Science.gov

Sample records for actual science interiors

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Interior Ballistics Based on Actual Combustion Characteristics of Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Bin; Wang, Ze-Shan

    2015-07-01

    A novel interior ballistic model was established by revising actual combustion characteristics describing the relationship between burned propellants (ψ) and pressure impulse (It). The discrepancy between theory and experiment for gas releasing of porous propellant was investigated. Furthermore, the model was tested for multiperforated propellants, with relative errors less than 1 and 3% for the maximum pressure and velocity, respectively, indicating that this is a good model to estimate the interior ballistics performance for multiperforated propellants.

  2. A Bibliography for Interior Design from the Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleeman, Walter, Jr., Ed.

    The National Society of Interior Designers Interiors Environment Research Council feels that a wide range of research findings in the environmental sciences has great interest and value for the professional interior designer. One hundred and sixty-nine listings represent a broad range of topics relating to the design professions--economics,…

  3. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  4. Virtual Science Instructional Strategies: A Set of Actual Practices as Perceived by Secondary Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Tammy J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science…

  5. Learning Science in High School: What is actually going on?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Aik Ling; Hong, Huaqing

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines learning of science in 15 grade nine classrooms by analyzing the type of talk that teachers engaged in. Using transcripts from audio recordings that are part of the Singapore Corpus of Research in Education database, annotations were carried out on the phrases of teacher talk using Mortimer and Scott's framework for meaning making in science classrooms. Interpreted from a sociocultural view of science learning and based on text coverage per 1,000 words spoken by teachers and students, we analyzed the content of instruction and found that (1) teachers in all three sub-disciplines of science used the least number of words to make statements of generalizations, with chemistry teachers privileging description more than physics and biology teachers, while physics teachers use more words for explanation when compared with biology and chemistry teachers and (2) teachers from all three sub-disciplines depended more on empirical justification than theoretical justifications. These findings suggest that most scientific stories in Singaporean grade nine classrooms are dependent on specific contexts and that the nature and organization of knowledge in each sub-discipline defines the features that teachers use in the classrooms to talk knowledge into being. We discuss our findings on whether science curriculum should be framed as 'separate subjects' or if they should be developed as 'integrated science' and draw implications to science teacher education and the conduct of high stakes public placement examinations.

  6. Learning Science in High School: What Is Actually Going On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik Ling; Hong, Huaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines learning of science in 15 grade nine classrooms by analyzing the type of talk that teachers engaged in. Using transcripts from audio recordings that are part of the Singapore Corpus of Research in Education database, annotations were carried out on the phrases of teacher talk using Mortimer and Scott's framework for…

  7. Virtual science instructional strategies: A set of actual practices as perceived by secondary science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Tammy J.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science instructors. This study could assist online science instructors by determining which teaching practices/instructional strategies were preferred for the online teaching environment. The literature reviewed the role of online and face-to-face instructional strategies, then discussed and elaborated on the science instructional strategies used by teachers, specifically at the secondary level. The current literature did not reflect an integration of these areas of study. Therefore, the connectedness of these two types of instructional strategies and the creation of a set of preferred instructional practices for online science instruction was deemed necessary. For the purpose of this study, the researcher designed a survey for face-to-face and online teachers to identify preferred teaching practices, instructional strategies, and types of technology used when teaching high school science students. The survey also requested demographic data information from the faculty members, including years of experience, subject(s) taught, and whether the teacher taught in a traditional classroom or online, to determine if any of those elements affect differences in faculty perceptions with regard to the questions under investigation. The findings from the current study added to the literature by demonstrating the differences and the similarities that exist between online and face-to-face instruction. Both forms of instruction tend to rely on student-centered approaches to teaching. There were many skills that were similar in that both types of instructors tend to focus on implementing the scientific method. The primary difference is the use of

  8. Preferred-Actual Learning Environment "Spaces" and Earth Science Outcomes in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components:…

  9. Preferred-actual learning environment spaces and earth science outcomes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components: content, method, and assessment with both student-centered and teacher-centered scales embedded. Findings suggest that preferred-actual space (PASmatch) between posttreatment perceptions and pretreatment preferences accounted for a more substantial and statistically significant amount of learning outcomes in terms of students' attitudes toward the subject matter with greater than large effect size, concerning practical significance in the actual earth science classroom. These findings suggest that earth science instruction in the secondary schools should bridge the gap between students' preferred/perceived learning environment with the aim to enhance their learning outcomes.

  10. College Science Students' Perception Gaps in Preferred-Actual Learning Environment in a Reformed Introductory Earth Science Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yeh; Chang, Yueh-Hsia

    2010-01-01

    This study used an instrument to examine undergraduate students' preferred and actual learning environment perceptions in an introductory earth science course. The results show that science students expect to learn in a learning environment combining teacher-centred and student-centred approaches. However, an expectation incongruence was found in…

  11. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers annual report for 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varela Minder, Elda; Padgett, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) had another exciting year in 2014. The NCCWSC moved toward focusing their science funding on several high priority areas and, along with the CSCs, gained new agency partners; contributed to various workshops, meetings, publications, student activities, and Tribal/indigenous activities; increased outreach; and more. 

  12. Preservice elementary teachers' actual and designated identities as teachers of science and teachers of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canipe, Martha Murray

    Preservice elementary teachers often have concerns about teaching science that may stem from a lack of confidence as teachers or their own negative experiences as learners of science. These concerns may lead preservice teachers to avoid teaching science or to teach it in a way that focuses on facts and vocabulary rather than engaging students in the doing of science. Research on teacher identity has suggested that being able to envision oneself as a teacher of science is an important part of becoming a teacher of science. Elementary teachers are generalists and as such rather than identifying themselves as teachers of particular content areas, they may identify more generally as teachers of students. This study examines three preservice teachers' identities as teachers of science and teachers of students and how these identities are enacted in their student teaching classrooms. Using a narrated identity framework, I explore stories told by preservice teachers, mentor teachers, student teaching supervisors, and science methods course instructors about who preservice teachers are as teachers of science and teachers of students. Identities are the stories that are told about who someone is or will become in relation to a particular context. Identities that are enacted are performances of the stories that are an identity. Stories were collected through interviews with each storyteller and in an unmoderated focus group with the three preservice teachers. In addition to sorting stories as being about teachers of science or students, the stories were categorized as being about preservice teachers in the present (actual identities) or in the future (designated identities). The preservice teachers were also observed teaching science lessons in their student teaching placements. These enactments of identities were analyzed in order to identify which aspects of the identity stories were reflected in the way preservice teachers taught their science lessons. I also analyzed the

  13. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  14. Differences in science students' view of ideal and actual role behavior according to success and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauchak, Don; Peterson, Ken

    Information about how success and gender affect students' views of ideal and actual classroom role behavior can help both researchers and teachers better understand classroom components such as achievement and curriculum. A 20-item double Q sort was used to measure differences in perceptions of high school science students according to letter grades and gender. Individual Q sort item rankings of 160 students were tested for significant differences according to letter grade received; item ratings were compared according to gender for 215 students. Differences in perception according to success were found for both ideal and actual behavior; 8 and 5 items, respectively, out of each 20-item sort were found to be significant at the p = < 0.05 level. No such overall patterns of difference in view were found between boys and girls, although three ideal student items and one actual self-report item were found to be significantly different at the p = < 0.05 level.

  15. An Experience of Science Theatre to Introduce Earth Interior and Natural Hazards to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of making them acquainted with a topic, the interior of the Earth, largely underestimated in compulsory school curricula worldwide. A not less important task was to encourage a positive attitude towards natural…

  16. U.S. Department of the Interior Southeast Climate Science Center Science and Operational Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Dalton, Melinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change challenges many of the basic assumptions routinely used by conservation planners and managers, including the identification and prioritization of areas for conservation based on current environmental conditions and the assumption those conditions could be controlled by management actions. Climate change will likely alter important ecosystem drivers (temperature, precipitation, and sea-level rise) and make it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain current environmental conditions into the future. Additionally, the potential for future conservation of non-conservation lands may be affected by climate change, which further complicates resource planning. Potential changes to ecosystem drivers, as a result of climate change, highlight the need to develop and adapt effective conservation strategies to cope with the effects of climate and landscape change. The U.S. Congress, recognized the potential effects of climate change and authorized the creation of the U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) in 2008. The directive of the NCCWSC is to produce science that supports resource-management agencies as they anticipate and adapt to the effects of climate change on fish, wildlife, and their habitats. On September 14, 2009, U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Secretary Ken Salazar signed Secretarial Order 3289 (amended February 22, 2010), which expanded the mandate of the NCCWSC to address climate-change-related impacts on all DOI resources. Secretarial Order 3289 "Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change on America's Water, Land, and Other Natural and Cultural Resources," established the foundation of two partner-based conservation science entities: Climate Science Centers (CSC) and their primary partners, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC). CSCs and LCCs are the Department-wide approach for applying scientific tools to increase the understanding of climate change, and to coordinate an effective response

  17. The Impact of Congruency between Preferred and Actual Learning Environments on Tenth Graders' Science Literacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Chia-Li D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of congruency between preferred and actual learning environment (PLE & ALE) perceptions on students' science literacy in terms of science concepts, attitudes toward science, and the understanding of the nature of science in an innovative curriculum of High Scope Project, namely Sci-Tech Mind and Humane Heart…

  18. Actionable Science Lessons Emerging from the Department of Interior Climate Science Center Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, G.; Meadow, A. M.; Mikels-Carrasco, J.

    2015-12-01

    The DOI Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS) has recommended that co-production of actionable science be the core programmatic focus of the Climate Science Center enterprise. Efforts by the Southeast Climate Science Center suggest that the complexity of many climate adaptation decision problems (many stakeholders that can influence implementation of a decision; the problems that can be viewed at many scales in space and time; dynamic objectives with competing values; complex, non-linear systems) complicates development of research-based information that scientists and non-scientists view as comprehensible, trustworthy, legitimate, and accurate. Going forward, organizers of actionable science efforts should consider inclusion of a broad set of stakeholders, beyond formal decisionmakers, and ensure that sufficient resources are available to explore the interests and values of this broader group. Co-produced research endeavors should foster agency and collaboration across a wide range of stakeholders. We recognize that stakeholder agency may be constrained by scientific or political power structures that limit the ability to initiate discussion, make claims, and call things into question. Co-production efforts may need to be preceded by more descriptive assessments that summarize existing climate science in ways that stakeholders can understand and link with their concerns. Such efforts can build rapport and trust among scientists and non-scientists, and may help stakeholders and scientists alike to frame adaptation decision problems amenable to a co-production effort. Finally, university and government researchers operate within an evaluation structure that rewards researcher-driven science that, at the extreme, "throws information over the fence" in the hope that information users will make better decisions. Research evaluation processes must reward more consultative, collaborative, and collegial research approaches if

  19. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  20. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Status at the Initiation of the Science Mapping Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Asmar, Sami W.; Alomon; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips. Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Williams, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, a component of NASA's Discovery Program, launched successfully from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011. The dual spacecraft traversed independent, low-energy trajectories to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point and inserted into elliptical, 11.5-hour polar orbits around the Moon on December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2012. The spacecraft are currently executing a series of maneuvers to circularize their orbits at 55-km mean altitude. Once the mapping orbit is achieved, the spacecraft will undergo additional maneuvers to align them into mapping configuration. The mission is on track to initiate the Science Phase on March 8, 2012.

  1. The Junior High School Integrated Science: The Actual Teaching Process in the Perspective of an Ethnographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kenneth; Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey

    2016-01-01

    Science education at the Basic School (Primary and Junior High School) serves as the foundation upon which higher levels of science education are pivoted. This ethnographic study sought to investigate the teaching of Integrated Science at the Junior High School (JHS) level in the classrooms of two science teachers in two schools of differing…

  2. Is Ecosystem-Atmosphere Observation in Long-Term Networks actually Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Science uses observations to build knowledge by testable explanations and predictions. The "scientific method" requires controlled systematic observation to examine questions, hypotheses and predictions. Thus, enquiry along the scientific method responds to questions of the type "what if …?" In contrast, long-term observation programs follow a different strategy: we commonly take great care to minimize our influence on the environment of our measurements, with the aim to maximize their external validity. We observe what we think are key variables for ecosystem-atmosphere exchange and ask questions such as "what happens next?" or "how did this happen?" This apparent deviation from the scientific method begs the question whether any explanations we come up with for the phenomena we observe are actually contributing to testable knowledge, or whether their value remains purely anecdotal. Here, we present examples to argue that, under certain conditions, data from long-term observations and observation networks can have equivalent or even higher scientific validity than controlled experiments. Internal validity is particularly enhanced if observations are combined with modeling. Long-term observations of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes identify trends and temporal scales of variability. Observation networks reveal spatial patterns and variations, and long-term observation networks combine both aspects. A necessary condition for such observations to gain validity beyond the anecdotal is the requirement that the data are comparable: a comparison of two measured values, separated in time or space, must inform us objectively whether (e.g.) one value is larger than the other. In turn, a necessary condition for the comparability of data is the compatibility of the sensors and procedures used to generate them. Compatibility ensures that we compare "apples to apples": that measurements conducted in identical conditions give the same values (within suitable uncertainty intervals

  3. A Science Teacher's Reflections and Knowledge Growth about STS Instruction after Actual Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes a science teacher's views of Science-Technology-Society (STS) instruction after implementing a two-semester STS-oriented science course in a Taiwanese high school. Concludes that the heavy content load of Taiwan's national curriculum, regular cross-class standard tests, lack of peer or administrative support, resource limitations in the…

  4. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF HYGIENE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN THE PRESERVATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene. PMID:26302549

  5. The Department of the Interior Strategic Sciences Group and its Response to Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Machlis, G. E.; Applegate, D.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will describe the history, mission, and current activities of the newly formed Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG), with a focus on its response to Hurricane Sandy and lessons learned from using scenario building to support decision making. There have been several environmental crises of national significance in recent years, including Hurricane Katrina (2005), large-scale California wildfires (2007-2008), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). Such events are complex because of their impacts on the ecology, economy, and people of the affected locations. In these and other environmental disasters, the DOI has had significant responsibilities to protect people and resources and to engage in emergency response, recovery, and restoration efforts. In recognition of the increasingly critical role of strategic science in responding to such complex events, the DOI established the SSG by Secretarial Order in 2012. Its purpose is to provide the DOI with science-based assessments and interdisciplinary scenarios of environmental crises affecting Departmental resources; rapidly assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists from government, academia, and non-governmental organizations to conduct such work; and provide results to DOI leadership as usable knowledge to support decision making. March 2013 was the SSG's first deployment since its formation. The SSG's charge was to support DOI's participation on the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force by developing scenarios of Hurricane Sandy's environmental, economic, and social consequences in the New York/New Jersey area and potential interventions that could improve regional resilience to future major storms. Over the course of one week, the SSG Sandy team (Operational Group Sandy) identified 13 first-tier consequences and 17 interventions. The SSG briefed DOI leadership, Task Force representatives, and other policy makers in both Washington, DC and

  6. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  7. Science Is Key to Decision Making, U.S. Secretary of Interior Tells Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-02-01

    As secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Sally Jewell oversees a department whose mission involves both the management and conservation of federal lands and natural resources. Jewell's background as a petroleum engineer, banker with a specialty in natural resources, and CEO of Recreational Equipment Inc. (REI) could help her balance various, often competing, interests and manage Interior's nine agencies, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; National Park Service; and the bureaus of Reclamation, Land Management, and Ocean Energy Management.

  8. Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q=33+/-4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior properties; a fluid core is indicated with radius approx.20% that of the Moon. Tests of relativistic gravity verify the equivalence principle to +/-1.4x10(exp -13), limit deviations from Einstein's general relativity, and show no rate for the gravitational constant G/G with uncertainty 9x10(exp -13)/yr.

  9. U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers and U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center—Annual report for 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varela Minder, Elda; Padgett, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    2015 was another great year for the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) network. The DOI CSCs and USGS NCCWSC continued their mission of providing the science, data, and tools that are needed for on-the-ground decision making by natural and cultural resource managers to address the effects of climate change on fish, wildlife, ecosystems, and communities. Our many accomplishments in 2015 included initiating a national effort to understand the influence of drought on wildlife and ecosystems; providing numerous opportunities for students and early career researchers to expand their networks and learn more about climate change effects; and working with tribes and indigenous communities to expand their knowledge of and preparation for the impacts of climate change on important resources and traditional ways of living. Here we illustrate some of these 2015 activities from across the CSCs and NCCWSC.

