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Sample records for actual radioactive tank

  1. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  2. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  3. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  4. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1995-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1994 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  5. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1998-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  6. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-04-14

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  7. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1999-10-27

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  8. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  9. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  10. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  11. Code System for the Radioactive Liquid Tank Failure Study.

    2000-01-03

    Version 01 RATAF calculates the consequences of radioactive liquid tank failures. In each of the processing systems considered, RATAF can calculate the tank isotopic concentrations in either the collector tank or the evaporator bottoms tank.

  12. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  14. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  15. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8.

  16. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  17. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

    2008-06-05

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

  18. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  19. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  20. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  1. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  2. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  3. Vacuum Drying of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.

    2004-05-20

    Composites of sludge from Tanks 241-B-203, 241-T-203, 241 T 204, and 241-T-110 at the Hanford Site were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These tank composites may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste within these underground storage tanks. The composite samples were diluted with water at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to represent the slurries that are expected to be received from tank retrieval operations and processed to produce a final waste stream. The dilutions were vacuum dried at 60 C and 26 in. of mercury ({approx} 100 torr). Semi-quantitative measurements of stickiness and cohesive strength were made on these dilutions as a function of drying time. Mass loss as a function of drying time and total solids concentration of the initial dilution and at the conclusion of drying were also measured. Visual observations of the sludge were recorded throughout the drying process.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  5. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  6. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1996-01-19

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively.

  7. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-11-05

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer.

  8. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  9. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-27

    The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP's for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

  10. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries.

  11. Nondestructive examination technologies for inspection of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Kunerth, D.C.; Davidson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of underground radioactive waste storage tank structural integrity poses a unique set of challenges. Radiation fields, limited access, personnel safety and internal structures are just some of the problems faced. To examine the internal surfaces a sensor suite must be deployed as an end effector on a robotic arm. The purpose of this report is to examine the potential failure modes of the tanks, rank the viability of various NDE technologies for internal surface evaluation, select a technology for initial EE implementation, and project future needs for NDE EE sensor suites.

  12. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  13. Underground radioactive waste tank remote inspection and sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Bzorgi, F.M.; Kelsey, A.P.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Wiles, C.O.

    1996-04-01

    Characterization is a critical step in the remediation of contaminated materials and facilities. Severe physical- and radiological-access restrictions made the task of characterizing the World War II-era underground radioactive storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) particularly challenging. The innovative and inexpensive tank characterization system (TCS) developed to meet this challenge at ORNL is worthy of consideration for use in similar remediation projects. The TCS is a floating system that uses the existing water in the tank as a platform that supports instruments and samplers mounted on a floating boom. TCS operators feed the unit into an existing port of the tank to be characterized. Once inserted, the system`s position is controlled by rotation and by insertion and withdrawal of the boom. The major components of the TCS system include the following: (1) boom support system that consists of a boom support structure and a floating boom, (2) video camera and lights, (3) sludge grab sampler, (4) wall chip sampler, and (5) sonar depth finder. This simple design allows access to all parts of a tank. Moreover, the use of off-the-shelf components keeps the system inexpensive and minimizes maintenance costs. The TCS proved invaluable in negotiating the hazards of ORNL`s Gunite and Associated Tanks, which typically contain a layer of radioactive sludge, have only one to three access ports that are usually only 12- or 24-in. in diameter, and range from 12 to 50 ft in diameter. This paper reviews both the successes and the difficulties encountered in using the TCS for treatability studies at ORNL and discusses the prospects for its wider application in remediation activities.

  14. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  15. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  16. Evaluating detonation possibilities in a Hanford radioactive waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Ross, M.C.; Edwards, J.N.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    Since the early 1940s, radioactive wastes generated from the defense operations at the Hanford site have been stored in underground waste storage tanks. During the intervening years, the waste products in some of these tanks have transformed into a potentially hazardous mixture of gases and solids as a result of radiolytic and thermal chemical reactions. One tank in particular, tank 241-SY-101, has been periodically releasing high concentrations of a hydrogen/nitrous oxide/nitrogen/ammonia gas mixture into the tank dome vapor space. The purpose of this study is to determine the conditions under which a detonation of the flammable gas mixture may occur and damage the tank system. There are two ways that a detonation can occur during a release of waste gases into the dome vapor space: direct initiation of detonation by a powerful ignition source and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The first case involves a strong ignition source of high energy, high power, or of large size [{approximately}1 g of high explosive (4.6 kJ) for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture] to directly initiate a detonation by {open_quotes}shock{close_quotes} initiation. This strong ignition is thought to be incredible for in-tank ignition sources. The second process involves igniting the released waste gases, which results in a subsonic flame (deflagration) propagating into the unburned combustible gas. The flame accelerates to velocities that cause compression waves to form in front of the deflagration combustion wave. Shock waves may form and the combustion process may be transformed to a detonation wave.

  17. Evaluation of the DWPF Cold Chem Dissolution Method with Tank 7 and Tank 51 Radioactive Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.R.

    2004-03-11

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on radioactive sludge from Tank 7, before transfer of the contents of Tank 7 to Tank 51, and the subsequent sludge in Tank 51 to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem Method. The DWPF Cold Chem Method is a room temperature dissolution method (DWPF Cold Chem Method) used in the DWPF on the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) samples in preparation for instrumental analysis. Four types of dissolutions experiments were carried out, the DWPF Cold Chem Method, hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and hot HF-HNO3. The hot HF-HNO3 digestion is modified version of the DWPF method that incorporates a heating step. The hot aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion digestions were included as reference digestions. The resulting solutions from all the sludge digestions were analyzed by ICP-ES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy). Visual observations and ICP-ES results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem by comparison to the hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and the hot HF-HNO3 digestions. The data and experimental observations support the following conclusions: The DWPF Cold Chem Method seemed to be effective at dissolving initial species of radioactive sludge, but concurrent precipitation of insoluble mixed-metal fluoride salts was observed in both the Tank 7 and Tank 51 Cold Chem digestion solutions. Complete dissolution, by visual observation, was achieved with a modified hot HF-HNO3 digestion. This was done as an alternative to the DWPF room-temperature acid dissolution.

  18. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  19. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.L.; Johnson, M.; Mims, C.; Powell, J.; Hoesen, D. van

    1998-05-01

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex.

  20. A Team of Seven--The Tanks Focus Area program providing technical solutions for cleaning up DOE's radioactive waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Cosby, Wayne C.

    2000-09-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) concept in 1994 to integrate the cleanup efforts of the sites containing radioactive tank wastes. A team of seven contractors and national laboratories was assembled to develop and implement technical solutions to the unique problems encountered in cleaning up large quantities of highly radioactive wastes in tanks that can only be accessed through riser pipes. TFA work focuses on safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure. Many technologies are under development, two of which are the highly successful cesium removal system and the robotic light duty utility arm for deploying equipment inside tanks.

  1. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  2. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  3. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  4. Corrosion of radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1988-05-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant, the corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels, indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations were conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. The in situ results are compared to those of laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 M nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes.

  5. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  6. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  7. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH PHOSPHATE RADIOACTIVE TANK WASTE AND SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-10-15

    A sample of high-level radioactive tank waste was characterized to provide a basis for developing a waste simulant. The simulant is required for engineered-scaled testing of pretreatment processes in a non-radiological facility. The waste material examined was derived from the bismuth phosphate process, which was the first industrial process implemented to separate plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. The bismuth phosphate sludge is a complex mixture rich in bismuth, iron, sodium, phosphorus, silicon, and uranium. The form of phosphorus in this particular tank waste material is of specific importance because that is the primary component (other than water-soluble sodium salts) that must be removed from the high-level waste solids by pretreatment. This work shows unequivocally that the phosphorus present in this waste material is not present as bismuth phosphate. Rather, the phosphorus appears to be incorporated mostly into an amorphous iron(III) phosphate species. The bismuth in the sludge solids is best described as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3. Infrared spectral data, microscopy, and thermal analysis data are presented to support these conclusions. The behavior of phosphorus during caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge solids is also discussed.

  9. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Determining Uranium and Plutonium Solubility in Actual Tank Waste Supernates

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.

    2005-06-28

    Savannah River Site tank waste supernates contain small quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium. Due to the large volume of supernates, significant quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium are managed as part of waste transfers, evaporation and pretreatment at the Savannah River Site in tank farm operations, the Actinide Removal Project (ARP), and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Previous SRNL studies have investigated the effect of temperature and major supernate components on the solubility of uranium and plutonium. Based on these studies, equations were developed for the prediction of U and Pu solubility in tank waste supernates. The majority of the previous tests were conducted with simulated waste solutions. The current testing is intended to determine solubility in actual tank waste samples (as-received, diluted, and combinations of tank samples) as a function of composition and temperature. Results will be used to validate and build on the existing solubility equations.

  10. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  11. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  12. Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2014-04-10

    PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanford’s Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program.

  13. Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Kurath, D.E.; Golcar, G.R.; Conradson, S.D.

    1996-09-30

    This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of the Cs-137 was removed using crystalline silicotitanates. The tests were conducted with two small columns connected in series, containing, 10 mL of either a sorbent, ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries, Inc.), or an anion exchanger Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (Reilly Industries, Inc.). Both materials are selective for pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The process steps generally followed those expected in a full-scale process and included (1) resin conditioning, (2) loading, (3) caustic wash to remove residual feed and prevent the precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3}, and (4) elution. A small amount of Tc-99m tracer was added as ammonium pertechnetate to the feed and a portable GEA counter was used to closely monitor the process. Analyses of the Tc-99 in the waste was performed using ICP-MS with spot checks using radiochemical analysis. Technetium x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of 6 samples were also collected to determine the prevalence of non-pertechnetate species [e.g. Tc(IV)].

  14. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  15. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  16. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  17. Determination of Temperature Limits for Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1999-08-31

    This document provides a systematic approach for determining the temperature limits for a tank given that the supernate concentration is known, or for ''dry'' tanks, given that the supernate concentration from the last sample of free supernate that was collected is known. A decision tree was developed to provide the logic for the temperature limit determination.

  18. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste.

  19. Demonstration of the SREX process for the removal of {sup 90}Sr from actual highly radioactive solutions in centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The SREX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the separation of {sup 90}Sr from acidic radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP. These efforts have culminated in a recent demonstration of the SREX process with actual tank waste. This demonstration was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors installed in a shielded hot cell at the ICPP Remote Analytical Laboratory. An overall removal efficiency of 99.995% was obtained for {sup 90}Sr. As a result, the activity of {sup 90}Sr was reduced from 201 Ci/m{sup 3} in the feed solution of 0.0089 Ci/m{sup 3} in the aqueous raffinate, which is below the U.S. NRC Class A LLW limit of 0.04 Ci/m{sup 3} for {sup 90}Sr. Lead was extracted by the SREX solvent and successfully partitioned from the {sup 90}Sr using an ammonium citrate strip solution. Additionally, 94% of the total alpha activity, 1.9% of the {sup 241}Am, 99.94% of the {sup 238}Pu, 99.97% of the {sup 239}Pu, 36.4% of the K, 64% of the Ba, and >83% of the Zr were extracted by the SREX solvent. Cs, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na were essentially inextractable. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  1. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M. ); Gao, Johnway ); Delegard, Calvin H. ); Bagaasen, Larry M. ); Wells, Beric E. )

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  2. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate.

  3. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  4. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermalmore » response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.« less

  5. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.

  6. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  7. Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update - 15302

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.

    2014-12-22

    Tank AY-102 was the first of 28 double-shell radioactive waste storage tanks constructed at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, near Richland, WA. The tank was completed in 1970, and entered service in 1971. In August, 2012, an accumulation of material was discovered at two sites on the floor of the annulus that separates the primary tank from the secondary liner. The material was sampled and determined to originate from the primary tank. This paper summarizes the changes in leak behavior that have occurred during the past two years, inspections to determine the capability of the secondary liner to continue safely containing the leakage, and the initial results of testing to determine the leak mechanism.

  8. Review of Corrosion Inhibition in High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2004-03-08

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste tanks store supernatant liquid salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium hydroxide, and sludge. An assessment of the potential degradation mechanisms of the high level waste (HLW) tanks determined that nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking were the two most significant degradation mechanisms. Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented.

  9. Corrosion control of carbon steel radioactive-liquid storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ji Young

    1997-05-01

    As the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) continues vitrification operation and begins decontamination activities, it is vital to continue to maintain the integrity of the high-level waste tanks and prevent further corrosion that may disrupt the operation. This report describes the current operational status and some corrosion concerns with corresponding control measure recommendations. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  11. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries.

  12. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  13. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal.

  14. Physical characterization of radioactive sludges in selected Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ceo, R.N.; Sears, M.B.; Shor, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    Physical measurements were performed on typical radioactive sludge samples from selected Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL. These measurements included viscosity, particle size, density, sedimentation rate, and solids content. The techniques developed during this project are simple and use inexpensive apparatus to assay the range of physical properties spanned by the sample set. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, and research and development activities in developing waste management alternatives. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  16. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. FITNESS-FOR-SERVICE ASSESSMENT FOR A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK THAT CONTAINS STRESS CORROSION CRACKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; James Elder, J; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Charles Mckeel, C

    2009-04-23

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tanks are examined by ultrasonic (UT) methods for thinning, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking in order to assess fitness-for-service. During an inspection in 2002, ten cracks were identified on one of the tanks. Given the location of the cracks (i.e., adjacent to welds, weld attachments, and weld repairs), fabrication details (e.g., this tank was not stress-relieved), and the service history the degradation mechanism was stress corrosion cracking. Crack instability calculations utilizing API-579 guidance were performed to show that the combination of expected future service condition hydrostatic and weld residual stresses do not drive any of the identified cracks to instability. The cracks were re-inspected in 2007 to determine if crack growth had occurred. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the nine previously measured cracks. The crack length extension ranged from 0.25 to 1.8 inches. However, in all cases the cracks still remained within the residual stress zone (i.e., within two to three inches of the weld). The impact of the cracks that grew on the future service of Tank 15 was re-assessed. API-579 crack instability calculations were again performed, based on expected future service conditions and trended crack growth rates for the future tank service cycle. The analysis showed that the combined hydrostatic and weld

  18. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  19. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  20. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  1. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  2. In-service Inspection of Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site – 15410

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce; Maryak, Matthew; Baxter, Lindsay; Harris, Stephen; Elder, James

    2015-01-12

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site (SRS) separation process are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The high level wastes are processed in several of the tanks and then transferred by piping to other site facilities for further processing before they are stabilized in a vitrified or grout waste form. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks will be required to be in service for times exceeding the initial intended life. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis events, which include loadings from both normal service and abnormal (e.g., earthquake) conditions. A structural integrity program is in place to maintain the structural and leak integrity functions of these waste tanks throughout their intended service life. In-service inspection (ISI) is an essential element of a comprehensive structural integrity program for the waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ISI program was developed to determine the degree of degradation the waste tanks have experienced due to service conditions. As a result of the inspections, an assessment can be made of the effectiveness of corrosion controls for the waste chemistry, which precludes accelerated localized and general corrosion of the waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspections (UT) are performed to detect and quantify the degree of general wall thinning, pitting and cracking as a measure of tank degradation. The results from these inspections through 2013, for the 27 Type III/IIIA tanks, indicate no reportable in-service corrosion degradation in the primary tank (i.e., general, pitting, or cracking). The average wall thickness for all tanks remains above the manufactured nominal thickness minus 0.25 millimeter and the largest pit identified is

  3. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  4. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  5. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of themore » instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.« less

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  7. Carbonylation as a separation technique for removal of non-radioactive species for tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Visnapuu, A.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Creed, R.F. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Much of the waste generated from five decades of weapons production in the US Department of Energy complex contains highly radioactive constituents. With the high cost of permanent disposal space, it is necessary to separate as many of the nonradioactive species from the radioactive as possible. This paper discusses the transfer of carbonyl processing technology from mineral beneficiation and powder metallurgy operations to the separation of Fe and Ni from radioactively contaminated waste streams. Samples of simulated composite Hanford Tank Waste residue were first processed with a calcine/dissolution technique which resulted in a residue powder consisting of 31.9 pct Fe and 3.3 pct Ni. Because of the specification for waste glass compositions, these two constituents become important in determining the number of waste glass logs produced. Pyrometallurgical reduction of the residue powders, followed by subsequent carbonylation, extracted up to 92.0 pct of the Fe and 95.7 pct of the Ni. The resultant product contained as little as 4.9 pct Fe and 0.3 pct Ni. At this level, Fe would no longer be a limiting constituent in the waste glass.

