well as radiation dosages, dose fractionation, and secondary pathophysiological responses.

  5. The effect of soot modeling on thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirev, A.; Kokovina, E.; Tsoy, A.; Harris, J.; Wu, T.

    2016-09-01

    Radiative impact of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames is the driving force in fire development. Radiation emission and re-absorption is controlled by gaseous combustion products, mainly CO2 and H2O, and by soot. Relative contribution of gas and soot radiation depends on the fuel sooting propensity and on soot distribution in the flame. Soot modeling approaches incorporated in big commercial codes were developed and calibrated for momentum-dominated jet flames, and these approaches must be re-evaluated when applied to the buoyant flames occurring in fires. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of the soot models available in ANSYS FLUENT on the predictions of the radiative fluxes produced by the buoyant turbulent diffusion flames with considerably different soot yields. By means of large eddy simulations, we assess capability of the Moss-Brooks soot formation model combined with two soot oxidation submodels to predict methane- and heptane-fuelled fires, for which radiative flux measurements are available in the literature. We demonstrate that the soot oxidation models could be equally important as soot formation ones to predict the soot yield in the overfire region. Contribution of soot in the radiation emission by the flame is also examined, and predicted radiative fluxes are compared to published experimental data.

  6. Spatial radiation environment in a heterogeneous oak woodland using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model and multiple constraints from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Ryu, Y.; Ustin, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    B15: Remote Characterization of Vegetation Structure: Including Research to Inform the Planned NASA DESDynI and ESA BIOMASS Missions Title: Spatial radiation environment in a heterogeneous oak woodland using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model and multiple constraints from observations Hideki Kobayashi, Youngryel Ryu, Susan Ustin, and Dennis Baldocchi Abstract Accurate evaluations of radiation environments of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared wavebands in forest canopies are important to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Californian oak woodlands are sparse and highly clumped so that radiation environments are extremely heterogeneous spatially. The heterogeneity of radiation environments also varies with wavebands which depend on scattering and emission properties. So far, most of modeling studies have been performed in one dimensional radiative transfer models with (or without) clumping effect in the forest canopies. While some studies have been performed by using three dimensional radiative transfer models, several issues are still unresolved. For example, some 3D models calculate the radiation field with individual tree basis, and radiation interactions among trees are not considered. This interaction could be important in the highly scattering waveband such as near infrared. The objective of this study is to quantify the radiation field in the oak woodland. We developed a three dimensional radiative transfer model, which includes the thermal waveband. Soil/canopy energy balances and canopy physiology models, CANOAK, are incorporated in the radiative transfer model to simulate the diurnal patterns of thermal radiation fields and canopy physiology. Airborne LiDAR and canopy gap data measured by the several methods (digital photographs and plant canopy analyzer) were used to constrain the forest structures such as tree positions, crown sizes and leaf area density. Modeling results were tested by a traversing radiometer system that

  7. Modelling thermal radiation from one-meter diameter methane pool fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.

    2012-06-01

    The first objective of this article is to implement a comprehensive radiation model in order to predict the radiant fractions and radiative fluxes on remote surfaces in large-scale methane pool fires. The second aim is to quantify the importance of Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRIs) in such buoyant flames. The fire-induced flow is modelled by using a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model and the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed probability density function (pdf) approach. Spectral radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. TRIs are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). The emission term and the mean absorption coefficient are closed by using a presumed pdf of the mixture fraction, scalar dissipation rate and enthalpy defect. Two 1m-diameter fires with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 49 kW and 162 kW were simulated. Predicted radiant fractions and radiative heat fluxes are found in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The importance of TRIs is evidenced, computed radiant fractions and radiative heat fluxes being considerably higher than those obtained from calculations based on mean properties. Finally, model results show that the complete absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation should be considered in order to properly take into account the influence of TRIs on the emission term, whereas the absorption coefficient self-correlation in the absorption term reduces significantly the radiant fractions.

  8. Nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models for aerocapture vehicle flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1991-01-01

    The primary tasks performed are: (1) the development of a second order local thermodynamic nonequilibrium (LTNE) model for atoms; (2) the continued development of vibrational nonequilibrium models; and (3) the development of a new multicomponent diffusion model. In addition, studies comparing these new models with previous models and results were conducted and reported.

  9. Actually, What Is an Actuary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Susan; Finkelstein, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The actuarial profession is described to provide secondary school mathematics teachers insights into how actuaries use mathematics in solving real life problems. Examples are provided involving compound interest, the probability of dying, and inflation with computer modeling. (MDH)

  10. Models of CNS radiation damage during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopewell, J. W.

    1994-10-01

    The primary structural and functional arrangement of the different cell types within the CNS are reviewed. This was undertaken with a view to providing a better understanding of the complex interrelationships that may contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions in this tissue after exposure to ionizing radiation. The spectrum of possible CNS radiation-induced syndromes are discussed although not all have an immediate relevance to exposure during space flight. The specific characteristics of the lesions observed would appear to be dose related. Very high doses may produce an acute CNS syndrome that can cause death. Of the delayed lesions, selective coagulation necrosis of white matter and a later appearing vascular microangiopathy, have been reported in patients after cancer therapy doses. Lower doses, perhaps very low doses, may produce a delayed generalised CNS atrophy; this effect and the probability of the induction of CNS tumors could potentially have the greatest significance for space flight.

  11. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-07

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model.

  12. Simplified multiple scattering model for radiative transfer in turbid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghovanlou, A. H.; Gupta, G. N.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative analytical procedures for relating selected water quality parameters to the characteristics of the backscattered signals, measured by remote sensors, require the solution of the radiative transport equation in turbid media. Presented is an approximate closed form solution of this equation and based on this solution, the remote sensing of sediments is discussed. The results are compared with other standard closed form solutions such as quasi-single scattering approximations.

  13. Radiative Heat Transfer Modeling in Fibrous Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic-Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system material for successful atmospheric entries. The objective of the current work is to compute the effective radiative conductivity of fibrous porous media, such as preforms used to make PICA, to enable the efficient design of materials that can meet the thermal performance goals of forthcoming space exploration missions.

  14. Blood and small intestine cell kinetics under radiation exposures: Mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biophysical models, which describe the dynamics of vital body systems (namely, hematopoiesis and small intestinal epithelium) in mammals exposed to acute and chronic radiation, are developed. These models, based on conventional biological theories, are realized as the systems of nonlinear differential equations. Their variables and constant parameters have real biological meaning, that provides successful identification and verification of the models in hand. The explanation of a number of radiobiological effects, including those of the low-level long-term exposures, is proposed proceeding from the modeling results. It is proved that the predictions the models agree with the respective experimental data at both qualitative and quantitative levels. All this testifies to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in investigation and prediction of radiation effects on the hematopoietic and small intestinal epithelium systems, that can be used for the radiation risk assessment in the long-term space missions such as lunar colony and Mars voyage.

  15. Estimating crop biophysical properties from remote sensing data by inverting linked radiative transfer and ecophysiological models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology can rapidly provide spatial information on crop growth status, which ideally could be used to invert radiative transfer models or ecophysiological models for estimating a variety of crop biophysical properties. However, the outcome of the model inversion procedure will be ...

  16. Estimation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) from OCEANSAT-I OCM using a simple atmospheric radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Madhumita; Raman, Mini; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is an important variable for radiation budget, marine and terrestrial ecosystem models. OCEANSAT-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) PAR was estimated using two different methods under both clear and cloudy sky conditions. In the first approach, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud optical depth (COD) were estimated from OCEANSAT-1 OCM TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance data on a pixel by pixel basis and PAR was estimated from extraterrestrial solar flux for fifteen spectral bands using a radiative transfer model. The second approach used TOA radiances measured by OCM in the PAR spectral range to compute PAR. This approach also included surface albedo and cloud albedo as inputs. Comparison between OCEANSAT-1 OCM PAR at noon with in situ measured PAR shows that root mean square difference was 5.82% for the method I and 7.24% for the method II in daily time scales. Results indicate that methodology adopted to estimate PAR from OCEANSAT-1 OCM can produce reasonably accurate PAR estimates over the tropical Indian Ocean region. This approach can be extended to OCEANSAT-2 OCM and future OCEANSAT-3 OCM data for operational estimation of PAR for regional marine ecosystem applications.

  17. Using Radiation Risk Models in Cancer Screening Simulations: Important Assumptions and Effects on Outcome Projections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janie M.; McMahon, Pamela M.; Lowry, Kathryn P.; Omer, Zehra B.; Eisenberg, Jonathan D.; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of incorporating radiation risk into microsimulation (first-order Monte Carlo) models for breast and lung cancer screening to illustrate effects of including radiation risk on patient outcome projections. Materials and Methods: All data used in this study were derived from publicly available or deidentified human subject data. Institutional review board approval was not required. The challenges of incorporating radiation risk into simulation models are illustrated with two cancer screening models (Breast Cancer Model and Lung Cancer Policy Model) adapted to include radiation exposure effects from mammography and chest computed tomography (CT), respectively. The primary outcome projected by the breast model was life expectancy (LE) for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Digital mammographic screening beginning at ages 25, 30, 35, and 40 years was evaluated in the context of screenings with false-positive results and radiation exposure effects. The primary outcome of the lung model was lung cancer–specific mortality reduction due to annual screening, comparing two diagnostic CT protocols for lung nodule evaluation. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm was used to estimate the mean values of the results with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Results: Without radiation exposure effects, the breast model indicated that annual digital mammography starting at age 25 years maximized LE (72.03 years; 95% UI: 72.01 years, 72.05 years) and had the highest number of screenings with false-positive results (2.0 per woman). When radiation effects were included, annual digital mammography beginning at age 30 years maximized LE (71.90 years; 95% UI: 71.87 years, 71.94 years) with a lower number of screenings with false-positive results (1.4 per woman). For annual chest CT screening of 50-year-old females with no follow-up for nodules smaller than 4 mm in diameter, the lung model predicted lung cancer–specific mortality reduction of 21.50% (95% UI: 20.90%, 22

  18. Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Blattnig, Steve; Slaba, Tony; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Solomon, Stan

    NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as an engineering design tool for materials research for radiation shielding protection. Moreover, it is used to calculate HZE propagation through the Earth and Martian atmospheres, and to evaluate radiation exposures for epidemiological studies. A new research project has begun that will use HZETRN as the transport engine for the development of a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure for both background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure and radiation exposure during solar particle events (SPE) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model, which utilizes real-time observations from ground-based, atmospheric, and satellite measurements. In this paper, we compute the global distribution of atmospheric radiation dose for several SPE events during solar cycle 23, with particular emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure.

  19. A prospective cohort study on radiation-induced hypothyroidism: development of an NTCP model.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Marjolein J; Bijl, Hendrik P; Christianen, Miranda E M C; Beetz, Ivo; Chouvalova, Olga; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-11-01

    To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measured during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Hypothyroidism was defined as elevated serum TSH with decreased or normal free thyroxin (T4). A multivariate logistic regression model with bootstrapping was used to determine the most important prognostic variables for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Thirty-five patients (33%) developed primary hypothyroidism within 2 years after radiation therapy. An NTCP model based on 2 variables, including the mean thyroid gland dose and the thyroid gland volume, was most predictive for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. NTCP values increased with higher mean thyroid gland dose (odds ratio [OR]: 1.064/Gy) and decreased with higher thyroid gland volume (OR: 0.826/cm(3)). Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85. This is the first prospective study resulting in an NTCP model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The probability of hypothyroidism rises with increasing dose to the thyroid gland, whereas it reduces with increasing thyroid gland volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometry and mass model of ionizing radiation experiments on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive measurements related to ionizing radiation environments and effects were made on the LDEF satellite during its mission lifetime of almost 6 years. These data, together with the opportunity they provide for evaluating predictive models and analysis methods, should allow more accurate assessments of the space radiation environment and related effects for future missions in low Earth orbit. The LDEF radiation dosimetry data is influenced to varying degrees by material shielding effects due to the dosimeter itself, nearby components and experiments, and the spacecraft structure. A geometry and mass model is generated of LDEF, incorporating sufficient detail that it can be applied in determining the influence of material shielding on ionizing radiation measurements and predictions. This model can be used as an aid in data interpretation by unfolding shielding effects from the LDEF radiation dosimeter responses. Use of the LDEF geometry/mass model, in conjunction with predictions and comparisons with LDEF dosimetry data currently underway, will also allow more definitive evaluations of current radiation models for future mission applications.

  1. Entanglement in a model for Hawking radiation: An application of quadratic algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bambah, Bindu A., E-mail: bbsp@uohyd.ernet.in; Mukku, C., E-mail: mukku@iiit.ac.in; Shreecharan, T., E-mail: shreecharan@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    Quadratic polynomially deformed su(1,1) and su(2) algebras are utilized in model Hamiltonians to show how the gravitational system consisting of a black hole, infalling radiation and outgoing (Hawking) radiation can be solved exactly. The models allow us to study the long-time behaviour of the black hole and its outgoing modes. In particular, we calculate the bipartite entanglement entropies of subsystems consisting of (a) infalling plus outgoing modes and (b) black hole modes plus the infalling modes, using the Janus-faced nature of the model. The long-time behaviour also gives us glimpses of modifications in the character of Hawking radiation. Finally, wemore » study the phenomenon of superradiance in our model in analogy with atomic Dicke superradiance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine a toy model for Hawking radiation with quantized black hole modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use quadratic polynomially deformed su(1,1) algebras to study its entanglement properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the 'Dicke Superradiance' in black hole radiation using quadratically deformed su(2) algebras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the modification of the thermal character of Hawking radiation due to quantized black hole modes.« less

  2. Applicability of ASHRAE clear-sky model based on solar-radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhashish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The constants of the ASHRAE clear sky model predict high values of the hourly beam radiation and very low values of the hourly diffuse radiation when used for locations in Saudi Arabia. Eight measurement stations in different locations are used to obtain new clearness factors for the model. The procedure depends on the comparison of monthly direct normal radiation (DNI) and diffuse horizontal radiation (DHI) between the measurement and the calculated values. Two factors are obtained CNb, CNd for every month to adjust the calculated clear sky radiation in order to consider the effects of local weather conditions. A simple and practical simulation model for solar geometry is designed using Microsoft Visual Basic platform, the model simulates the solar angles and radiation components according to ASHRAE model. The comparison of the calculated data with the first year of measurements indicate that the attenuation of site clearness is variable across the locations and from month to month, showing the clearest skies in the north and northwestern parts of the Kingdom especially during summer months.

  3. A Prospective Cohort Study on Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism: Development of an NTCP Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Christianen, Miranda E.M.C.

    Purpose: To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measured during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Hypothyroidism was defined as elevated serum TSH with decreased or normal free thyroxin (T4). A multivariate logistic regression model with bootstrapping was used to determine the most important prognostic variables for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Results: Thirty-five patients (33%) developed primary hypothyroidism within 2 years after radiation therapy. An NTCP model based on 2 variables, including the mean thyroidmore » gland dose and the thyroid gland volume, was most predictive for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. NTCP values increased with higher mean thyroid gland dose (odds ratio [OR]: 1.064/Gy) and decreased with higher thyroid gland volume (OR: 0.826/cm{sup 3}). Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85. Conclusions: This is the first prospective study resulting in an NTCP model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The probability of hypothyroidism rises with increasing dose to the thyroid gland, whereas it reduces with increasing thyroid gland volume.« less

  4. Assessing the Current Status of Atmospheric Radiation Modelling: Progress, Challenges and the Needs for the Next Generation of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Copeland, K.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Nowicki, S.; Atwell, W.; Benton, E. R.; Wilkins, R.; Hands, A.; Gronoff, G.; Meier, M. M.; Schwadron, N.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its potential for causing a wide range of harmful effects, including health hazards to airline passengers and damage to aircraft and satellite electronics, atmospheric radiation remains a relatively poorly defined risk, lacking sufficient measurements and modelling to fully evaluate the dangers posed. While our reliance on airline travel has increased dramatically over time, there remains an absence of international guidance and standards to protect aircraft passengers from potential health impacts due to radiation exposure. This subject has been gaining traction within the scientific community in recent years, with an expanding number of models with increasing capabilities being made available to evaluate atmospheric radiation hazards. We provide a general description of these modelling efforts, including the physics and methods used by the models, as well as their data inputs and outputs. We also discuss the current capacity for model validation via measurements and discuss the needs for the next generation of models, both in terms of their capabilities and the measurements required to validate them. This review of the status of atmospheric radiation modelling is part of a larger series of studies made as part of the SAFESKY program, with other efforts focusing on the underlying physics and implications, measurements and regulations/standards of atmospheric radiation.

  5. Analytical-HZETRN Model for Rapid Assessment of Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than 15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.

  6. NUEN-618 Class Project: Actually Implicit Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, R. M.; Brunner, T. A.

    2017-12-14

    This research describes a new method for the solution of the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations that is implicit in time which will be called Actually Implicit Monte Carlo (AIMC). This section aims to introduce the TRT equations, as well as the current workhorse method which is known as Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). As the name of the method proposed here indicates, IMC is a misnomer in that it is only semi-implicit, which will be shown in this section as well.

  7. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  8. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. II. Multidimensional, Radiation-Hydrodynamics Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi

    2011-01-01

    We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.

  9. STARLIFE-An International Campaign to Study the Role of Galactic Cosmic Radiation in Astrobiological Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Leuko, Stefan; Berger, Thomas; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Fujimori, Akira; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Horneck, Gerda

    2017-02-01

    In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum. Low- and high-energy charged particle radiation experiments have been conducted at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. X-rays or γ rays were used as reference radiation at the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne, Germany) or Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS, Wiehl, Germany) to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. All samples were exposed under identical conditions to the same dose and qualities of ionizing radiation (i) allowing a direct comparison between the tested specimens and (ii) providing information on the impact of the space radiation environment on currently used astrobiological model organisms. Key Words: Space radiation environment-Sparsely ionizing radiation-Densely ionizing radiation-Heavy ions-Gamma radiation-Astrobiological model systems. Astrobiology 17, 101-109.

  10. An assessment of some non-gray global radiation models in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulemans, J.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of several non-gray global gas/soot radiation models, namely the Wide-Band Correlated-K (WBCK) model, the Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model with one optimized gray gas (SLW-1), the (non-gray) Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) model with different sets of coefficients (Smith et al., Soufiani and Djavdan, Taylor and Foster) was assessed on several test cases from the literature. Non-isothermal (or isothermal) participating media containing non-homogeneous (or homogeneous) mixtures of water vapor, carbon dioxide and soot in one-dimensional planar enclosures and multi-dimensional rectangular enclosures were investigated. For all the considered test cases, a benchmark solution (LBL or SNB) was used in order to compute the relative error of each model on the predicted radiative source term and the wall net radiative heat flux.

  11. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  12. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  13. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  14. Intercomparison of Models Representing Direct Shortwave Radiative Forcing by Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, O.; Schwartz, S. E.; Ackerman, T. P.; Anderson, T. L.; Bergstrom, B.; Bonnel, B.; Dahlback, A.; Fouquart, Y.; Chylek, P.; Fu, Q.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The importance of aerosols as agents of climate change has recently been highlighted. However, the magnitude of aerosol forcing by scattering of shortwave radiation (direct forcing) is still very uncertain even for the relatively well characterized sulfate aerosol. A potential source of uncertainty is in the model representation of aerosol optical properties and aerosol influences on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. Although radiative transfer methods and codes have been compared in the past, these comparisons have not focused on aerosol forcing (change in net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere). Here we report results of a project involving 12 groups using 15 models to examine radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol for a wide range of values of particle radius, aerosol optical depth, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. Among the models that were employed were high and low spectral resolution models incorporating a variety of radiative transfer approximations as well as a line-by-line model. The normalized forcings (forcing per sulfate column burden) obtained with the several radiative transfer models were examined, and the discrepancies were characterized. All models simulate forcings of comparable amplitude and exhibit a similar dependence on input parameters. As expected for a non-light-absorbing aerosol, forcings were negative (cooling influence) except at high surface albedo combined with small solar zenith angle. The relative standard deviation of the zenith-angle-averaged normalized broadband forcing for 15 models-was 8% for particle radius near the maximum in this forcing (approx. 0.2 microns) and at low surface albedo. Somewhat greater model-to-model discrepancies were exhibited at specific solar zenith angles. Still greater discrepancies were exhibited at small particle radii and much greater discrepancies were exhibited at high surface albedos, at which the forcing changes sign; in these situations, however, the normalized forcing is

  15. Modeling of the radiation belt megnetosphere in decisional timeframes

    DOEpatents

    Koller, Josef; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H.W.

    2013-04-23

    Systems and methods for calculating L* in the magnetosphere with essentially the same accuracy as with a physics based model at many times the speed by developing a surrogate trained to be a surrogate for the physics-based model. The trained model can then beneficially process input data falling within the training range of the surrogate model. The surrogate model can be a feedforward neural network and the physics-based model can be the TSK03 model. Operatively, the surrogate model can use parameters on which the physics-based model was based, and/or spatial data for the location where L* is to be calculated. Surrogate models should be provided for each of a plurality of pitch angles. Accordingly, a surrogate model having a closed drift shell can be used from the plurality of models. The feedforward neural network can have a plurality of input-layer units, there being at least one input-layer unit for each physics-based model parameter, a plurality of hidden layer units and at least one output unit for the value of L*.

  16. TH-A-BRF-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY) - Modeling Tumor Evolution for Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Lee, CG; Chan, TCY

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop mathematical models of tumor geometry changes under radiotherapy that may support future adaptive paradigms. Methods: A total of 29 cervical patients were scanned using MRI, once for planning and weekly thereafter for treatment monitoring. Using the tumor volumes contoured by a radiologist, three mathematical models were investigated based on the assumption of a stochastic process of tumor evolution. The “weekly MRI” model predicts tumor geometry for the following week from the last two consecutive MRI scans, based on the voxel transition probability. The other two models use only the first pair of consecutive MRI scans, and themore » transition probabilities were estimated via tumor type classified from the entire data set. The classification is based on either measuring the tumor volume (the “weekly volume” model), or implementing an auxiliary “Markov chain” model. These models were compared to a constant volume approach that represents the current clinical practice, using various model parameters; e.g., the threshold probability β converts the probability map into a tumor shape (larger threshold implies smaller tumor). Model performance was measured using volume conformity index (VCI), i.e., the union of the actual target and modeled target volume squared divided by product of these two volumes. Results: The “weekly MRI” model outperforms the constant volume model by 26% on average, and by 103% for the worst 10% of cases in terms of VCI under a wide range of β. The “weekly volume” and “Markov chain” models outperform the constant volume model by 20% and 16% on average, respectively. They also perform better than the “weekly MRI” model when β is large. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that mathematical models can be developed to predict tumor geometry changes for cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy. The models can potentially support adaptive radiotherapy paradigm by reducing normal tissue dose. This

  17. Radiation transfer in plant canopies - Scattering of solar radiation and canopy reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verstraete, Michel M.

    1988-01-01

    The one-dimensional vertical model of radiation transfer in a plant canopy described by Verstraete (1987) is extended to account for the transfer of diffuse radiation. This improved model computes the absorption and scattering of both visible and near-infrared radiation in a multilayer canopy as a function of solar position and leaf orientation distribution. Multiple scattering is allowed, and the spectral reflectance of the vegetation stand is predicted. The results of the model are compared to those of other models and actual observations.

  18. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. A solar radiation model for use in climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1992-01-01

    A solar radiation routine is developed for use in climate studies that includes absorption and scattering due to ozone, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide, clouds, and aerosols. Rayleigh scattering is also included. Broadband parameterization is used to compute the absorption by water vapor in a clear atmosphere, and the k-distribution method is applied to compute fluxes in a scattering atmosphere. The reflectivity and transmissivity of a scattering layer are computed analytically using the delta-four-stream discrete-ordinate approximation. The two-stream adding method is then applied to compute fluxes for a composite of clear and scattering layers. Compared to the results of high spectral resolution and detailed multiple-scattering calculations, fluxes and heating rate are accurately computed to within a few percent. The high accuracy of the flux and heating-rate calculations is achieved with a reasonable amount of computing time. With the UV and visible region grouped into four bands, this solar radiation routine is useful not only for climate studies but also for studies on photolysis in the upper atmosphere and photosynthesis in the biosphere.

  20. A comparison of radiative transfer models for predicting the microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two general types of numerical models for predicting microwave emission from soils are compared-coherent and noncoherent. In the former, radiation in the soil is treated coherently, and the boundary conditions on the electric fields across the layer boundaries are used to calculate the radiation intensity. In the latter, the radiation is assumed to be noncoherent, and the intensities of the radiation are considered directly. The results of the two approaches may be different because of the effects of interference, which can cause the transmitted intensity at the surface (i.e., emissivity) to be sometimes higher and sometimes lower for the coherent case than for the noncoherent case, depending on the relative phases of reflected fields from the lower layers. This coupling between soil layers in the coherent models leads to greater soil moisture sampling depths observed with this type of model, and is the major difference that is found between the two types of models. In noncoherent models, the emissivity is determined by the dielectric constraint at the air/soil interface. The subsequent differences in the results are functions of both the frequency of the radiation being considered and the steepness of the moisture gradient near the surface. The calculations were performed at frequencies of 1.4 and 19.4 GHz and for two sets of soil profiles. Little difference was observed between the models at 19.4 GHz; and only at the lower frequency were differences apparent because of the greater soil moisture sampling depth at this frequency.

  1. A 3-dimensional DTI MRI-based model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Patel, Vishal; Wen, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most aggressive intra-axial brain tumor, with a notoriously poor prognosis. To improve this prognosis, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of GBM growth, response to treatment and recurrence. The present study presents a mathematical diffusion-proliferation model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy based on diffusion tensor (DTI) MRI imaging. This represents an important advance because it allows 3-dimensional tumor modeling in the anatomical context of the brain. Specifically, tumor infiltration is guided by the direction of the white matter tracts along which glioma cells infiltrate. This provides the potential to model different tumor growth patterns based on location within the brain, and to simulate the tumor's response to different radiation therapy regimens. Tumor infiltration across the corpus callosum is simulated in biologically accurate time frames. The response to radiation therapy, including changes in cell density gradients and how these compare across different radiation fractionation protocols, can be rendered. Also, the model can estimate the amount of subthreshold tumor which has extended beyond the visible MR imaging margins. When combined with the ability of being able to estimate the biological parameters of invasiveness and proliferation of a particular GBM from serial MRI scans, it is shown that the model has potential to simulate realistic tumor growth, response and recurrence patterns in individual patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a DTI-based GBM growth and radiation therapy treatment model.

  2. Modeling East Asian Dust and Its Radiative Feedbacks in CAM4-BAM

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaodong; Che, Huizheng; ...

    2018-01-18

    East Asian dust and its radiative feedbacks are analyzed by the use of the fourth version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) with a bulk aerosol model parameterization (BAM) for the dust size distribution (CAM4-BAM). Two numerical experiments are conducted and intercompared: one with (Active) and one without (Passive) the radiative effects of dust aerosols. This CAM4-BAM captures the main spatial distribution of the dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the dust surface concentrations over East Asia, with positive correlations with the local observational data on annual and seasonal means. A comparative analysis of the Active and Passive experiments revealsmore » that consideration of the dust-radiation interaction can significantly reduce dust emissions, loading, transport, and dry and wet depositions over East Asia, which is opposite to the enhanced dust cycle over North Africa. Further analysis of the contrasting dust-radiation feedbacks between North Africa and East Asia shows that over North Africa, the dust radiative forcing significantly increases the surface temperature and 10-m wind speed, whereas it decreases the surface temperature and the surface wind speeds over East Asia. These contrasting radiative effects, in turn, result in distinct dust cycle changes over these two regions. Thus, mechanistic analysis reveals that the radiative contrasts between East Asia and North Africa are mainly due to the differences in their regional surface albedo, dust vertical distribution and size distribution.« less

  3. A Novel Murine Model for Localized Radiation Necrosis and its Characterization Using Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Sarah C.; Hope, Andrew; Kiehl, Erich

    Purpose: To develop a murine model of radiation necrosis using fractionated, subtotal cranial irradiation; and to investigate the imaging signature of radiation-induced tissue damage using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four mice each received 60 Gy of hemispheric (left) irradiation in 10 equal fractions. Magnetic resonance images at 4.7 T were subsequently collected using T1-, T2-, and diffusion sequences at selected time points after irradiation. After imaging, animals were killed and their brains fixed for correlative histologic analysis. Results: Contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images at months 2, 3, and 4 showed changes consistent with progressivemore » radiation necrosis. Quantitatively, mean diffusivity was significantly higher (mean = 0.86, 1.13, and 1.24 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms at 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively) in radiated brain, compared with contralateral untreated brain tissue (mean = 0.78, 0.82, and 0.83 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms) (p < 0.0001). Histology reflected changes typically seen in radiation necrosis. Conclusions: This murine model of radiation necrosis will facilitate investigation of imaging biomarkers that distinguish between radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. In addition, this preclinical study supports clinical data suggesting that diffusion-weighted imaging may be helpful in answering this diagnostic question in clinical settings.« less

  4. Modeling East Asian Dust and Its Radiative Feedbacks in CAM4-BAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaodong; Che, Huizheng; Xie, Xiaoxun; Wang, Hongli; Li, Jiandong; Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Yangang

    2018-01-01

    East Asian dust and its radiative feedbacks are analyzed by the use of the fourth version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) with a bulk aerosol model parameterization (BAM) for the dust size distribution (CAM4-BAM). Two numerical experiments are conducted and intercompared: one with (Active) and one without (Passive) the radiative effects of dust aerosols. This CAM4-BAM captures the main spatial distribution of the dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the dust surface concentrations over East Asia, with positive correlations with the local observational data on annual and seasonal means. A comparative analysis of the Active and Passive experiments reveals that consideration of the dust-radiation interaction can significantly reduce dust emissions, loading, transport, and dry and wet depositions over East Asia, which is opposite to the enhanced dust cycle over North Africa. Further analysis of the contrasting dust-radiation feedbacks between North Africa and East Asia shows that over North Africa, the dust radiative forcing significantly increases the surface temperature and 10 m wind speed, whereas it decreases the surface temperature and the surface wind speeds over East Asia. These contrasting radiative effects, in turn, result in distinct dust cycle changes over these two regions. Mechanistic analysis reveals that the radiative contrasts between East Asia and North Africa are mainly due to the differences in their regional surface albedo, dust vertical distribution, and size distribution.

  5. A goal-based angular adaptivity method for thermal radiation modelling in non grey media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucasse, Laurent; Dargaville, Steven; Buchan, Andrew G.; Pain, Christopher C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates for the first time a goal-based angular adaptivity method for thermal radiation transport, suitable for non grey media when the radiation field is coupled with an unsteady flow field through an energy balance. Anisotropic angular adaptivity is achieved by using a Haar wavelet finite element expansion that forms a hierarchical angular basis with compact support and does not require any angular interpolation in space. The novelty of this work lies in (1) the definition of a target functional to compute the goal-based error measure equal to the radiative source term of the energy balance, which is the quantity of interest in the context of coupled flow-radiation calculations; (2) the use of different optimal angular resolutions for each absorption coefficient class, built from a global model of the radiative properties of the medium. The accuracy and efficiency of the goal-based angular adaptivity method is assessed in a coupled flow-radiation problem relevant for air pollution modelling in street canyons. Compared to a uniform Haar wavelet expansion, the adapted resolution uses 5 times fewer angular basis functions and is 6.5 times quicker, given the same accuracy in the radiative source term.

  6. Modeling East Asian Dust and Its Radiative Feedbacks in CAM4-BAM

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaodong; Che, Huizheng

    East Asian dust and its radiative feedbacks are analyzed by the use of the fourth version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) with a bulk aerosol model parameterization (BAM) for the dust size distribution (CAM4-BAM). Two numerical experiments are conducted and intercompared: one with (Active) and one without (Passive) the radiative effects of dust aerosols. This CAM4-BAM captures the main spatial distribution of the dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the dust surface concentrations over East Asia, with positive correlations with the local observational data on annual and seasonal means. A comparative analysis of the Active and Passive experiments revealsmore » that consideration of the dust-radiation interaction can significantly reduce dust emissions, loading, transport, and dry and wet depositions over East Asia, which is opposite to the enhanced dust cycle over North Africa. Further analysis of the contrasting dust-radiation feedbacks between North Africa and East Asia shows that over North Africa, the dust radiative forcing significantly increases the surface temperature and 10-m wind speed, whereas it decreases the surface temperature and the surface wind speeds over East Asia. These contrasting radiative effects, in turn, result in distinct dust cycle changes over these two regions. Thus, mechanistic analysis reveals that the radiative contrasts between East Asia and North Africa are mainly due to the differences in their regional surface albedo, dust vertical distribution and size distribution.« less

  7. Evaluation of radiation necrosis and malignant glioma in rat models using diffusion tensor MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Silun; Chen, Yifei; Lal, Bachchu; Ford, Eric; Tryggestad, Erik; Armour, Michael; Yan, Kun; Laterra, John; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2011-01-01

    Standard MRI cannot distinguish between radiation necrosis and tumor progression; however, this distinction is critical in the assessment of tumor response to therapy. In this study, one delayed radiation necrosis model (dose, 40 Gy; radiation field, 10 × 10 mm2; n = 13) and two orthotopic glioma models in rats (9L gliosarcoma, n = 8; human glioma xenografts, n = 5) were compared using multiple DTI indices. A visible isotropic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) pattern was observed in the lesion due to radiation necrosis, which consisted of a hypointense central zone and a hyperintense peripheral zone. There were significantly lower ADC, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity in the necrotic central zone than in the peripheral zone (all p < 0.001). When radiation-induced necrosis was compared with viable tumor, radiation necrosis had significantly lower ADC than 9L gliosarcoma and human glioma xenografts (both p < 0.01) in the central zone, and significantly lower FA than 9L gliosarcoma (p = 0.005) and human glioma xenografts (p = 0.012) in the peripheral zone. Histological analysis revealed parenchymal coagulative necrosis in the central zone, and damaged vessels and reactive astrogliosis in the peripheral zone. These data suggest that qualitative and quantitative analysis of the DTI maps can provide useful information by which to distinguish between radiation necrosis and viable glioma. PMID:21948114

  8. Evaluation of standard radiation atmosphere aerosol models for a coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Suttles, J. T.; Sebacher, D. I.; Fuller, W. H.; Lecroy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are compared with data from an experiment to evaluate the utility of standard radiation atmosphere (SRA) models for defining aerosol properties in atmospheric radiation computations. Initial calculations with only SRA aerosols in a four-layer atmospheric column simulation allowed a sensitivity study and the detection of spectral trends in optical depth, which differed from measurements. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis provided a revision in the stratospheric layer, which brought calculations in line with both optical depth and skylight radiance data. The simulation procedure allows determination of which atmospheric layers influence both downwelling and upwelling radiation spectra.

  9. A generalized analytical model for radiative transfer in vacuum thermal insulation of space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainova, Irina V.; Dombrovsky, Leonid A.; Nenarokomov, Aleksey V.; Budnik, Sergey A.; Titov, Dmitry M.; Alifanov, Oleg M.

    2017-08-01

    The previously developed spectral model for radiative transfer in vacuum thermal insulation of space vehicles is generalized to take into account possible thermal contact between a fibrous spacer and one of the neighboring aluminum foil layers. An approximate analytical solution based on slightly modified two-flux approximation for radiative transfer in a semi-transparent fibrous spacer is derived. It was shown that thermal contact between the spacer and adjacent foil may decrease significantly the quality of thermal insulation because of an increase in radiative flux to/from the opposite aluminum foil. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by comparison with new results of laboratory experiments.

  10. A thermochemical model of radiat