  10. COMETARY SCIENCE. Properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko interior revealed by CONSERT radar.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Wlodek; Herique, Alain; Barbin, Yves; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Ciarletti, Valérie; Clifford, Stephen; Edenhofer, Peter; Elachi, Charles; Eyraud, Christelle; Goutail, Jean-Pierre; Heggy, Essam; Jorda, Laurent; Lasue, Jérémie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Nielsen, Erling; Pasquero, Pierre; Preusker, Frank; Puget, Pascal; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Sierks, Holger; Statz, Christoph; Svedhem, Hakan; Williams, Iwan; Zine, Sonia; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2015-07-31

    The Philae lander provides a unique opportunity to investigate the internal structure of a comet nucleus, providing information about its formation and evolution in the early solar system. We present Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) measurements of the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From the propagation time and form of the signals, the upper part of the "head" of 67P is fairly homogeneous on a spatial scale of tens of meters. CONSERT also reduced the size of the uncertainty of Philae's final landing site down to approximately 21 by 34 square meters. The average permittivity is about 1.27, suggesting that this region has a volumetric dust/ice ratio of 0.4 to 2.6 and a porosity of 75 to 85%. The dust component may be comparable to that of carbonaceous chondrites. PMID:26228153

  11. Co-Production of Actionable Science: Recommendations to the Secretary of Interior and a San Francisco Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, D. H.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Beier, P.

    2015-12-01

    "Actionable Science provides data, analyses, projections, or tools that can support decisions regarding the management of the risks and impacts of climate change. It is ideally co-produced by scientists and decision makers and creates rigorous and accessible products to meet the needs of stakeholders. (Report to the Secretary of the Interior, Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS), March 30, 2015)During one 17 month period ending in 2013, three major reports on sea level rise from three highly respected science providers produced three divergent estimates of sea level rise. These reports collectively flummoxed the lay reader seeking direction for adaptation planning. Guidance documents soon emerged from state entities which caused further confusion. The City and County of San Francisco began developing "Guidance for Incorporating Sea Level Rise into Capital Planning" in 2013 at the direction of San Francisco Mayor Edwin Lee (http://onesanfrancisco.org/staff-resources/sea-level-rise-guidance/). The first task in developing this Guidance was to convert these highly technical reports into "actionable science." This required extensive expert elicitation to tease out their meaning and use value for decision making. This process, which resulted in detailed guidance on the use of SLR science in planning, is increasingly being called "co-production."Co-production requires both scientist and decision-maker to hear the other's perspective, reflect upon the decision-maker's precise needs, and translate peer review science into lay language and practical advice for decision making. The co-production dynamic was the subject of extensive discussion in the federal Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science. The ACCCNRS recommendations (https://nccwsc.usgs.gov/acccnrs) include not only the new definition of Actionable Science cited above, but also a "How-To-Guide" that outlines principles for successfully creating a co

  12. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Precise measurements of distance changes between the spacecraft are used to map the lunar gravity field. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, collecting and transmitting to Earth >99.99% of the possible data. Spacecraft and instrument performance were nominal and has led to the production of a high-resolution and high-accuracy global gravity field, improved over all previous models by two orders of magnitude on the nearside and nearly three orders of magnitude over the farside. The field is being used to understand the thickness, density and porosity of the lunar crust, the mechanics of formation and compensation states of lunar impact basins, and the structure of the mantle and core. GRAIL s three month-long-extended mission will initiate on August 30, 2012 and will consist of global gravity field mapping from an average altitude of 22 km.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses" included the following reports:Consequences of High Crystallinity for the Evolution of the Lunar Magma Ocean: Trapped Plagioclase; Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion; Fast Anorthite Dissolution Rates in Lunar Picritic Melts: Petrologic Implications; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints II: Detailed analysis of ROIs; Origin of Lunar High Titanium Ultramafic Glasses: A Hybridized Source?; Ilmenite Solubility in Lunar Basalts as a Function of Temperature and Pressure: Implications for Petrogenesis; Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glasses; Preliminary High Pressure Phase Relations of Apollo 15 Green C Glass: Assessment of the Role of Garnet; Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle. Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium; A Model for the Origin of the Dark Ring at Orientale Basin; Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite; Thorium and Samarium in Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses: Insights into the Composition of the Lunar Mantle and Basaltic Magmatism on the Moon; and Eu2+ and REE3+ Diffusion in Enstatite, Diopside, Anorthite, and a Silicate Melt: A Database for Understanding Kinetic Fractionation of REE in the Lunar Mantle and Crust.

  14. Supporting Scientific Modeling Practices in Atmospheric Sciences: Intended and Actual Affordances of a Computer-Based Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based learning tools include design features to enhance learning but learners may not always perceive the existence of these features and use them in desirable ways. There might be a gap between what the tool features are designed to offer (intended affordance) and what they are actually used (actual affordance). This study thus aims at…

  15. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  16. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  17. The effect of first and second order barriers on the ideal and actual integration of computer technology into the high school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendren, Kevin L.

    2000-10-01

    Science teachers' decisions to integrate computer technology into their classrooms was impacted by their pedagogical beliefs and their computer attitudes. First order barriers, ones extrinsic to the teacher, and second order barriers, ones grounded in the teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning, interfered with the implementation of computer technology. This study examined the beliefs of high school educators in a large, suburban school district in the Southeast. Teachers identified their actual levels of computer use in the current school year and what their ideal levels of use would have been if they were given unlimited resources of time, technical support, computer hardware, and software. The level of computer use was measured in the areas of administration, communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. Research questions examined in the study were: (1) What are the pedagogical beliefs and computer attitudes of high school science teachers in the district? (2) How do first and second order barriers affect the actual use of computers? (3) How do first and second order barriers affect the teachers' perspective of the ideal use of computers? A significant interaction existed between computer use and the attitude of the science teachers toward computers, and the most notable interaction was between the teachers' computer attitudes and the use of the Internet. Teachers with constructivist beliefs were more likely to do Internet and use the computer in the laboratory. A significant difference existed between the actual use and the ideal use of computer technology in the areas of communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. A significant difference existed between male and female teachers in the amount of time computers were used in the laboratory, and years of teaching showed a significant interaction with constructivism and computer attitude. In their ideal visions, the science teachers expressed the greatest desire for growth in the areas of

  18. How accurately does the VIVO Harvester reflect actual Clinical and Translational Sciences Award–affiliated faculty member publications?*

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Kroth, Philip J.; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Hantak, Chad M.; Weagel, Edward F.; Hannigan, Gale G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The research tested the accuracy of the VIVO Harvester software in identifying publications authored by faculty members affiliated with a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA) site. Methods: Health sciences librarians created “gold standard” lists of references for the years 2001 to 2011 from PubMed for twenty-five randomly selected investigators from one CTSA site. These gold standard lists were compared to the same twenty-five investigators' reference lists produced by VIVO Harvester. The authors subjected the discrepancies between the lists to sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: The VIVO Harvester correctly identified only about 65% of the total eligible PubMed references for the years 2001–2011 for the CTSA-affiliated investigators. The identified references produced by VIVO Harvester were precise yet incomplete. The sensitivity rate was 0.65, and the specificity rate was 1.00. Conclusion: While the references produced by VIVO Harvester could be confirmed in PubMed, the VIVO Harvester retrieved only two-thirds of the required references from PubMed. National Institutes of Health CTSA sites will need to supplement VIVO Harvester–produced references with the expert searching skills of health sciences librarians. Implications: Health sciences librarians with searching skills need to alert their CTSA sites about these deficiencies and offer their skills to advance their sites' missions. PMID:25552940

  19. Navigating Underrepresented STEM Spaces: Experiences of Black Women in U.S. Computing Science Higher Education Programs Who Actualize Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.; George, Phillis L.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Berhanu, Jonathan; Amechi, Mauriell H.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States have long been underrepresented in computing science disciplines across college campuses and in industry alike (Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012). This disparity is exacerbated when African American women are scrutinized. Additionally, prior research (e.g., Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012;…

  20. Indiana high school science teachers' beliefs about the intended and actual impacts of standards-based reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Joseph W.

    Teachers' beliefs about educational policy are essential components of successful, local implementation. Policies not accounting for teachers' beliefs about learning, instruction, and effective reform risk being ignored or ineffectually implemented. In this research, I characterize the beliefs that science teachers from three high schools in Indiana have about general aspects of standards-based reforms and about the Indiana Academic Standards for Science (IASS). On-site focus group interviews were the primary method of data collection. An amalgam of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and narrative representation of qualitative data guided the inquiry by defining the researcher as the voice of the 23 participating teachers, locating the teachers' beliefs in their specific historical contexts, and displaying the results in a storied form unified by plots. I synthesized the data sources into a single narrative organized around the participants' personal teaching philosophies, their perceptions of students and administration, and their visions of standards beyond their own beliefs and school contexts. Based on the narrative, I concluded that (a) teachers with affective or preparative beliefs had neutral stances toward the IASS, (b) scientifically-oriented teachers believed the IASS contradicted their work, (c) less experienced teachers and those with affective-preparative philosophies were willing to compromise their autonomy and curricular depth to implement the IASS, (d) a continuum of administrative oversight existed across the three schools, (e) teachers at the urban high school adapted the standards to their students' personal needs and future plans, and (f) teachers almost universally recommended broader, flexible standards to allow more autonomy in making curricular decisions, to better reflect scientific inquiry in their classrooms, and to promote continuity across the high school science curriculum.

  1. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  2. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  3. Interior of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Callisto. The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Callisto's radius is 2403 km, larger than our Moon's radius. Callisto's interior is shown as a relatively uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock. The surface layer of Callisto is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying ice/rock layer in a variety of ways including, for example, the percentage of rock it contains.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  4. "Because We Weren't Actually Teaching Them, We Thought They Weren't Learning": Primary Teacher Perspectives from the "My Science" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Anne; Skamp, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "MyScience" is a primary science education initiative in which being in a community of practice is integral to the learning process. This paper describes the ongoing journey to date of eight primary teachers from three primary schools who actively participated in "MyScience" over an extended period. Their views of interactions…

  5. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen III. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume III. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific…

  6. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

  7. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

  8. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  9. "I Actually Contributed to Their Research": The Influence of an Abbreviated Summer Apprenticeship Program in Science and Engineering for Diverse High-School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research…

  10. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 31, May 1978. A Comparison of National Industrial R&D Estimates with Actual NSF/Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) publishes information on R&D expenditures by American industry based on data collected by the Bureau of the Census. Other organizations publish data on the same issue collected by surveys or derived from secondary sources. Differences exist between these two data. In an effort to understand the reasons…

  11. "Actually, I 'May' Be Clever Enough to Do It". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories towards Science and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

    2013-01-01

    We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated…

  12. "Actually, I May be Clever Enough to do it". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories Towards Science and University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

    2013-04-01

    We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated interviews, questionnaires (pre-and post-) and observations) from 14 target students have been collected. Using Late Modern identity theory as a lens, we have analysed students' identity narratives in order to establish their trajectories in relation to university in general, and towards science studies and science careers in particular. We find that the diversity of students' educational identity narratives can be characterized and their trajectories understood in terms of a Four Factor Framework comprising: general identity process orientations (reflecting, committing, exploring), personal values, subject self-concepts and subject interests. In various ways these constructs interact and set the range and direction of the students' searches for future education and careers. Our longitudinal study suggests that they have enough permanence to enable us to hypothesize more or less secured paths of individual students to tertiary science (or other areas of academia).

  13. Interior of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Io The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Io's radius is 1821 km, similar to the 1738 km radius of our Moon; Io has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). Io's rock or silicate shell extends to the surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  14. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  15. `I Actually Contributed to Their Research': The influence of an abbreviated summer apprenticeship program in science and engineering for diverse high-school learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-02-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research practices within working university chemistry and engineering laboratories. The experience was supplemented by discussions and activities intended to impact nature of science (NOS) and inquiry understandings and to allow for an exploration of STEM careers and issues of self-identity. Participants completed a NOS questionnaire before and after the experience, were interviewed multiple times, and were observed while working in the laboratories. Findings revealed that as a result of the program, participants (1) demonstrated positive changes in their understandings of certain NOS aspects many of which were informed by their laboratory experiences, (2) had an opportunity to explore and strengthen STEM-related future plans, and (3) examined their self-identities. A majority of participants also described a sense of belonging within the laboratory groups and believed that they were making significant contributions to the ongoing work of those laboratories even though their involvement was necessarily limited due to the short duration of the program. For students who were most influenced by the program, the belonging they felt was likely related to issues of identity and career aspirations.

  16. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  17. Interior of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Europa's radius is 1565 km, not too much smaller than our Moon's radius. Europa has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). The rock layer of Europa (drawn to correct relative scale) is in turn surrounded by a shell of water in ice or liquid form (shown in blue and white and drawn to the correct relative scale). The surface layer of Europa is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying layers. Galileo images of Europa suggest that a liquid water ocean might now underlie a surface ice layer several to ten kilometers thick. However, this evidence is also consistent with the existence of a liquid water ocean in the past. It is not certain if there is a liquid water ocean on Europa at present.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  18. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  19. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. The Ganymede Interior Structure, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. L.; Smith, I. B.; Singer, K. N.; Vogt, M. F.; Blackburn, D. G.; Chaffin, M.; Choukroun, M.; Ehsan, N.; Dibraccio, G. A.; Gibbons, L. J.; Gleeson, D.; Jones, B. A.; Legall, A.; McEnulty, T.; Rampe, E.; Schrader, C.; Seward, L.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Williamson, P.; Castillo, J.; Budney, C.

    2011-03-01

    As part of the 2010 NASA Planetary Science Summer School, the Ganymede Interior, Surface, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) team developed a preliminary satellite design for a science mission to Jupiter's moon Ganymede.

  1. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  2. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  3. Planetary Interior in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Bastea, M; Mitchell, A C; Minich, R W; Nellis, W J

    2003-01-31

    In the three years of this project, we have provided a complete database of the electrical conductivity of planetary materials to 180 GPa. The electrical conductivities of these planetary materials now provide a basis for future modeling of planets taking into account full magnetohydrodynamics. By using a full magnetohydrodynamics simulation, the magnetic fields of the planets can then be taken into account. Moreover, the electrical conductivities of the planetary materials have given us insight into the structure and nature of these dense fluids. We showed that simple monoatomic fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen at planetary interior conditions undergo a common metallization process which can be explained on a simple basis of their radial charge density distributions. This model also shows that the metallization process is actually rather common and likely to take place in a number of materials such as carbon monoxide which is also present within planetary objects. On the other hand, we have also showed that a simple two component fluid like water and methane take on much different behaviors than say nitrogen due to the chemical interactions within these systems. The dynamics of an even more complex system, ''synthetic Uranus'' are still being analyzed but suggest that on some levels the behavior is very simple, i.e. the electrical conductivity is essentially the same as water, but the local dynamics are very complex. This project has shed much light on the nature of electrical transport within planetary interiors but also has shown that understanding chemical processes in the complex fluids within planetary interiors to be very important. Understanding those local interactions and processes is required to gain further insight into planetary interiors.

  4. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  6. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  7. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  8. Planetary Interiors and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2013-04-01

    Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its change. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for instance for Mercury (MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions) and for the Galilean satellite from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution.

  9. Interior of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

  10. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  11. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  12. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  13. Expected Constraints on Rhea's Interior from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We model the interior of Rhea based on observational constraints and the results from geodynamical models available in the literature. Ten main types of models are defined, depending on the presence or absence of a high-pressure ice layer (ice II), and the extent of separation of the rock component from the volatiles. We present degree-two gravity components computed for each of these models in order to assess which properties of the interior are likely to be inferred from Cassini radio science measurements scheduled on November 26, 2005.