  8. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  9. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-01

    amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive

  10. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-11-18

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

  12. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  13. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  14. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  15. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. A study of hydrogen effects on fracture behavior of radioactive waste storage tanks. Final report, October 1992--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, K.L.; Elleman, T.S.

    1994-12-31

    The processing of high-level radioactive wastes now stored at Hanford and Savannah River Laboratories will continue over many years and it will be necessary for some of the liquids to remain in the tanks until well into the next century. Continued tank integrity is therefore an issue of prime importance and it will be necessary to understand any processes which could lead to tank failure. Hydrogen embrittlement resulting from absorption of radiolytic hydrogen could alter tank fracture behavior and be an issue in evaluating the effect of stresses on the tanks from rapid chemical oxidation-reduction reactions. The intense radiation fields in some of the tanks could be a factor in increasing the hydrogen permeation rates through protective oxide films on the alloy surface and be an additional factor in contributing to embrittlement. The project was initiated in October 1992 for a two year period to evaluate hydrogen uptake in low carbon steels that are representative of storage tanks. Steel specimens were exposed to high gamma radiation fields to generate radiolytic hydrogen and to potentially alter the protective surface films to increase hydrogen uptake. Direct measurements of hydrogen uptake were made using tritium as a tracer and fracture studies were undertaken to determine any alloy embrittlement. The rates of hydrogen uptake were noted to be extremely low in the experimental steels. Gamma radiation did not reveal any significant changes in the mechanical and fracture characteristics following exposures as long as a month. It is highly desirable to investigate further the tritium diffusion under stress in a cracked body where stress-assisted diffusion is expected to enhance these rates. More importantly, since welds are the weakest locations in the steel structures, the mechanical and fracture tests should be performed on welds exposed to tritium with and without stressed crack-fronts.

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-07-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  18. Estimation of 240Pu Mass in a Waste Tank Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Olsen, Khris B.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Reid, Bruce D.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-12-01

    We report on a technique to detect and quantify the amount of 240Pu in a large tank used to store nuclear waste from plutonium production at the Hanford nuclear site. While the contents of this waste tank are known from previous grab sample measurements, our technique could allow for determination of the amount of 240Pu in the tank without costly sample retrieval and analysis of this highly radioactive material. This technique makes an assumption, which was confirmed, that 240Pu dominates the spontaneous fissions occurring in the tank.

  19. Initial report on the application of laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of radioactive Hanford Tank Waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Hartman, J.S.; Alexander, M.L.; Mendoza, A.; Hirt, E.H.; Stewart, T.L.; Hansen, M.A.; Park, W.R.; Peters, T.J.; Burghard, B.J.

    1996-12-01

    Initial LA/MS analyses of Hanford tank waste samples were performed successfully using laboratory and hot cell LA/MS instrumentation systems. The experiments described in this report have demonstrated that the LA/MS data can be used to provide rapid analysis of solid, radioactive Hanford tank waste samples to identify major, minor, and trace constituents (elemental and isotopic) and fission products and radioactive isotopes. The ability to determine isotopic constituents using the LA/MS method yielded significant advantages over ICP/AES analysis by providing valuable information on fission products and radioactive constituents.

  20. Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2015-02-03

    The presentation outline is: Briefly review leak integrity status of tank AY-102 and current leak behavior; Summarize recent initiatives to understand leak mechanism and to verify integrity of remaining waste confinement structures; describe planned waste recovery activities; and, introduce other papers on tank AY-102 topics.

  1. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

  2. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  3. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  4. Use of Multiple Innovative Technologies for Retrieval and Handling of Low-Level Radioactive Tank Wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Noble-Dial, J.; Riner, G.; Robinson, S.; Lewis, B.; Bolling, D.; Ganapathi, G.; Harper, M.; Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully implemented an integrated tank waste management plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (1), which resulted in the cleanup, removal, or stabilization of 37 inactive underground storage tanks (USTs) since 1998, and the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. The integrated plan helped accelerate the development and deployment of innovative technologies for the retrieval of radioactive sludge and liquid waste from inactive USTs. It also accelerated the pretreatment of the retrieved waste and newly generated waste from ORNL research and development activities to provide for volume and contamination reduction of the liquid waste. The integrated plan included: retrieval of radioactive sludge, contaminated material, and other debris from USTs at ORNL using a variety of robotic and remotely operated equipment; waste conditioning and transfer of retrieved waste to pretreatment facilities and interim, double contained storage tanks; the development and deployment of technologies for pretreating newly generated and retrieved waste transferred to interim storage tanks; waste treatment and packaging for final off-site disposal; stabilization of the inactive USTs that did not meet the regulatory requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the continued monitoring of the active USTs that remain in long-term service. This paper summarizes the successful waste retrieval and tank stabilization operations conducted during two ORNL tank remediation projects (The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project and the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Remediation Project), the sludge retrieval operations from the active Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks, and pretreatment operations conducted for the tank waste. This paper also provides the status of ongoing activities conducted in preparation

  5. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  6. Potential for radiation damage to carbon steel storage tanks for high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.; Thomas, J.K.

    1993-07-30

    A low intensity radiation field is generated by the high level waste that is stored within carbon steel lined tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The highest level of radiation damage to the tank walls from gamma and spontaneous neutron emissions is estimated to be less than 1.0E-6 displacements per atom (DPA) for a 100 year exposure to fresh, ``high heat`` SRS waste assuming continuous replenishment of the radionuclides. This damage level is below the limit for measurable radiation damage to the mechanical properties of carbon steel. Structural assessment of tanks for storage of high level waste may be based on nominal or code values of the mechanical properties of the steels from which the tanks were constructed.

  7. Characterization of the Radioactive Sludge from the ORNL MVST Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.

    2001-10-24

    Over the last several years most of the sludge and liquid from the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL has been transferred and consolidated in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The contents of the MVST tanks at the time the sludge samples were collected for this report included the original inventory in the MVSTs along with the sludge and liquid from the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Old Hydrofracture (OHF) tanks, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). During the summer of 2001 full core samples of sludge were collected from the MVST tanks. The purpose of this sampling campaign was to characterize and validate that the current radiochemical and chemical contents of the MVST sludge, which was needed to meet the contract agreements prior to the transfer of the waste to another DOE contractor for processing. This report only discusses the analytical characterization of the sludge from the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were ''denatured'' as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the MVST sludge was found to be hazardous by RCRA characteristics based on total analysis of chromium, mercury, and lead. Also, the alpha activity due to transuranic isotopes was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in previous reports and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP. Therefore, the WIPP WAC limits were not evaluated for this set of samples.

  8. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  9. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

    2003-04-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  10. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  11. Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

  12. Resolving the safety issue for radioactive waste tanks with high organic content

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Crippen, M.D.; Turner, D.A. ); Gerber, M.A. )

    1993-02-01

    An overview of the Waste Tank Safety Organic Program is provided. The overview discusses the history of the wastes containing high concentrations of organics, existing safety criteria associated with those tanks, and details of thermodynamic studies by Westinghouse Hanford Company bounding potential reactivity. The program to be discussed contains the elements of the collection and analysis of tank historical information; reevaluation of organic tank-listing criteria; the performance of detailed studies on simulated waste; completion of waste characterization for each affected tank; and, as part of issue closure, the preparation of short-term and long-term safety and risk assessments based on results from characterization and the waste simulant studies. This document reports on a number of simplified thermodynamic calculations that were performed to ascertain combustion limits for simple surrogates of organic materials in a nitrate-nitrite containing alkaline waste. For expected waste species, the results of these calculations indicate that the range of reactivity encompasses energies that vary only by a factor of three over the range of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) (a fuel rich solvent) to sodium oxalate (a degradation product resulting from in situ organic complexant destruction in Hanford Site wastes).

  13. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  14. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  15. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 233}U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  16. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 233]U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  17. D and D (System Closure) Mockup Testing Demonstration. Remediation of Legacy Radioactive Piping and Tank Systems at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Brown, Ch.; Hart, A.; Welty, B.; Winterholler, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated mockup demonstration of technologies and equipment designed to remove radioactively contaminated piping systems from underground vaults and pipe trenches at the Idaho National Laboratory. The integrated mockup demonstration included performing a bench scale wax fixative study and field demonstrations of the remotely operated equipment that will be used to remove radioactively contaminated pipe systems. The bench-scale wax fixative study involved defining optimum temperature and moisture conditions for effectively filling pipe sections containing residual wastes with a wax based fixative. The field demonstrations involved dismantling underground vault and trench piping systems, including pipe sections filled with the wax fixative. The purpose of the demonstration was to ensure the selected technologies and equipment would be effective prior to field deployment. The demonstration was conducted as a joint effort by MSE Technology Applications, Inc., and CWI on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte Montana. In summary: The mockup included two main tests at the MSE facility: 1) a vault mockup that included stainless and carbon steel pipe cutting and removal; and 2) a trench mockup that included cutting and removing buried Duriron and ductile iron piping. Both mockups included cutting and removing a pipe filled with the WAXFIX stabilizing material. Based on the MSE moisture tests, project personnel concluded that the WAXFIX product would be effective when used on wastes with different moisture contents that may be encountered in piping systems during the closure of the TRA-630 Catch Tank System at INL. A section of stainless steel pipe was also used to test a number of leak stop alternatives for wax leaks that may be encountered in a degraded piping system. Both the vault and the trench mockup demonstration proved successful for ICP, DOE, and MSE. The ICP

  18. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement.

  19. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement.

  20. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Krumhansl

    2002-04-02

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

  1. A study of hydrogen effects on fracture behavior of radioactive waste storage tanks. Progress report, September 30, 1992--March 25, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, K.L.; Elleman, T.S.

    1993-08-01

    Since the high-level radioactive waste at Savannah River and Hanford may have to occupy steel tanks for many years before processing, research was directed toward examination of hydrogen effects in carbon steels and identification of radiation-enhanced hydrogen uptake in steels. Results to date are too preliminary for any conclusions to be made; however, experimental methods for measuring hydrogen gradients appear to be satisfactory. 5 figs, 1 fig.

  2. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems for fiscal year 1995 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is the third annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW System as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that led to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5.

  3. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  4. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-ER-311 catch tank

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-11-01

    The following description, attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing,'' states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 6 1, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 millirem/year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(l), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(l) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided later.

  5. Consequences of a radioactive surface pool resulting from waste transfer operations between tanks 214-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1997-08-05

    This document contains supporting calculations for quantifying the dose consequences from a pool formed from an underground leak or a-leak from an above grade structure for the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (Project W-320), i.e., sluicing the contents of Tank 241-C-106 (high heat, SST) into Tank 241-AY-102 (aging waste, DST).

  6. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  7. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Northwest National Laboratory) conducted this study as a joint effort between the ``Develop and Test Sorbents`` task for the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) and the ``Batch Testing of Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs)`` subtask, which is part of the Northwest National Laboratory Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. The objective of the study is to investigate radionuclide uptake of the newly produced CST materials under a variety of solution conditions and to compare the results obtained for this material with those obtained for other commercial and experimental exchangers.

  8. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction: Use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-04-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for the use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 single-shell tank (SST) during salt well pumping and other routine activities at the tank. Approval for salt well pumping is not being requested as this is a routine activity performed to manage the waste within the SST Tank System. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to the 241-A-101 tank is to satisfy the requirements of a Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that requires postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other routine activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the National Fire Protection Association guidelines, which mandate that flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limits. The LANL SAR indicates that the lower flammability limit may be exceeded during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potentials for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the increase in released flammable gases, active ventilation will be required to reduce the ``time at risk`` while performing routine operations at the tank.

  10. Performance evaluation of rotating pump jet mixing of radioactive wastes in Hanford Tanks 241-AP-102 and -104

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the adequacy of a single mixer pump to fully mix the wastes that will be stored in Tanks 241-AP-102 and -104. These Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) will be used as staging tanks to receive low-activity wastes from other Hanford storage tanks and, in turn, will supply the wastes to private waste vitrification facilities for eventual solidification. The TEMPEST computer code was applied to Tanks AP-102 and -104 to simulate waste mixing generated by the 60-ft/s rotating jets and to determine the effectiveness of the single rotating pump to mix the waste. TEMPEST simulates flow and mass/heat transport and chemical reactions (equilibrium and kinetic reactions) coupled together. Section 2 describes the pump jet mixing conditions the authors evaluated, the modeling cases, and their parameters. Section 3 reports model applications and assessment results. The summary and conclusions are presented in Section 4, and cited references are listed in Section 5.

  11. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  12. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, S. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Spence, R.D. )

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  13. Single-Pass Flow-Through Test Elucidation of Weathering Behavior and Evaluation of Contaminant Release Models for Hanford Tank Residual Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita; Geiszler, Keith N.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminant release models are required to evaluate and predict long-term environmental impacts of even residual amounts of high-level radioactive waste after cleanup and closure of radioactively contaminated sites such as the DOE’s Hanford Site. More realistic and representative models have been developed for release of uranium, technetium, and chromium from Hanford Site tanks C-202, C-203, and C-103 residual wastes using data collected with a single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) method. These revised models indicate that contaminant release concentrations from these residual wastes will be considerably lower than previous estimates based on batch experiments. For uranium, a thermodynamic solubility model provides an effective description of uranium release, which can account for differences in pore fluid chemistry contacting the waste that could occur through time and as a result of different closure scenarios. Under certain circumstances in the SPFT experiments various calcium rich precipitates (calcium phosphates and calcite) form on the surfaces of the waste particles, inhibiting dissolution of the underlying uranium phases in the waste. This behavior was not observed in previous batch experiments. For both technetium and chromium, empirical release models were developed. In the case of technetium, release from all three wastes was modeled using an equilibrium Kd model. For chromium release, a constant concentration model was applied for all three wastes.

  14. Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.; Barton, J.

    2003-02-24

    DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

  15. Evaluation of the TORE(R)Lance for Radioactive Waste Mobilization and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Bates, Cameron J.; Bates, James M.; White, M.