  14. 42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: SCIENCE MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. New views of the Earth's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wookey, James

    2009-06-01

    ``New Views of the Earth's Interior'', a meeting jointly supported by the British Geophysical Association and the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, was held in London, in February 2009. Speakers and participants covered a broad range of Earth and environmental sciences and included geochemists, mineral physicists, geodynamicists and seismologists. Topics covered aspects of the Earth's interior from the crust to the inner core, and from the earliest history to its contemporary state, and perspectives were provided from theoretical, experimental and observational viewpoints. The discussion showed that while enormous progress has been made, still much remains to be resolved, and the future of understanding the structure and processes of the Earth's interior lies in a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. 49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of the Gilley Room on the second floor of the powerhouse and ear barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  18. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  19. 48. INTERIOR OF MAIN OFFICE: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR OF MAIN OFFICE: Interior view towards southeast of Main Office on second floor of the Washington and Mason powerhouse and car barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 9. Southeast view interior, typical interior office, supervisor's office, room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Southeast view interior, typical interior office, supervisor's office, room 24A - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  3. The effect of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Riitters, K.H.; Wade, T.G.; Coan, M.; Homer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest. We used spatial convolution to identify interior forest at multiple scales on circa 1992 and 2001 land-cover maps of the Southern Appalachians. Our analyses show that interior forest loss was 1.75-5.0 times greater than the direct forest loss attributable to mountaintop mining. Mountaintop mining in the southern Appalachians has reduced forest interior area more extensively than the reduction that would be expected based on changes in overall forest area alone. The loss of Southern Appalachian interior forest is of global significance because of the worldwide rarity of large expanses of temperate deciduous forest. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  4. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  5. 11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway toward the front and east window. Note: This photograph shows that the building had been converted to a residence following its use as a school. In addition, the hazardous condition of the structure's interior is evident. Two ceilings which are visible in the photograph, (the upper, probably original plastered ceiling, and a secondary, adapted ceiling) as well as ceiling joists in the southernmost rooms have collapsed. Because of the dangerous condition of the interior of the building, additional interior photography was not attempted at this time. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  6. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  7. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 1206.180 Section 1206.180 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing...

  8. Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…

  9. 10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 OF SLIDE GATES. STRUCTURE HAS LEVELS ENABLING OPERATORS TO CHOOSE LEVEL WITH BEST QUALITY WATER. OVERHANGING DEVICE THAT LOOKS LIKE A LIGHT STANDARD IS ACTUALLY A METER FOR MEASURING WATER LEVELS. - Lake Mathews, East of Route 15, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  10. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  11. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  12. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  18. General aviation aircraft interior noise problem: Some suggested solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Navaneethan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory investigation of sound transmission through panels and the use of modern data analysis techniques applied to actual aircraft is used to determine methods to reduce general aviation interior noise. The experimental noise reduction characteristics of stiffened flat and curved panels with damping treatment are discussed. The experimental results of double-wall panels used in the general aviation industry are given. The effects of skin panel material, fiberglass insulation and trim panel material on the noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels are investigated. With few modifications, the classical sound transmission theory can be used to design the interior noise control treatment of aircraft. Acoustic intensity and analysis procedures are included.

  19. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Interior of Spacewedge #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    during the Army phase was not called a Spacewedge but simply a Wedge. The Spacewedge was a flattened biconical airframe joined to a ram-air parafoil with a custom harness. In the manual control mode, the vehicle was flown using a radio uplink. In its autonomous mode, it was controlled using a small computer that received input from onboard sensors. Selected sensor data was recorded onto several onboard data loggers. Two Spacewedge shapes were used for four airframes representing generic hypersonic vehicle configurations. Spacewedge vehicles were 48 inches long, 30 inches wide, and 21 inches high. Their basic weight was 120 pounds, although different configurations weighed from 127 to 184 pounds. Potential uses for Spacewedge-based technology include deployable, precision, autonomous landing systems, such as the one deployed by the X-38 crew return vehicle; planetary probes; booster recovery systems; autonomous gliding parachute systems on military aircraft ejection seats; offset delivery of military cargoes; and delivery of humanitarian aid to hard-to-reach locations. Dryden employees involved with the Spacewedge program included R. Dale Reed, who originated the concept of conducting a subscale flight test at Dryden and participated in the actual testing. Alexander Sim managed the flight project and participated in its documentation. James Murray served as the principal Dryden investigator and as the lead for all systems integration for Phases I and II (the Spacewedge phases).

  1. Compressed Sensing Based Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2010-01-01

    While the conventional wisdom is that the interior problem does not have a unique solution, by analytic continuation we recently showed that the interior problem can be uniquely and stably solved if we have a known sub-region inside a region-of-interest (ROI). However, such a known sub-region does not always readily available, and it is even impossible to find in some cases. Based on the compressed sensing theory, here we prove that if an object under reconstruction is essentially piecewise constant, a local ROI can be exactly and stably reconstructed via the total variation minimization. Because many objects in CT applications can be approximately modeled as piecewise constant, our approach is practically useful and suggests a new research direction of interior tomography. To illustrate the merits of our finding, we develop an iterative interior reconstruction algorithm that minimizes the total variation of a reconstructed image, and evaluate the performance in numerical simulation. PMID:19369711

  2. Understanding Io's Interior Structure from Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Io has long been suspected of a molten interior based on theoretical models of tidal dissipation in its interior. Extremely high temperature lava erupting on Io's surface would be consistent with an internal magma ocean but the highest reported eruption temperatures are questionable. Currently, the only direct evidence of a subsurface magma ocean in Io is the electromagnetic induction response observed by Galileo (Khurana et al. 2011, Science, 332, 1186). Using Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a sounding signal, Khurana et al. (2011) provided evidence of a strong dipolar induction signature in Galileo's magnetometer data from four different flybys. They further showed that the signal is consistent with electromagnetic induction from large amounts of rock-melts in the asthenosphere of Io. Modeling showed that the induction response from a completely solid mantle model is inadequate to explain the magnetometer observations. However, a layer of asthenosphere >50 km in thickness with a melt fraction ≥20% is adequate to accurately match the observed magnetic field. Here we summarize our current knowledge of Io's interior from Galileo's induction measurements, and then outline a scheme to further infer properties of Io's interior, especially its internal temperature profile, by marrying the principles of thermodynamics with those of electromagnetism. In particular, we obtain guidance on stable mineral phases and their physical properties (such as density, melt state and electrical conductivity) from thermodynamic principles, whereas guidance on how the resulting internal conductivity profile affects the magnetic environment around Io is obtained from electromagnetic theory. We also explore how induction measurements can be obtained at multiple frequencies from a future mission and be used to constrain both the location and the thickness of the magma ocean. Finally, we explore the consequences of the global magma ocean on Io's physical properties such as the current

  3. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  4. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  5. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  6. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  7. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1996-06-25

    An ultrasonic cleaning method is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figs.

  9. Density of the lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, P. W.; Giuli, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    It is attempted to derive the constraints that can be placed on the density of the lunar interior. The moment of inertia of the moon and its mean density are being considered in the investigation together with the mass and density of the lunar crust that have been inferred from the seismic refraction data recorded by the passive seismometer. The calculations presented show that the density of the lunar interior can easily approach values as high as 3.5 for a fraction of the lunar mass which lies in the range from 1/2 to 2/3.

  10. Department of the Interior program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing activities of the Department of Interior are summarized. The use of satellite imagery in land and water management is described. Specific topics discussed include: land use mapping, exploration and discovery of metal, oil, and gas deposits, location of geological faults, and repetitive monitoring of dynamic environmental phenomena related to water resources.

  11. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  12. Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia Ann

    When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…

  13. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  14. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  16. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  17. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  18. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  19. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  20. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  1. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... capacity Fire extinguishers 7 through 30 1 31 through 60 2 61 or more 3 (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604... applicable: (1) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large...

  2. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... capacity Fire extinguishers 7 through 30 1 31 through 60 2 61 or more 3 (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604... applicable: (1) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large...

  3. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... capacity Fire extinguishers 7 through 30 1 31 through 60 2 61 or more 3 (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604... applicable: (1) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large...

  4. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  5. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  6. Interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F. W.; Giacobbe, M. J.

    This paper describes a computational method of estimating physical and chemical properties within the solar interior without employing calculations involving opacities. Instead of using opacities to help determine how interior solar temperatures vary with the radial distance between the centre of the sun and its 'surface', an iterative technique employing empirical adiabatic 'cooling' and a fusion energy production rate expression were employed for this purpose. Other iterative calculations were also made (nearly simultaneously) to ensure that all known solar constraint conditions were precisely satisfied (except for the photospheric 'surface' temperature) during this computational process. In addition, all calculations could be performed using a conventional PC employing an Intel Pentium CPU and a computer program coded in ANSI C. Due to the simplifications that were possible using the techniques employed during this study, as well as the advantages associated with using a programming language that produces machine code when compiled, all solar structural details could be generated very rapidly using an ordinary computer. The results of this study were compared with more conventional results obtained by others. This comparison indicated that the methods employed within this paper produced interior intensive solar properties that were in reasonable agreement with similar properties obtained by employing more sophisticated computational approaches. Although it is not claimed that the results generated during this study are any better than more conventionally obtained findings, it is thought that these results, as well as our computational methods, are interesting and potentially useful to others. In particular, it is thought that the techniques outlined in this paper may provide a useful introduction to more complicated techniques of solar modelling.

  7. Exact Interior Solutions for Charged Fluid Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, L. K.; Tikekar, R.; Sabu, M. C.

    1997-04-01

    A new method is discussed to obtain the interior solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations for a charged static sphere from a known particular solutions of a similar kind. Beginning with a charged fluid interior solution reported by Patel and Pandya [11], a new interior Reissner-Nordström metric is obtained using this method and physical aspects of it are extensively discussed.

  8. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  9. What Writing Represents What Scientists Actually Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Often the writing that students in elementary school do in connection with science is their final report of a science fair project. They diligently file a report in the form of the scientific method--introduction, hypothesis, materials, procedure, results, and conclusion. This form of science writing persists through college courses in science,…

  10. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  11. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  12. Drought Risk and Adaptation in the Interior (DRAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, S.; Ojima, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is part of the normal climate variability in the Great Plains and Intermountain Western United States, but recent severe droughts along with climate change projections have increased the interest and need for better understanding of drought science and decision making. The purpose of this study is to understand how the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) federal land and resource managers and their stakeholders (i.e., National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes, among others) are experiencing and dealing with drought in their landscapes. The Drought Risk and Adaptation in the Interior (DRAI) project is part of a new DOI-sponsored North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) crosscutting science initiative on drought across the Center's three foundational science areas: 1. physical climate, 2. ecosystems impacts and responses, and 3. human adaptation and decision making. The overarching goal is to learn more about drought within the DOI public lands and resource management in order to contribute to both the NC CSC regional science as well as providing managers and other decision makers with the most salient, credible, and legitimate research to support land and resource management decisions. Here we will present the project approach along with some initial insights learned from the research to date along with its utility for climate adaptation.

  13. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  14. Study of Earth's deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Joseph; Loper, David

    More than a decade has passed since the very successful 1971 meeting on the coremantle interface that was organized by Allan Cox at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne [Cox and Cain, 1972]. The rationale of that meeting was to bring together workers in several different disciplines that normally do not interact at scientific gatherings. In recognition of the facts that significant advances in our understanding of Earth's deep interior have taken place since that time but that there is yet the problem of combining data and theories from disparate geophysical disciplines, a group met during the Prague meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and formed an ad hoc consortium named “ISECALM” (International Study of the Earth's Core and Lower Mantle). One of the principal instigators of this initiative was Ray Hide (U.K. Meteorological Office, Bracknell), who was also instrumental in organizing the 1971 core-mantle meeting.

  15. Active Interior Noise Control Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Veeramani, S.; Sampath, A.; Balachandran, B.; Wereley, N.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations into the control of noise in the interior of a three-dimensional enclosure with a flexible boundary are presented. The rigid boundaries are constructed from acrylic material, and in the different cases considered the flexible boundary is constructed from either aluminum or composite material. Noise generated by an external speaker is transmitted into the enclosure through the flexible boundary and active control is realized by using Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators bonded to the flexible boundary. Condenser microphones are used for noise measurements inside and outside the enclosure. Minimization schemes for global and local noise control in the presence of a harmonic disturbance are developed and discussed. In the experiments, analog feedforward control is implemented by using the harmonic disturbance as a reference signal.

  16. Interior Slopes of Copernican Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Burns, K.; Stelling, R.; Speyerer, E.; Mahanti, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) routinely acquires high resolution (50 to 200 cm pixel scales) stereo pairs from adjacent orbits through spacecraft slews; parallax angles are typically >20°, and the local incidence angle between 40° and 65°. These observations are reduced to digital elevation models (DEM) using a combination of ISIS (USGS) and SOCET Set (BAE Systems). For this study DEMs originally sampled at 2 m scales were reduced (averaging technique) to 5 m scales to provide slopes calculated over 3x3 pixel boxes (15 m x 15 m). The upper 50% of interior walls of Copernican craters (2 to 20 km diameter) typically have average slopes of 36°, with slopes locally above 40° not uncommon (i.e. Fig 1: 2.3 km diam, 17.68°S, 144.41°E). Giordano Bruno (GB; 35.97N°, 102.86°E) is likely the youngest 20-km diameter class crater on the Moon. Its floor is dominated by impact forms (ponds and flows), and inner walls exhibit a series of coalesced flow lobes emanating from steep upper slopes. The lobes appear to be composed of dry granular material based on the observation of boulder trails superposed on many examples. The upper slopes average 36° or more, with some slopes above 40°. For much of GB, slopes exceed 30° all the way to the crater floor (especially in the SE). The high slopes imply angular grains, some level of cohesion, and/or higher angles of repose due to the Moon's relatively low gravity. Larmor Q (28.56°N, 176.33°E), another large Copernican crater, is elliptical in plan (23 x 18 km diameter), with an interior floor dominated by large slump blocks. Like GB its walls exhibit overlapping lobes (granular materials) emanating from interior wall slopes that range from 30° to 36°. Other Copernican craters exhibit similar steep slopes on interior walls: Moore F (23 km diam), Necho (30 km), and two unnamed craters (9 km,13.31°S, 257.55°E; 9 km, 15.72°, 177.39°E). Slopes of the central peaks of Tycho crater (0

  17. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  18. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  19. Deep Interior: The first comprehensive geophysical investigation of an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Ostro, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Scheeres, D.; Sunshine, J.; Yeomans, D.

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) come closer to Earth than any other celestial body, and their compositions are represented on Earth by thousands of well-studied meteorites. Yet we understand neither their origin, evolution, nor their geophysical behavior. These secrets are locked up in their unexplored interiors. Goal 1 of the NASA Strategic Plan emphasizes the requirement to catalogue and understand NEOs down to 1 km diameter. Goal 4 urges us to understand natural processes at work in the low gravity environment. Goal 5 expresses the need to explore the solar system and to learn how planets originated and evolved. In response to the NASA Strategic Plan we are proposing a NASA Discovery mission whose primary science objective is to greatly advance the realization of these Goals by conducting the first investigation of the global geophysics of an asteroid. Radio reflection data from 5 km orbit about a 1 km NEO will provide a tomographic 3D image of electromagnetic properties. Mechanical properties will be examined in the simplest possible way, using explosions to initiate seismic cratering events and to expose diverse interior units for spectroscopic analysis. Deep Interior is the lowest-risk, lowest cost path towards attaining the required characterization of NEOs. It breaks new ground for future missions to asteroids and comets and facilitates the design of reliable NEO technologies. Our science goals are as follows, and the techniques (radio science, imaging, IR spectroscopy, active surface science) will be described at this meeting: Asteroid Interiors. Radio, gravity, and seismology experiments give a complete first picture of an asteroid's deep interior, resolving inclusions, voids and unit boundaries at ˜ 30 m scales, and determining global and regional mechanical properties. Surface Geophysics. Blast experiments explore the structure and mechanics of the upper meters, demonstrate microgravity cratering, trigger natural geomorphic events, and expose subsurface

  20. The Ganymede Interior Structure, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, K. L.; Smith, I. B.; Singer, K. N.; Vogt, M. F.; Blackburn, D. G.; Chaffin, M.; Choukroun, M.; Ehsan, N.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gibbons, L. J.; Gleeson, D.; Jones, B. A.; LeGall, A.; McEnulty, T.; Rampe, E.; Schrader, C.; Seward, L.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Williamson, P.; Castillo, J.; Budney, C.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) at JPL offers graduate students and young professionals a unique opportunity to learn about the mission design process. Program participants select and design a mission based on a recent NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity (AO). Starting with the AO, in this case the 2009 New Frontiers AO, participants generate a set of science goals and develop a early mission concept to accomplish those goals within the constraints provided. As part of the 2010 NASA PSSS, the Ganymede Interior, Surface, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) team developed a preliminary satellite design for a science mission to Jupiter's moon Ganymede. The science goals for this design focused on studying the icy moon's magnetosphere, internal structure, surface composition, geological processes, and atmosphere. By the completion of the summer school an instrument payload was selected and the necessary mission requirements were developed to deliver a spacecraft to Ganymede that would accomplish the defined science goals. This poster will discuss those science goals, the proposed spacecraft and the proposed mission design of this New Frontiers class Ganymede observer.