    2002-09-25

    The TORE? Lance is a hand-held hydro transportation device with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The TORE? Lance head generates a precessing vortex core to mobilize solids. Solids retrieval is accomplished using an eductor. The device contains no parts and requires pressurized fluid to operate the eductor and produce mobilization. Three configurations of TORE? Lance operation were evaluated for mobilization and eduction during these tests: compressed air, water, and an air and water mixture. These tests have shown that the TORE? Lance is a tool that can be used at Hanford for mobilization and retrieval of wastes. The system is versatile and can be configured for many types of applications. These studies showed that the diverse applications require unique solutions so care is recommended for TORE? Lance equipment selection for each application. The two components of the TORE? Lance are the precessing vortex for mobilizing and the eductor for retrieval. The precessing vortex is sensitive to fluid flow rate and pressure. In the hand-held unit these parameters are controlled both internally, by changing shim spacing, and externally by controlling the flow split between the eductor and the head. For in-tank applications out-of-tank control of both these parameters are recommended.

  16. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  17. Laboratory stabilizations/solidification of tank sludges: MVST/BVEST.

    PubMed

    Spence, R D; Mattus, A J

    2004-03-01

    Oak Ridge tank sludges that have been collected over several decades are being combined for treatment and disposal. Stabilization of the highly radioactive, mixed-waste sludges in the different tank sets has been evaluated prior to the proposed combination and treatment. This paper documents the testing of a Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST)/Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank set. Subsequent papers will discuss continued work on other tank sets and efforts to maximize the sludge loading. Grout formulations were tested in the laboratory both with a surrogate and with a sample of an actual mixed waste tank sludge from MVST W-25. Wet-sludge loadings of 50-60wt% resulted in strong wasteforms with no free water and gave a volume increase of about 40-50vol%. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals included in the surrogate testing were cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, thallium, and mercury. The actual sludge sample was only characteristically hazardous for mercury by the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure but exceeded the Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit for chromium. The grout formulations stabilized these two RCRA metals within UTS limits. In addition, a grout leachability index of about 9.0-10.0 was measured for both (85)Sr and (137)Cs, meeting the recommended requirement of >6.0. PMID:15036693

  18. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report.

  19. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  20. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section 9 and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review or approval. The initial issue of this document in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. The current revision of this document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA, and it summarizes the progress that has been made over the past year. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System, the objectives of the FFA, the organization that has been established to bring the system into compliance, and the plans for achieving compliance. Chapters 2 through 7 of this report contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

  1. Overview of the Tank Focus Area HLW Tank Retrieval Activities (Remote Operations)

    SciTech Connect

    GIBBONS, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently retrieving or preparing to retrieve radioactive waste from underground storage tanks with technical assistance from the Tanks Focus Area. The Tanks Focus Area is a national program that provides information and technologies to safely and effectively remediate radioactive waste stored in DOE's underground tanks. Funding for the Tanks Focus Area is provided by the DOE Offices of Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management. This paper provides an overview of recent remote waste retrieval activities as well as recent successes sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area.

  2. Tanks focus area. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, J.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program.

  3. Sampling and analysis of inactive radioactive waste tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14 at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Pack, R.T.; Ross, T.; Schenley, R.L.

    1995-12-01

    The sampling and analysis of nine inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are described-tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14. Samples of the waste tank liquids and sludges were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) metals listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List volatile and semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs). This report provides data (1) to meet requirements under the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation to characterize the contents of LLLW tanks which have been removed from service and (2) to support planning for the treatment and disposal of the wastes.

  4. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of tank sludges: maximizing sludge loading.

    PubMed

    Spence, R D; Mattus, A J

    2004-03-01

    Highly radioactive, mixed-waste sludges that have been collected in tanks at Oak Ridge over several decades are being combined for treatment and disposal. Stabilization of the sludges in the different tank sets was tested prior to the proposed combination and treatment. This paper is the third one in a series on the laboratory stabilization/solidification of these tank sludges. It discusses efforts to maximize the sludge loading with no strength criterion for the grout formulation. Grout formulations were tested in the laboratory both with surrogates and with actual samples of tank sludge. Hydrogels eliminated free water generation, even at sludge loadings of >90wt%, albeit strong monoliths did not form at such high loadings. Correlations established the dependence of the chromium and mercury performance in the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure for the surrogates on the slag content of the grout while the lead performance depended on the extract pH. The surrogate sludge loading was limited by the chromate content to about 90wt%, meeting Universal Treatment Standard limits. However, tests with actual sludges at such high loadings revealed problems with lead and silver stabilization that were not experienced with the surrogate testing. PMID:15036695

  5. Waste tank sample transport

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.; Mercado, M.S.; Smith, R.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    Since 1943, radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The waste was the result of chemical separation processes for the production of fissile defense materials. Associated with the current environmental cleanup mission, waste characterization and processing programs are requiring the extraction of samples from the tanks. Approved onsite packaging are in place and in use for transfers of samples from the tanks to onsite laboratories. Initiatives are under way to develop and procure packaging for sample shipments to offsite laboratories. This paper will provide a current status of the tank sample packaging used at the Hanford Site, as well as the project status for new packaging to be used for offsite shipments.

  6. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2003-12-22

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met.

  7. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  8. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  9. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  10. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, S.; Spence, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  11. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-02-13

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford.

  12. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction Application for Installation and Operation of a Waste Retrieval System in Tanks 241-AN-101

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    2000-05-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in each of the following tanks; 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107. Pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09 (aXI), this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start-up notification. It is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start-up notification. This NOC covers the installation and operation o f a waste retrieval system in tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107, and the 241-AN-A/-B Valve Pits. Generally, this includes removal of existing equipment, installation of new equipment, and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings between now and the year2011. Tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product.

  13. Tank leak detection using electrical resistance methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Binley, A.; LaBrecque, D.

    1996-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous liquids and high-level radioactive wastes are stored worldwide in surface and underground tanks. Frequently these tanks are found to leak, thereby resulting in not only a loss of stored inventory, but in contamination to soils and groundwater. It is important to develop a reliable method of detecting leaks before large quantities are emitted into the environment surround the tanks. Two field experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) as a leak detection method under metal underground storage tanks (UST). This paper provides a summary of the field experiments performed under a 15 m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation.

  14. Historical tank content estimate for the southeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 Areas. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank- by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report.

  15. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  16. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, T.A.; Amidan, B.G.; Chen, G.

    1998-09-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001).

  17. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-08-30

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact.

  18. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations.

  19. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations.

  20. SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height

  1. Demonstration of a SREX flowsheet for the partitioning of strontium and lead from actual ICPP sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Olson, L.G.; Todd, T.A.

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr and Pb from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Previous countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process with simulated waste resulted in 99.98% removal of Sr and 99.9% removal of Pb. Based on the results of these studies, a demonstration of the SREX flowsheet was performed. The demonstration consisted of (1) countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process using simulated sodium-bearing waste spiked with {sup 85}Sr and (2) countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process using actual waste from tank WM-183. All testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0. 15 M 4`,4`(5)-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L{reg_sign}), a 2.0 MHNO{sub 3} scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.1 M ammonium citrate strip section for the removal of Pb from the SREX solvent, and a 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} equilibration section. The behavior of {sup 90}Sr, Pb, Na, K, Hg, H{sup +}, the actinides, and numerous other non-radioactive elements was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted and selectively stripped Sr and Ph from the SBW simulant and the actual tank waste. For the testing with actual tank waste (WM - 183), removal efficiencies of 99.995 % and >94% were obtained for {sup 90}Sr and Pb, respectively.

  2. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured

  3. Think Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  4. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  5. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month ending March 31 2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-05-05

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  6. Waste tank summary report for month ending October 31 2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-12-04

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site, Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities. and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, D. C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  7. Waste tank summary report for month ending November 30 2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-02-12

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28.2001. Radioactive Waste Management. US. Department of Energy-Washington. D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  8. Waste tank summary report for month ending January 31 2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-03-17

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy--Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  9. Waste tank summary report for month ending August 31 2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-10-14

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  10. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 01/2004

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2004-03-02

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28,2001, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  11. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-10-03

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  12. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*.

  13. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  14. Separating and Stabilizing Phosphate from High-Level Radioactive Waste: Process Development and Spectroscopic Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2012-05-09

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  15. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams. PMID:22571620

  16. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  17. Composite Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A composite tank for containing liquid oxygen and the method of making the same Wherein a water-soluble mandrel having ing the desired tank configuration and a cylindrical protuberance on at least one end is fitted with an inner boss conformance, to the configuration of the mandrel and in outer boss conforming to the configuration of the inner boss, the bosses each having a tubular portion for receiving the protuberance on the mandrel and a spherical portion. The mandrel and the bosses are first coated with a nickel coating. The mandrel is then wrapped with graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and this resin is cured. A layer of insulating foam is then applied to the tank and cured. The insulating foam is machined to a desired concentration and a layer of aramid fibers wetted with a second epoxy resin is wrapped around the tank. The second resin is cured and the water soluble mandrel is washed from inside the tank.

  18. Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, K.D.; Butterworth, St.W.; Lockie, K.A.

    2008-07-01

    Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to empty, clean and close radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste, cleaned and filled with grout. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. The first three 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were grouted in the Fall of 2006 and the fourth tank and the seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout in 2007 to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that associated tank valve boxes and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

  19. Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, K.A.; Suttora, L.C.; Quigley, K.D.; Stanisich, N.

    2007-07-01

    Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to clean and close emptied radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste and cleaned in preparation of final closure. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. In November 2006, three of the 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that all seven cleaned 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks, as well as the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks and all associated tank vaults and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

  20. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  1. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 09/30/2001

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2001-11-07

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 63 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 435 I requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm tanks.

  2. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 5/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2001-07-03

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 63 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 435 I requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm tanks.

  3. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 06/30/2001

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2001-07-25

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 63 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 435 I requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm tanks.

  4. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  5. C-106 tank process ventilation test

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-20

    Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  7. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  8. Stabilization of Underground Solvent Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.

    2003-08-15

    The Old Solvent Tanks (OST), located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are comprised of 22 underground storage tanks that were used to store spent radioactive solvent and aqueous wastes generated from the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process. The OSTs were installed at various dates between 1955 and 1968 and used to store the spent solvents until 1974. The spent solvents stored in the OSTs were transferred out from 1976 through 1981 leaving only residual liquids and sludges that could not be pumped out.Final remediation goals include an overlying infiltration control system. If the tanks were to structurally fail, they would collapse causing potential for onsite worker exposure and release of tank contents to the environment. Therefore, as an interim action, methods for stabilizing the tanks were evaluated. This paper will discuss the systems designed to perform and monitor the grouting operation, the grouting process, and the radiological controls and wastes associated with grouting the Old Solvent Tanks.

  9. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ``organic Watch List tanks.`` Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ``safety issue.``

  10. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

  11. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  12. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  13. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for S tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200 West Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to all the SSTs in the S Tank Farm of the southwest quadrant of the 200 West Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  14. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the BY Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices contain data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  15. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the B Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  16. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the A Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  17. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  18. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  19. Tank 19F Folding Crawler Final Evaluation, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.

    2000-10-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to removing millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste from 51 underground waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary radioactive waste constituents are strontium, plutonium,and cesium. It is recognized that the continued storage of this waste is a risk to the public, workers, and the environment. SRS was the first site in the DOE complex to have emptied and operationally closed a high-level radioactive waste tank. The task of emptying and closing the rest of the tanks will be completed by FY28.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots'' from the concrete vault, and the drilling

  1. Hanford Tanks Initiative fiscal year 1997 retrieval technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1998-02-05

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative was established in 1996 to address a range of retrieval and closure issues associated with radioactive and hazardous waste stored in Hanford`s single shell tanks (SSTs). One of HTI`s retrieval goals is to ``Successfully demonstrate technology(s) that provide expanded capabilities beyond past practice sluicing and are extensible to retrieve waste from other SSTS.`` Specifically, HTI is to address ``Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing`` ... that can ... ``successfully remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST`` (HTI Mission Analysis). During fiscal year 1997, the project contracted with seven commercial vendor teams to demonstrate retrieval technologies using waste simulants. These tests were conducted in two series: three integrated tests (IT) were completed in January 1997, and four more comprehensive Alternative Technology Retrieval Demonstrations (ARTD) were completed in July 1997. The goal of this testing was to address issues to minimize the risk, uncertainties, and ultimately the overall cost of removing waste from the SSTS. Retrieval technologies can be separated into three tracks based on how the tools would be deployed in the tank: globally (e.g., sluicing) or using vehicles or robotic manipulators. Accordingly, the HTI tests included an advanced sluicer (Track 1: global systems), two different vehicles (Track 2: vehicle based systems), and three unique manipulators (Track 3: arm-based systems), each deploying a wide range of dislodging tools and conveyance systems. Each industry team produced a system description as envisioned for actual retrieval and a list of issues that could prevent using the described system; defined the tests to resolve the issues; performed the test; and reported the results, lessons learned, and state of issue resolution. These test reports are cited in this document, listed in the reference section, and summarized in the appendices. This report

  2. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  3. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  4. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are

  5. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  6. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank 241-B-110

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, L.C.; De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Rutherford, J.H.; Stephens, R.H.; Heasler, P.G.; Brown, T.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Single-shell Tank 241-B-110 is an underground storage tank containing radioactive waste. The tank was sampled at various times between August and November of 1989 and later in April of 1990. The analytical data gathered from these sampling efforts were used to generate this Tank Characterization Report. Tank 241-B-110, located in the 200 East Area B Tank Farm, was constructed in 1943 and 1944, and went into service in 1945 by receiving second cycle decontamination waste from the B and T Plants. During the service life of the tank, other wastes were added including B Plant flush waste, B Plant fission product waste, B Plant ion exchange waste, PUREX Plant coating waste, and waste from Tank 241-B-105. The tank currently contains 246,000 gallons of non-complexed waste, existing primarily as sludge. Approximately 22,000 gallons of drainable interstitial liquid and 1,000 gallons of supernate remain. The solid phase of the waste is heterogeneous, for the top layer and subsequent layers have significantly different chemical compositions and are visually distinct. A complete analysis of the top layer has not been done, and auger sampling of the top layer is recommended to fully characterize the waste in Tank 241-B-110. The tank is not classified as a Watch List tank; however, it is a Confirmed Leaker, having lost nearly 10,000 gallons of waste. The waste in Tank 241-B-110 is primarily precipitated salts, some of which are composed of radioactive isotopes. The most prevalent analytes include water, bismuth, iron, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicon, sodium, and sulfate. The major radionuclide constituents are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr.

  7. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  8. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned.

  9. Three candidate treatment technologies for remediating Hanford Site watch-list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    A major Hanford Site tank pretreatment objective is to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanied hydrogen generation), which can all potentially react to evolve heat and gases. This paper reports scoping test results of three candidate waste pretreatment processes to oxidize organic compounds contained in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks. Ozone oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, and calcination/dissolution were tested for their ability to destroy tank waste organics using a nonradioactive simulated tank waste.

  10. Three candidate treatment technologies for remediating Hanford Site watch-list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    A major Hanford Site tank pretreatment objective is to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanied hydrogen generation), which can all potentially react to evolve heat and gases. This paper reports scoping test results of three candidate waste pretreatment processes to oxidize organic compounds contained in the Hanford Site`s radioactive waste storage tanks. Ozone oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, and calcination/dissolution were tested for their ability to destroy tank waste organics using a nonradioactive simulated tank waste.

  11. Hanford Technology Development (Tank Farms) - 12509

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of tank waste are a byproduct of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. One key part of the ongoing work at Hanford is retrieving waste from the single-shell tanks, some of which have leaked in the past, and transferring that waste to the double-shell tanks - none of which have ever leaked. The 56 million gallons of radioactive tank waste is stored in 177 underground tanks, 149 of which are single-shell tanks built between 1943 and 1964. The tanks sit approximately 250 feet above the water table. Hanford's single-shell tanks are decades past their 20-year design life. In the past, up to 67 of the single-shell tanks are known or suspected to have leaked as much as one million gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. Starting in the late 1950's, waste leaks from dozens of the single-shell tanks were detected or suspected. Most of the waste is in the soil around the tanks, but some of this waste is thought to have reached groundwater. The Vadose Zone Project was established to understand the radioactive and chemical contamination in the soil beneath the tanks as the result of leaks and discharges from past plutonium-production operations. The vadose zone is the area of

  12. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  13. Think Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governick, Heather; Wellington, Thom

    1998-01-01

    Examines the options for upgrading, replacing, and removal or closure of underground storage tanks (UST). Reveals the diverse regulatory control involving USTs, the Environmental Protection Agency's interest in pursuing violators, and stresses the need for administrators to be knowledgeable about state and local agency definitions of regulated…

  14. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  15. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  16. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  17. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  18. Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (``double-shell slurry``) containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents, complexant fragments and other minor components (Herting et al. 1992a; Herting et al. 1992b; Campbell et al. 1994). As a result of thermal and radiolytic processes, a number of gases are known to be produced by some of these stored wastes, including ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane (Babad et al. 1991; Ashby et al. 1992; Meisel et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1994; Bryan et al. 1993; US Department of Energy 1994). Before the emplacement of a mixer pump, these gases were retained in and periodically released from Tank 241-SY-101, a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site (Babad et al. 1992; US Department of Energy 1994). Gases are believed to be retained primarily in the form of bubbles attached to solid particles (Bryan, Pederson, and Scheele 1992), with very little actually dissolved in the liquid. Ammonia is an exception. The relation between the concentration of aqueous ammonia in such concentrated, caustic mixtures and the ammonia partial pressure is not well known, however.

  19. Houdini: Reconfigurable in-tank robot

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.; Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.

    1996-12-31

    Throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, hundreds of above- and below-ground storage tanks contain large amounts of high-level waste. The Fernald Environmental Management Project, a site within the DOE complex, contains four aboveground domed, concrete waste tanks. Some structural deterioration has been noted in the walls and domes of the tanks, resulting in concerns about leakage of their contents. Waste retrieval for final remediation must begin in 1997. This report describes the design of a robot named HOUDINI to work in the radioactive waste program.

  20. DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICALS PRESENT IN TANK WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DOE has a strong commitment to the efficient and safe remediation of waste (high level radioactive, mixed waste, and hazardous waste) present in underground DOE storage tanks. Techniques for sensitive and selective monitoring and characterization are of continuing importance to ...

  1. COLLOIDAL AGGLOMERATES IN TANK SLUDGE: IMPACT ON WASTE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    During processing of radioactive wastes, insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles can clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations. The wide range of properties observed for tank wastes can be rationalized by understanding how solution condi...

  2. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-07

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes.

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  4. Completion report for the isolation and remediation of inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory removed from service, designated in the FFA as Category D, be remediated in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. A human health risk screening assessment was conducted for inactive Tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 as part of an evaluation to determine the method of remediation necessary to safely and permanently isolate and remediate the tanks. Risk screening assessment results indicated that the health risks associated with these tanks were within or below the EPA range of concern of 1 x 10{sup -4} to 1 x 10{sup -6}. On the basis of these results and with regulators concurrence, it was determined that either no action or in-place stabilization of the tanks would satisfy risk-based remediation goals. Therefore, decisions were made and approved by DOE to remediate these tanks in-place as maintenance actions rather than actions under the CERCLA process. Letters documenting these decisions were approved by DOE and subsequently submitted to TDEC and EPA, who concurred with the maintenance actions. Tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 were isolated from associated piping, electrical systems, and instrumentation and were grouted in-place. Tank 7562 was originally isolated from associated piping and instrumentation and left in-place empty for future remedial consideration. Upon further consideration, the decision was made by DOE, with concurrence by the regulators, to complete the maintenance action of Tank 7562 by grouting it in-place in March 1997.

  5. Tank Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  6. Tanks Focus Area Site Needs Assessment FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Robert W.

    2000-03-10

    This document summarizes the Tanks Focus Area (TFA's) process of collecting, analyzing, and responding to high-level radioactive tank waste science and technology needs developed from across the DOE complex in FY 2000. The document also summarizes each science and technology need, and provides an initial prioritization of TFA's projected work scope for FY 2001 and FY 2002.

  7. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of

  8. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  9. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  10. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  11. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  12. Composite Tank Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The need for cryogenic fuel tanks continues to expand, and research at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressing these needs. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of composite tank development, including tank testing, cryogenic materials research, tank liners, and dual-walled tanks, at MSFC.

  13. Neptunium Disposal to the Savannah River Site Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2004-02-26

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of an acidic neptunium solution from a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing canyon and the properties of the resulting slurry to determine the feasibility of disposal in the SRS tank farm. The acidic solution displayed no properties that precluded the proposed disposal route. Neutralization of the acidic neptunium forms a 4 wt per cent slurry of precipitated metal hydroxides. The insoluble solids consist largely of iron (92 per cent) and neptunium hydroxides (2 per cent). The concentration of soluble neptunium remaining after neutralization equaled much less than previous solubility measurements predicted. Researchers used an apparatus similar to an Ostwald-type viscometer to estimate the consistency of the neptunium slurry with the solids present. The yield stress and consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry will allow transfer through the tank farm, although concentration of the insoluble solids above 4 wt per cent may cause significant problems due to increased consistency and yield stress. The consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry is 7.6 centipoise (cP) with a yield stress less than 1 Pascal (Pa). The neptunium slurry, when combined with actual washed radioactive sludge, slightly reduces the yield stress and consistency of the sludge and produces a combined slurry with acceptable rheological properties for vitrification.

  14. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  15. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  16. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  17. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  18. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  19. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  20. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  1. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  2. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is Intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  3. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-05-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special 9 surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  4. Waste tank summary report for month ending 02/28/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-04-08

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  5. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 11/30/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2004-01-14

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  6. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 12/31/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2004-02-06

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  7. Waste tank summary report for month ending 05/31/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-07-07

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  8. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 11/30/2001

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-02-04

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy order 435 I (DOE-HQ August 28 2001 Radioactive Waste Management US Department of Energy-Washington DC) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm tanks.

  9. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 03/31/2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-05-09

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  10. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 09/30/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-10-31

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities. and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy, Washington, D. C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  11. Waste tank summary report for month ending 04/30/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-06-10

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  12. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 1/31/2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-04-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  13. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 2/28/2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-04-16

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  14. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 08/31/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-10-08

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy, Washington. D. C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  15. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 04/30/2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-06-05

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  16. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 12/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-02-25

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depicts the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy Order 435 I (DOE-HQ August 28, 2001 Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  17. Waste tank summary report for month ending 07/30/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-09-19

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  18. Waste tank summary report for month ending 06/30/2003

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B.M.

    2003-08-18

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  19. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 05/31/2002

    SciTech Connect

    HANLON, B M

    2002-07-25

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy Order 435.I (WOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks.

  20. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-10-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  1. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vesseL integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 Large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  2. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I. Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  3. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-105

    SciTech Connect

    DeLorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-13

    Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-105 is a radioactive waste tank most recently sampled in March of 1993. Sampling and characterization of the waste in Tank 241-AP-105 contributes toward the fulfillment of Milestone M-44-05 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology, EPA, and DOE, 1993). Characterization is also needed tot evaluate the waste`s fitness for safe processing through an evaporator as part of an overall waste volume reduction program. Tank 241-AP-105, located in the 200 East Area AP Tank Farm, was constructed and went into service in 1986 as a dilute waste receiver tank; Tank 241AP-1 05 was considered as a candidate tank for the Grout Treatment Facility. With the cancellation of the Grout Program, the final disposal of the waste in will be as high- and low-level glass fractions. The tank has an operational capacity of 1,140,000 gallons, and currently contains 821,000 gallons of double-shell slurry feed. The waste is heterogeneous, although distinct layers do not exist. Waste has been removed periodically for processing and concentration through the 242-A Evaporator. The tank is not classified as a Watch List tank and is considered to be sound. There are no Unreviewed Safety Questions associated with Tank 241-AP-105 at this time. The waste in Tank 241-AP-105 exists as an aqueous solution of metallic salts and radionuclides, with limited amounts of organic complexants. The most prevalent soluble analytes include aluminum, potassium, sodium, hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate, and nitrite. The calculated pH is greater than the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act established limit of 12.5 for corrosivity. In addition, cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations were found at levels greater than their regulatory thresholds. The major radionuclide constituent is {sup 137}Cs, while the few organic complexants present include glycolate and oxalate. Approximately 60% of the waste by weight is water.

  4. Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

  5. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  6. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  7. In-tank pretreatment of high-level tank wastes: The SIPS system

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SIPS (Small In-Tank Processing System), that enables the in-tank processing and separation of high-level tank wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) streams that are suitable for vitrification, is described. Presently proposed pretreatment systems, such as enhanced sludge washing (ESW) and TRUEX, require that the high-level tank wastes be retrieved and pumped to a large, centralized processing facility, where the various waste components are separated into a relatively small, radioactively concentrated stream (HLW), and a relatively large, predominantly non-radioactive stream (LLW). In SIPS, a small process module, typically on the order of 1 meter in diameter and 4 meters in length, is inserted into a tank. During a period of approximately six months, it processes the solid/liquid materials in the tank, separating them into liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small diameter (typically 3 cm o.d.) pipes. The SIPS concept appears attractive for pretreating high level wastes, since it would: (1) process waste in-situ in the tanks, (2) be cheaper and more reliable than a larger centralized facility, (3) be quickly demonstrable at full scale, (4) have less technical risk, (5) avoid having to transfer unstable slurries for long distances, and (6) be simple to decommission and dispose of. Further investigation of the SIPS concept appears desirable, including experimental testing and development of subscale demonstration units.

  8. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-109

    SciTech Connect

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Lambie, R.W.; Franklin, J.D.; Seymour, B.J.; Johnson, K.W.; Stevens, R.H.; Remund, K.M.; Sasaki, L.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    This document provides the characterization information and interprets the data for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-109. Single-Shell Tank 241-C-109 is an underground storage tank containing high-level radioactive waste. It is located in the C Tank Farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank was sampled in September of 1992 to address the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question. Analyses of tank waste were also performed to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-08. Tank 241-C-109 went into service in 1946 and received first-cycle decontamination waste from bismuth phosphate process operations at B Plant in 1948. Other waste types added that are expected to contribute to the current contents include ferrocyanide scavenging waste and Strontium Semiworks waste. It is the last tank in a cascade with Tanks 241-C-107 and 241-C-108. The tank has a capacity of 2,010 kL (530 kgal) and currently contains 250 kL (66 kgal) of waste, existing primarily of sludge. Approximately 9.15 kL (4 kgal) of supernate remain. The sludge is heterogeneous, with significantly different chemical compositions depending on waste depth. The major waste constituents include aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium, sulfate and uranium. The major radionuclides present are Cesium 137 and Strontium 90. The results of this characterization indicate that the waste in this tank is adequately described in the Dangerous Waste Permit Application of the Single-Shell Tank System.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 19F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 19F closure samples. Tank 19F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 19F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 19F in April 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 19F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one Tank 19F North Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one Tank 19F South Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 19F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on detection values of 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the target detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 19F, some were not met. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TANK 18F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Click, D.; Diprete, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 18F closure samples. Tank 18F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the 'as-received' slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 18F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 18F in March 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 18F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one North Tank 18F Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one South Tank 18F Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 18F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the minimum detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 18F, some were not met due to spectral interferences. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Closure of the High-Level Waste Tanks in F- & H-Areas at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1996-07-31

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the closure of 51 high-level radioactive waste tanks and tank farm ancillary equipment (including transfer lines, evaporators, filters, pumps, etc) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The waste tanks are located in the F- and H-Areas of SRS and vary in capacity from 2,839,059 liters (750,000 gallons) to 4,921,035 liters (1,300,000 gallons). These in-ground tanks are surrounded by soil to provide shielding. The F- and H-Area High-Level Waste Tanks are operated under the authority of Industrial Wastewater Permits No.17,424-IW; No.14520, and No.14338 issued by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). In accordance with the Permit requirements, DOE has prepared a Closure Plan (DOE, 1996) and submitted it to SCDHEC for approval. The Closure Plan identifies all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulations, statutes, and DOE Orders for closing systems operated under the Industrial Wastewater Permits. When approved by SCDHEC, the Closure Plan will present the regulatory process for closing all of the F- and H-Area High Level Waste Tanks. The Closure Plan establishes performance objectives or criteria to be met prior to closing any tank, group of tanks, or ancillary tank farm equipment. The proposed action is to remove the residual wastes from the tanks and to fill the tanks with a material to prevent future collapse and bind up residual waste, to lower human health risks, and to increase safety in and around the tanks. If required, an engineered cap consisting of clay, backfill (soil), and vegetation as the final layer to prevent erosion would be applied over the tanks. The selection of tank system closure method will be evaluated against the following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) criteria described in 40

  13. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-11-03

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO`s identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given.

  14. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  15. Organic tanks safety program waste aging studies. Final report, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive byproducts and contaminated process chemicals that are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of saltcakes, metal oxide sludges, and aqueous brine solutions. Tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes might be at risk for fuel-nitrate combustion accidents. This project started in fiscal year 1993 to provide information on the chemical fate of stored organic wastes. While historical records had identified the organic compounds originally purchased and potentially present in wastes, aging experiments were needed to identify the probable degradation products and evaluate the current hazard. The determination of the rates and pathways of degradation have facilitated prediction of how the hazard changes with time and altered storage conditions. Also, the work with aged simulated waste contributed to the development of analytical methods for characterizing actual wastes. Finally, the results for simulants provide a baseline for comparing and interpreting tank characterization data.

  16. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely.

  17. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  18. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are Contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding flank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  19. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 {times} 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 {times} 10{sup 18} Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 18}Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes.

  20. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  1. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  2. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. Waste management 1993 symposium papers and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives.

  3. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  4. WASTE CONDITIONING FOR TANK HEEL TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) for the fiscal year 1998 (FY98) under the Tank Focus Area (TFA) project ''Waste Conditioning for Tank Slurry Transfer.'' The objective of this project is to determine the effect of chemical and physical properties on the waste conditioning process and transfer. The focus of this research consisted in building a waste conditioning experimental facility to test different slurry simulants under different conditions, and analyzing their chemical and physical properties. This investigation would provide experimental data and analysis results that can make the tank waste conditioning process more efficient, improve the transfer system, and influence future modifications to the waste conditioning and transfer system. A waste conditioning experimental facility was built in order to test slurry simulants. The facility consists of a slurry vessel with several accessories for parameter control and sampling. The vessel also has a lid system with a shaft-mounted propeller connected to an air motor. In addition, a circulation system is connected to the slurry vessel for simulant cooling and heating. Experimental data collection and analysis of the chemical and physical properties of the tank slurry simulants has been emphasized. For this, one waste slurry simulant (Fernald) was developed, and another two simulants (SRS and Hanford) obtained from DOE sites were used. These simulants, composed of water, soluble metal salts, and insoluble solid particles, were used to represent the actual radioactive waste slurries from different DOE sites. The simulants' chemical and physical properties analyzed include density, viscosity, pH, settling rate, and volubility. These analyses were done to samples obtained from different experiments performed at room temperature but different mixing time and strength. The experimental results indicate that the

  5. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-09-02

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project.