  1. Constraints on Mimas' interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, R; Rambaux, N; Lainey, V; Charnoz, S; Richard, A; Rivoldini, A; Noyelles, B

    2014-10-17

    Like our Moon, the majority of the solar system's satellites are locked in a 1:1 spin-orbit resonance; on average, these satellites show the same face toward the planet at a constant rotation rate equal to the satellite's orbital rate. In addition to the uniform rotational motion, physical librations (oscillations about an equilibrium) also occur. The librations may contain signatures of the satellite's internal properties. Using stereophotogrammetry on Cassini Image Science Subsystem (ISS) images, we measured longitudinal physical forced librations of Saturn's moon Mimas. Our measurements confirm all the libration amplitudes calculated from the orbital dynamics, with one exception. This amplitude depends mainly on Mimas' internal structure and has an observed value of twice the predicted one, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. After considering various possible interior models of Mimas, we argue that the satellite has either a large nonhydrostatic interior, or a hydrostatic one with an internal ocean beneath a thick icy shell. PMID:25324382

  2. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Affairs, Washington, DC and Oregon Museum of Science and Industry, Portland, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Oregon Museum of Science... the human remains may contact the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry. Repatriation of the...

  3. Design-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortus, David; Reddy, Srikaran; Dershimer, Ralph Charles

    2003-01-01

    Describes design-based science, which aims to develop useful skills for a wide range of actual problem-solving situations involving science. Discusses units of design activities concerning the voltage and lifetime of batteries and the potential in science education. (KHR)

  4. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  5. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  6. Interior building details of Building D, Room DM1 interior space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building D, Room D-M1 interior space with multi pane industrial sash windows; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  8. Lather (Interior Systems Mechanic). Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mike; Chapman, Carol; MacLean, Margaret

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a lather, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as drywall and acoustical mechanic; interior systems installer; and interior systems mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  9. Interiors and atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    This theoretical/observational project constrains structure of outer planet atmospheres and interiors through observational data. The primary observation tool is through observations of occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, which yield information about atmospheric temperatures and dynamics, and planetary dimensions and oblateness. The theoretical work relates the data to interior structures in a variety of ways.

  10. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  11. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to...

  12. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  13. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 125.113 Section 125.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....113 Cabin interiors. (a) Upon the first major overhaul of an airplane cabin or refurbishing of...

  14. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.215 Cabin interiors....

  15. Department of Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...: Action Date FR Cite Final Action 04/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes Agency Contact... idle facilities. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 12/00/10 NPRM Comment Period End 02/00/11... Part IX Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  16. Helioseismology: Probing the interior of a star

    PubMed Central

    Demarque, P.; Guenther, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Helioseismology offers, for the first time, an opportunity to probe in detail the deep interior of a star (our Sun). The results will have a profound impact on our understanding not only of the solar interior, but also neutrino physics, stellar evolution theory, and stellar population studies in astrophysics. PMID:10318887

  17. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent. PMID:26047218

  18. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  19. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  20. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  1. A Study Of Undergraduate Students' Alternative Conceptions Of Earth's Interior Using Drawing Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Meredith L.

    2014-12-01

    Learning fundamental geoscience topics such as plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes requires students to develop a deep understanding of the conceptual models geologists use when describing the structure and dynamics of Earth's interior. Despite the importance of these mental models underlying much of the undergraduate geoscience curriculum, surprisingly little research related to this complex idea exists in the discipline-based science education research literature. To better understand non-science-majoring undergraduates' conceptual models of Earth's interior, student-generated drawings and interviews were used to probe student understanding of the Earth. Ninety-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with non-science-major college students at the beginning of an entry-level geology course at a large Midwestern university. Students were asked to draw a picture of Earth's interior and provide think-aloud explanations of their drawings. The results reveal that students hold a wide range of alternative conceptions about Earth, with only a small fraction having scientifically accurate ideas. Students' understandings ranged from conceptualizing Earth's interior as consisting of horizontal layers of rock and dirt, to more sophisticated views with Earth's interior being composed of concentric layers with unique physical and chemical characteristics. Processes occurring within Earth, such as "convection," were rarely mentioned or explained. These results provide a first-steps basis from which to further explore college students' thinking and contribute to the growing body of knowledge on earth science teaching and geoscience education research.

  2. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  3. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  4. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  5. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  6. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  7. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  8. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  9. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  10. A mirror for science.

    PubMed

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Early conceptions of the public understanding of science suffered from a narrow framing of what science means and a presumption that science is divided from its publics by walls of ignorance and indifference. Those assumptions amplified misunderstanding and led to faulty policies. It is time to reopen each element in the term "public understanding of science" to renewed reflection. This journal can advance that goal by encouraging research on actual rather than imagined public responses to science, on representations of science in the public sphere, and on interactions between science, technology and society. PMID:24434707

  11. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  12. Putting Science into Elementary Science Fairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    In a world where science has become too confined to books and too reliant on technology, and science fairs have been taken over by parents, this paper offers suggestions to help young people have actual hands-on experience with nature. Topics include soil formation; ants; earthworms; temperature; weather predictions; rain acidity; physical science…

  13. Convective Overshoot in Stellar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. S.

    2015-07-01

    In stellar interiors, the turbulent thermal convection transports matters and energy, and dominates the structure and evolution of stars. The convective overshoot, which results from the non-local convective transport from the convection zone to the radiative zone, is one of the most uncertain and difficult factors in stellar physics at present. The classical method for studying the convective overshoot is the non-local mixing-length theory (NMLT). However, the NMLT bases on phenomenological assumptions, and leads to contradictions, thus the NMLT was criticized in literature. At present, the helioseismic studies have shown that the NMLT cannot satisfy the helioseismic requirements, and have pointed out that only the turbulent convection models (TCMs) can be accepted. In the first part of this thesis, models and derivations of both the NMLT and the TCM were introduced. In the second part, i.e., the work part, the studies on the TCM (theoretical analysis and applications), and the development of a new model of the convective overshoot mixing were described in detail. In the work of theoretical analysis on the TCM, the approximate solution and the asymptotic solution were obtained based on some assumptions. The structure of the overshoot region was discussed. In a large space of the free parameters, the approximate/asymptotic solutions are in good agreement with the numerical results. We found an important result that the scale of the overshoot region in which the thermal energy transport is effective is 1 HK (HK is the scale height of turbulence kinetic energy), which does not depend on the free parameters of the TCM. We applied the TCM and a simple overshoot mixing model in three cases. In the solar case, it was found that the temperature gradient in the overshoot region is in agreement with the helioseismic requirements, and the profiles of the solar lithium abundance, sound speed, and density of the solar models are also improved. In the low-mass stars of open

  14. Computer vision based room interior design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  15. 75 FR 79017 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative--Science Technical Advisory Panel AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, North Slope Science Initiative... Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet...

  16. 75 FR 159 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel, Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, North Slope Science... of the Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP)...

  17. 75 FR 17433 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative--Science Technical Advisory Panel AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, North Slope Science Initiative... Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet...

  18. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  19. [Contradiction and intention of actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients].

    PubMed

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Actual Situation and Statistical Observation on Home Custody of Mental Patients (1918) by Kure and Kashida has diverse content but contains many contradictions. This book is a record of investigations performed by 15 psychiatrists regarding home custody of mental patients in 15 prefectures between 1910 and 1916. The book is written in archaic Japanese and contains a mixture of old Kanji characters and Katakana, so few people have read the entire book in recent years. We thoroughly read the book over 2 years, and presented the results of our investigation and analysis. The contents were initially published in Tokyo Journal of Medical Sciences as a series of 4 articles, and published as a book in 1918. The Department of the Interior distributed 100 copies of the book to relevant personnel. Until its dissolution in 1947, the Department of the Interior included the Police Department and had a great deal of authority. The Health and Welfare Ministry became independent from the Department of the Interior in 1938. Therefore, mental institutions were under the supervision of the police force for many years. At the time, an important task for police officers was to search for infectious disease patients and to seclude and restrain them. Thus, home custody for mental patients was also supervised under the direction of the Police Department. This book is a record of an external investigation performed by psychiatrists on home custody supervised by the police. When investigating the conditions, one of the psychiatrists obtained a copy of "Documents for mental patients under confinement" at the local police station. The contents of these documents included records of hearings by the police, as well as applications for confinement submitted by family members, as well as detailed specifications and drawings of the confinement room. With a local photographer, they traveled deep into the mountains to investigate the conditions under which mental patients were living. The book

  20. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  1. Controlled impact demonstration on-board (interior) photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Langley Research Center (LaRC) was responsible for the design, manufacture, and integration of all hardware required for the photographic system used to film the interior of the controlled impact demonstration (CID) B-720 aircraft during actual crash conditions. Four independent power supplies were constructed to operate the ten high-speed 16 mm cameras and twenty-four floodlights. An up-link command system, furnished by Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility (ADFRF), was necessary to activate the power supplies and start the cameras. These events were accomplished by initiation of relays located on each of the photo power pallets. The photographic system performed beyond expectations. All four power distribution pallets with their 20 year old Minuteman batteries performed flawlessly. All 24 lamps worked. All ten on-board high speed (400 fps) 16 mm cameras containing good resolution film data were recovered.

  2. Probing Europa's Interior with Natural Sound Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, N. C.; Lee, S.; Zanolin, M.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2003-03-01

    Our goal is to use acoustic echo-sounding and tomographic techniques to determine Europa's interior structure. We show that robust estimates can be made of Europa's ice layering structure and potential ocean depth with a single acoustic sensor.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  4. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  5. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  6. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  7. Phobos interior structure from its gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rivoldini, A.

    2015-10-01

    Phobos origin remains mysterious. It could be a captured asteroid, or an in-situ object co-accreted with Mars or formed by accretion from a disk of impact ejecta.Although it is not straightforward to relate its interior properties to its origin, it is easy to agree that the interior properties of any body has to be accounted for to explain its life's history. What event could explain such an internal structure? Where should this object formed to present such interior characteristics and composition? We perform here numerical simulations to assess the ability of a gravity experiment to constrain the interior structure of the martian moon Phobos, which could in turn allow distinguishing among the competing scenarios for the moon's origin.

  8. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  9. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  10. Fictitious Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T), like Research and Development (R&D), has become a case of capital investment like any other economic sector. This has distanced R&D from social needs, to the extent that part of R&D ends up actually being fictitious, in the sense that it acquires a price on the market but never becomes part of material…

  11. Science for What Public? Addressing Equity in American Science Museums and Science Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Meshoulam, David

    2014-01-01

    Science museums and science centers exist (in large part) to bring science to the public. But what public do they serve? The challenge of equity is embodied by the gulf that separates a museum's actual public and the more diverse publics that comprise our society. Yet despite growing scholarly interest in museums and science centers, few…

  12. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  13. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at different resolutions in images acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the Viking Orbiter 1 twenty years earlier. The left image is a MOC wide angle camera 'context' image showing much of the eastern portion of the crater at roughly 1 km (0.6 mi) per picture element. The image is about 390 by 730 km (240 X 450 miles). Shown within the wide angle image is the outline of a portion of the best Viking image (center, 371S53), acquired at a resolution of about 240 m/pixel (790 feet). The area covered is 144 X 144 km (89 X 89 miles). The right image is the high resolution narrow angle camera view. The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  15. An Adsorption Type Humidifier for Automobiles and Interior Air Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Noriaki

    This study presents a new adsorption material type humidifier for automobiles, in which the moisture in the outside air is adsorbed onto a solid desiccant material and the adsorbed water is then used as the humidifying source for the interior air of the car, that is, no additional water supply for humidification is required. The new humidifier was installed in a test car under actual conditions, and the humidification performance and the interior air quality, as determined by CO2, O2, dust concentration and SnO2, output, were measured. A comparison between the data for the new humidifier and those for an ultrasonic humidifier showed that the humidification ability was adequate but the interior air quality was far better when the new humidifier was used. Finally, the results of longevity tests, repeated adsorption/desorption tests and acid-gas poisoning tests are presented.

  16. 130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, BRONZE WALL CLOCK - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  18. Internationalizing an Interior Design Course: A Model for Global FCS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlson, Julie; Vouchilas, Gus

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation for Family and Consumer Sciences and for Interior Design programs includes standards to globalize education of undergraduate students. An integrative approach to planning curriculum relates the concept of global interdependence to the development of critical thinking skills for student decision-making. This was addressed in modifying…

  19. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  20. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  1. Sound isolation performance of interior acoustical sash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Gregory

    2002-05-01

    In existing, as well as new buildings, an interior light of glass mounted on the inside of a prime window is used to improve the sound transmission loss otherwise obtained by the prime window alone. Interior acoustical sash is most often 1/4 in. (6 mm) monolithic or laminated glass, and is typically spaced 3 in. to 6 in. from the glass of the prime window. This paper presents TL data measured at Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories by Solutia (formerly Monsanto) for lightweight prime windows of various types, with and without interior acoustical sash glazed with 1/4 in. laminated glass. The TL data are used to estimate the A-weighted insertion loss of interior acoustical sash when applied to prime windows glazed with lightweight glass for four transportation noise source types-highway traffic, aircraft, electric rail, and diesel rail. The analysis also has been extended to determine the insertion loss expressed as a change in OITC. The data also exhibit the reductions in insertion loss that can result from short-circuiting the interior acoustical sash with the prime window. [Work supported by Solutia, Inc.

  2. Making Science Teams Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers, likely have more experience with students working together than teachers in any other subject area due to teaming students for hands-on activities. While the importance of teamwork is emphasized in the National Science Education Standards, getting teams to actually work-meaning getting students to share equally in the academic…

  3. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  4. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  5. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  11. A study of helicopter interior noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    The interior noise levels of existing helicopters are discussed along with an ongoing experimental program directed towards reducing these levels. Results of several noise and vibration measurements on Langley Research Center's Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft are presented, including measurements taken before and after installation of an acoustically-treated cabin. The predominant noise source in this helicopter is the first stage planetary gear-clash in the main gear box, both before and after installation of the acoustically treated cabin. Noise reductions of up to 20 db in some octave bands may be required in order to obtain interior noise levels comparable to commercial jet transports.

  12. Processable Cyclic Peptide Nanotubes with Tunable Interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Hourani, Rami; Zhang, Chen; van der Weegen, Rob; Ruiz, Luis; Li, Changyi; Keten, Sinan; Helms, Brett A.; Xu, Ting

    2011-09-06

    A facile route to generate cyclic peptide nanotubes with tunable interiors is presented. By incorporating 3-amino-2-methylbenzoic acid in the d,l-alternating primary sequence of a cyclic peptide, a functional group can be presented in the interior of the nanotubes without compromising the formation of high aspect ratio nanotubes. The new design of such a cyclic peptide also enables one to modulate the nanotube growth process to be compatible with the polymer processing window without compromising the formation of high aspect ratio nanotubes, thus opening a viable approach toward molecularly defined porous membranes.

  13. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  14. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  15. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  16. Ganymede G1 & G2 Encounters - Interior of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Voyager images are used to create a global view of Ganymede. The cut-out reveals the interior structure of this icy moon. This structure consists of four layers based on measurements of Ganymede's gravity field and theoretical analyses using Ganymede's known mass, size and density. Ganymede's surface is rich in water ice and Voyager and Galileo images show features which are evidence of geological and tectonic disruption of the surface in the past. As with the Earth, these geological features reflect forces and processes deep within Ganymede's interior. Based on geochemical and geophysical models, scientists expected Ganymede's interior to either consist of: a) an undifferentiated mixture of rock and ice or b) a differentiated structure with a large lunar sized 'core' of rock and possibly iron overlain by a deep layer of warm soft ice capped by a thin cold rigid ice crust. Galileo's measurement of Ganymede's gravity field during its first and second encounters with the huge moon have basically confirmed the differentiated model and allowed scientists to estimate the size of these layers more accurately. In addition the data strongly suggest that a dense metallic core exists at the center of the rock core. This metallic core suggests a greater degree of heating at sometime in Ganymede's past than had been proposed before and may be the source of Ganymede's magnetic field discovered by Galileo's space physics experiments.

    Galileo's primary 24 month mission includes eleven orbits around Jupiter and will provide observations of Jupiter, its moons and its magnetosphere. The Galileo mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the passenger capacity of the airplane. (b) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior... allowed in any other part of the airplane, lavatories must have self-contained, removable ashtrays...

  18. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the passenger capacity of the airplane. (b) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior... allowed in any other part of the airplane, lavatories must have self-contained, removable ashtrays...

  19. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....113 Cabin interiors. (a) Upon the first major overhaul of an airplane cabin or refurbishing of the... following requirements must be replaced with materials that meet these requirements: (1) For an airplane for... April 30, 1972. (2) For an airplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed on...

  20. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  1. Interior Design and Housing. 7055. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education Services.

    This curriculum guide was developed as a resource for teachers to use in planning and implementing a competency-based instructional program on interior design and housing at the high school level. It contains materials for a 2-semester course, based on the North Carolina Vocational Education Program of Studies (revised 1992); it is designed to…

  2. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  3. SAMPLING OF AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS FOR ORGANIC EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of N-nitrosamines (specifically N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine), hydrogen cyanide, and other volatile organic compounds emitted from the interiors of new cars. The three cars tested were placed in an enclosed ...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  5. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  6. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  7. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  8. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  9. INTERIOR COLUMBIA BASIN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROJECT (ICBEMP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A geographic information system (GIS) spatial data library is maintained through the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, the library contains more than 200 products which include the following types of data: aquatic, a...

  10. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...

  11. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 125.113 Section 125.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20...

  12. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...

  13. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...

  14. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 125.113 Section 125.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20...

  15. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...

  16. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 125.113 Section 125.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20...

  17. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the passenger capacity of the airplane. (b) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior components of airplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or more must also meet the test requirements of...

  18. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the passenger capacity of the airplane. (b) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior components of airplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or more must also meet the test requirements of...

  19. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the passenger capacity of the airplane. (b) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior components of airplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or more must also meet the test requirements of...

  20. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved... each compartment. (b) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than...

  1. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved design and materials...) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than 13.79 bar (200 psig)...

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  3. Enceladus' Interior: A Liquid Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence; Lunine, Jonathan; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    We are studying a model for Enceladus' interior in which the water, gas, dust and heat are supplied to the plumes by a relatively deeply circulating brine solution. Data indicates such a source for the erupting material. On the basis of ammonia in the plume gas Waite et al. [1] suggested that the jets might originate from a liquid water region under Enceladus' icy surface. Postberg et al. [2] noted that the presence of ". . . grains that are rich in sodium salts (0.5-2 percent by mass). . . can arise only if the plumes originate from liquid water." Waite et al. [1] also regard the some of the plume chemicals as evidence for interactions with an ice layer presumably overlying the liquid water reservoir. They suggest that this could be in the form of dissociation of clathrate hydrates [3]. Additionally, there is a large heat flow of more than 15 GW [4, 5] coming out of Enceladus' south polar region. We consider a model that brings heat and chemical species up to the surface from a reservoir or "ocean" located below the ice crust that may be many tens of kilometers thick. Water transits to the surface via vertical conduits. The Cassini INMS data suggest that the water has a relatively large gas content of order a few percent. As the water travels upward and the pressure is released, exolving gases form bubbles. Since the bubbly liquid is less dense than the ice, it moves upward. (This part of the model is a variant of the "Perrier Ocean" Europa model of Crawford and Stevenson [6]. A similar model was studied for Ganymede by Murchie and Head [7].) Postberg et al. [2] model the plume eruptions that result from the water, gases, salts, and other chemicals that our circulation model provides. In the near-surface reservoir feeding the plumes, bubbles reaching the surface of the water pop and throw a very fine spray. Some of these very small droplets of brine exit with the plume gas and provide the observed salt-rich dust particles [2]. Much of the water-borne heat is

  4. The Need for Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Bernier, David

    2011-01-01

    Broadening computer science learning to include more students is a crucial item on the United States' education agenda, these authors say. Although policymakers advocate more computer science expertise, computer science offerings in high schools are few--and actually shrinking. In addition, poorly resourced schools with a high percentage of…

  5. The Science of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Erica T.; Levy, Abigail Jurist; Karelitz, Tzur M.; Martinez-Gudapakkam, Audrey; Jablonski, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Data from a recent study show that investing in science teachers' professional growth and teaching ability is a wise choice. However, the professional development must have the right content (the science discipline that teachers are actually teaching), at the right time (when they are assigned to teach that science discipline), and in a stable…

  6. Professional Improvement Plans in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, David A., Comp.; And Others

    In 1982 the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association asked its members to submit samples of Professional Improvement Plans (PIPS) that they had developed for themselves as well as for their science teachers. Provided in this document, in chart format, are actual PIPS used by classroom teachers and science supervisors. The PIPS are divided into…

  7. The Interior of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mapped the Moon from March through December 2012 at average altitudes from 55 km down to 11 km. The current global gravity field resolves spatial blocks of

  8. Formation of Oxides in the Interior of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Chen, Po; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSWing) the actual solid state joining takes place between the faying surfaces which form the weld seam. Thus the seam trace is often investigated for clues when the strength of the weld is reduced. Aluminum and its alloys are known to form a native, protective oxide on the surface. If these native surface oxides are not sufficiently broken up during the FSW process, they are reported to remain in the FSW interior and weaken the bond strength. This type of weld defect has been referred to as a lazy "S", lazy "Z", joint line defect, kissing bond, or residual oxide defect. Usually these defects are mitigated by modification of the process parameters, such as increased tool rotation rate, which causes a finer breakup of the native oxide particles. This study proposes that there may be an alternative mechanism for formation of oxides found within the weld nugget. As the oxidation rate increases at elevated temperatures above 400ºC, it may be possible for enhanced oxidation to occur on the interior surfaces during the FSW process from entrained air entering the seam gap. Normally, FSWs of aluminum alloys are made without a purge gas and it is unknown how process parameters and initial fit up could affect a potential air path into the interior during the processing. In addition, variations in FSW parameters, such as the tool rotation, are known to have a strong influence on the FSW temperature which may affect the oxidation rate if internal surfaces are exposed to entrained air. A series of FSWs were made in 3 different thickness panels of AA2219 (0.95, 1.27 and 1.56 cm) at 2 different weld pitches. As the thickness of the panels increased, there was an increased tendency for a gap to form in advance of the weld tool. If sufficient air is able to enter the workpiece gap prior to consolidation, the weld temperature can increase the oxidation rate on the interior surfaces. These oxidation rates would also be accelerated in areas of localized

  9. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR WALL ENCLOSING STORAGE AND OFFICE SPACE ALONG THE WEST SIDE. AT RIGHT EDGE IS DOOR TO MTR BUILDING. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, SPACE WAS PLANNED FOR A LOCKER ROOM, MTR ISSUE ROOM, AND STORAGE AREAS AND RELATED OFFICES. NOTE SECOND "MEZZANINE" FLOOR ABOVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10227. Unknown Photographer, 3/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  12. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  13. Solar Cycle Variations in the Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will review the observational evidence for solar cycle-dependent changes in the structure and dynamical motions of the solar interior. It will include the results of studies that have been carried out using the tools of both global and local heiloseismology during Solar Cycles 22, 23, and 24. The presentation will describe results obtained with both ground- and space-based helioseismic programs, and it will also describe the role that these helioseismic studies have played in providing inputs to theoretical studies of the solar dynamo. Among the topics that will be covered are temporal changes in the solar torsional oscillations, the solar meridional circulation, the solar seismic radius, the subsurface vorticity, and the solar p-mode oscillation frequencies and widths. Also covered will be evidence for temporal changes in the solar interior that are related to the emergence of active regions on both the near and far sides of the Sun.

  14. Loop quantization of Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Corichi, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Several studies of different inequivalent loop quantizations have shown, that there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for the Schwarzschild interior. Existing quantizations fail either on dependence on the fiducial structure or on the lack of the classical limit. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that overcomes all of the known problems of the existing quantizations. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein's equations is recovered on the ``other side'' of the bounce. We argue that such metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ``white-hole mass'' differs from the original black hole mass. We compare the differences in physical implications with other quantizations.

  15. INTERIOR MODELS OF URANUS AND NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Helled, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.; Podolak, Morris E-mail: schubert@ucla.edu E-mail: morris@tau.ac.il

    2011-01-01

    'Empirical' models (pressure versus density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J{sub 2}, J{sub 4}, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H{sub 2}O), and rock (SiO{sub 2}) to test the physical plausibility of the models. The compositions of Uranus and Neptune are found to be similar with somewhat different distributions of the high-Z material. The big difference between the two planets is that Neptune requires a non-solar envelope, while Uranus is best matched with a solar composition envelope. Our analysis suggests that the heavier elements in both Uranus' and Neptune's interior might increase gradually toward the planetary centers. Indeed it is possible to fit the gravitational moments without sharp compositional transitions.

  16. Mars interior structure models from tidal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Verhoeven, O.; van Hoolst, T.; Mocquet, A.; Dehant, V.

    2005-12-01

    Besides the mean planetary density, obtained from the planet's mass and size, the polar moment of inertia (MOI) gives important constraints on the interior structure of a planet. Nevertheless, these constraints are not sufficient for precisely determining the state and size of the planet's core, nor do they provide strong constraints on mantle composition and temperature. On the other hand, the additional use of the latest estimates of mean crustal density and thickness and an assumed bulk Fe/Si ratio for Mars (e.g. chondritic with Fe/Si=1.7) can strongly reduce the set of interior models, which are parameterized in terms of core composition and size, and of mantle composition and temperature. Unfortunately, the origin of Mars and the value of the Martian Fe/Si bulk ratio are not well known. We therefore propose to complement the MOI and the mean density with the latest estimate of the tidal Love number k2 in order to better constrain the interior structure and composition. We consider spherically symmetric models of Mars, consisting of a crust parameterized by mean density and thickness, a mantle with different mineralogical compositions and temperature profiles, and a core parameterized by size, composition (Fe, Ni and FeS), and state (liquid, solid or both). For the presently known values, with their associated uncertainties, of the mean density, the MOI and the Love umber k2, we calculate sets of possible interior models in terms of the above arameterization and compute the bulk Fe/Si ratios.

  17. Quantum state of the black hole interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-08-01

    If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of "Fermi sea" of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a "firewall", as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.

  18. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  19. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 56. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), REAR AISLE, LEATHER STUDDED DOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING OAKLAND CITY HALL. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; WINDOWS, WINDOW FRAMES, SUSPENDED CEILING, AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 23. CREWS' BERTHING, SHOWING DETAIL OF INTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CREWS' BERTHING, SHOWING DETAIL OF INTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR (INTERIOR SIDE OF DOOR IN IMAGE 22). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING PAINTED CONCRETE WALLS, CONCRETE STAIRS AND INTERIOR WOOD DOOR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental type... SFAR the airplane meets the compartment interior requirements set forth in § 25.853 (a), (b), (b-1),...

  5. Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors and interior windows - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY 4, EAST WALL, AMERICAN BISON MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ROOM PASSAGE. OPENINGS LIKE THESE ARE PRESENT IN A NUMBER OF PLACES, “BORROWING LIGHT” FOR OTHERWISE DARK INTERIOR SPACES - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 10. Interior of Pumping Station No. 1 showing details of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior of Pumping Station No. 1 showing details of the gallery, and Greek Revival interior finishes, from the northeast. - Louisville Water Company Pumping Stations, Zorn Avenue & River Road, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 25. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE AND GLASS DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH FOYER, DETAIL OF BRONZE BUILDING DIRECTORY (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 72. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM (AND GALLERIES), DETAIL OF BRONZE GRILL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTH, SHOWING THE REAR INTERIOR WALL WITH LADDER. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING EAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING EAST, SHOWING THE LEFT INTERIOR WALL. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 7. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING WEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING WEST, SHOWING THE RIGHT INTERIOR WALL. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 49. Interior of launch support building, buck boost transformer at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Interior of launch support building, buck boost transformer at center, view towards southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. 53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. 106. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S CONFERENCE ROOM (AFTER REMODELING) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 108. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S CONFERENCE ROOM (AFTER REMODELING), DETAIL OF CEILING DECORATION - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 107. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S CONFERENCE ROOM (AFTER REMODELING), DETAIL OF PANELING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY (LEFT) AND BLANK WALL (CENTER) CORRESPONDING TO LOCATION OF INTERIOR VAULTS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  4. 48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, SOUTH WALL, DEER STALKING MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF TIN LIGHTING SCONCE - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF DECORATIVE BEAM, CORBEL, AND CEILING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM CENTER INTERIOR - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  8. 66. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), DETAIL OF BRONZE GRILL IN BLIND GALLERY - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. THE EFFECT OF APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINTOP MINING ON INTERIOR FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest...

  10. 141. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, WING 7100 WEST, ROOM 7138, DOUBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, WING 7100 WEST, ROOM 7138, DOUBLE DOOR TO THE LAW BRANCH OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF NATURAL RESOURCES - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS AND DUCT WORK (OTHER OFFICE INTERIORS ARE GREATLY ALTERED FROM THE ORIGINAL) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Charges in the hydrophobic interior of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Daniel G.; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Cannon, Brian R.; Velu, Priya D.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Charges are inherently incompatible with hydrophobic environments. Presumably for this reason, ionizable residues are usually excluded from the hydrophobic interior of proteins and are found instead at the surface, where they can interact with bulk water. Paradoxically, ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins play essential roles, especially in biological energy transduction. To examine the unusual properties of internal ionizable groups we measured the pKa of glutamic acid residues at 25 internal positions in a stable form of staphylococcal nuclease. Two of 25 Glu residues titrated with normal pKa near 4.5; the other 23 titrated with elevated pKa values ranging from 5.2–9.4, with an average value of 7.7. Trp fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism were used to monitor the effects of internal charges on conformation. These data demonstrate that although charges buried in proteins are indeed destabilizing, charged side chains can be buried readily in the hydrophobic core of stable proteins without the need for specialized structural adaptations to stabilize them, and without inducing any major conformational reorganization. The apparent dielectric effect experienced by the internal charges is considerably higher than the low dielectric constants of hydrophobic matter used to represent the protein interior in electrostatic continuum models of proteins. The high thermodynamic stability required for proteins to withstand the presence of buried charges suggests a pathway for the evolution of enzymes, and it underscores the need to mind thermodynamic stability in any strategy for engineering novel or altered enzymatic active sites in proteins. PMID:20798341

  13. Charges in the hydrophobic interior of proteins.

    PubMed

    Isom, Daniel G; Castañeda, Carlos A; Cannon, Brian R; Velu, Priya D; García-Moreno E, Bertrand

    2010-09-14

    Charges are inherently incompatible with hydrophobic environments. Presumably for this reason, ionizable residues are usually excluded from the hydrophobic interior of proteins and are found instead at the surface, where they can interact with bulk water. Paradoxically, ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins play essential roles, especially in biological energy transduction. To examine the unusual properties of internal ionizable groups we measured the pK(a) of glutamic acid residues at 25 internal positions in a stable form of staphylococcal nuclease. Two of 25 Glu residues titrated with normal pK(a) near 4.5; the other 23 titrated with elevated pK(a) values ranging from 5.2-9.4, with an average value of 7.7. Trp fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism were used to monitor the effects of internal charges on conformation. These data demonstrate that although charges buried in proteins are indeed destabilizing, charged side chains can be buried readily in the hydrophobic core of stable proteins without the need for specialized structural adaptations to stabilize them, and without inducing any major conformational reorganization. The apparent dielectric effect experienced by the internal charges is considerably higher than the low dielectric constants of hydrophobic matter used to represent the protein interior in electrostatic continuum models of proteins. The high thermodynamic stability required for proteins to withstand the presence of buried charges suggests a pathway for the evolution of enzymes, and it underscores the need to mind thermodynamic stability in any strategy for engineering novel or altered enzymatic active sites in proteins. PMID:20798341

  14. Interior View of Drafting Room in ERB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    Interior view of Drafting Room in Engine Research Building showing men at work at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory. This building was considered the research heart of NACA Lewis. It was built by the Sam W. Emerson Company and was completed in 1942. It is a multipurpose flexible space covering more than 4.25 acres and can be changed according to research priorities. The Aircraft Engine Research Center, Cleveland Ohio, is now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  15. Interior Structure and Tidal Response of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Teresa; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wagner, Frank Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent determinations of Mercury's mean density, polar moment of inertia factor, and the inertia of its solid outer shell provide strong constraints on the radius of its liquid core. We present an ensemble of spherically symmetric interior structure models that all satisfy the observational constraints. The models consist of a pure iron solid inner core, a liquid Fe-FeS outer core, a peridotite mantle and a crust predominantly composed of plagioclase. The sulfur content in the outer core, the iron and magnesium content of the mantle, and the crustal thickness vary throughout the ensemble. Comparison of observed and predicted moments of inertia yields admissible ranges for the outer core radius and the mantle density. From this model ensemble we derive geophysical observables that would allow further constraining the interior structure of Mercury in future experiments. The moment of inertia constraints allow for both forsterite and fayalite rich mantle compositions. Variations of mantle density trade off with crustal thickness and core composition. This non-uniqueness could be resolved using seismic travel time observations: since the P wave velocity of a fayalite mantle is significantly lower than that of the plagioclase-rich crust, a shadow zone arises as a clear discriminant between the two end-member compositions. The planet's response to solar tidal forcing strongly depends on its interior structure and rheological properties and can be parameterized in terms of the surface body tide Love numbers k2 and h2, respectively. We employ the frequency-dependent Maxwell rheology to calculate the body tide Love numbers for the main tidal period (87.97 days) using the density, rigidity and viscosity profiles of our structural models. We obtain values between 0.38 and 0.65 for k2 and between 0.70 and 1.12 for h2, respectively, thereby indicating the substantial tidal response of Mercury's interior. Furthermore we find that, via viscosity and rigidity, both k2 and h2 are

  16. Interior View of the Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph is an interior view of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) upper level looking from the airlock hatch, showing the octagonal opening that separated the workshop's two levels. The trash airlock can be seen at center. The lower level of the OWS provided crew accommodations for sleeping, food preparation and consumption, hygiene, waste processing and disposal, and performance of certain experiments. The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment.