  6. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Technology Successes in Hanford Tank Waste Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, E. J.

    2002-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP), which is responsible for dispositioning approximately 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that has accumulated in 177 large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. The RPP is comprised of five major elements: storage of the waste, retrieval of the waste from the tanks, treatment of the waste, disposal of treated waste, and closure of the tank facilities. Approximately 3785 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of waste have leaked from the older ''single-shell tanks.'' Sixty-seven of the 147 single shell tanks are known or assumed ''leakers.'' These leaks have resulted in contaminant plumes that extend from the tank to the groundwater in a number of tank farms. Retrieval and closure of the leaking tanks complicates the ORP technical challenge because cleanup decisions must consider the impacts of past leaks along with a strategy for retrieving the waste in the tanks. Completing the RPP mission as currently planned and with currently available technologies will take several decades and tens of billions of dollars. RPP continue to pursue the benefits from deploying technologies that reduce risk to human health and the environment, as well as, the cost of cleanup. This paper discusses some of the recent technology partnering activities with the DOE Office of Science and Technology activities in tank waste retrieval and storage.

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7 PREPARATION TANK 4 AND 12 CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.; Pareizs, J.

    2010-05-21

    Samples of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 and HM sludge from Tank 12 were characterized in preparation for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) formulation in Tank 51. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 and Tank 12 were requested in separate Technical Assistance Requests (TAR). The Tank 4 samples were pulled on January 19, 2010 following slurry operations by F-Tank Farm. The Tank 12 samples were pulled on February 9, 2010 following slurry operations by H-Tank Farm. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 4 and two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 12 were received in the SRNL Shielded Cells. Each tank's samples were composited into clean 500 mL polyethylene storage bottles and weighed. The composited Tank 4 sample was 428.27 g and the composited Tank 12 sample was 502.15 g. As expected there are distinct compositional differences between Tank 4 and Tank 12 sludges. The Tank 12 slurry is much higher in Al, Hg, Mn, and Th, and much lower in Fe, Ni, S, and U than the Tank 4 slurry. The Tank 4 sludge definitely makes the more significant contribution of S to any sludge batch blend. This S, like that observed during SB6 washing, is best monitored by looking at the total S measured by digesting the sample and analyzing by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Alternatively, one can measure the soluble S by ICP-AES and adjust the value upward by approximately 15% to have a pretty good estimate of the total S in the slurry. Soluble sulfate measurements by ion chromatography (IC) will be biased considerably lower than the actual total S, the difference being due to the non-sulfate soluble S and the undissolved S. Tank 12 sludge is enriched in U-235, and hence samples transferred into SRNL from the Tank Farm will need to be placed on the reportable special nuclear material inventory and tracked for total U per SRNL procedure requirements.

  9. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  10. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  11. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  12. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  13. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  14. Liquid rocket metal tanks and tank components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. A.; Keller, R. B. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Significant guidelines are presented for the successful design of aerospace tanks and tank components, such as expulsion devices, standpipes, and baffles. The state of the art is reviewed, and the design criteria are presented along with recommended practices. Design monographs are listed.

  15. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-14

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104.

  16. Tank 241-SX-106 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-106.

  17. Tank 241-SX-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-103.

  18. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107.

  19. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103.

  20. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-09

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118.

  1. Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-02-03

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105.

  2. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111.

  3. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105.

  4. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-10

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111.

  5. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-20

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101.

  6. Characterization and process technology capabilities for Hanford tank waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Weimer, W.C.; Schrempf, R.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Paciflc Northwest National Laboratory`s (the Laboratory) capabilities in characterization and unit process and system testing that are available to support Hanford tank waste processing. This document is organized into two parts. The first section discusses the Laboratory`s extensive experience in solving the difficult problems associated with the characterization of Hanford tank wastes, vitrified radioactive wastes, and other very highly radioactive and/or heterogeneous materials. The second section of this document discusses the Laboratory`s radioactive capabilities and facilities for separations and waste form preparation/testing that can be used to Support Hanford tank waste processing design and operations.

  7. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  8. HOUDINI: RECONFIGURABLE IN-TANK ROBOT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thompson; Adam Slifko

    1997-02-12

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge Naitonal Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  9. HOUDINI: RECONFIGURABEL IN-TANK ROBOT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thompson; Adam Slifko

    1997-02-12

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup systems called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobile waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  10. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids.

  11. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  12. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  13. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  14. Ammonia tank failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sweat, M.E.

    1983-04-01

    An ammonia tank failure at Hawkeye Chemical of Clinton, Iowa is discussed. The tank was a double-wall, 27,000 metric-ton tank built in 1968 and commissioned in December 1969. The paper presented covers the cause of the failure, repair, and procedural changes made to prevent recurrence of the failure. (JMT)

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  16. ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT MIXING JETS IN LARGE SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; Robert Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

    2007-03-28

    Flow evolution models were developed to evaluate the performance of the new advanced design mixer pump for sludge mixing and removal operations with high-velocity liquid jets in one of the large-scale Savannah River Site waste tanks, Tank 18. This paper describes the computational model, the flow measurements used to provide validation data in the region far from the jet nozzle, the extension of the computational results to real tank conditions through the use of existing sludge suspension data, and finally, the sludge removal results from actual Tank 18 operations. A computational fluid dynamics approach was used to simulate the sludge removal operations. The models employed a three-dimensional representation of the tank with a two-equation turbulence model. Both the computational approach and the models were validated with onsite test data reported here and literature data. The model was then extended to actual conditions in Tank 18 through a velocity criterion to predict the ability of the new pump design to suspend settled sludge. A qualitative comparison with sludge removal operations in Tank 18 showed a reasonably good comparison with final results subject to significant uncertainties in actual sludge properties.

  17. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Lenseigne, D. L.

    1997-09-15

    The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  19. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-23

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985.

  20. Boehmite Actual Waste Dissolutions Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2008-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite, sodium aluminate and boehmite. Gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic. Boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Samples were taken from four Hanford tanks and homogenized in order to give a sample that is representative of REDOX (Reduction Oxidation process for Pu recovery) sludge solids. Bench scale testing was performed on the homogenized waste to study the dissolution of boehmite. Dissolution was studied at three different hydroxide concentrations, with each concentration being run at three different temperatures. Samples were taken periodically over the 170 hour runs in order to determine leaching kinetics. Results of the dissolution studies and implications for the proposed processing of these wastes will be discussed.

  1. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Selecting fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Until the use of underground storage tanks (USTs) for fuel storage was mandated by the 1970 Uniform Fire Code, above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) were widely used. The tanks were relatively crude by today's standards so the technical superiority and fire protection afforded by use of underground tanks soon made USTs the system of choice for almost all uses. As a result, tens of thousands of tanks have been underground for more than 20 years, and at some point, many of them began leaking. Often, the first sign of these leaks appeared when groundwater became contaminated. The EPA responded to this major environmental problem by strictly regulating the use of below-ground tanks to store flammable liquids. These added regulations have had a severe effect on both service stations and private fueling. The removal of underground tanks and the removal and disposal of any contaminated soil is an extremely expensive proposition. Furthermore, new Uniform Fire Code regulations have added to the costs, imposing requirements for double-walled tanks, corrosion protection, electronic leak monitoring, and annual tank testing. These requirements, plus the financial responsibility requirements the EPA imposed on owners and users of below-ground tanks, led directly to a reconsideration of the use of above-ground tanks for some applications.

  3. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion.

  4. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  6. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  7. Filling Tanks with Hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, K.

    2004-10-01

    At the Hydrazine workshop in 2002 in Noordwijk several presentations dealt with the filling of satellite tanks. I was a bit surprised about the amount of manpower that is needed for this work. But I saw the same during the filling of the SCA system tanks some years ago in Trauen/Germany. I want to present the work flow of filling RESUS Hydrazine tanks. This bladder tanks have a capacity of 64 litres and are similar to some of the satellite tanks. We fill this tanks 25 to 50 times a year. Although the specifications are not exactly the same as those for satellite tank filling, it might be interesting to see how this work can be done half-automatically, because handling with Hydrazine is not a nice job, and the faster it goes, the better.

  8. Separation of strontium-90 from Hanford high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Jones, E.O.

    1993-10-01

    Current guidelines for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site call for vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) in borosilicate glass and disposing the glass canisters in a deep geologic repository. Disposition of the low-level waste (LLW) is yet to be determined, but it will likely be immobilized in a glass matrix and disposed of on site. To lower the radiological risk associated with the LLW form, methods are being developed to separate {sup 90}Sr from the bulk waste material so this isotope can be routed to the HLW stream. A solvent extraction method is being investigated to separate {sup 90}Sr from acid-dissolved Hanford tank wastes. Results of experiments with actual tank waste indicate that this method can be used to achieve separation of {sup 90}Sr from the bulk waste components. Greater than 99% of the {sup 90}Sr was removed from an acidic dissolved sludge solution by extraction with di-tbutylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol (the SREX process). The major sludge components were not extracted.

  9. Analysis of Spent SuperLig® 644 Resin Used for Cesium Removal from Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Blanchard, David L.; Steele, Marilyn J.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy is tasked with the disposition of high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. The liquid waste fraction, currently stored in underground storage tanks, is to be vitrified following specific pretreatment processing, separating the waste into a relatively small-volume high-activity waste fraction (Cs-rich), and a large-volume low-activity waste (LAW) fraction (Cs-depleted). Cesium removal will be conducted using ion exchange technology at the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP). The current pretreatment flowsheet includes the use of SuperLig? 644 (SL-644) for Cs removal, which is a cesium-selective, elutable, organic ion exchange resin developed by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. Eight process test cycles were conducted on a small-scale dual-column ion exchange system containing the SL-644 resin with Hanford tank waste (one cycle with simulant waste and seven cycles with actual Hanford tank waste). After testing, the SL-644 was removed from the columns and analyzed for most metals and radionuclides pertinent to land disposal requirements (LDR) designation. The spent resin contained significant quantities of Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed metals: Ag and Cr. One of the two resin beds exceeded the transuranic waste limit (100 nCi/g alpha) for LDR. The final Cs isotopic distribution in the spent resin was weighted heavily with residual stable Cs from the initial simulant processing test.

  10. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  11. Tank 241-A-105 evaporation estimate, 1970 through 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.K.

    1991-09-01

    Tank 241-A-105 was subjected to a severe steam explosion in January 1965 that caused the metal liner on the bottom to bulge upward approximately 8 feet above its concrete foundation. Shortly after this event, radiation was detected in drywells around the tank and it was declared a leaker. Sluicing operations to remove material from the tank began in August 1968 and continued through August 1970. After sluicing was completed, a significant amount of heat generating material still remained in the tank. To keep tank temperatures below operating limits, the water level in the tank was maintained at an approximate depth of 1.5 feet. This practice was continued until January 1979 when it was believed that the contents had decayed sufficiently to discontinue the water addition and put the tank on a portable exhauster system. Recent concern has focused on what portion of this cooling water added to Tank 241-A-105 actually evaporated and how much leaked into the soil during the nine year time period. This report presents the results of a study that estimates the amount of water evaporated from Tank 241-A-105 between 1970 and 1979. The problem was completed in two parts. The first part involved development of a three dimensional heat transfer model which was used to establish the tank heat load. The results of this model were validated against thermocouple data from Tank 241-A-105. The heat removed from the tank by the ventilation air was then used as input to a second computer code, which calculated the water evaporation. Based upon these two models, the amount of water evaporated from Tank 241-A-105, between 1970 and 1979, was between 378,000 and 410,000 gallons. 9 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Mobile teleoperated tool platform for use in waste tank remediation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, Thomas A.; Fogle, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    For several decades at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, large underground storage tanks have been used to contain highly radioactive waste. This waste must be now transported out of the tanks to be processed into a more suitable long-term storage medium. In addition, the emptied tanks must be cleaned in adherence to both state and federal requirements before being permanently closed. Unfortunately, transfer of the waste by pump leaves behind several types of waste forms away from pump suction: highly alkaline and radioactive sludge, rock-like solid masses called clinkers, or large, solidified salt formations known as tank heels. These waste forms must be dissolved and moved on the tank bottom to pump locations prior to being removed from the tank.

  13. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  14. Hanford Tank Farm RCRA Corrective Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofzski, J.R.; Mann, F.M.; Anderson, F.J.; Lober, R.W.

    2007-07-01

    As a consequence of producing special nuclear material for the nation's defense, large amounts of extremely hazardous radioactive waste was created at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. A little over 50 million gallons of this waste is now stored in 177 large, underground tanks on Hanford's Central Plateau in tank farms regulated under the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA). Over 60 tanks and associated infrastructure have released or are presumed to have released waste in the vadose zone. In 1998, DOE's Office of River Protection established the Hanford Tank Farm RCRA Corrective Action Program (RCAP) to: - Characterize the distribution and extent of the existing vadose zone contamination; - Determine how the contamination will move in the future; - Estimate the impacts of this contamination on groundwater and other media; - Develop and implement mitigative measures; - Develop corrective measures to be implemented as part of the final closure of the tank farm facilities. Since its creation, RCAP has made major advances in each of these areas, which will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  15. Hot cell remote nuclear scanning of tank core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.; Keele, B.D.; Addleman, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-designed remote measurement system has been constructed for gamma and beta isotopic characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste tank core sample materials in a hot cell. A small, collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full-width-at-maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts (keV) has been obtained remotely using risetime compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination (PSD). Isotopic measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedly made, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon detector. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide a fast, qualitative stratigraphic assessment (with isotopic information) of high-level radioactive material. Both gamma spectroscopy and beta measurements have been performed on actual core segments. Differences in radionuclide content, which correspond with color or texture variations, have been seen in constant cross section core samples, although for many samples the activity variation can be ascribed to geometry and/or mass factors. Discussion of the design, implementation, results and potential benefits will be presented.

  16. STATUS & DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-12

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  17. ADMP Mixing of Tank 18F: History, Modeling, Testing, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    LEISHEAR, ROBERTA

    2004-03-29

    Residual radioactive waste was removed from Tank 18F in the F-Area Tank Farm at Savannah River Site (SRS), using the advanced design mixer pump (ADMP). Known as a slurry pump, the ADMP is a 55 foot long pump with an upper motor mounted to a steel super structure, which spans the top of the waste tank. The motor is connected by a long vertical drive shaft to a centrifugal pump, which is submerged in waste near the tank bottom. The pump mixes, or slurries, the waste within the tank so that it may be transferred out of the tank. Tank 18F is a 1.3 million gallon, 85 foot diameter underground waste storage tank, which has no internal components such as cooling coils or structural supports. The tank contained a residual 47,000 gallons of nuclear waste, consisting of a gelatinous radioactive waste known as sludge and particulate zeolite. The prediction of the ADMP success was based on nearly twenty five years of research and the application of that research to slurry pump technology. Many personnel at SRS and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) have significantly contributed to these efforts. This report summarizes that research which is pertinent to the ADMP performance in Tank 18F. In particular, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was applied to predict the performance of the ADMP in Tank 18F.