  17. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Limaye, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary 'ice', have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  18. Interior point techniques for LP and NLP

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, Y.

    1994-12-31

    By using surjective mapping the initial constrained optimization problem is transformed to a problem in a new space with only equality constraints. For the numerical solution of the latter problem we use the generalized gradient-projection method and Newton`s method. After inverse transformation to the initial space we obtain the family of numerical methods for solving optimization problems with equality and inequality constraints. In the linear programming case after some simplification we obtain Dikin`s algorithm, affine scaling algorithm and generalized primal dual interior point linear programming algorithm.

  19. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The application of lunar magnetic field measurements to the study of properties of the lunar crust and deep interior is reviewed. Following a brief description of lunar magnetometers and the lunar magnetic environment, measurements of lunar remanent fields and their interaction with the solar plasma are discussed. The magnetization induction mode is considered with reference to lunar magnetic permeability and iron abundance calculations. Finally, electrical conductivity and temperature calculations from analyses of poloidal induction, for data taken in both the solar wind and in the geomagnetic tail, are reviewed.

  20. Interior structure of Neptune: Comparison with Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B. ); Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C. ); Limaye, S.S. )

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary ice, have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  1. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  2. Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate' (QTVR)

    On Feb. 19, 2006, the 758th Martian day of exploration of the red planet by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the rover acquired this panoramic view of the interior of 'Home Plate,' a circular topographic feature amid the 'Columbia Hills.' This view, called the 'Paige' panorama, is from the top of Home Plate. It shows layered rocks exposed at the edge as well as dark rocks exhibiting both smooth and sponge-like 'scoriaceous' textures. To the east from this vantage point, 'McCool Hill' looms on the horizon. At the base of McCool Hill is a reddish outcrop called 'Oberth,' which Spirit may explore during the rapidly approaching Martian winter. 'Von Braun' and 'Goddard' hills are partially visible beyond the opposite rim of Home Plate.

    The limited spatial coverage of this panorama is the result of steadily decreasing power available to the rover for science activities as the Martian winter arrives and the sun traces a lower path across the sky. The rover team anticipates that the north-facing slopes of McCool Hill should sufficiently tilt the rover's solar panels toward the sun to allow Spirit to survive the winter.

    The view covers about 230 degrees of terrain around the rover. Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took 72 separate images of this scene with four different Pancam filters. This is an approximately true-color rendering using the Pancam's 75-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  3. Measurements of Mercury's spin state and inferences about its interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.; Padovan, S.; Peale, S. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past nine years we have used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in conjunction with the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) to characterize the spin state and interior of Mercury. We implemented a technique [1,2] that provides instantaneous spin rate measurements with 10-5 fractional precision and spin orientation measurements at the arcsecond level. On the basis of measurements at 21 distinct epochs between 2002 and 2006, we found observational evidence that Mercury closely follows a Cassini state and that it exhibits forced librations in longitude [3], as predicted by theory [4,5]. A long-period (˜12 year) libration signature may be present in the data. Since 2006 we have secured measurements at 11 additional epochs (out of 23 attempts). We are in the process of re-analyzing the entire set of observations with the goals of (1) refining the determination of the obliquity and of the libration amplitude, two parameters that are critical in the determination of the core size; (2) confirming the presence or absence of a long-period libration component, with the prospect of elucidating the excitation mechanism; (3) quantifying deviations of the pole from the strict Cassini state, which could inform us about dissipation due to solid-body tides and core-mantle interactions. Our first goal is particularly important now that MESSENGER is securing measurements of the low-degree gravitational harmonics with an expected precision of better than 1%. The core-size error budget indicates that the precision of the ground-based estimates of obliquity and librations will ultimately dictate the quality of the core size determination, as well as the attendant inferences regarding the interior structure, thermal evolution, and magnetic field generation of the planet. [1] Green, in Radar Astronomy, McGraw-Hill, 1968. [2] Holin, Radiophys. Quant. Elec. 31, 1988. [3] Margot et al, Science 316, 2007. [4] Peale, Nature 262, 1976. [5] Peale, in Mercury, U. of Arizona Press, 1988.

  4. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior... doors. (b) Interior close up items necessary to join all sections of the home or items subject to transportation damage may be packaged or shipped with the home for site installation. (c) Shipped-loose...

  5. 17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  6. Introduction to Interior Systems. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in interior systems to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: interior systems materials, interior systems tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic…

  7. 132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, PLASTER CEILING MEDALLION AND BRONZE CHANDELIER (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. 77 FR 45650 - Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Office of the Secretary Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012 AGENCY: Office of Wildland Fire, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal consultations and informational meetings. SUMMARY: The Office of Wildland Fire is announcing tribal consultations to discuss the following topics: (1) The Interior Fire...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  14. 129. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, DOUBLE DOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION IN WEST CORRIDOR AS PHOTO ID-33-G-42 BUT CAMERA FACES SOUTH. SIGN ON DOOR FOR "PIPE TUNNEL" WARNS OF RADIOLOGICAL AND ASBESTOS HAZARDS. DOOR HAS METAL HASPS. SIGN ON OVERHEAD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PIPES SAYS THEY CONTAIN "ASBESTOS FREE INSULATION." FIRE DOOR AT LEFT LEADS TO STAIRWAY TO FIRST FLOOR. DOOR AT RIGHT LEADS TO ROOM WHICH ONCE CONTAINED MTR LIBRARY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Interior River Lowland Ecoregion Summary Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2008-01-01

    ECOREGION DESCRIPTION The Interior River Lowlands ecoregion encompasses 93,200 square kilometers (km2) across southern and western Illinois, southwest Indiana, east-central Missouri, and fractions of northwest Kentucky and southeast Iowa. The ecoregion includes the confluence areas of the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and Wabash Rivers, and their tributaries. This ecoregion was formed in non-resident, non-calcareous sedimentary rock (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). The unstratified soil deposits present north of the White River in Indiana are evidence that pre-Wisconsinan ice once covered much of the Interior River Lowlands. The geomorphic characteristics of this area also include terraced valleys filled with alluvium as well as outwash, acolian, and lacustrine deposits. Historically, agricultural land use has been a vital economic resource for this region. The drained alluvial soils are farmed for feed grains and soybeans, whereas the valley uplands also are used for forage crops, pasture, woodlots, mixed farming, and livestock (USEPA, 2006). This ecoregion provides a key component of national energy resources as it contains the second largest coal reserve in the United States, and the largest reserve of bituminous coal (Varanka and Shaver, 2007). One of the primary reasons for change in the ecoregion is urbanization.

  17. A Polytropic Model of the Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Mozo, B.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we considered different processes in the solar interior that can be described using polytropes. This assumption implies a radially variable continuous polytropic exponent, that is, our model is a multi-polytropic model of the Sun. We derived the equations for this type of multi-polytropic structure and solved them using numerical integration methods. Both, the exponent and proportionality factor in the polytropic model equation of state were taken as input functions, for each spherical layer in the solar interior. Using the spatial distribution of the density and pressure terms from a solar standard model (SSM) we obtained the variable with depth polytropic exponents. We found that the radial distribution of these exponents show four different zones. These can be interpreted as a first region where the energy transport is controlled by radiation. The second region is defined by a sudden change in the polytropic index, which can be associated to the tachocline, followed by a region with a nearly constant polytropic index which suits well a convective zone. Finally, the exponent decreases radially at the photosphere.

  18. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  19. Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2016-03-01

    The loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior region, as described by a homogeneous anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs model, is re-examined. As several studies of different—inequivalent—loop quantizations have shown, to date there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for this model. This fact poses challenges to the validity of some scenarios to address the black hole information problem. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that builds from some of the models available in the literature. The final picture is a quantum theory that is both independent of any auxiliary structure and possesses a correct low curvature limit. It represents a subtle but non-trivial modification of the original prescription given by Ashtekar and Bojowald. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein’s equations is recovered on the ‘other side’ of the bounce. We argue that such a metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ‘white hole mass’ differs from the original black hole mass. Furthermore, we find that the value of the white hole mass is proportional to the third power of the starting black hole mass.

  20. The Interior of Enceladus from Gravity and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, L.

    2015-12-01

    to this picture. [1] L. Iess, D.J. Stevenson, et al.: "The Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Enceladus", Science, 344, 78-80 (2014) DOI: 10.1126/science.1250551 [2] W.B. McKinnon: "Effect of Enceladus's rapid synchronous spin on interpretation of Cassini gravity", GRL, 42, 2137-2143 (2015) DOI:10.1002/2015GL063384

  1. Study on turbulence in interior ballistics flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, R.; Garloff, J.

    1992-02-01

    The compressible, viscous, turbulent gas expansion flow behind an accelerating projectile moving in a gun tube is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. For future theoretical investigations of the heat transfer from the hot gases to the walls, a reliable modeling of the turbulence is needed. Turbulence is described by two algebraic models, namely, the models by Cebeci-Smith-Mosinskis and Baldwin-Lomax, as well as by a one-equation model for the turbulent kinetic energy. Computational results obtained by application of these models are compared to experimental data obtained with two low-pressure gun simulators. Also, numerical predictions are reported for the flow behind a projectile under more realistic interior ballistic conditions.

  2. Probing Europa's interior with natural sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunwoong; Zanolin, Michele; Thode, Aaron M.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2003-09-01

    Europa's interior structure may be determined by relatively simple and robust seismo-acoustic echo sounding techniques. The strategy is to use ice cracking events or impacts that are hypothesized to occur regularly on Europa's surface as sources of opportunity. A single passive geophone on Europa's surface may then be used to estimate the thickness of its ice shell and the depth of its ocean by measuring the travel time of seismo-acoustic reflections from the corresponding internal strata. Quantitative analysis is presented with full-field seismo-acoustic modeling of the Europan environment. This includes models for Europan ambient noise and conditions on signal-to-noise ratio necessary for the proposed technique to be feasible. The possibility of determining Europa's ice layer thickness by surface wave and modal analysis with a single geophone is also investigated.

  3. Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.

    2010-01-01

    We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.

  4. On the interior properties of red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    The interior evolution of red giants is focused on, the major emphasis being on the evolution of stars during the double shell-burning stage. The evolutionary course during the first and second ascent up the red giant branch of the H-R diagram are discussed for stars that vary with respect to certain critical masses, and the thermal pulse phase is also treated. Core, envelope, and surface phenomena are explained along with the process of development into white dwarfs or supernovas. The interplay of internal forces caused by various fuel-burning processes, electron-degeneracy pressure, and gravity are detailed, and phenomena such as core dredge-up, relaxed oscillations, and AGB stars are explained. Numbers are given for the properties of H-burning and convective shells, and detailed comparisons with observations are made.

  5. Viscoelastic Mapping of Living Cell Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Doris; Sackmann, Erich; Koehler, Jana; Gerisch, Guenther

    2004-03-01

    We performed spatially resolved mapping of the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of living cell interiors. A magnetic tweezer was applied as a local probe for the investigation of active and passive transport inside the slime mold cells Dictyostelium discoideum. Fluorescence labeled components, i.e. the microtubulins, the endoplasmatic reticulum or the core, allow for the determination of the interaction of the magnetic probes with the cytoplasm. By comparing the trajectories of the magnetic beads in the presence of an external magnetic force and in the absence of an external force, we can measure the viscosity at any given position within the cell. These experiments show that the cytoplasm consists of soft pathways (yield stress less or equal 10 Pa) and hard pathways (yield stress less or equal 500 Pa). Selective actin, myosin II or microtubulin network removal in the living cells allows for the determination of the influence of these cell parts on the viscoelastic properties.

  6. Mobile Modelling for Crowdsourcing Building Interior Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, J.; Morley, J.; Jackson, M.

    2012-06-01

    Indoor spatial data forms an important foundation to many ubiquitous computing applications. It gives context to users operating location-based applications, provides an important source of documentation of buildings and can be of value to computer systems where an understanding of environment is required. Unlike external geographic spaces, no centralised body or agency is charged with collecting or maintaining such information. Widespread deployment of mobile devices provides a potential tool that would allow rapid model capture and update by a building's users. Here we introduce some of the issues involved in volunteering building interior data and outline a simple mobile tool for capture of indoor models. The nature of indoor data is inherently private; however in-depth analysis of this issue and legal considerations are not discussed in detail here.

  7. Radiogenic melting of primordial comet interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, M. K.

    1980-04-01

    The melting of the core of a primordial comet due to heat released upon the radioactive decay of Al-26 contained within it is discussed. For a spherical, 10-km comet composed of loose snow and mineral grains in the primordial nebula, it is shown that a large fluid dust, droplet and vapor core could develop surrounded by a 1-km thick icy shell with enhanced conductivity and a further 2 km of snow metamorphosing by sublimation, diffusion and condensation into larger ice crystals. As the radioactivity decays, the comet center would gradually refreeze by the deposition of frost and hail on the interior of the ice shell, resulting in a hollow core which could explain the presumed splitting of some disintegrating comets and could have provided a well-protected environment for elementary biological systems.

  8. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  9. The Art of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jory, Tina

    1997-01-01

    Advocates introducing young students to realistic nature drawing as a way of integrating art and science. Describes an earthworm art project using a salt dough model and a realistic drawing. This activity should begin with a view of the real subject whenever possible before proceeding to the actual artwork. (AIM)

  10. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  11. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  12. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  13. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  14. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  15. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  16. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  17. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  18. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  20. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  1. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  2. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  3. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  4. Toward a Reconstruction of Organizational Theory: Androcentric Bias in A. H. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietze, Irene Nowell; Shakeshaft, Charol

    An exploration in the context of feminist science of one theoretical basis of educational administration--Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation and self-actualization--finds an androcentric bias in Maslow's methodology, philosophical underpinnings, and theory formulation. Maslow's hypothetico-deductive methodology was based on a…

  5. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Antreasian, Peter; Broschart, Stephen; Criddle, Kevin; Higa, Earl; Jefferson, David; Lau, Eunice; Mohan, Swati; Ryne, Mark; Keck, Mason

    2012-01-01

    Launched on 10 September 2011 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, the twin-spacecraft Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) has the primary mission objective of generating a lunar gravity map with an unprecedented resolution via the Ka-band Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS). After successfully executing nearly 30 maneuvers on their six-month journey, Ebb and Flow (aka GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B) established the most stringent planetary formation orbit on 1 March 2012 of approximately 30 km x 90 km in orbit size. This paper describes the orbit determination (OD) filter configurations, analyses, and results during the Trans-Lunar Cruise, Orbit Period Reduction, and Transition to Science Formation phases. The maneuver reconstruction strategies and their performance will also be discussed, as well as the navigation requirements, major dynamic models, and navigation challenges. GRAIL is the first mission to generate a full high-resolution gravity field of the only natural satellite of the Earth. It not only enables scientists to understand the detailed structure of the Moon but also further extends their knowledge of the evolutionary histories of the rocky inner planets. Robust and successful navigation was the key to making this a reality.