  18. Single-Shell tank system description

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD, J.G.

    2003-03-04

    The Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) system consists of 149 underground SSTs and processing equipment designed and constructed between 1940 and 1964 to transport and store radioactive hazardous/dangerous wastes generated from irradiated nuclear fuel processing. The tanks, designed to store waste, vary in size from between 190,000 to 3,800,000 L (50,000 gal to 1,000,000 gal) and contain a variety of solid and liquid waste. The system also includes miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST). In addition to the tanks, there is a large amount of ancillary equipment associated with the system and although not designed to store wastes, the ancillary equipment is contaminated through contact with the waste. Waste was routed to the tanks through a network of underground piping, with interconnections provided in concrete pits that allowed changes to the routing through instrumentation. Processing vaults used during waste handling operations, evaporators used to reduce the waste stored in the system, and other miscellaneous structures used for a variety of waste handling operations are also included in the system. The SST system was taken out of service in 1980 and no additional waste has been added to the tanks. The SSTs and ancillary equipment were designed and constructed before promulgation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986. The purpose of this document is to describe the SST system for use in performing an engineering and compliance assessment in support of M-23 milestones (Ecology, et al. 2000). This system description provides estimated locations and volumes of waste within the SST system, including storage tanks, transfer systems, evaporators aid miscellaneous support facilities.

  19. Completion of the Operational Closure of Tank 18F and Tank 19F at the Savannah River Site by Grouting - 13236

    SciTech Connect

    Tisler, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The low-level fraction of the waste is immobilized in a grout waste form, and the high level fraction is disposed of in a glass waste form. Once the waste is removed, the tanks are prepared for closure. Operational closure of the tanks consists of filling with grout for the purpose of chemically stabilizing residual material, filling the tank void space for long-term structural stability, and discouraging future intrusion. Two of the old-style single-shell tanks at the SRS have received regulatory approval confirming waste removal had been completed, and have been stabilized with grout as part of completing operational closure and removal from service. Consistent with the regulatory framework, two types of grout were used for the filling of Tanks 18F and 19F. Reducing grout was used to fill the entire volume of Tanks 18F and 19F (bulk fill grout) and a more flowable grout was used to fill equipment that was left in the tank (equipment fill grout). The reducing grout was added to the tanks using portable grout pumps filled from concrete trucks, and delivered the grout through slick lines to the center riser of each tank. Filling of the two tanks has been completed, and all equipment has been filled. The final capping of riser penetrations brings the operation closure of Tanks 18F and 19F to completion. (authors)

  20. Project management plan for inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    *This document identifies the roles and responsibilities of the project team members and identifies the project scope, schedule, and cost reporting activities for a maintenance activity to remove and dispose of three inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) system tanks and to isolate and fill one LLLW tank with grout. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 are located in concrete vaults and tank 3013 is buried directly in the soil. The maintenance project consists of cutting the existing pipes attached to the tanks; capping the piping to be left in place; removing the tanks and filling the vaults with grout for tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30; and filling tank 3013 with grout. Because the LLLW line serving tank 3001-B will be needed for discharging the 3001 canal demineralizer back flush and regeneration waste to tank WC-19, tank 3001-B will be replaced with a section of piping.

  1. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  2. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  3. Multifunctional Tanks for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David H.; Lewis, Joseph C.; MacNeal, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses multifunctional tanks as means to integrate additional structural and functional efficiencies into designs of spacecraft. Whereas spacecraft tanks are traditionally designed primarily to store fluids and only secondarily to provide other benefits, multifunctional tanks are designed to simultaneously provide multiple primary benefits. In addition to one or more chamber(s) for storage of fluids, a multifunctional tank could provide any or all of the following: a) Passageways for transferring the fluids; b) Part or all of the primary structure of a spacecraft; c) All or part of an enclosure; d) Mechanical interfaces to components, subsystems, and/or systems; e) Paths and surfaces for transferring heat; f)Shielding against space radiation; j) Shielding against electromagnetic interference; h) Electrically conductive paths and surfaces; and i) Shades and baffles to protect against sunlight and/or other undesired light. Many different multifunctional-tank designs are conceivable. The design of a particular tank can be tailored to the requirements for the spacecraft in which the tank is to be installed. For example, the walls of the tank can be flat or curved or have more complicated shapes, and the tank can include an internal structure for strengthening the tank and/or other uses.

  4. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of tank sludges: GAAT, OHF, and combined tank sets.

    PubMed

    Spence, R D; Mattus, C H

    2004-03-01

    Highly radioactive, mixed-waste sludges that have been collected at Oak Ridge over several decades are being combined for treatment and disposal. Stabilization of the sludges in the different tank sets was tested prior to the proposed combination and treatment. This paper, which follows a previous article on the Melton Valley Storage Tank/Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank set, documents the testing of the Gunite and Associated Tank and Old Hydrofracture Facility tank sets, as well as the combined sludges of all the Oak Ridge National Laboratory tank sets; the third paper on this subject will discuss efforts to maximize the sludge loading. The grout formulations were tested in the laboratory with surrogates. A wet-sludge loading of 60wt% resulted in strong wasteforms with no free water and gave a volume increase of about 30-40vol%. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals included in the surrogate testing were silver, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, thallium, zinc, and mercury. The grout formulations stabilized these metals within the Universal Treatment Standards limits. In addition, a grout leachability index of about 10.0-12.0 was measured for both (85)Sr and (137)Cs, meeting the recommended requirement of >6.0. PMID:15036694

  5. Program plan for evaluation of the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank safety issue at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Borsheim, G.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes the background, priorities, strategy and logic, and task descriptions for the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Program. The Ferrocyanide Safety Program was established in 1990 to provide resolution of a major safety issue identified for 24 high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site.

  6. NUMERICAL MODELING OF MIXING OF CHEMICALLY REACTING, NON-NEWTONIAN SLURRY FOR TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 100 million gallons of radioactive wastes stored in 281 tanks, resulting from the production of nuclear weapons. Retrieval and subsequent solidification of these tank waste require processes costing tens of billions of dollars and demand a strong scientific basis to su...

  7. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-C-105, push mode, cores 72 and 76

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-05-03

    This document is a report of the analytical results for samples collected between March 14 and March 22, 1995 from the radioactive wastes in Tank 241-C-105 at the Hanford Reservation. Core samples were collected from the solid wastes in the tank and underwent safety screening analyses including differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and total alpha analysis.

  8. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in container... not transport a cargo tank or multi-unit tank car tank containing a hazardous material in TOFC or COFC... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation...

  9. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank.

  10. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-12

    product lubricated canned motor pumps designed to fit within available risers and have significant agitation capabilities to suspend waste solids. Waste removal and closure of two tanks has been accomplished with agitation provided by 3 SMPs installed within the tanks. In 2012, a team was assembled to investigate alternative solids removal technologies to support waste removal for closing tanks. The goal of the team was to find a more cost effective approach that could be used to replace the current mixing pump technology. This team was unable to identify an alternative technology outside of mixing pumps to support waste agitation and removal from SRS waste tanks. However, the team did identify a potentially lower cost mixing pump compared to the baseline SLPs and SMPs. Rather than using the traditional procurement using an engineering specification, the team proposed to seek commercially available submersible mixer pumps (CSMP) as alternatives to SLPs and SMPs. SLPs and SMPs have a high procurement cost and the actual cost of moving pumps between tanks has shown to be significantly higher than the original estimates that justified the reuse of SMPs and SLPs. The team recommended procurement of “off-the-shelf” industry pumps which may be available for significant savings, but at an increased risk of failure and reduced operating life in the waste tank. The goal of the CSMP program is to obtain mixing pumps that could mix from bulk waste removal through tank closure and then be abandoned in place as part of tank closure. This paper will present the development, progress and relative advantages of the CSMP.

  11. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  12. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  13. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  14. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  15. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    The problems associated with leaking underground storage tanks are discussed. An estimated 10-30% of the 3.5 million or more underground tanks now used to store petroleum products and other liquids may be leaking their contents to the surrounding environment. The EPA is initiating a national field survey of tanks used for the storing of engine fuels. The first phase of the survey will cover a representative sample of 1050 facilities and approximately 2800 tanks. EPA will analyze the questionnaires and then select a sub-sample of about 500 tanks to examine leakage problems in more detail. In the absence of specific groundwater protection legislation or regulation, EPA is planning to use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate underground tanks.

  16. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

  17. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  18. Waste separations and pretreatment technology development in the Underground Storage Tank--Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of USTs. The most promising new technologies are selected for demonstration, testing, and evaluation. The objective is the eventual transfer of new technologies as a system to full-scale remediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) complexes and sites in the private sector. Technologies under development in the UST-ID Program are targeted toward use in remediation actions at the following five DOE participant sites: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Combined, these participant sites have more than 300 USTs containing more than 100 m gal of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste. This paper focuses on the Waste Separations and Pretreatment area of the UST-ID, summarizing the currently funded technology development projects. In this area, several ``compact processing units`` (CPUs) are being developed to effect near-term demonstration and deployment of promising processes in actual tank environments. The CPU design and development approach is summarized. A number of programmatic issues are discussed, including onsite and offsite transportation of potentially contaminated processing systems, containment design criteria, including applicable codes and standards, and operation and maintenance of such systems in a developmental testing environment.

  19. Composite Tank Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on composite tank development. There is a need for oxidizer tanks and reliable, lightweight fuel. The need for cost-effective and scalable manufacturing is also evident. In order to achieve these goals, tooling methods for tank development must be applied, methods for producing easily adaptable and scalable vessel liners must be developed, insulation layer or protective barriers for containers must be manufactured, and an appropriate fiber/resin system for composite overwrap structures must be identified.

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  1. Analysis of tank damage during the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, M.A.; Bhatia, H.

    1995-12-31

    The damage sustained by cylindrical liquid storage tanks during the 1994 Northridge earthquake is summarized. It included elephant foot buckling, anchor failure and roof-shell connection separation. A few of the important lessons learned, in particular, as related to the accuracy of code computations in predicting the actual behavior of these structures are outlined. A detailed case study is presented to illustrate the application of current seismic design standards to a damaged unanchored tank and to demonstrate the use of a state-of-the-art finite element analysis in assessing the seismic safety of the same tank.

  2. Space Shuttle reaction control subsystem propellant tank masked screen test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    During final development testing of the Space Shuttle Reaction Control Subsystem propellant tanks, a problem with pressure transients in the system was uncovered. Due to the nature of the tanks, performance tests to determine the impact of the transients on the expulsion efficiency of the tanks could not directly simulate the actual conditions which would be present in a low-gravity environment. However, by masking or covering various segments of the propellant acquisition device, a good simulation of a low-gravity environment was achieved in ground testing.

  3. Flammable gas concentrations in ex-tank volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1998-06-17

    A simple two-volume model was defined and used for calculating flammable gas concentrations within headspace volumes of single-shell tanks, and within smaller ex-tank volumes connected to the headspace. Assumptions and parameters used to characterize the headspace portion of the model were taken from the GRE Analysis Tool (AT) for simulating gas release events. Additional assumptions used to construct the ex-tank portion of the two-volume model were conservative extensions of those made within the AT, and chosen to simulate headspace to ex-tank gas-flow conditions that would maximize ex-tank concentrations. Numerical evaluations of the two-volume model were performed over a range of headspace GRE conditions and representative ex-tank parameters. To assure consistency with the AT, the range of headspace parameters was taken from 1000 simulated GREs generated by the AT computer code RESOLVE. Based upon waste level fill factors, three tanks (TX-102, SX-103, and TX 112) were chosen to represent typical large, medium, and small headspace volumes available in actual SSTs. Engineering drawings of these tanks were used to determine values of their ex-tank parameters (V2`s and estimates for the gas-flow fraction ``a`` into the specific V2). The results of these evaluations were used to compare time periods for which flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace and the ex-tank volumes exceeded the lower flammability limit for upward flame propagation. These results indicate that even for relatively small flow fractions, headspace concentrations that exceed the LFI, can cause delayed ex-tank concentrations to also exceed the LFLU. The extent to which this occurs is determined mostly by the geometrical aspects of the model, as expressed in the effective volume fraction parameter.

  4. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  5. WRPS MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    BRITTON JC

    2012-02-21

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is the Hanford tank operations contractor, charged with managing one of the most challenging environmental cleanup projects in the nation. The U.S. Department of Energy hired WRPS to manage 56 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The waste is the legacy of 45 years of plutonium production for the U. S. nuclear arsenal. WRPS mission is three-fold: safely manage the waste until it can be processed and immobilized; develop the tools and techniques to retrieve the waste from the tanks, and build the infrastructure needed to deliver the waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) when it begins operating. WTP will 'vitrify' the waste by mixing it with silica and other materials and heating it in an electric melter. Vitrification turns the waste into a sturdy glass that will isolate the radioactivity from the environment. It will take more than 20 years to process all the tank waste. The tank waste is a complex highly radioactive mixture of liquid, sludge and solids. The radioactivity, chemical composition of the waste and the limited access to the underground storage tanks makes retrieval a challenge. Waste is being retrieved from aging single-shell tanks and transferred to newer, safer double-shell tanks. WRPS is using a new technology known as enhanced-reach sluicing to remove waste. A high-pressure stream of liquid is sprayed at 100 gallons per minute through a telescoping arm onto a hard waste layer several inches thick covering the waste. The waste is broken up, moved to a central pump suction and removed from the tank. The innovative Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) is also being used to retrieve waste. MARS is a remotely operated, telescoping arm installed on a mast in the center of the tank. It uses multiple technologies to scrape, scour and rake the waste toward a pump for removal. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) provided nearly $326 million over two

  6. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-09-02

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data.

  7. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an {open_quotes}Analytes of Concern Test List{close_quotes} for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes!

  8. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  9. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  10. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.401 Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  11. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.401 Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  12. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.401 Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  13. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.401 Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  14. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Harmon, H.D.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1994-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste in the United States. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 230,000 m{sup 3} (61 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have {sup 137}Cs accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers., and stored in water basins. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, progress has been made resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  15. Ferrocyanide safety program: Updated thermal analysis model for ferrocyanide tanks with application to Tank 241-BY-104

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    During the middle to late 1950`s, a program was begun to concentrate the radioactive waste products of the uranium and plutonium recovery processes. This program used sodium nickel ferrocyanide to precipitate radioactive cesium from the waste streams. The precipitate was then stored in large, underground single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Several of the tanks have been stabilized, a process that included removing as much pumpable liquid as possible from the tanks. This liquid contained heat-producing radionuclides. Because of the many transfers involved, the lack of accurate inventory data for the various waste streams, and the absence of a need for an accurate value of the heat load, the heat loads of the ferrocyanide waste storage tanks have only been estimated. As a result of the intense radiation field within these tanks, the chemical content of the waste has changed. This, coupled with the fact that the characteristics of the input waste were not well known, has resulted in uncertainty in the thermal characteristics of the stored sludge. All of these parameters are needed to evaluate the safety of these tanks. The purposes of this report are to document the updated thermal analysis model for ferrocyanide tanks and to use the model to determine the heat load of Tank 241-BY-104. This new model utilizes several new parameters and a new technique, which are described in this report. The new model is considered more accurate than the previous model, and all future thermal analyses of ferrocyanide tanks will use this updated model.

  16. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system.

  18. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  19. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Tank for the External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows an inside view of a liquid hydrogen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  2. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 18 IN F TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual floor material in Tank 18 prior to operational closure. Tank 18 is an 85-foot diameter, 34-foot high carbon steel tank with nominal operating volume of 1,300,000 gallons. It is a Type IV tank, and has been in service storing radioactive materials since 1959. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual material, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the material during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual floor material separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 18 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 18. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte concentration as a function of the number of samples, and the final number of samples is determined when the reduction in the uncertainty from an additional sample no longer has a practical impact on results. The characterization of the full suite of analytes in the North hemisphere is currently supported by a single Mantis rover sample obtained from a compact region near the center riser. A floor scrape sample was

  3. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  4. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  5. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  6. Demonstration of an optimized TRUEX flowsheet for partitioning of actinides from actual ICPP sodium-bearing waste using centrifugal contactors in a shielded cell facility

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the separation of the actinides from acidic radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP. These efforts have culminated in recent demonstrations of the TRUEX process with actual tank waste. The first demonstration was performed in 1996 using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors and waste from tank WM-183. Based on the results of this flowsheet demonstration, the flowsheet was optimized and a second flowsheet demonstration was performed. This test also was performed using 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors and waste from tank WM-183. However, the total number of contactor stages was reduced from 24 to 20. Also, the concentration of HEDPA in the strip solution was reduced from 0.04 M to 0.01 M in order to minimize the amount of phosphate in the HLW fraction, which would be immobilized into a glass waste form. This flowsheet demonstration was performed using centrifugal contactors installed in the shielded hot cell at the ICPP Remote Analytical Laboratory. The flowsheet tested consisted of six extraction stages, four scrub stages, six strip stages, two solvent was stages, and two acid rinse stages. An overall removal efficiency of 99.79% was obtained for the actinides. As a result, the activity of the actinides was reduced from 540 nCi/g in the feed to 0.90 nCi/g in the aqueous raffinate, which is well below the NRC Class A LLW requirement of 10 nCi/g for non-TRU waste. Removal efficiencies of 99.84%, 99.97%, 99.97%, 99.85%, and 99.76% were obtained for {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U, respectively.

  7. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in singleshell tanks using tracer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-04-02

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates.

  8. Corrosion Evaluation of INTEC Waste Storage Tank WM-182

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Dirk; P. A. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been stored and reprocessed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1953 using facilities located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This reprocessing produced radioactive liquid waste which was stored in the Tank Farm. The INTEC Tank Farm consists of eleven vaulted 300,000-gallon underground tanks including Tank WM-182. Tank WM-182 was put into service in 1955, has been filled four times, and has contained aluminum and zirconium fuel reprocessing wastes as well as sodium bearing waste. A program to monitor corrosion in the waste tanks was initiated in 1953 when the first of the eleven Tank Farm tanks was placed in service. Austenitic stainless steel coupons representative of the materials of construction of the tanks are used to monitor internal tank corrosion. This report documents the final inspection of the WM-182 corrosion coupons. Physical examination of the welded corrosion test coupons exposed to the tank bottom conditions of Tank WM-182 revealed very light uniform corrosion. Examination of the external surfaces of the extruded pipe samples showed very light uniform corrosion with slight indications of preferential attack parallel to extrusion marks and start of end grain attack of the cut edges. These indications were only evident when examined under stereo microscope at magnifications of 20X and above. There were no definite indications of localized corrosion, such as cracking, pitting, preferential weld attack, or weld heat affected zone attack on either the welded or extruded coupons. Visual examination of the coupon support cables, where they were not encased in plastic, failed to reveal any indication of liquid-liquid interface attack of any crevice corrosion. Based on the WM-182 coupon evaluations, which have occurred throughout the life of the tank, the metal loss from the tank wall due to uniform corrosion is not expected to exceed 5.5 x 10-1 mil (0.00 055 inch

  9. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  10. Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations.

  11. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  12. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  13. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  14. Tank 241-BY-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-10-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL 329 Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BY-103.

  15. Tank 241-BY-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-105.

  16. Tank 241-C-201: Tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-201.

  17. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  18. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  19. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-19

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank`s highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format.

  2. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process

  3. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - 9310

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-01-12

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground carbon steel storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The underground tanks will be closed by removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations, and severing/sealing external penetrations. The life of the carbon steel materials of construction in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to grouted conditions. A stochastic approach was followed to estimate the distributions of failures based upon mechanisms of corrosion accounting for variances in each of the independent variables. The methodology and results used for one-type of tank is presented.

  4. Tow Tank #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.Published in NACA TR No. 470, 'The N.A.C.A. Tank: A High-Speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats,' by Starr Truscott, 1933.

  5. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  6. NACA Tow Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million gallons of salt water pumped in from the Back River. The tank was covered by a shelter which protected the water surface. The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

  7. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-06-26

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements.

  8. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-03-03

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

  9. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  10. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P.

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  11. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE`s underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE`s environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE`s environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design.

  12. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  13. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    SciTech Connect

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30

  14. Tank 241-C-106 sampling data requirements developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.S.; Bell, K.E.; Anderson, C.M.; Peffers, M.S.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of heat generation for tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Site is estimated at more then 100,000 Btu/h. The heat is generated primarily from the radioactive decay of {sup 90}Sr waste that was inadvertently transferred into the tank in the late 1960s. If proper tank cooling is not maintained for this tank, heat-induced structural damage to the tank`s concrete shell could result in the release of nuclear waste to the environment. Because of high-heat concerns in January 1991, tank 241-C-106 was designated as a Watch List tank and deemed as a Priority 1 safety issue. Waste Tank Safety Program (WTSP) is responsible for the resolution of this safety issue. Although forced cooling is effective for short term, the long-term resolution for tank cooling is waste retrieval. Single-shell Tank Retrieval Project (Retrieval) is responsible for the safe retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-106 to a selected double-shell tank. This data quality objective (DQO) study is an effort to determine engineering and design data needs for WTSP and assist Retrieval in designing contingency action retrieval systems. The 7-step DQO process is a tool developed by the Environmental Protection Agency with a goal of identifying needs and reducing costs. This report discusses the results of two DQO efforts for WTSP and Retrieval. The key data needs to support WTSP are thermal conductivity, permeability, and heat load profile. For the Retrieval support, there are nine and three data needs identified, respectively, for retrieval engineering system design and HVAC system design. The updated schedule to drill two core samples using rotary mode is set for March 1994. The analysis of the sample is expected to be completed by September 1994.

  15. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  16. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    SciTech Connect

    Scaief, C.C. III

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks.

  17. Storage tanks: Going above ground

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.C. )

    1994-03-01

    This article examines the trend toward above ground storage tanks for petroleum products and certain hazardous substances. The topics of the article include the advantages and disadvantages of above ground storage tanks, regulations for use of above ground storage tanks, design options, safety issues, and a description of typical users of above ground storage tanks.

  18. Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275.

  19. Corrosion considerations for life management of Hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C.; Vollert, F.R.; Thomson, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The potential for corrosion-related aging mechanisms to be active in the Hanford Site waste tanks is frequently questioned and there are related uncertainties. This paper considers surveillance and analyses for evaluating the potential influence of corrosion processes such as stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion of the reinforced concrete steel on the useful life of Hanford radioactive waste tanks. There are two types of Hanford Site underground reinforced concrete, carbon steel lined waste tank structures. They primarily store caustic nitrate wastes, some at elevated temperatures, from defense reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Some of the Hanford waste tanks have leaked radioactive liquid waste to the soil. These leaks are possibly due to nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking. Major efforts prescribed to avoid nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking in newer tank designs appear successful. A potential for pitting and crevice corrosion cracking in the carbon steel liners exists. There has been no evidence of significant uniform corrosion of the carbon steel liners and there has been no evidence of waste tank degradation caused by corrosion of the concrete reinforcing steel. A waste tank life management program is being developed to qualify the Hanford waste tanks for continued safe storage of these wastes. Corrosion evaluations, structural analyses, and surveillance are required to qualify the tanks and to promptly detect evidence of possible distress.

  20. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.; Chung, T.C.

    1995-11-08

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern.

  1. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  2. 14 CFR 27.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual.... The amplitude of vibration may not be less than one thirty-second of an inch, unless otherwise substantiated. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows: (i) If no frequency of...

  3. 14 CFR 27.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual.... The amplitude of vibration may not be less than one thirty-second of an inch, unless otherwise substantiated. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows: (i) If no frequency of...

  4. 14 CFR 27.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual.... The amplitude of vibration may not be less than one thirty-second of an inch, unless otherwise substantiated. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows: (i) If no frequency of...

  5. 14 CFR 27.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual.... The amplitude of vibration may not be less than one thirty-second of an inch, unless otherwise substantiated. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows: (i) If no frequency of...

  6. Tank waste characterization basis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.

    1996-08-09

    This document describes the issues requiring characterization information, the process of determining high priority tanks to obtain information, and the outcome of the prioritization process. In addition, this document provides the reasoning for establishing and revising priorities and plans.

  7. SPRING_TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  8. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  9. Precipitation of Nitrate-Cancrinite in Hanford Tank Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2004-08-15

    The chemistry of underground storage tanks containing high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site in Washington State is an area of continued research interest. Thermodynamic models have predicted the formation of analcime and clinoptilolite in Hanford Tank, rather than cancrinite; however, these predictions were based on carbonate-cancrinite. We report the first observation of a nitrate-cancrinite [possibly Na{sub 8}K(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O] in fully radioactive Hanford Tank waste evaporated to 6M, 8M, and 10M NaOH concentrations. The nitrate-cancrinite phase formed spherical aggregates (4 {micro}m in diameter) that consisted of platy hexagonal crystals ({approx}0.2 {micro}m thick). {sup 137}Cs was concentrated in these silicate structures. These phase possessed identical morphology as nitrate-cancrinite precipitated in Hanford Tank non-radioactive simulant tests supporting the contention that it is possible to develop non-radioactive artificial sludges. This investigation points to the continued importance of understanding the solubility of NO{sub 3}-cancrinite and related phases.

  10. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  11. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-05-05

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

  12. THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-12-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  13. PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BERMAN HS

    2008-01-22

    radioactive environment. Also extensions were developed to allow inspection of the tank's curve upper (haunch) and lower (knuckle) surfaces. CH2M HILL primarily maintains chemistry control of the DST by ensuring that the concentrations of hydroxide and nitrite ions are favorable with respect to the nitrate ion concentration in the waste. This control program is supported by an extensive sampling program that obtains samples from the supernatant and solid layers in the tank to ensure compliance with the chemical specification. At DOE direction, CH2M HILL has embarked on a waste chemistry optimization program to enhance the protection of the tank surface and the understanding of the parameters that affect general and localized corrosion in the tanks. Over the past decade, DOE has deployed Electrochemical Noise corrosion probes in the DST to monitor localized corrosion. From the information gathered as part of the chemistry control, new information has been identified about the parameters requiring control to ensure tank integrity. CH2M HILL is deploying a series of corrosion probes to test and employ these parameters to provide real time corrosion monitoring of the DSTs.

  14. Tow Tank #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

  15. Propellant tank resupply system

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, T.F.; Orton, G.F.

    1986-09-02

    This patent describes an attitude control system for a spacecraft or the like having a primary propulsion system including at least one primary engine, a source of fuel and a source of oxidizer, and separate fuel pump means and oxidizer pump means for pressurizing fuel and oxidizer for burning in the at least one primary engine, the attitude control system including at least one thruster engine and a pressurized fuel supply tank and a pressurized oxidizer supply tank for supplying fuel and oxidizer to the thruster engine. The improvement consists of: a. first conduit means operatively connected at one end to the outlet of the fuel pump means and at the other end to the thruster engine fuel supply tank, b. second conduit means operatively connected at one end to the outlet of the oxidizer pump means and at the other end to the thruster engine oxidizer supply tank; and c. control valve means within the first and second conduit means for controllably diverting, respectively, fuel and oxidizer under pressure from the fuel and oxidizer pump means to the thruster engine fuel and oxidizer supply tanks during operation of the at least one primary engine whereby the thruster engine fuel and oxidizer supply tanks are resupplied under pressure during the operation of the at least one primary engine.

  16. Aboveground storage tank regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, W. )

    1993-01-01

    There are critical differences between the potential for environmental impact of aboveground and underground oil storage. For example, while leaks from underground storage tanks (USTs) seep into soil or aquifers, the concern with aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) is that an overfill or tank rupture can cause product to escape into a navigable stream and immediately create an oil spill pollution incident. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has very distinct programs outlining regulation parameters for each type of storage, including source of authority, regulatory cutoffs and exclusions, definitions, prevention and response requirements, and penalties, etc. Engineers considering changes or recommending a change in type of storage, particularly from a UST to an AST, need to be aware of existing federal regulations. Since the federal UST program began, remediation costs have skyrocketed as a result of the need to clean up leaking tank and piping sites, backfill and surrounding soil or groundwater. Compliance with federal and state UST regulations has not been cheap, and is expected to top $23 billion, according to some estimates. Partly as a result, market demand has shifted toward use of aboveground storage tanks, a trend that is expected to continue. Industry figures show a 100% increase in factory fabricated aboveground tank activity during the last four years.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic

  18. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  19. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work.

  20. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  1. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  2. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  3. Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    RW Allen

    2000-04-11

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

  4. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

  5. CORROSION TESTING IN SIMULATED TANK SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2010-12-09

    Three simulated waste solutions representing wastes from tanks SY-102 (high nitrate, modified to exceed guidance limits), AN-107, and AY-102 were supplied by PNNL. Out of the three solutions tested, both optical and electrochemical results show that carbon steel samples corroded much faster in SY-102 (high nitrate) than in the other two solutions with lower ratios of nitrate to nitrite. The effect of the surface preparation was not as strong as the effect of solution chemistry. In areas with pristine mill-scale surface, no corrosion occurred even in the SY-102 (high nitrate) solution, however, corrosion occurred in the areas where the mill-scale was damaged or flaked off due to machining. Localized corrosion in the form of pitting in the vapor space of tank walls is an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of the liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. It has been shown that the liquid waste condensate chemistry influences the amount of corrosion that occurs along the walls of the storage tanks. To minimize pitting corrosion, an effort is underway to gain an understanding of the pitting response in various simulated waste solutions. Electrochemical testing has been used as an accelerated tool in the investigation of pitting corrosion. While significant effort has been undertaken to evaluate the pitting susceptibility of carbon steel in various simulated waste solutions, additional effort is needed to evaluate the effect of liquid waste supernates from six Hanford Site tanks (AY-101, AY-102, AN-102, AN-107, SY-102 (high Cl{sup -}), and SY-102 (high nitrate)) on carbon steel. Solutions were formulated at PNNL to replicate tank conditions, and in the case of SY-102, exceed Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} conditions, respectively, to provide a contrast between in and out of specification limits. The majority of previous testing has been performed on pristine polished samples. To evaluate the actual tank carbon steel

  6. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M.; Mendoza, D.P.

    1996-09-01

    Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.

  7. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  8. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  9. Tank safety screening data quality objective. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.W.

    1995-04-27

    The Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) will be used to classify 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks containing high-level radioactive waste into safety categories for safety issues dealing with the presence of ferrocyanide, organics, flammable gases, and criticality. Decision rules used to classify a tank as ``safe`` or ``not safe`` are presented. Primary and secondary decision variables used for safety status classification are discussed. The number and type of samples required are presented. A tabular identification of each analyte to be measured to support the safety classification, the analytical method to be used, the type of sample, the decision threshold for each analyte that would, if violated, place the tank on the safety issue watch list, and the assumed (desired) analytical uncertainty are provided. This is a living document that should be evaluated for updates on a semiannual basis. Evaluation areas consist of: identification of tanks that have been added or deleted from the specific safety issue watch lists, changes in primary and secondary decision variables, changes in decision rules used for the safety status classification, and changes in analytical requirements. This document directly supports all safety issue specific DQOs and additional characterization DQO efforts associated with pretreatment and retrieval. Additionally, information obtained during implementation can assist in resolving assumptions for revised safety strategies, and in addition, obtaining information which will support the determination of error tolerances, confidence levels, and optimization schemes for later revised safety strategy documentation.

  10. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P.; Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E.; Divine, J.R.; Foster, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  12. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  13. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    SciTech Connect

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-25

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

  14. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  15. Composite overwrapped metallic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudill, C. L.; Kirlin, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Work is reported for fabricating and testing the fiberglass overwrapped titanium pressure vessel for cryogenic service. Difficulties encountered in the tank liner fabrication phase involved explosive forming, vacuum annealing, chemical milling and electron beam welding. While each of these processes and the nondestructive test methods employed are normally considered to be individually reliable, the combination of poor material together with fabrication and development reversals prevented the full achievement of the desired end results. Eight tanks plus a prototype and tool proofing article were produced. Six of the vessels failed during the hydrostatic sizing operation. One of the remaining tanks was hydrostatically pressurized to burst and the other was pressurized repeatedly at 75 F from 100 psi to the operating pressure until failure occurred. As a result, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions as to the true value of the design concept due to the problems encountered in the program.

  16. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  17. TANK FARM RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    DODD RA

    2008-01-22

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60 percent of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring this waste to the DST system. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. Regulatory requirements for SST waste retrieval and tank farm closure are established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), better known as the TriParty Agreement, or TPA. The HFFACO was signed by the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and requires retrieval of as much waste as technically possible, with waste residues not to exceed 360 fe in 530,000 gallon or larger tanks; 30 fe in 55,000 gallon or smaller tanks; or the limit of waste retrieval technology, whichever is less. If residual waste volume requirements cannot be achieved, then HFFACO Appendix H provisions can be invoked to request Ecology and EPA approval of an

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  20. Tank waste isotope contributions

    SciTech Connect

    VANKEUREN, J.C.

    1999-08-26

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste.

  1. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  2. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  5. Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1994-10-13

    This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms.

  6. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  7. Destruction of Ion-Exchange Resin In Waste From the HFIR, T1 and T2 Tanks Using Fenton's Reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    2002-11-06

    The use of Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous iron catalyst) has been tested as a method for destroying ion-exchange resin in radioactive waste from three underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The resin in these wastes must be destroyed before they can be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) prior to solidification and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reaction with ion-exchange resin requires a dilute acidic solution (pH = 3 to 5) and moderate temperatures (T = 60 to 100 C). Laboratory-scale tests of the process have been successfully completed using both simulants and actual waste samples. The ion-exchange resin is oxidized to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts. The reaction rate is quite slow for temperatures below 70 C but increases almost linearly as the temperature of the slurry increases from 70 to 90 C. Pilot-scale tests have demonstrated the process using larger samples of actual waste slurries. A sample from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) tank, containing 500 mL of settled solids (resin and inorganic sludge) in a total volume of 1800 mL, was successfully treated to meet MVST waste acceptance requirements in 9 h of processing time, using 1650 mL of 50 wt% hydrogen peroxide. A composite sample from the T1 and T2 tanks, which contained 1000 mL of settled solids in a total volume of 2000 mL required 8 h of treatment, using 1540 mL of 50 wt% peroxide, to meet waste acceptance requirements. Hydrogen peroxide reaction rates were 0.71 to 0.74 g H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L/min, with very low (<2000 mg/L) concentrations of peroxide in the slurry. The reaction produces mostly carbon dioxide gas during the early part of the treatment, when organic carbon concentrations in the slurry are high, and then produces increasing amounts of oxygen as the organic carbon concentration drops. Small amounts (<3 vol%) of carbon monoxide are also generated. The off-gas from the pilot-scale tests, which was 81

  8. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Performance evaluation of the pilot-scale, double-shell tank ventilation system using simulated aerosol streams

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Peterson, M.E.

    1989-12-01

    Radioactive waste slurries are currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The slurries that are being stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) are various mixtures of radioactive solids, liquids, and aqueous wastes. The tanks must be maintained at a negative pressure relative to atmospheric pressure to safeguard against pressurization and the subsequent leakage of entrained radioactive aerosols to the environment. A ventilation system must be capable of withdrawing the total volume of off gas generated from the tanks while maintaining the tanks at a negative pressure. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has identified a need to improve the efficiency of the ventilation system being used on the tank farms to meet the more restrictive release limits for radioactive isotopes. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) has been contracted by WHC to design the new ventilation system for the existing tank farms. WHC contracted the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to fabricate and test the prototypic pilot-scale design prior to finalizing the design of the ventilation system. The PNL has conducted tests to determine (1) the effectiveness of the system for removal of vapors condensable at 35{degrees}F, (2) the effectiveness for removal of soluble and insoluble aerosols, and (3) the life span of the mist eliminators to be used in the new system. The results of extensive testing of the pilot-scale system with condensables and both soluble and insoluble aerosols are presented in this report. 7 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Advanced Design Mixer Pump Tank 18 Design Modifications Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.J.

    2002-12-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is preparing to retrieve high level waste (HLW) from Tank 18 in early FY03 to provide feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and to support tank closure in FY04. As part of the Tank 18 project, WSRC will install a single Advanced Design Mixer Pump (ADMP) in the center riser of Tank 18 to mobilize, suspend, and mix radioactive sludge in preparation for transfer to Tank 7. The use of a single ADMP is a change to the current baseline of four (4) standard slurry pumps used during previous waste retrieval campaigns. The ADMP was originally conceived by Hanford and supported by SRS to provide a more reliable and maintainable mixer pump for use throughout the DOE complex. The ADMP underwent an extensive test program at SRS between 1998 and 2002 to assess reliability and hydraulic performance. The ADMP ran for approximately 4,200 hours over the four-year period. A detailed tear down and inspection of the pump following the 4,2 00-hour run revealed that the gas mechanical seals and anti-friction bearings would need to be refurbished/replaced prior to deployment in Tank 18. Design modifications were also needed to meet current Authorization Basis safety requirements. This report documents the modifications made to the ADMP in support of Tank 18 deployment. This report meets the requirements of Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Milestone 3591.4-1, ''Issue Report on Modifications Made to the ADMP,'' contained in Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR16WT51, ''WSRC Retrieval and Closure.''

  11. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m{sup 3}) to 10{sup 6} gallons (3785 m{sup 3}). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina.

  12. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Wang, L.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2003-06-01

    Aluminum-containing phases represent the most prevalent solids that can appear or disappear during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes such as sludge washing and leaching are designed to dissolve Al-containing phases and, thereby, minimize the volume of high-level waste glass required to encapsulate radioactive sludges. Unfortunately, waste-processing steps that include evaporation can involve solutions that are supersaturated with respect to cementitious aluminosilicates that result in unwanted precipitation and scale formation. Of all the constituents of tank waste, limited solubility cementitious aluminosilicates have the greatest potential for clogging pipes and transfer lines, fouling highly radioactive components such as ion exchangers, and completely shutting down processing operations. For instance, deposit buildup and clogged drain lines experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to b e shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) at SRS is now collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to solve the deposition and clogging problems. The primary goals of this study are to understand the (1) the major factors controlling precipitation, heterogeneous nucleation and growth phenomena, of relatively insoluble aluminosilicates, (2) role of organics for inhibiting aluminosilicate formation, and (3) to develop a predictive tool to control precipitation, scale formation, and cementation under tank waste processing conditions. The results obtained from this will provide crucial information for (1) avoiding problematical sludge processing steps, and (2) identifying and developing effective technologies to process retrieved sludges and supernatants before ultimate

  13. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Wang, L.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2004-06-01

    Aluminum-containing phases represent the most prevalent solids that can appear or disappear during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes such as sludge washing and leaching are designed to dissolve Al-containing phases and, thereby, minimize the volume of high-level waste glass required to encapsulate radioactive sludges. Unfortunately, waste-processing steps that include evaporation can involve solutions that are supersaturated with respect to cementitious aluminosilicates that result in unwanted precipitation and scale formation. Of all the constituents of tank waste, limited solubility cementitious aluminosilicates have the greatest potential for clogging pipes and transfer lines, fouling highly radioactive components such as ion exchangers, and completely shutting down processing operations. For instance, deposit buildup and clogged drain lines experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) at SRS is now collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to solve the deposition and clogging problems. The primary goals of this study are to understand the (1) the major factors controlling precipitation, heterogeneous nucleation and growth phenomena, of relatively insoluble aluminosilicates, (2) role of organics for inhibiting aluminosilicate formation, and (3) to develop a predictive tool to control precipitation, scale formation, and cementation under tank waste processing conditions. The results obtained from this will provide crucial information for (1) avoiding problematical sludge processing steps, and (2) identifying and developing effective technologies to process retrieved sludges and supernatants before ultimate

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  15. Houdini: a remote mobile platform for tank waste retrieval tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Denmeade, T.J.; SSlifko, A.D.; Thompson, B.R.; White, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    RedZone has developed Houdini{trademark}, a folding frame vehicle for work in waste storage tanks and other confined-access areas. Houdini is a tethered, hydraulically-powered platform that folds to fit through small openings. Once deployed, the vehicle unfolds to provide a substantial work platform for the deployment of a wide variety of tools. The Houdini system will perform wheel removal, waste retrieval, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. Within the DOE Complex, 332 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop and commercialize the Houdini system for broad application throughout the DOE Complex.

  16. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  17. Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Michener, T.E.

    1992-04-01

    Numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical processes in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for a centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity and high settling velocity. It results in nonuniform distribution. The other case is with high jet velocity and low settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations.

  18. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  19. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Dabbs; Ilhan A. Aksay

    2005-01-12

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations.

  20. Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

  1. ANNUAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting the...

  2. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  3. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    SciTech Connect

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  4. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  5. Precipitation of nitrate-cancrinite in Hanford Tank Sludge.

    PubMed

    Buck, E C; McNamara, B K

    2004-08-15

    The chemistry of underground storage tanks containing high-level waste at the Hanford Site in Washington State is an area of continued research interest. Thermodynamic models have predicted the formation of analcime and clinoptilolite in Hanford tanks, rather than cancrinite; however, these predictions were based on carbonate-cancrinite. We report the first observation of a nitrate-cancrinite [possibly Na8(K,Cs)(AlSiO4)6(NO3)2 x nH2O] extracted from a Hanford tank 241-AP-101 sample that was evaporated to 6, 8, and 10 M NaOH concentrations. The nitrate-cancrinite phase formed spherical aggregates (4 microm in diameter) that consisted of platy hexagonal crystals (approximately 0.2 microm thick). Cesium-137 was concentrated in these aluminosilicate structures. These phases possessed a morphology identical to that of nitrate-cancrinite synthesized using simulant tests of nonradioactive tank waste, supporting the contention that it is possible to develop nonradioactive artificial sludges. This investigation points to the continued importance of understanding the solubility of NO3-cancrinite and related phases. Knowledge of the detailed structure of actual phases in the tank waste helps with thermodynamic modeling of tank conditions and waste processing. PMID:15382874

  6. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  7. A parametric study of double-shell tank response to internal high-frequency pressure loading

    SciTech Connect

    Baliga, R.; Choi, K.; Shulman, J.S.; Strehlow, J.P.; Abatt, G.

    1995-02-01

    The double-shell waste tank 241SY101 (SY101) is a 3,785,400-liter tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The tank waste has formed two layers of sludge in the tank; a convective and a nonconvective layer. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer of the waste. Various means of preventing the buildup of hydrogen molecules in the nonconvective layer have been investigated, including the use of a sonic probe that would transmit high-frequency acoustic pressure waves into the nonconvective layer of the waste. During the operation of the sonic probe, the pressure waves transmitted from the probe induce pressure time history loading on the inside surface of the primary tank. For low-frequency fluid-structure interaction loads, such as those associated with seismic events, the convective and impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank are well documented. However, for high-frequency loading, such as that associated with acoustic pressure waves, interactions between the waste and the primary tank are not understood. The pressure time history is represented by a harmonic function with a frequency range between 30 and 100 Hz. Structural analyses of the double-shell tank have been performed that address the tank`s response to the sonic probe acoustic pressure loads. This paper addresses the variations in the tank response as a function of percent waste mass considered to be effective in the dynamic excitation of the tank. It also compares results predicted by analyses that discretely model the liquid waste and presents recommendations for the simplified effective mass approach. Also considered in the parametric study is the effect of damping on the tank response for the same pressure loading.

  8. Plating Tank Control Software

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  9. Hybrid Tank Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have accomplished great advances in pressure vessel technology by applying high-performance composite materials as an over-wrap to metal-lined pressure vessels. These composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) are used in many areas, from air tanks for firefighters and compressed natural gas tanks for automobiles, to pressurant tanks for aerospace launch vehicles and propellant tanks for satellites and deep-space exploration vehicles. NASA and commercial industry are continually striving to find new ways to make high-performance pressure vessels safer and more reliable. While COPVs are much lighter than all-metal pressure vessels, the composite material, typically graphite fibers with an epoxy matrix resin, is vulnerable to impact damage. Carbon fiber is most frequently used for the high-performance COPV applications because of its high strength-to-weight characteristics. Other fibers have been used, but with limitations. For example, fiberglass is inexpensive but much heavier than carbon. Aramid fibers are impact resistant but have less strength than carbon and their performance tends to deteriorate.

  10. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  11. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  12. North Tank Farm data report for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, V.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program, has developed and demonstrated the first full-scale remotely operated system for cleaning radioactive liquid and waste from large underground storage tanks. The remotely operated waste retrieval system developed and demonstrated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is designed to accomplish both retrieval of bulk waste, including liquids, thick sludge, and scarified concrete, and final tank cleaning. This report provides a summary of the North Tank Farm (NTF) operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations. The organization of this report is as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction to the report. Section 2 describes the NTF tank structures (W-3 and W-4 only) and the contents of the tanks. Section 3 outlines the objectives of the NTF testing and explains how these objectives were met. Section 4 provides a description of the various operating systems used in the NTF operations. Sections 5 and 6 present a summary of the data collected during NTF operations. Section 7 summarizes the maintenance activities performed and Section 8 summarizes the on-the-job training performed in the NTF. Section 9 summarizes the capital cost for the waste retrieval and characterization equipment and operating costs for performing the NTF work. Section 10 provides observations and lessons learned, and Section 11 provides a summary and conclusions.

  13. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  14. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201 Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks....

  15. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank...

  16. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank...

  17. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201 Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks....

  20. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....