  6. The neutron star interior composition explorer (NICER): mission definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K. C.; Baker, C. L.; Cazeau, T.; Hestnes, P.; Kellogg, J. W.; Kenyon, S. J.; Kozon, R. P.; Liu, K.-C.; Manthripragada, S. S.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mitchell, A. L.; Mitchell, J. W.; Monroe, C. A.; Okajima, T.; Pollard, S. E.; Powers, D. F.; Savadkin, B. J.; Winternitz, L. B.; Chen, P. T.; Wright, M. R.; Foster, R.; Prigozhin, G.; Remillard, R.; Doty, J.

    2014-07-01

    Over a 10-month period during 2013 and early 2014, development of the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission [1] proceeded through Phase B, Mission Definition. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is scheduled to launch in 2016 for an 18-month baseline mission. Its prime scientific focus is an in-depth investigation of neutron stars—objects that compress up to two Solar masses into a volume the size of a city—accomplished through observations in 0.2-12 keV X-rays, the electromagnetic band into which the stars radiate significant fractions of their thermal, magnetic, and rotational energy stores. Additionally, NICER enables the Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) demonstration of spacecraft navigation using pulsars as beacons. During Phase B, substantive refinements were made to the mission-level requirements, concept of operations, and payload and instrument design. Fabrication and testing of engineering-model components improved the fidelity of the anticipated scientific performance of NICER's X-ray Timing Instrument (XTI), as well as of the payload's pointing system, which enables tracking of science targets from the ISS platform. We briefly summarize advances in the mission's formulation that, together with strong programmatic performance in project management, culminated in NICER's confirmation by NASA into Phase C, Design and Development, in March 2014.

  7. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  8. Interior Models for Saturn's Moon Titan Consistent with Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that a model of Titan's interior with a core dominated by hydrated silicates can explain three major geophysical constraints available for this body: the mean moment of inertia (revised values currently in the literature or being published), tidal Love number k2, both of which were inferred from Cassini radio science observations, as well as indirect estimate of the dissipation factor inferred from Titan's orbital properties. Other models in which ice has remained partially mixed with silicates as a consequence of limited early heating fail to explain the dissipation factor. A core hydrated in silicate is difficult to maintain over the long term and may be in the process of dehydrating, which may involve significant transfer of water enriched in salts from the core to the ocean and destabilize the high-pressure ice layer. We will present possible observations that could help test this model with future observations to be obtained by the Cassini Orbiter. Acknowledgements: This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  9. Innovative Seismological Techniques for Investigating the Interior Structure of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Cutts, J. A.; Mimoun, D.

    2014-12-01

    The formation, evolution and structure of Venus remain a mystery more than fifty years after the first visit by a robotic spacecraft. Radar images have revealed a surface that is much younger than those of the Moon, Mercury and Mars as well as a variety of enigmatic volcanic and tectonic features quite unlike those generated by plate tectonics on Earth. To understand how Venus works as a planet it is necessary to probe the interior of Venus. To accomplish this seismology must play a key role. Conventional seismology employs sensors in contact with the planetary surface but for Venus theses sensors must tolerate the Venus environment (460oC and 90 bars) for up to a year. The dense atmosphere of Venus, which efficiently couples seismic energy into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, enables an alternative: detection of infrasonic waves in the upper atmosphere using either high altitude balloons or orbiting spacecraft. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies that can bring these technique to readiness. In this paper, we describe the key synergies with earth science drawing on methods from terrestrial seismology and oceanography and identify key technical issues that need to be solved as well as important precursor measurements that should be made.

  10. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at high resolution in this image acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate-related fire impacts in rural and urban interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainor, Sarah F.; Calef, Monika; Natcher, David; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; McGuire, Anthony; Huntington, Orville; Duffy, Paul A; Rupp, T. Scott; DeWilde, La'Ona; Kwart, Mary; Fresco, Nancy; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores whether fundamental differences exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska. We further examine how communities and fire managers have responded to these changes and what additional adaptations could be put in place. We engage a variety of social science methods, including demographic analysis, semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops and observations of public meetings. This work is part of an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions between climate, vegetation, fire and human components of the Boreal forest social–ecological system of interior Alaska. We have learned that although urban and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate change, important differences exist in their sensitivity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression response, financial resources and institutional connections vary between urban and rural communities. These differences depend largely on social, economic and institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management and suppression action motivated by political, economic or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic responses may be required, given the magnitude of the expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensification of the fire regime in interior Alaska.

  12. A Discovery Mission to Determine the Interior Structure of Gas- and Ice-Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstadter, Mark D.; Murphy, N.; Matousek, S.; Bairstow, S.; Maiwald, F.; Jeffries, S.; Schmider, F.; Guillot, T.

    2013-10-01

    The Ice Giants (Uranus and Neptune) are fundamentally different than the better-known Gas Giants (Jupiter and Saturn). Ice Giants are roughly 65% water by mass, compared to Gas Giants which are ~95% hydrogen and helium. Knowing the interior structure of both types of planets is a key measurement needed to advance our understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems, particularly in light of recent findings that Ice Giants are far more abundant in our galaxy than Gas Giants (Borucki et al., ApJ 2011). In the past, gravity measurements from spacecraft in low orbits have been the primary way to tease out information on interior structure. A new approach, Doppler imaging, can provide detailed information on interior structure from great distances (Gaulme et al., A&A 2011). A planetary Doppler Imager (DI) builds on the well-established fields of helio- and stellar-seismology, which have revolutionized our understanding of the interior of stars. The great advantage of a DI is that its observations do not require the spacecraft to enter orbit. We have designed a Discovery mission around such an instrument to determine the interior structures of Jupiter and Uranus during flybys of each planet. The data collected at Jupiter (after a 1.5 year flight) will compliment observations to be made by the Juno spacecraft in 2016, creating a much more accurate picture of the interior than is possible from the gravity technique alone. Roughly 6.5 years after the Jupiter flyby, DI measurements of Uranus will open that planet's interior for the first time. At both planets, measurements of the interior structure are made over a 4-month period centered on closest approach (CA), but with a ~1 week gap at CA when the planet is too close for whole-disk imaging. This allows other measurements to be made at that time, such as of small-scale weather features or satellites. We note that the DI technique, while enabling a Discovery-class mission, can also benefit larger missions

  13. Fire containment tests of aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Williamson, R. B.; Hasegawa, H.; Fisher, F.; Draemel, R.; Marcussen, W. H.; Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental program carried out to evaluate a possible method for testing the fire-containment qualities of aircraft interior panels. The experimental apparatus consisted of a burner that simulates various fire loads under different ventilation conditions in an enclosure of approximately the same size as an aircraft lavatory module. Two fire-containment tests are discussed in which two adjoining walls of the enclosure were made from state-of-the-art composite panels; rats were exposed to the combustion products in order to evaluate the toxic threat posed by those products. The results show that the burner can be employed to represent various fire-load conditions and that the methodology developed for fire containment can be useful in evaluating the fire resistance of composite panels before conducting large-scale tests. It is concluded that elements of the fire-containment criteria include the temperature rise on the backface of the panels as a function of time, the flame burn-through by either decomposition or severe distortion of the material, and the toxicity of the combustion gases evolved.

  14. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  15. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  16. Interior of black holes and information recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hikaru; Yokokura, Yuki

    2016-02-01

    We analyze time evolution of a spherically symmetric collapsing matter from a point of view that black holes evaporate by nature. We first consider a spherical thin shell that falls in the metric of an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole of which the radius a (t ) decreases in time. The important point is that the shell can never reach a (t ) but it approaches a (t )-a (t )d/a (t ) d t . This situation holds at any radius because the motion of a shell in a spherically symmetric system is not affected by the outside. In this way, we find that the collapsing matter evaporates without forming a horizon. Nevertheless, a Hawking-like radiation is created in the metric, and the object looks the same as a conventional black hole from the outside. We then discuss how the information of the matter is recovered. We also consider a black hole that is adiabatically grown in the heat bath and obtain the interior metric. We show that it is the self-consistent solution of Gμ ν=8 π G ⟨Tμ ν⟩ and that the four-dimensional Weyl anomaly induces the radiation and a strong angular pressure. Finally, we analyze the internal structures of the charged and the slowly rotating black holes.

  17. Lightweight sidewalls for aircraft interior noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, D. N.; Plotkin, K. J.; Selden, R. G.; Sharp, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was performed to devise lightweight sidewalls for turboprop aircraft. Seven concepts for new sidewalls were analyzed and tested for noise reduction using flat panels of 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4 ft x 6 ft), some of which were aircraft-type constructions and some of which were simpler, easier-to-construct panels to test the functioning of an acoustic principle. Aircraft-application sidewalls were then conceived for each of the seven concepts, and were subjectively evaluated for their ability to meet aircraft nonacoustic design requirements. As a result of the above, the following sidewall concepts were recommended for further investigation: a sidewall in which the interior cavity is vented to ceiling and underfloor areas; sidewalls with wall-mounted resonators, one having a conventional trim panel and one a limp one; and a sidewall with a stiff outer wall and a limp trim panel. These sidewalls appear to promise lower weights than conventional sidewalls adjusted to meet similar acoustic requirements, and further development may prove them to be practical.

  18. Capillary Flow in an Interior Corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark Milton

    1996-01-01

    The design of fluids management processes in the low-gravity environment of space requires an accurate model and description of capillarity-controlled flow in containers of irregular geometry. Here we consider the capillary rise of a fluid along an interior corner of a container following a rapid reduction in gravity. The analytical portion of the work presents an asymptotic formulation in the limit of a slender fluid column, slight surface curvature along the corner, small inertia, and low gravity. New similarity solutions are found and a list of closed form expressions is provided for flow rate and column length. In particular, it is found that the flow is proportional to t(exp 1/2) for a constant height boundary condition, t(exp 2/5) for a spreading drop, and t(exp 3/5) for constant flow. In the experimental portion of the work, measurements from a 2.2s drop tower are reported. An extensive data set, collected over a previously unexplored range of flow parameters, includes estimates of repeatability and accuracy, the role of inertia and column slenderness, and the effects of corner angle, container geometry, and fluid properties. Comprehensive comparisons are made which illustrate the applicability of the analytic results to low-g fluid systems design.

  19. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-01-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  20. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  1. Seismic probes of solar interior magnetic structure.

    PubMed

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent; Tromp, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    Sun spots are prominent manifestations of solar magnetoconvection, and imaging their subsurface structure is an outstanding problem of wide physical importance. Travel times of seismic waves that propagate through these structures are typically used as inputs to inversions. Despite the presence of strongly anisotropic magnetic waveguides, these measurements have always been interpreted in terms of changes to isotropic wave speeds and flow-advection-related Doppler shifts. Here, we employ partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization to determine the appropriate parametrization of the structural properties of the magnetic interior. Seven different wave speeds fully characterize helioseismic wave propagation: the isotropic sound speed, a Doppler-shifting flow-advection velocity, and an anisotropic magnetic velocity. The structure of magnetic media is sensed by magnetoacoustic slow and fast modes and Alfvén waves, each of which propagates at a different wave speed. We show that even in the case of weak magnetic fields, significant errors may be incurred if these anisotropies are not accounted for in inversions. Translation invariance is demonstrably lost. These developments render plausible the accurate seismic imaging of magnetoconvection in the Sun. PMID:23005276

  2. Interior Layered Deposits in Tithonium Chasma Reveal Diverse Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of layered deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1537 UTC (11:37 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007, near 5.0 degrees south latitude, 270.3 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles). Many of the canyon-forming processes found on Mars are readily illustrated in Tithonium Chasma. These features offer a window into the geologic history of the planet.

    Landslides have enlarged the canyon's walls and formed debris deposits that ring the trough's interior. The chasma's floor is composed of layered deposits which may be volcanic or sedimentary in origin. One of CRISM's tasks is to determine the mineralogy of these deposits.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an eroded terrace of these interior layered deposits, and is centered along the edge of a knob of eroded wall material just to the southwest.

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography without vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the knob's elevation relative to the surrounding terrain. The lower left image is in infrared false color, and shows light-colored material exposed on the flanks of the layered deposits. The upper right image shows measures of the strengths of different mineral signatures in the red, green, and blue

  3. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) Lanny Miyamoto, Photographer - October 1958 - Eutaw Place Baptist Church, Dolphin & Eutaw Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Various roads in northern & eastern portions of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. 11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR FIREPLACE IN FIRST ADDITION - American House Hotel, Union Street & Moravian Alley, Hope, Warren County, NJ

  9. 63. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, BARLOW ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, BARLOW ROOM, CARVED LINOLEUM WALL PANEL FLANKING THE ENTRANCE, LOOKING WEST - Timberline Lodge, Timberline Trail, Government Camp, Clackamas County, OR

  10. 64. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, BARLOW ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, BARLOW ROOM, CARVED LINOLEUM WALL PANEL FLANKING THE ENTRANCE, LOOKING WEST - Timberline Lodge, Timberline Trail, Government Camp, Clackamas County, OR

  11. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Base Operations Building, Idaho at Alabama Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. Interior view of Chapel with marble altar and wall panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Chapel with marble altar and wall panel carved with crusader's sword design. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  14. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) Presidio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  19. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 14. Office interior, at south end of second floor, stairway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Office interior, at south end of second floor, stairway landing and concrete vault entry, view to southeast - Former Umatilla Project Headquarters Buildings, Office, Hermiston, Umatilla County, OR

  1. 6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, MAIN READING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, MAIN READING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AND SHOWING VIEW INTO REAR SECTION - Free Library of Philadelphia, Richmond Branch, 2987 Almond Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  4. Interior view of Secretary's Office, facing southeast International Longshoremen's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Secretary's Office, facing southeast - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  5. Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  6. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  7. 25. INTERIOR VIEW OF OWNERS' SALON, WITH LAVATORY IN "UP" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR VIEW OF OWNERS' SALON, WITH LAVATORY IN "UP" POSITION, LOOKING TOWARD PASSAGEWAY. - Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Bachelor Airmen Quarters, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  15. BLDG 2 WEST END LOBBY INTERIOR Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 2 WEST END LOBBY INTERIOR - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Police Station, Kolekole Road & Constitution Street intersection, north side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. BLDG 1 INTERIOR OF CO'S OFFICE Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 INTERIOR OF CO'S OFFICE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 20. INTERIOR, OPERATOR'S HOUSE, OPERATING EQUIPMENT, DETAIL New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR, OPERATOR'S HOUSE, OPERATING EQUIPMENT, DETAIL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

  20. INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE AND TIN SHEETING. - Sig Sautelle Circus Training House, South Main Street (State Route 11), Homer, Cortland County, NY

  3. Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 49. AUXILARY CHAMBER, EAST SIDE AIRLOCK LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AUXILARY CHAMBER, EAST SIDE AIRLOCK LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM INTERIOR (LOCATION HHH) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  8. Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 10. Southeast view interior, typical exterior office, room 27 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Southeast view interior, typical exterior office, room 27 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  10. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  11. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  12. The Desired Image of a Science Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    This study attempted to establish a desired image of an expert science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this desired image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a…

  13. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  14. Constraining the State of Ultra-dense Matter with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-04-01

    [This presentation is submitted on behalf of the entire NICER Science Team] The state of cold matter at densities exceeding those of atomic nuclei remains one of the principal outstanding problems in modern physics. Neutron stars provide the only known setting in the universe where these physical conditions can be explored. Thermal X-ray radiation from the physical surface of a neutron star can serve as a powerful tool for probing the poorly understood behavior of the matter in the dense stellar interior. For instance, realistic modeling of the thermal X-ray modulations observed from rotation-powered millisecond pulsars can produce stringent constraints on the neutron star mass-radius relation, and by extension the state of supra-nuclear matter. I will describe the prospects for precision neutron star equation of state constraints with millisecond pulsars using the forthcoming Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) X-ray timing mission.

  15. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  16. Characterization of the Interior Density Structure of Near Earth Objects with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Sykes, M. V.; Miller, R. S.; Pinsky, L. S.; Empl, A.; Nolan, M. C.; Koontz, S. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Reddell, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are a diverse population of short-lived asteroids originating from the main belt and Jupiter family comets. Some have orbits that are easy to access from Earth, making them attractive as targets for science and exploration as well as a potential resource. Some pose a potential impact threat. NEOs have undergone extensive collisional processing, fragmenting and re-accreting to form rubble piles, which may be compositionally heterogeneous (e.g., like 2008 TC3, the precursor to Almahata Sitta). At present, little is known about their interior structure or how these objects are held together. The wide range of inferred NEO macroporosities hint at complex interiors. Information about their density structure would aid in understanding their formation and collisional histories, the risks they pose to human interactions with their surfaces, the constraints on industrial processing of NEO resources, and the selection of hazard mitigation strategies (e.g., kinetic impactor vs nuclear burst). Several methods have been proposed to characterize asteroid interiors, including radar imaging, seismic tomography, and muon imaging (muon radiography and tomography). Of these, only muon imaging has the potential to determine interior density structure, including the relative density of constituent fragments. Muons are produced by galactic cosmic ray showers within the top meter of asteroid surfaces. High-energy muons can traverse large distances through rock with little deflection. Muons transmitted through an Itokawa-sized asteroid can be imaged using a compact hodoscope placed on or near the surface. Challenges include background rejection and correction for variations in muon production with surface density. The former is being addressed by hodoscope design. Surface density variations can be determined via radar or muon limb imaging. The performance of muon imaging is evaluated for prospective NEO interior-mapping missions.

  17. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Myers, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  18. Visualizing interior and exterior jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moondra, Manmohan S.

    In today's competitive aerospace industry, the quest for quiet has drawn significant attention to both the interior and exterior design of an airplane. Understanding the noise generation mechanisms of a jet aircraft is a crucial first step toward developing the most cost-effective noise and vibrations abatement methods. In this investigation, the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography will be used to understand noise transmission caused by jet engine and turbulence into the fuselage of a jet aircraft cruising at 30,000 ft. Modern propulsive jet engines produce exterior noise sources with a high amplitude noise field and complicated characteristics, which makes them very difficult to characterize. In particular, there are turbulent eddies that are moving through the jet at high speeds along the jet boundary. These turbulent eddies in the shear layer produce a directional and frequency dependent noise. The original HELS approach assumes a spherical source at the origin and computes the acoustic field based on spherical emission from this source. This assumption of one source at the origin is not sufficient to characterize a complex source like a jet. As such, a modified HELS approach is introduced that will help improve the source characterization as it is not dependent on a single source at the origin but a number of virtual sources throughout the space. Custom microphones are created to take acoustic pressure measurements around the jet engine. These measured acoustic pressures are then taken as input to the modified HELS algorithm to visualize the noise pattern of a subsonic jet engine.

  19. 19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD BAY Showing asphalt felt applied to both sides of interior wall studs beneath wood cladding. Back-nailing of felt indicates sequence of felt and cladding installation. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  20. INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; SUSPENDED CEILING AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED, REMAINS OF DEMOLISHED SHEET METAL CORNICE FROM BUILDING EXTERIOR VISIBLE ON FLOOR - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Interior view towards south of the machine shop located on the first floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Compare this view with CA-12-74, taken seventeen years earlier. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: RELIGION MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: THE ARTS MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ANNEX, DETAIL OF BRONZE WALL LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast end of the Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). Note the offset top of the pilaster, a feature common to all interior transverse wall pilasters. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  8. Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shaoliang

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.

  9. INTERIOR VIEW, WESTERN STOREROOM LOOKING WEST. THE OPENING TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WESTERN STOREROOM LOOKING WEST. THE OPENING TO THE LEFT OF THE RELIEVING ARCH CONNECTS TO A CORRIDOR LEADING TO THE OFFICE. THE CANTED WALL OF THIS CORRIDOR MARKS THE INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE THREE-SIDED WINDOW BAYS OF THE ORIGINAL HOUSE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING SOUTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING SOUTH, SHOWING THE FRONT INTERIOR WALL AND VIEW APERTURE AND A PORTION OF THE INSTRUMENT MOUNTING PLATFORM ON THE FLOOR. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at center left, diesel electric unit at upper center, batteries at bottom center, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. 54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at lower left, instrument air compressor at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. 50. Interior of launch support building, service disconnect at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of launch support building, service disconnect at bottom center, repeater rack at right, view towards southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at lower left, power distribution panel at center, old diesel control panel at lower right, diesel battery at upper right, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE DINING ROOM LOOKING TOWARD THE SCREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE DINING ROOM LOOKING TOWARD THE SCREEN PORCH SHOWING THE DOUBLE SLIDING DOORS WITH SIDE LIGHTS. NOTE THE TYPICAL VINYL SHUTTERS ON THE INTERIOR OF THE WINDOW. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type E, 301 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Assembly room, bunkhouse first floor interior. Vent pipe for missing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Assembly room, bunkhouse first floor interior. Vent pipe for missing heating stove exited through opening into chimney, seen on the far wall. Walls are exposed studs and bracing with board and battan on the exterior and interior sides. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  18. 45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: EDUCATION MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Interior noise measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior noise levels of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.

  20. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  1. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  2. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Interior view to show inside of one of the three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to show inside of one of the three octagonal-shaped pavilions; note interior seating. View taken from beginning of the causeway just outside the Music Hall (MD-1109-G) - National Park Seminary, Chateau Causeways, Between Linden Lane & Beach Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Detail, interior side of doubleplanked door, north end, Burton Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, interior side of double-planked door, north end, Burton Park Club House, view to east-southeast (135mm lens). Note diagonal sheathing of interior surface, wrought-iron strap hinges. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  5. 51. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF HANDPAINTED LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, NORTH WALL, BUFFALO HUNT MURAL (LEFT) AND BREAKING CAMP AT WARTIME MURAL (RIGHT) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  8. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS..., if there is a substantially complete replacement of the cabin interior after April 30, 1972. (iv... substantially complete replacement of the cabin interior after that date. (v) Except as provided in paragraph...

  9. 10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. Looking north along east wall. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST INTERIOR AT A 2 HECTARE SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT2 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 2 ha scale.

  11. AMOUNT OF FOREST INTERIOR AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT65 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 65 ha scale.

  12. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST INTERIOR AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT65 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 65 ha scale.

  13. 67. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), BACKSTAGE CORRIDOR, DETAIL OF RANGING INCANDESCENT LAMP (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETS ALONG EAST WALL. THIS PORTION OF THE BEDROOM WAS EXTENDED IN REMODELING THAT INCORPORATED THE FRONT PORCH INTO THE INTERIOR HOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  16. A research to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. General aviation interior noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Muirhead, V. U.; Smith, H. W.; Peschier, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The construction, calibration, and properties of a facility for measuring sound transmission through aircraft type panels are described along with the theoretical and empirical methods used. Topics discussed include typical noise source, sound transmission path, and acoustic cabin properties and their effect on interior noise. Experimental results show an average sound transmission loss in the mass controlled frequency region comparable to theoretical predictions. The results also verify that transmission losses in the stiffness controlled region directly depend on the fundamental frequency of the panel. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that increases in this frequency, and consequently in transmission loss, can be achieved by applying pressure differentials across the specimen.

  17. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Si Team

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "Landmark/Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  18. Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: A System's Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiss, Robert; Daniels, Nate; Derrick, Debora

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project provides science data handling infrastructure used at the EROS Data Center Landsat 7 Data Handling Facility of the USGS Department of Interior. This paper presents an overview the designs, architectures, and details of the various systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

  19. Capillary flow in an interior corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.; Lichter, Seth

    1998-10-01

    The design of fluids management processes in the low-gravity environment of space requires an accurate description of capillarity-controlled flow in containers. Here we consider the spontaneous redistribution of fluid along an interior corner of a container due to capillary forces. The analytical portion of the work presents an asymptotic formulation in the limit of a slender fluid column, slight surface curvature along the flow direction z, small inertia, and low gravity. The scaling introduced explicitly accounts for much of the variation of flow resistance due to geometry and so the effects of corner geometry can be distinguished from those of surface curvature. For the special cases of a constant height boundary condition and a constant flow condition, the similarity solutions yield that the length of the fluid column increases as t1/2 and t3/5, respectively. In the experimental portion of the work, measurements from a 2.2 s drop tower are reported. An extensive data set, collected over a previously unexplored range of flow parameters, includes estimates of repeatability and accuracy, the role of inertia and column slenderness, and the effects of corner angle, container geometry, and fluid properties. At short times, the fluid is governed by inertia (t[less, similar]tLc). Afterwards, an intermediate regime (tLc[less, similar]t[less, similar] tH) can be shown to be modelled by a constant-flow-like similarity solution. For t[gt-or-equal, slanted]tH it is found that there exists a location zH at which the interface height remains constant at a value h(zH, t)=H which can be shown to be well predicted. Comprehensive comparison is made between the analysis and measurements using the constant height boundary condition. As time increases, it is found that the constant height similarity solution describes the flow over a lengthening interval which extends from the origin to the invariant tip solution. For t[dbl greater-than sign]tH, the constant height solution

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  1. Two radars for AIM mission: A direct observation of the asteroid's structure from deep interior to regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Ciarletti, V.

    2015-10-01

    Our knowledge of the internal structure of asteroids is, so far, indirect - relying entirely on inferences from remote sensing observations of the surface, and theoretical modeling. What are the bulk properties of the regolith and deep interior? And what are the physical processes that shape their internal structures? Direct measurements are needed to provide answers that will directly improve our ability to understand and model the mechanisms driving Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) for the benefit of science as well as for planetary defense or exploration. Radar tomography is the only technique to characterize internal structure from decimetric scale to global scale. This paper reviews the benefits of direct measurement of the asteroid interior. Then the radar concepts for both deep interior and shallow subsurface are presented and the radar payload proposed for the AIDA/AIM mission is outlined.

  2. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  3. Interior Secretary Highlights Key Trends, Including Climate Change and Fiscal Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is "the defining issue of our time," Department of the Interior (DOI) Secretary Sally Jewell said during her 18 June keynote addess at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. The United States has to "lead by example. We can't be the largest economy in the world and the second largest producer of carbon in the world"—after China—"and not take care of our own problems first to demonstrate to the world what needs to be done," she said.

  4. 76 FR 10388 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet as indicated...

  5. 75 FR 52370 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet as...

  6. 77 FR 46769 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet as indicated...

  7. 78 FR 59714 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI)-- Science Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will meet as indicated...

  8. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  9. Measurement, analysis, and prediction of aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Williams, L. H.; Catherines, J. J.; Jha, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of comfort of passengers and crew in light aircraft and helicopters indicate substantial benefits may be obtained by the reduction of interior noise levels. This paper discusses an ongoing research effort to reduce interior noise in such vehicles. Data from both field and laboratory studies for a light aircraft are presented. The laboratory data indicate that structural vibration is an efficient source of interior noise and should be considered in the reduction of interior noise. Flight data taken on a helicopter before and after installation of acoustic treatment demonstrate that over 30 dB of noise reduction can be obtained in certain portions of the spectra. However, subjective evaluations of the treated vehicle indicate that further reductions in interior noise are desirable. An existing interior noise prediction method which was developed for large jet transports was applied to study low-frequency noise in a light aircraft fuselage. The results indicate that improvements in the analytical model may be necessary for the prediction of interior noise of light aircraft.

  10. Ecohydrology of Interior Alaska boreal forest systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  11. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  12. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  13. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  14. The Practice of Field Ecology: Insights for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorises science as it is actually done. There currently exist two gaps in the literature. First, most research in science studies are concerned with the practices…

  15. Science Teaching Methods Preferred by Grade 9 Students in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Uitto, Anna; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2010-01-01

    Students find science relevant to society, but they do not find school science interesting. This survey study analyzes Finnish grade 9 students' actual experiences with science teaching methods and their preferences for how they would like to study science. The survey data were collected from 3,626 grade 9 students (1,772 girls and 1,832 boys)…

  16. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2011-10-04

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  17. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2009-02-09

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  18. Actual concept of "probiotics": Is it more functional to science or business?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Michele; Cassol, Francesca; Calò, Girolamo; Holton, John; Zuliani, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    It is our contention that the concept of a probiotic as a living bacterium providing unspecified health benefits is inhibiting the development and establishment of an evidence base for the growing field of pharmacobiotics. We believe this is due in part to the current regulatory framework, lack of a clear definition of a probiotic, the ease with which currently defined probiotics can be positioned in the market place, and the enormous profits earned for minimum investment in research. To avoid this, we believe the following two actions are mandatory: international guidelines by a forum of stakeholders made available to scientists and clinicians, patient organizations, and governments; public research funds made available to the scientific community for performing independent rigorous studies both at the preclinical and clinical levels. PMID:23539674

  19. Judging whether a patient is actually improving: more pitfalls from the science of human perception.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Dickinson, Victoria M

    2012-09-01

    Fallible human judgment may lead clinicians to make mistakes when assessing whether a patient is improving following treatment. This article provides a narrative review of selected studies in psychology that describe errors that potentially apply when a physician assesses a patient's response to treatment. Comprehension may be distorted by subjective preconceptions (lack of double blinding). Recall may fail through memory lapses (unwanted forgetfulness) and tacit assumptions (automatic imputation). Evaluations may be further compromised due to the effects of random chance (regression to the mean). Expression may be swayed by unjustified overconfidence following conformist groupthink (group polarization). An awareness of these five pitfalls may help clinicians avoid some errors in medical care when determining whether a patient is improving. PMID:22592355

  20. Actual concept of "probiotics": is it more functional to science or business?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Michele; Cassol, Francesca; Calò, Girolamo; Holton, John; Zuliani, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-03-14

    It is our contention that the concept of a probiotic as a living bacterium providing unspecified health benefits is inhibiting the development and establishment of an evidence base for the growing field of pharmacobiotics. We believe this is due in part to the current regulatory framework, lack of a clear definition of a probiotic, the ease with which currently defined probiotics can be positioned in the market place, and the enormous profits earned for minimum investment in research. To avoid this, we believe the following two actions are mandatory: international guidelines by a forum of stakeholders made available to scientists and clinicians, patient organizations, and governments; public research funds made available to the scientific community for performing independent rigorous studies both at the preclinical and clinical levels. PMID:23539674

  1. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  2. Uncertainty in Driftless Area Cold-Water Fishery Decision Making and a Framework for Stakeholder-Based Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm of stakeholder-based science is becoming more popular as organizations such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers adopt it as a way of providing practicable climate change information to practitioners. One of the key issues stakeholders face in adopting climate change information into their decision processes is how uncertainty is addressed and communicated. In this study, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with managers and scientists working on stream habitat restoration of cold-water fisheries in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin that were focused on how they interpret and manage uncertainty and what types of information they need to make better decisions. One of the important lessons we learned from the interviews is that if researchers are going to provide useful climate change information to stakeholders, they need to understand where and how decisions are made and what adaptation measures are actually available in a given decision arena. This method of incorporating social science methods into climate science production can provide a framework for researchers from the Climate Science Centers and others who are interested in pursuing stakeholder-based science. By indentifying a specific ecological system and conducting interviews with actors who work on that system, researchers will be able to gain a better understanding of how their climate change science can fit into existing or shape new decision processes. We also interpreted lessons learned from our interviews via existing literature in areas such as stakeholder-based modeling and the decision sciences to provide guidance specific to the stakeholder-based science process.

  3. Interior noise reduction in a large civil helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.; Rypf, J. A.; Snyder, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of current noise reduction technology in attaining acceptable levels of interior noise in a large (about 20,000 kg) passenger-carrying helicopter are presented. The helicopter studied is a modified CH-53A with a specially designed, acoustically treated passenger cabin. The acoustic treatment reduced the average A-weighted interior noise levels from 115 db to 87 db. The study suggests selected improvements in the acoustic treatment which could result in additional reduction in cabin noise levels. The resulting levels would be only slightly greater than the interior noise levels of current narrow-body jet transports.

  4. Post Voyager comparisons of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, M.; Reynolds, R. T.; Young, R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent Voyager flyby of Uranus and Neptune has provided refined values for the gravitational moments and rotation periods of those planets. Using these new parameters, models of the interiors of these planets show that their density distributions are very similar. This lends support to the conjecture that their compositions are similar as well. The models are indeed consistent with such a conjecture. The difference in the internal heat sources of these two planets may be due to the fact that heat transport from the interior of Uranus is inhibited by a statically stable interior.

  5. Interior says new management will solve OSM's problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    This article describes Interior Secretary Donald P. Hodel's plans to deal with many of the problems that plague the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) by realigning OSM management. An eight week joint review by the Interior Department and the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs has indentified significant problems affecting OSM's policy and planning, state oversight and assistance, abandoned mine lands, and federal mining permits and penalties programs. Problems also were found with OSM's automatic data processing systems. The joint review also pointed to a lack of management control and direction.

  6. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  7. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  8. Interior and its implications for the atmosphere. [effects of Titan interior structure on its atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.

  9. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  10. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  11. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  12. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  13. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  14. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  15. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  16. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  17. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  18. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  19. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  20. 7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest Pumpkin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME