Science.gov

Sample records for actual service life

  1. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  2. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  3. Spatial dynamics of ecosystem service flows: a comprehensive approach to quantifying actual services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Johnson, Gary W.; Voigt, Brian; Villa, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Recent ecosystem services research has highlighted the importance of spatial connectivity between ecosystems and their beneficiaries. Despite this need, a systematic approach to ecosystem service flow quantification has not yet emerged. In this article, we present such an approach, which we formalize as a class of agent-based models termed “Service Path Attribution Networks” (SPANs). These models, developed as part of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) project, expand on ecosystem services classification terminology introduced by other authors. Conceptual elements needed to support flow modeling include a service's rivalness, its flow routing type (e.g., through hydrologic or transportation networks, lines of sight, or other approaches), and whether the benefit is supplied by an ecosystem's provision of a beneficial flow to people or by absorption of a detrimental flow before it reaches them. We describe our implementation of the SPAN framework for five ecosystem services and discuss how to generalize the approach to additional services. SPAN model outputs include maps of ecosystem service provision, use, depletion, and flows under theoretical, possible, actual, inaccessible, and blocked conditions. We highlight how these different ecosystem service flow maps could be used to support various types of decision making for conservation and resource management planning.

  4. Extending wire rope service life

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

  5. Service engineering for grid services in medicine and life science.

    PubMed

    Weisbecker, Anette; Falkner, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Clearly defined services with appropriate business models are necessary in order to exploit the benefit of grid computing for industrial and academic users in medicine and life sciences. In the project Services@MediGRID the service engineering approach is used to develop those clearly defined grid services and to provide sustainable business models for their usage.

  6. Chemiluminescent prediction of service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. A.; Mendenhall, G. D.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Technique can be used to predict polymer degradation under actual expected-use conditions, without imposing artificial conditions. Smooth or linear correlations are obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums.

  7. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  8. [ADL and actual life styles of all Japanese centenarians as determined by a visitation interview survey].

    PubMed

    Ogihara, R; Maeda, K; Tsujibayashi, K; Tomabechi, K; Ohta, T; Iwabuchi, K; Mano, Y

    2000-03-01

    A visiting interview survey was performed on all centenarians living in Japan to investigate their Activities of Daily Life (ADL). 2,851 centenarians, 92.9% of all subjects completed the interview. They were divided into three groups, good ADL (almost independent in daily life), moderate ADL (almost independent in indoor life), and inferior ADL (bed fast) by the condition of ADL. Some factors of health conditions, family size, frequency of use of public welfare services, and life styles were compared among these three groups. Both the good and the moderate ADL groups accounted for about 20% each, and the inferior ADL group was about 60% of the subjects. The condition of ADL of men was better than that of women. The inferior ADL group showed a significantly higher percentage of chronic diseases. High ratios of cerebral vascular disease and dementia were seen in this group, and many had no teeth. While two thirds of all the centenarians lived at home, over 90% of the good ADL group lived at home. The mode of family size was three including the person oneself. An average of 21% of men and 27% of women used public health welfare services. However 40% of the centenarians in the inferior ADL group used those services. Men had better dietary habits for health than women. The good ADL group showed the most desirable dietary habits among the three groups and had the highest percentage of drinkers and smokers. Men practiced a greater number of ideal habits for longevity than women. Of the ADL groups, centenarians in the good ADL group had the highest percentage of ideal habits for longevity. The centenarians who maintained good ADL had the following characteristics: There were fewer people under medical treatment. They had maintained their own teeth. Almost all of them were living at their home with their family. They had continued good dietary habits and daily life for health and longevity. For the maintenance and improvement of ADL of centenarians, adequate social welfare

  9. A geospatial data life cycle services framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Kindermann, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    We present an OGC standards based framework enabling the stepwise development and integration of data life cycle management services. We concentrate on data life cycle steps after the data generation: data identification, replication, publication and distribution. The framework exposes various data transport, data checking and metadata generation functionalities as individual services. These services can be chained to support users in cross institutional data management activities. The framework is currently being deployed as part of a distributed climate and environmental data life cycle lab initially supporting the following data management activities: - data transport and replication between home institute and a data center - data quality control at a remote compute site or remote data center - assignment of persistent identifiers to data entities - publication of quality results as well as data at a data portal A concrete application scenario is shown, where climate model data is transported to a data center and checked and published as part of a worldwide data federation. From a technology perspective the following basic services are integrated in the application scenario: - iRods middleware based data transport - Handle based persistent identifier assignment - domain specific quality control software - data publication services provided by the worldwide earth system grid data federation (ESGF). All these basic services are wrapped as OGC web processing services and integrated in the presented framework. Next steps include the integration of data services provided by the European EUDAT data infrastructure as well as supporting specific observational data application scenarios.

  10. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  11. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  12. The impact of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on life satisfaction among the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinqun; Li, Hui; Sun, Hong; Wang, Ting; Wu, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on the relationship between living arrangements and life satisfaction among the elderly in China. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2005 dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was performed. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and living arrangements. RESULTS: Among those with concordant actual and preferred living arrangements, living in a nursing home increased the likelihood of life satisfaction, whereas living alone and living with a spouse decreased the likelihood of life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. Among those with discordant living arrangements, there were no differences in life satisfaction between the various living arrangements, except that living with a spouse increased life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements modifies the relationship between life satisfaction and actual living arrangement. Living in a nursing home is a good option for Chinese elder care only if the older individual emotionally accepts it. Living alone or with a spouse is not a good arrangement for elder care, even though it is often preferred by the elderly. Those with discordant living arrangements are more satisfied living with their spouses. PMID:26375564

  13. Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David M.; Cash, Carl G.; Davies, Arthur G.

    2002-09-01

    The average service life of roofing membranes used in low-slope applications on U.S. Army buildings is estimated to be considerably shorter than the industry-presumed 20-year design life, even when installers carefully adhere to the latest guide specifications. This problem is due in large part to market-driven product development cycles, which do not include time for long-term field testing. To reduce delivery costs, contractors may provide untested, interior membranes in place of ones proven satisfactory in long-term service. Federal procurement regulations require that roofing systems and components be selected according to desired properties and generic type, not brand name. The problem is that a material certified to have satisfactory properties at installation time will not necessarily retain those properties in service. The overall objective of this research is to develop a testing program that can be executed in a matter of weeks to adequately predict a membrane's long-term performance in service. This report details accelerated aging tests of 12 popular membrane materials in the laboratory, and describes outdoor experiment stations set up for long-term exposure tests of those same membranes. The laboratory results will later be correlated with the outdoor test results to develop performance models and predictive service life tests.

  14. New coatings extend compressor service life

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; McMordie, B.; Wiegand, R.

    1995-10-01

    To lengthen production runs, a Canadian ethylene operator experimented with a coating system to protect a critical compressor`s rotor from hydrocarbon-polymerization/fouling. In ethylene manufacturing, compressor fouling is an accepted ``fact of life.`` Past attempts to minimize fouling in the crack-gas compression train were unsuccessful or marginally cost-effective. Applying protective coatings to a critical-service ethylene compressor rotor slowed oiling, thus lengthening the production run time by one year.

  15. Improving thermocouple service life in slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of temperature within slagging gasifiers for long periods of time is difficult/impossible because of sensor failure or blockage of inputs used to monitor gasifier temperature. One of the most common means of temperature measurement in a gasifier is physically, through the use of thermocouples in a gasifier sidewall. These units can fail during startup, standby, or during the first 40-90 days of gasifier service. Failure can be caused by a number of issues; including thermocouple design, construction, placement in the gasifier, gasifier operation, and molten slag attack of the materials used in a thermocouple assembly. Lack of temperature control in a gasifier can lead to improper preheating, slag buildup on gasifier sidewalls, slag attack of gasifier refractories used to line a gasifier, or changes in desired gas output from a gasifier. A general outline of thermocouple failure issues and attempts by the Albany Research Center to improve the service life of thermocouples will be discussed.

  16. Approach for service life extension of explosive devices for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Service life extension of explosive devices used in aircraft escape systems can achieve considerable savings. An overall approach is needed to challenge the logic of explosive component service extension from design to removal from service for evaluation. The purpose of the effort described in this paper was to develop a service-extension approach on explosive devices used in aircraft systems, supported by actual testing of representative candidate devices, to evaluate quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative service life determinations. Evaluated were five explosive components: rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, flexible linear shaped charges, and initiation handles. The service extension approach generated in this effort is summarized by eight recommendations.

  17. Service Learning and Teacher Education. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Winecoff, H. Larry; Kemper, Richard; Rowls, Michael; Freeman, Nancy; Somerindyke, Jennifer; Mason, Janet; Williams, Terri

    This book concerns potential and actual uses of service learning as an instructional methodology in teacher education. Section 1 discusses how service and learning are primary to practically all roles teachers play. Section 2, a rationale for service learning and teacher education, shows consistency with Goals 2000, school-to-work transition, and…

  18. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  19. Opening the ‘black box’: liaison psychiatry services and what they actually do

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Elspeth; McMeekin, Aaron; Thomasson, Rachel; Khan, Sylvia; Makin, Sally; Shaw, Ben; Longson, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method To develop a simple, pragmatic typology to characterise the nature of liaison interventions delivered by a liaison service in a National Health Service setting. We carried out a retrospective electronic case-note review of referrals to a ward-based liaison psychiatry service. Results Three hundred and forty-four patients were referred to the service over a 12-month period. Ten different types of liaison interventions were identified, with the most common interventions being diagnosis (112 patients, 32.6%), medication management (57 patients, 16.6%), risk assessment and treatment (56 patients, 16.3% each). Mental Health Act work accounted for the greatest number of contacts per patient (median 7). Clinical implications There are inherent limitations in any single-site observational study, as site-specific results cannot be generalised to other liaison services. The intervention categories we developed, however, are easy to use and will provide a way of comparing and benchmarking the range of interventions delivered by different liaison psychiatry services. PMID:27512583

  20. Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions toward White Board System Prior to Actual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ju

    2014-01-01

    Using sample of survey data by pre-service and in-service teachers attending at a regional campus, this study examined how undergraduate and graduate students, in education major, perceived interactive white boards (IWB), and described implications of how the system can be used effectively, based on student-centered pedagogy. Although the…

  1. Service-Life Extension of Explosive Escape Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and functional tests yield conservative service-life estimates. Approach to extension of service lives of explosive devices in aircraft escape system developed, supported by testing of representative candidate devices to evaluate quantitatively effects of service, age, and degradation, and to enable responsible, conservative service-life determinations. Five types of explosive components evaluated: rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines; one-way transfers; flexible, linear-shaped charges; and initiation-handles. Extension of service in realistic manner provides both cost savings and increased system reliability.

  2. Assessment of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Sa'd.; Jaradat, Younis; Qasaimeh, Awni; Obaidat, Mazin; Borgesen, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of lead-free solder alloys under complex loading scenarios is still not well understood. Common damage accumulation rules fail to account for strong effects of variations in cycling amplitude, and random vibration test results cannot be interpreted in terms of performance under realistic service conditions. This is a result of the effects of cycling parameters on materials properties. These effects are not yet fully understood or quantitatively predictable, preventing modeling based on parameters such as strain, work, or entropy. Depending on the actual spectrum of amplitudes, Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation has been shown to overestimate life by more than an order of magnitude, and greater errors are predicted for other combinations. Consequences may be particularly critical for so-called environmental stress screening. Damage accumulation has, however, been shown to scale with the inelastic work done, even if amplitudes vary. This and the observation of effects of loading history on subsequent work per cycle provide for a modified damage accumulation rule which allows for the prediction of life. Individual joints of four different Sn-Ag-Cu-based solder alloys (SAC305, SAC105, SAC-Ni, and SACXplus) were cycled in shear at room temperature, alternating between two different amplitudes while monitoring the evolution of the effective stiffness and work per cycle. This helped elucidate general trends and behaviors that are expected to occur in vibrations of microelectronics assemblies. Deviations from Miner's rule varied systematically with the combination of amplitudes, the sequences of cycles, and the strain rates in each. The severity of deviations also varied systematically with Ag content in the solder, but major effects were observed for all the alloys. A systematic analysis was conducted to assess whether scenarios might exist in which the more fatigue-resistant high-Ag alloys would fail sooner than the lower-Ag ones.

  3. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  4. Evaluation of Hose in Hose transfer line service life

    SciTech Connect

    EAGLE, O.H.

    2003-05-30

    This document presents a determination for the amount of expected service life from Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines based on vendor information and past HIHTL experience. Based on the information presented in this report and referenced documentation, we conclude the service life of the inner hose establishes the limits of service life for the finished assemblies. Since the process and environmental conditions to which the transfer line is subjected will not adversely affect the hose, the effective service life is that stated by the vendor--three years from the date of initial transfer. Transfer line assemblies have a shelf life of seven years from the date of hose manufacture, if stored in accordance with Section 2.1. This evaluation provides documentation showing that a three year service life has been justified. In the event that transfer lines are to be operated after three years from the date of initial transfer and within the shelf life of seven years, they must be reevaluated for their ability to perform intended functions.

  5. Student-Life Stress in Education and Health Service Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…

  6. A Life-Course Analysis of Military Service in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John Paul; Carter, David E.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that military service disconnects men from past social and personal disadvantages and thus potentially alters normal life-course patterns of development. Much of this research, however, has been conducted only with World War II veterans. Relatively few studies have examined the influence of military service in Vietnam…

  7. Quality of Services and Quality of Life from Service Providers' Perspectives: Analysis with Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenaro, C.; Vega, V.; Flores, N.; Cruz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this…

  8. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators. [service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators tested occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  9. Integrating service-life modeling and life-cycle assessment for recycled-aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Todd Lee

    The development and implementation of one-dimensional (a) analytical and (b) numerical service-life models for chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete containing both recycled-aggregates and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are presented in this work. Both the analytical and numerical models account for initial chloride contamination levels due to previous applications. The effects of aggregate type (e.g., virgin, recycled aggregate, recycled mortar), aggregate replacement ratio, severity of chloride contamination levels, severity of in-service chloride exposure, reinforcement cover depth, SCM type (e.g., fly ash, slag, slice fume, metakaolin), and SCM replacement ratio on the expected service life of recycled-aggregate reinforced concrete were investigated. Results illustrated trends between concrete mixes and life cycle costs, which were employed to make conclusions on the trade-offs presented by cost, sustainability, and service life.

  10. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  11. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  12. Iron chemistry at the service of life.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Manu; Sabio, Laura; Gálvez, Natividad; Capdevila, Mercè; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2017-02-02

    Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms on Earth. It is necessary for a number of crucial processes such as hemoglobin and myoglobin transport and storage of oxygen in mammals; electron transfer support in a variety of iron-sulfur protein or cytochrome reactions; and activation and catalysis of reactions of a wide range of substrate like alkanes, olefins, and alcohols. Living organisms adopted iron as the main metal to carry out all of these functions due to the rich coordination chemistry of its two main redox states, Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) , and because of its abundance in the Earth's crust and oceans. This paper presents an overview of the coordination chemistry of iron that makes it suitable for a large variety of functions within biological systems. Despite iron's chemical advantages, organisms were forced to manage with some drawbacks: Fe(3+) insolubility and the formation of toxic radicals, especially the hydroxyl radical. Iron chemistry within biology is an example of how organisms evolved by creating molecular machinery to overcome these difficulties and perform crucial processes with extraordinary elegance and efficiency. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 2017.

  13. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Post-Flight Testing and Service Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.

  14. Annual Statistical Report of the Public Schools of Arkansas, Public Charter Schools, and Education Service Cooperatives, 2013-2014 Actual and 2014-2015 Budgeted, (ASR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the provisions of A.C.A.§§6-20-2201 et seq., the Annual Statistical Report of the Public Schools of Arkansas, Public Charter Schools, and Education Service Cooperatives, 2013-2014 Actual and 2014-2015 Budgeted, (ASR) is presented here. The Rankings of Selected Items of the Public Schools of Arkansas, 2013-2014 Actual, (Rankings)…

  15. Service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Army/NASA-sponsored research program on the service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines. These transfer lines are used to initiate emergency crew escape functions on a wide variety of military and NASA aircraft. The purpose of this program was to determine quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation on rigid explosive transfer lines to allow responsible, conservative, service life determination. More than 800 transfer lines were removed from the U.S. Army AH-1G and AH-1S, the U.S. Air Force B-1 and F-111, and the U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft for testing. The results indicated that the lines were not adversely affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. Extension of the service life of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered, since considerable cost savings could be realized with no measurable decrease in system reliability.

  16. Probabilistic/Fracture-Mechanics Model For Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, T., Jr.; Annis, C. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program makes probabilistic estimates of lifetime of engine and components thereof. Developed to fill need for more accurate life-assessment technique that avoids errors in estimated lives and provides for statistical assessment of levels of risk created by engineering decisions in designing system. Implements mathematical model combining techniques of statistics, fatigue, fracture mechanics, nondestructive analysis, life-cycle cost analysis, and management of engine parts. Used to investigate effects of such engine-component life-controlling parameters as return-to-service intervals, stresses, capabilities for nondestructive evaluation, and qualities of materials.

  17. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  18. Pre-Service Teachers in Second Life: Potentials of Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teoh, Jase

    2012-01-01

    An in-depth qualitative study with nine secondary pre-service teachers from an undergraduate "Language and Literacy" class was conducted to examine the potential of simulation using Second Life (SL) in teacher education. Games and simulations were operationally defined in the broadest sense to distinguish key characteristics between…

  19. Bringing the Life Needs Model to life: implementing a service delivery model for pediatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    King, Gillian A; Tucker, Mary Ann; Baldwin, Patricia J; LaPorta, John A

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use and utility of the Life Needs Model of Pediatric Service Delivery at a regional children's rehabilitation center. The model is a transdisciplinary, evidence-based model that guides pediatric service delivery to meet the long-range goals of community participation and quality of life for children and youth with disabilities. The article describes the use of the model as a tool to assist with the development of organizational culture, strategic and operational planning, the development of therapists' expertise, and the development of community partnerships. The model also has influenced human resources practices, community relations activities, and research. The model provides needed direction to service planners about the types of services that are important to provide in a geographical region, and fills a gap in outlining the nature of services that can be encompassed in pediatric rehabilitation.

  20. The Congruence between Actual and Desired Use of Time by Older Adults: A Predictor of Life Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seleen, Diane R.

    1982-01-01

    A significant amount of variation in life satisfaction beyond the demographic variables was found when 205 elderly persons were tested. Two life satisfaction measures were employed and compared. Results supported the use of a single-item inventory and suggested that satisfaction with time use contributes to life satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  1. Probabilistic model for fracture mechanics service life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, Charles; Watkins, Tommie

    1988-01-01

    The service longevity of complex propulsion systems, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), can be at risk from several competing failure modes. Conventional life assessment practice focuses upon the most severely life-limited feature of a given component, even though there may be other, less severe, potential failure locations. Primary, secondary, tertiary failure modes, as well as their associated probabilities, must also be considered. Futhermore, these probabilities are functions of accumulated service time. Thus a component may not always succumb to the most severe, or even the most probable failure mode. Propulsion system longevity must be assessed by considering simultaneously the actions of, and interactions among, life-limiting influences. These include, but are not limited to, high frequency fatigue (HFF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), and subsequent crack propagation, thermal and acoustic loadings, and the influence of less-than-ideal nondestructive evaluation (NDE). An outline is provided for a probabilistic model for service life analysis, and the progress towards its implementation is reported.

  2. Unchallenged, Professed Core Values: Do Undergraduate Fraternity/Sorority Members Actually Benefit in the Areas of Scholarship, Leadership, Service, and Friendship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Fraternities and sororities promote the ideals of scholarship, leadership, service, and friendship. Little or no research, however, has demonstrated that college students who join fraternal organizations actually grow in these areas as a result of their fraternal experience. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the extent to which…

  3. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Model as Servicable Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.

  4. Service Life Estimation Technique of Oxidized XLPE Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, Masaki; Nakade, Masahiko; Hirose, Takafumi; Sugimoto, Syuu; Namiki, Yukihiko

    XLPE which is the insulator of the XLPE cable will be oxidized by heat. But, an accident caused by oxidized XLPE has hardly reported until now. Therefore, oxidization of XLPE hasn’t been regard as important. But recently we found that XLPE cable used for a long time could break down due to the oxidization of XLPE by simulation result. So, we developed the service life estimation technique of oxidized XLPE cables used FT-IR.

  5. Effects of Planetary Gear Ratio on Mean Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    Planetary gear transmissions are compact, high-power speed reductions which use parallel load paths. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single plane transmission, the planet gear has no size at a ratio of two. As the ratio increases, so does the size of the planets relative to the sizes of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a planetary with a fixed size, gear ratio, input speed power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the bearings and gears in the reduction. Planet bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

  6. Effects of Planetary Speed Reduction Ratio on Mean Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Planetary gear transmissions are compact speed reductions which use parallel-load paths to transmit high power. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single plane planetary transmission, the speed-reduction ratio must be greater than two for planet gears to exist. As the ratio increase, so does the size of the planets relative to the sizes of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a spur-gear planetary with a fixed size, speed reduction ratio, input speed, power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the ball bearings and spur gears in the reduction. Planet-bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

  7. Managing the equipment service life in rendering engineering support to NPP operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyy, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Apart from subjecting metal to nondestructive testing and determining its actual state, which are the traditional methods used for managing the service life of NPP equipment during its operation, other approaches closely linked with rendering engineering support to NPP operation have emerged in recent decades, which, however, have been covered in publications to a lesser extent. Service life management matters occupy the central place in the structure of engineering support measures. Application of the concept of repairing NPP equipment based on assessing its technical state and the risk of its failure makes it possible to achieve significantly smaller costs for maintenance and repairs and produce a larger amount of electricity due to shorter planned outages. Decreasing the occurrence probability of a process-related abnormality through its prediction is a further development of techniques for monitoring the technical state of equipment and systems. The proposed and implemented procedure for predicting the occurrence of process-related deviations from normal NPP operation opens the possibility to record in the online mode the trends in changes of process parameters that are likely to lead to malfunctions in equipment operation and to reduce the probability of power unit unloading when an abnormal technical state of equipment occurs and develops by recording changes in the state at an early stage and taking timely corrective measures. The article presents the structure of interconnections between the objectives and conditions of adjustment and commissioning tests, in which the management of equipment service life (saving and optimizing the service life) occupies the central place. Special attention is paid to differences in resource saving and optimization measures.

  8. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    In lead-acid batteries, major aging processes, leading to gradual loss of performance, and eventually to the end of service life, are: Anodic corrosion (of grids, plate-lugs, straps or posts). Positive active mass degradation and loss of adherence to the grid (shedding, sludging). Irreversible formation of lead sulfate in the active mass (crystallization, sulfation). Short-circuits. Loss of water. Aging mechanisms are often inter-dependent. For example, corrosion of the grids will lead to increased resistance to current flow, which will in turn impede proper charge of certain parts of the active mass, resulting in sulfation. Active mass degradation may lead to short-circuits. Sulfation may be the result of a loss of water, and so forth. The rates of the different aging processes strongly depend on the type of use (or misuse) of the battery. Over-charge will lead to accelerated corrosion and also to accelerated loss of water. With increasing depth-of-discharge during cycling, positive active mass degradation is accelerated. Some aging mechanisms are occurring only upon misuse. Short-circuits across the separators, due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, for example, are usually formed only after (excessively) deep discharge. Stationary batteries, operated under float-charge conditions, will age typically by corrosion of the positive grids. On the other hand, service life of batteries subject to cycling regimes, will typically age by degradation of the structure of the positive active mass. Starter batteries are usually aging by grid corrosion, for instance in normal passenger car use. However, starter batteries of city buses, making frequent stops, may age (prematurely) by positive active mass degradation, because the batteries are subject to numerous shallow discharge cycles. Valve-regulated batteries often fail as a result of negative active mass sulfation, or water loss. For each battery design, and type of use, there is usually a characteristic

  9. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    . There are no representative ground test articles for some of the components. A 'test everything' approach would require manufacturing new test articles. The paper outlines some of the techniques used for selective testing, by way of cherry picking candidate components based on failure mode effects analysis, system level impacts, hazard analysis, etc. The type of testing required for extending the service life depends on the design and criticality of the component, failure modes and failure mechanisms, life cycle margin provided by the original certification, operational and environmental stresses encountered, etc. When specific failure mechanism being considered and the underlying relationship of that mode to the stresses provided in the test can be correlated by supporting analysis, time and effort required for conducting life extension testing can be significantly reduced. Exposure to corrosive propellants over long periods of time, for instance, lead to specific failure mechanisms in several components used in the propulsion system. Using Arrhenius model, which is tied to chemically dependent failure mechanisms such as corrosion or chemical reactions, it is possible to subject carefully selected test articles to accelerated life test. Arrhenius model reflects the proportional relationship between time to failure of a component and the exponential of the inverse of absolute temperature acting on the component. The acceleration factor is used to perform tests at higher stresses that allow direct correlation between the times to failure at a high test temperature to the temperatures to be expected in actual use. As long as the temperatures are such that new failure mechanisms are not introduced, this becomes a very useful method for testing to failure a relatively small sample of items for a much shorter amount of time. In this article, based on the example of the propulsion system of the first ISS module Zarya, theoretical approaches and practical activities of

  10. Actual and Perceived Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Surrogate Decisions about Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment among Older Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettel-Watson, Laura; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of surrogate gender on the accuracy of substituted judgments about the use of life-sustaining treatment in a sample of 249 older adults and their self-selected surrogate decision-makers. Overall, wives were more accurate than husbands at predicting their spouses' treatment wishes. Surrogates' perceptions of their…

  11. Character Strengths and Life Satisfaction of Slovenian In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradišek, Polona

    2012-01-01

    Character strengths and life satisfaction of Slovenian in-service and preservice teachers were researched. The VIA-IS self-assessment questionnaire has been translated into the Slovenian language and has been used for the first time in Slovenia. A total of 173 primary school teachers and 77 student teachers from the Faculty of Education,…

  12. 42 CFR 84.255 - Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator. 84... Special Use Respirators § 84.255 Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator. (a) Each canister or... equipped with a canister or cartridge end-of-service-life indicator which shows a satisfactory...

  13. 42 CFR 84.255 - Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator. 84... Special Use Respirators § 84.255 Requirements for end-of-service-life indicator. (a) Each canister or... equipped with a canister or cartridge end-of-service-life indicator which shows a satisfactory...

  14. Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Strecher, Victor J; Ryff, Carol D

    2014-11-18

    Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99-1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18-1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society.

  15. Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Strecher, Victor J.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99–1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16–1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18–1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society. PMID:25368165

  16. Mechanisms from models--actual effects from real life: the zero-calorie drink-break option.

    PubMed

    Booth, D A

    1988-01-01

    Animal and human laboratory models show that the suppression of appetite by a modest amount of readily assimilable energy, such as a caloric sweetener, is not likely to last longer than an hour. The transience of their satiating effect constitutes a mechanism whereby the sugars, starch, alcohol and fats in drinks and the snackfoods eaten with them could add to energy intake which is subsequently uncompensated and so contributes to weight gain. Conversely, if those in the habit of consuming such energy-containing drinks and accompaniments avoided such items or replaced them by low-calorie substitutes, this might help in weight reduction and even perhaps in prevention of obesity. The effectiveness of this "zero-calorie drink-break option" can be tested by correlating separately reported real-life eating habits and weight changes across people whose circumstances are similar. The existing field data indicate that the fatter a person is the more likely they are to use the conventional undifferentiated sugar-substitution strategies and also that these usually do not help weight reduction.

  17. Actual use of and satisfaction associated with rollators and "shopping carts" among frail elderly Japanese people using day-service facilities.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Eiji; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Iso, Naoki; Sagari, Akira; Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-04-06

    Purpose This study aimed at clarifying the actual use of and satisfaction with rollators and "shopping carts" (wheeled walkers with storage) among frail elderly people, who were certified by a long-term care insurance system as users of facilities that provide day-service nursing care and rehabilitation. Methods We identified 1247 frail elderly people who used day-service facilities, and evaluated their actual use of, and satisfaction with, rollators and shopping carts. Results Forty-four (3.5%) individuals used rollators, and 53 (4.3%) used shopping carts. The shopping cart group contained more individuals who were certified as care level 1 (26.4%), than the rollator group (20.5%), and 52.8% of the shopping cart group was certified as care levels 1-3. The scores for "repairs and services" and "follow-up" from the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology second version (QUEST 2.0) survey were significantly higher in the rollator group than in the shopping cart group. Conclusions The QUEST 2.0 scores revealed that shopping cart users exhibit insufficient "repairs and services" and "follow-up" scores. As frail elderly people with poor care status accounted for >50% of the shopping cart group, these individuals urgently need walking aids that are tailored to their care status. Implications for Rehabilitation We conclude that walking aid fitting must be tailored to each persons care status, and suggest that a system should be established to allow occupational or physical therapists to provide this fitting Moreover, our analysis of the QUEST2.0 service scores revealed that repairs, services, and follow-up are insufficient to meet the needs of shopping cart users.

  18. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  19. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  20. Approach for Service Life Extension of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The service life evaluation of explosive devices used in a wide variety of aircraft escape systems is described. The purpose was to develop a service extension approach, supported by tests on candidate devices, to evaluate the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative, service life determinations. An overview is given on the recommended approach and experimental procedures for accurate service evaluations with test results on rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, and flexible linear shaped charges.

  1. Practical theories for service life prediction of critical aerospace structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    A new second-order theory was developed for predicting the service lives of aerospace structural components. The predictions based on this new theory were compared with those based on the Ko first-order theory and the classical theory of service life predictions. The new theory gives very accurate service life predictions. An equivalent constant-amplitude stress cycle method was proposed for representing the random load spectrum for crack growth calculations. This method predicts the most conservative service life. The proposed use of minimum detectable crack size, instead of proof load established crack size as an initial crack size for crack growth calculations, could give a more realistic service life.

  2. Life as an acoustician in industry, academia, and government service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Mardi C.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics is a science that has very broad applications, which affect all different areas of our lives. During the last 20 years, I have combined family with a career as an acoustics engineer in industry, a tenured faculty member at a university and, most recently, a program manager in a government agency. In these positions I have worked in several areas of acoustics, including noise control, structural acoustics, building acoustics, sound quality, physical acoustics, acoustic materials, underwater acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, physiological acoustics, and bioacoustics. Although the fundamental science of sound is the foundation of all these areas, communication of ideas, problems, and solutions varies greatly from industry to academia to government. Thus knowing the science and how to use it are not enough, as communication skills and the ability to adapt them to changing environments are essential for a successful career. In addition to describing life as an acoustician in industry, academia, and government service, I will present several examples of how even though the acoustic fundamentals are the same, how they are communicated could become a disaster or save the day.

  3. Teaching Career/Life Planning: An In-Service Training Module for Teaching Affective Career/Life Planning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan W.

    This workbook provides an in-service training module designed to assist community college educators and counselors in teaching effective planning skills for successful job hunting and employment. A rationale for career/life planning is followed by a discussion of the terminology and the processes involved in establishing life goals and designing…

  4. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  5. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  6. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Seth D. Messinger...SUBTITLE Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service- Social Reintegration of Service Me Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord...communities and cultural identities that is key to long-term success . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Community Reintegration , Qualitative

  7. Sustaining the Image of Life: A Grounded Theory Study of Funeral Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharen

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory dissertation explores the educational experiences of funeral service students as they matriculate through the college of funeral service. Student interviews were utilized to explore the world of funeral service education. The analysis of the data led to the discovery of the theory, "Sustaining the Image of Life." The…

  8. An Analysis of the U.S. Navy P-3C Orion Service Life Extension Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    arose during SRP. The P-3s had so much corrosion that SRP contract could not sustain the 221 aircraft fleet. As such, the aircraft went through a...service life assessment program (SLAP) to determine not only the severity of the corrosion problem, but also the structural life remaining on the...life to its limited fatigue life of 38 years. Unexpected findings, however, arose during SRP. The P-3s had so much corrosion that SRP contract

  9. Subjective Well-Being Versus Self-Actualization: Using the Flow-Simplex to Promote a Conceptual Clarification of Subjective Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitterso, Joar

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to articulate an important difference between subjective well-being (SWB) and self-actualization. Although self-actualization reflects a substantial aspect of human existence, the article argues that the concept is not accounted for by ordinary assessment of SWB. In this paper, openness to experience (OE) is…

  10. Factors influencing the end of the service life of protective gloves used in car repair shops: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Irzmańska; Agnieszka, Stefko; Katarzyna, Dyńska-Kukulska

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an end-of-service-life study on 2 kinds of protective gloves designed for workplaces in which workers are exposed to mineral oils and mechanical factors. The authors developed their own end-of-service-life study method that takes into account factors occurring during real-life use of protective gloves. The examined gloves were subjected to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors. The objective of the study was to compare the protective in new gloves subjected to a laboratory simulation test and in gloves used at workplaces in car repair shops. A further goal was to design a glove assessment procedure that would ensure comprehensive analysis of the actual level of performance provided by gloves exposed to selected chemical and mechanical factors as well as subjected to the influence of temperature and humidity, mechanical damage, and chemical degradation of material. The results lead to the conclusion that simultaneous exposure of protective gloves to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors significantly decreases their performance levels. Furthermore, similar performance levels were obtained for gloves subjected to laboratory simulation tests and for those used in the workplace.

  11. Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Schargrodsky, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve water services. One important proposal under discussion is whether to privatize water provision. In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world,…

  12. Achieving a safer health service: Part 1. Making safety a way of life.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Suzette

    2004-01-01

    Patient safety incidents are a major problem in the health service and it is acknowledged that blaming and reprimanding staff for actual or potential mistakes does not encourage an open and safe culture in which to work. In the first paper in a three-part series the National Patient Safety Agency's seven key to steps to achieving patient safety are discussed.

  13. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  14. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  15. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  16. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  17. 38 CFR 8.7 - Reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section 1925...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section 1925 of title 38 U.S.C. 8.7 Section 8.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.7 Reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to...

  18. Service Learning: Bringing the Business Classroom to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Lauren; Gartin, Tristan L.; Lahoda, Brannan D.; Veyon, Shannon R.; Rushford, Megan; Neidermeyer, Presha E.

    2010-01-01

    While service-learning may be easily incorporated into medical or legal fields, this type of active learning generally has not been historically integrated into any discipline within the business curriculum. This is unfortunate, as the utilization of business students in not-for-profit environments can provide a triple-win scenario: the students…

  19. Bring Learning to Life: What Is Service-Learning? A Guide for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2007-01-01

    Parental involvement is one of the most important factors in student success. This brochure, a companion piece to the Learn and Serve America video "Bring Learning to Life," provides information on the definition and benefits of service-learning as well as practical steps that parents can take to ensure service-learning is a part of their…

  20. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  1. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  2. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  3. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  4. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  5. Assessment of Service Life for Regenerative ECLSS Resin Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloud, Dale L.; Keilich, Maria C.; Polis, Peter C.; Yanczura, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) manage and process water at various levels of cleanliness for multiple purposes. The effluent of theWPA and the influent of the OGA require water at very high levels of purity. The bulk of the water purification that occurs in both systems is performed by consumable activated carbon and ion exchange resin beds. Replacement beds must be available on orbit in order to continue the ISS critical processes of water purification and oxygen generation. Various hurdles exist in order to ensure viable spare resin beds. These include the characteristics of resin beds such as: storage environment, shelf life requirements, microbial growth, and variations in the levels and species of contaminants the beds are required to remove. Careful consideration has been given to match water models, bed capacities and spares traffic models to ensure that spares are always viable. The results of these studies and considerations, in particular, how shelf life requirements affect resin bed life management, are documented in this paper.

  6. An Energy Based Fatigue Life Prediction Framework for In-Service Structural Components

    SciTech Connect

    H. Ozaltun; M. H.H. Shen; T. George; C. Cross

    2011-06-01

    An energy based fatigue life prediction framework has been developed for calculation of remaining fatigue life of in service gas turbine materials. The purpose of the life prediction framework is to account aging effect caused by cyclic loadings on fatigue strength of gas turbine engines structural components which are usually designed for very long life. Previous studies indicate the total strain energy dissipated during a monotonic fracture process and a cyclic process is a material property that can be determined by measuring the area underneath the monotonic true stress-strain curve and the sum of the area within each hysteresis loop in the cyclic process, respectively. The energy-based fatigue life prediction framework consists of the following entities: (1) development of a testing procedure to achieve plastic energy dissipation per life cycle and (2) incorporation of an energy-based fatigue life calculation scheme to determine the remaining fatigue life of in-service gas turbine materials. The accuracy of the remaining fatigue life prediction method was verified by comparison between model approximation and experimental results of Aluminum 6061-T6. The comparison shows promising agreement, thus validating the capability of the framework to produce accurate fatigue life prediction.

  7. A Mobile Service Robot for Life Science Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulenburg, Erik; Elkmann, Norbert; Fritzsche, Markus; Teutsch, Christian

    In this paper we presents a project that is developing a mobile service robot to assist users in biological and pharmaceutical laboratories by executing routine jobs such as filling and transporting microplates. A preliminary overview of the design of the mobile platform with a robotic arm is provided. Safety aspects are one focus of the project since the robot and humans will share a common environment. Hence, several safety sensors such as laser scanners, thermographie components and artificial skin are employed. These are described along with the approaches to object recognition.

  8. James F. Crow: His Life in Public Service

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Seymour

    2012-01-01

    The readers of this journal may well be aware of Professor Crow’s scientific achievements and his role as the editor of Perspectives. In addition, for many thousands of students at the University of Wisconsin over many generations, James F. Crow was one of the most memorable teachers at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. What is less known is his major role in public service where he served as chair of many important committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Justice as well as various international programs. In all of these efforts, Professor Crow has left a lasting impact. PMID:22219505

  9. BioCatalogue: a universal catalogue of web services for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Jiten; Tanoh, Franck; Nzuobontane, Eric; Laurent, Thomas; Orlowski, Jerzy; Roos, Marco; Wolstencroft, Katy; Aleksejevs, Sergejs; Stevens, Robert; Pettifer, Steve; Lopez, Rodrigo; Goble, Carole A

    2010-07-01

    The use of Web Services to enable programmatic access to on-line bioinformatics is becoming increasingly important in the Life Sciences. However, their number, distribution and the variable quality of their documentation can make their discovery and subsequent use difficult. A Web Services registry with information on available services will help to bring together service providers and their users. The BioCatalogue (http://www.biocatalogue.org/) provides a common interface for registering, browsing and annotating Web Services to the Life Science community. Services in the BioCatalogue can be described and searched in multiple ways based upon their technical types, bioinformatics categories, user tags, service providers or data inputs and outputs. They are also subject to constant monitoring, allowing the identification of service problems and changes and the filtering-out of unavailable or unreliable resources. The system is accessible via a human-readable 'Web 2.0'-style interface and a programmatic Web Service interface. The BioCatalogue follows a community approach in which all services can be registered, browsed and incrementally documented with annotations by any member of the scientific community.

  10. BioCatalogue: a universal catalogue of web services for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Jiten; Tanoh, Franck; Nzuobontane, Eric; Laurent, Thomas; Orlowski, Jerzy; Roos, Marco; Wolstencroft, Katy; Aleksejevs, Sergejs; Stevens, Robert; Pettifer, Steve; Lopez, Rodrigo; Goble, Carole A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Web Services to enable programmatic access to on-line bioinformatics is becoming increasingly important in the Life Sciences. However, their number, distribution and the variable quality of their documentation can make their discovery and subsequent use difficult. A Web Services registry with information on available services will help to bring together service providers and their users. The BioCatalogue (http://www.biocatalogue.org/) provides a common interface for registering, browsing and annotating Web Services to the Life Science community. Services in the BioCatalogue can be described and searched in multiple ways based upon their technical types, bioinformatics categories, user tags, service providers or data inputs and outputs. They are also subject to constant monitoring, allowing the identification of service problems and changes and the filtering-out of unavailable or unreliable resources. The system is accessible via a human-readable ‘Web 2.0’-style interface and a programmatic Web Service interface. The BioCatalogue follows a community approach in which all services can be registered, browsed and incrementally documented with annotations by any member of the scientific community. PMID:20484378

  11. The effect of service dogs on the improvement of health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Mai; Senda, Masuo; Takayanagi, Tomoko; Katayama, Yoshimi; Furusawa, Kazunari; Okutani, Tamami; Kataoka, Masaki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    To assess the effects of service dogs on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we conducted a survey of 10 service dog owners using SF-36v2 (Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0) and compared it with a matched control group of people with physical disabilities who did not have service dogs but were eligible for one. The scores for mental health and role emotional of service dog owners were relatively high, and their mental component summary was higher than the general population norm. These results indicate that service dogs affect the mentality of their owners. The comparison with the control group indicated that service dogs alleviate the mental burden of daily activities, and subjectively improved the physical functioning of their owners. This study showed that service dogs have positive functional and mental effects on their disabled owners.

  12. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  13. Effect of home care service on the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Demet; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of home care service on the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer. This randomized case control study was carried out in a womans hospital between September 2011 and February 2012. Women undergoing gynecological cancer treatment were separated into intervention and control groups, of 35 patients each. The intervention group was provided with nursing care service through hospital and home visits (1st, 12th weeks) within the framework of a specifically developed nursing care plan. The control group was monitored without any intervention through the hospital routine protocols (1st, 12th weeks). Data were collected using An Interview Form, Home Visit Monitoring Form and Quality of Life Scale/Cancer Survivors. Effects of home care service on the quality of life in gynecological cancer patients were investigated using chi-square tests, McNemar's test, independent t-test and ANOVA. This study found that the intervention group receiving home care service had a moderately high quality of life (average mean: 6.01±0.64), while the control group had comparatively lower quality (average mean: 4.35±0.79) within the 12 week post- discharge period (p<0.05). This study found home care services to be efficient in improving the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer.

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  15. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability.

  16. An Application of USLE and SEDD Models to Estimate the Remaining Service Life of Kartalkaya Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyas, H.

    2013-12-01

    The water requirement of today's world is such a hot topic that countries all over the world are severely searching for different alternatives to keep pace with increasing water demand. However, when the increasing population and water demand are considered, management of existing water resources is arguably more important than searching for additional resources. The construction and utilization of engineering structures (e.g., dams) is often used in water resource management, however their service life are often not considered or properly planned in advance. As a consequence, because of these unplanned applications, the maximum potential water supply cannot be reached in watersheds, in other words, water sources are wasted. This research demonstrates that it is possible to forecast the service life of a dam more properly and also identifies some precautions regarding the potential sources that might cause the shortened service life. Kartalkaya Dam located in Turkey has been operating since 1972, was constructed with the aims of irrigation and flood prevention and is near the end of its service life. At this point, the first objective of this study was conducted, which determines the remaining service life of the dam with reference to the amount of material transported through the corresponding catchment area and the amount accumulated in the reservoir. This was accomplished using the Universal Soil Loss Equation simulated in ArcGIS. The amount of eroded material per year for each 25x25 m cell of study area was determined and as a consequence, the areas which are more prone to be eroded were defined. The ongoing second stage of the study, applies the sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model and calculates the amount of material deposited during the operation period of the dam and is used to forecast the remaining service life of the Kartalkaya Dam.

  17. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  18. Perception of service satisfaction and quality of life of patients living with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat; Ogunsemi, Olawale

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess service-satisfaction and quality of life among patients with schizophrenia in a tertiary psychiatric healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 101 (out of 120) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia attending the outpatient clinic of the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnosis (SCID), Charleston Psychiatric Out-patient Scale (CPOSS), and the World-Health Organisation Quality of Life –Bref scale (WHOQOL-BREF) was used in assessing diagnosis, patient satisfaction and subjective quality of life respectively. Results: The ages of the patient ranged from 19-81. Males (49.5%) and females (50.5%) had almost equal distribution. Mean duration of attendance was 8.7years ± 8.50. Service satisfaction ranged between 25-60 on the CPOSS. Areas that had higher mean scores on CPOSS were with items (1) Helpfulness of the records clerk (3.70±1.1), (7) Helpfulness of services received (3.69±1.0). Subjective quality of life was high (3.65±1.8), satisfaction with health was also high (3.40±1.1). Service satisfaction correlated with Quality of life at P < 0.00. PMID:27114651

  19. The Well-Being of Service Members and Veterans in the Light of Life-Quality Surveys in Poland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-205 24 - 1 The Well -Being of Service Members and Veterans in the Light of Life -Quality Surveys in Poland Col. (Ret.) Stanisław...quality-of- life indicators obtained from survey research? The answer seems to be crucial for the strategy of maintaining the well -being of service...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Well -Being of Service Members and Veterans in the Light of Life -Quality Surveys in Poland 5a

  20. Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Brenda; Beynon, Caryl; Pickering, Lucy; Duffy, Paul

    2010-01-01

    roe b., beynon c., pickering l. & duffy p. (2010)Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(9), 1968–1979. Aim This paper is a report of an exploration of older people’s experiences of substance use in the context of ageing, and its impact on health, quality of life, relationships and service use. Background Use of illicit drugs by older people is a neglected policy, research and service provision and is generally perceived as a lifestyle of younger populations. Method A convenience sample of 11 people aged 49–61 years (mean 57 years) in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services participated in qualitative semi-structured tape-recorded interviews and thematic content analysis was performed. The data were collected in 2008. Findings Drug use can have negative impacts on health status, quality of life, family relationships and social networks that accrue with age. Participants were identified as early or later onset users of drugs due to the impact of life events and relationships. A range of substances had been used currently and throughout their lives, with no single gateway drug identified as a prelude to personal drug careers. Life review and reflection were common, in keeping with ageing populations, along with regret of ever having started to use drugs. Living alone and their accommodation made them more susceptible to social isolation, and they reported experiences of death and dying of their contemporaries and family members earlier than usual in the life course. Conclusion Older people who continue to use drugs and require the support of services for treatment and care are an important emerging population and their specific needs should recognized. PMID:20626477

  1. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  2. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  3. 78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... of proposed rulemaking proposing to update respirator approval standards in response to a petition to... service-life indicators or warning devices. These indicators are built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is close to depletion. In this final rule,...

  4. Services and Supports, Partnership, and Family Quality of Life: Focus on Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Brady, Sara E.; Summers, Jean Ann; Haines, Shana J.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of partnership on the relationship between services and supports adequacy and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deaf-blindness ages birth to 21. A social-ecological approach enabled examining the impact of disability on the family system. A survey, consisting of…

  5. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  6. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org.

  7. Illicit drug use as a challenge to the delivery of end-of-life care services to homeless persons: perceptions of health and social services professionals.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal

    2012-06-01

    Homeless persons tend to die younger than the housed population and have complex, often unmet, end-of-life care needs. High levels of illicit drug use among this population are a particular challenge for health and social services professionals involved in end-of-life care services delivery. This article explores the challenges of end-of-life care services to homeless illicit drug users based on data collected during a national study on end-of-life care services delivery to homeless persons in Canada. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with 50 health and social services professionals involved in health services delivery to homeless persons in five cities. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Themes were organised into two domains. First, barriers preventing homeless illicit drug users from accessing end-of-life care services, such as competing priorities (e.g. withdrawal management), lack of trust in healthcare providers and discrimination. Second, challenges to end-of-life care services delivery to this population in health and social care settings, including non-disclosure of illicit drug use, pain and symptom management, interruptions in care, and lack of experience with addictions. The authors identify a need for increased research on the role of harm reduction in end-of-life care settings to address these challenges.

  8. Low back pain during military service predicts low back pain later in life

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M.; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Santtila, Matti; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess associations between physician diagnosed unspecified low back pain (LBP) during compulsory military service and self-reported LBP and physical fitness measured on average four years after military service. From a total of 1155 persons who had been pass medical examination for military service and who had completed physically demanding military training between 1997 and 2007, 778 men participated in a refresher military training course and physical tests. In this study, the association between LBP during military service and LBP in later life in addition to the association between LBP and physical fitness were examined. A total of 219 out of 778 participants (28%) had visited a physician due to some musculoskeletal symptom (ICD-10 M-diagnosis) during their military service. Seventy-four participants (9.5%) had visited a physician due to unspecified LBP during their service, and 41 (5.3%) had temporarily been absent from duty due to LBP. At the follow-up examination, 122 (15.7%) had reported LBP during the past month. LBP during military service was associated with self-reported LBP in the follow-up (p = 0.004). Of those who had been absent from duty due to LBP during their military service, 13 (31.7%) reported LBP during the past month. In risk factor analysis, no initial health behaviour and physical performance variables were associated with baseline LBP in the follow-up. The main finding of the present study was that unspecified LBP during military service predicts LBP in later life. On the basis of previous literature, it is also known that LBP is a common symptom and thus, one cannot expect to be symptomless the entire life. Interestingly, none of the health behaviours nor the physical performance studied in the follow-up were associated with baseline LBP. It appears that individuals prone to LBP have symptoms during physically demanding military service and also later in their life. PMID:28282419

  9. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-03-23

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  10. Collaborative Science Learning in Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds: Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussli, Natalie; Oh, Kevin; McCandless, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to help pre-service teachers experience and evaluate the potential of Second Life, a three-dimensional immersive virtual environment, for potential integration into their future teaching. By completing collaborative assignments in Second Life, nineteen pre-service general education teachers explored an…

  11. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  12. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  13. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  14. A Comparison of Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment, Day Services and Employment Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…

  15. Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    nitric acid (HNO3 at 1:1 with deionized H2O). Solu- tions were then filtered and stored in vials. Chloride content analysis was performed using ion...ER D C SR -1 3- 1 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81 En gi ne er...at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC SR-13-1 February 2013 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the

  16. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  17. Through Life Management of Naval Gas Turbines for Extended Service Lives and Reduced Lifetime Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Symposium Partie A - Developpements dans le domaine de l’aeroacoustique et I’hydroacoustique numeriques ] [Symposium Partie B ... To order the complete...and Belgian Reduction Strategies developed by the UK Ministry of Defence in Navies, the Olympus operates in combination with direct acting support of... STRATEGIES IN REDUCING THROUGH LIFE COSTSTuRn! TIE DELIVERY PRI GRAMME SIMULATION INCLUDES Current strate2v: TAKE 91 ATES AND RANDOM FAILURES SERVICEABLE

  18. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  19. Nursing care at the end of life: a service learning course for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Stephanie; Ferry, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    An elective course titled "Nursing Care at the End of Life" was designed for fourth-year nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program. This course, taught by the authors, was designed to teach students about caring for the dying patient. Students were required to complete service learning with patients in a hospice or hospital setting. Students reported having a positive learning experience and gaining new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the needs of dying patients and their families.

  20. SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Clemens; Sjöberg, Fredrik; Delcura, Juan Manuel; Eilertsen, Baard

    2008-07-01

    Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several space agencies during the development phase. The business plan is based on life extension for high value commercial satellites while also providing the satellite operators with various fleet management services such as graveyard burns, slot transfers and on orbit protection against replacement satellite or launch failures. The OLEV spacecraft will be able to dock with a geostationary satellite and uses an electrical propulsion system to extend its life by taking over the attitude control and station keeping functions. The OLEV system is building on the SMART-1 platform developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for ESA as a technology test-bed to demonstrate the use of electrical propulsion for interplanetary orbit transfer manoeuvres. The concept is called SMART-OLEV and takes advantage of the low cost, low mass SMART-1 platform by a maximum use of recurrent platform technology.

  1. Effects of Planetary Speed-Reduction Ratio on Mean Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Planetary-gear transmissions are compact speed reductions which use parallel-load paths to transmit high power. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single-plane planetary transmission, the speed-reduction ratio must be greater than two for planet gears to exist. As the ratio increases, so does the size of the planets relative to the sizes of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a spur-gear planetary with a fixed size, speed-reduction ratio, input speed, power and materials. The planetary-gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the ball bearings and spur gears in the reduction. Planet-bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

  2. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsolnay, Eva M.; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor; Hordósy, Gábor; Keresztúri, András; Kresz, Norbert; Oszvald, Ferenc

    2016-02-01

    The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  3. Impact of landfill liner time-temperature history on the service life of HDPE geomembranes.

    PubMed

    Rowe, R Kerry; Islam, M Z

    2009-10-01

    The observed temperatures in different landfills are used to establish a number of idealized time-temperature histories for geomembrane liners in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. These are then used for estimating the service life of different HDPE geomembranes. The predicted antioxidant depletion times (Stage I) are between 7 and 750 years with the large variation depending on the specific HDPE geomembrane product, exposure conditions, and most importantly, the magnitude and duration of the peak liner temperature. The higher end of the range corresponds to data from geomembranes aged in simulated landfill liner tests and a maximum liner temperature of 37 degrees C. The lower end of the range corresponds to a testing condition where geomembranes were immersed in a synthetic leachate and a maximum liner temperature of 60 degrees C. The total service life of the geomembranes was estimated to be between 20 and 3300 years depending on the time-temperature history examined. The range illustrates the important role that time-temperature history could play in terms of geomembrane service life. The need for long-term monitoring of landfill liner temperature and for geomembrane ageing studies that will provide improved data for assessing the likely long-term performance of geomembranes in MSW landfills are highlighted.

  4. The mismatch between patient life expectancy and the service life of implantable devices in current cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: a call for larger device batteries.

    PubMed

    Neuzner, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, Bob Hauser published a paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology entitled "The growing mismatch between patient longevity and the service life of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators". Now, nearly a decade later, I would like to perform a second look on the problem of a mismatching between ICD device service life and the survival of ICD recipients. Since 2005, the demographics of the ICD population has changed significantly. Primary prevention has become the dominant indication in defibrillator therapy and device implantation is indicated more and more in earlier stages of cardiac diseases. In former larger scale ICD trials, the patient average 5-year survival probability was in a range of 68-71%; in newer CRT-D trials in a range of 72-88%. Due to a progressively widened ICD indication and implantation preferentially performed in patients with better life expectancy, the problem of inadequate device service life is of growing importance. The early days of defibrillator therapy started with a generator volume of 145 ccm and a device service life <18 months. In this early period, the device miniaturization and extension of service life were similar challenges for the technicians. Today, we have reached a formerly unexpected extent of device miniaturization. However, technologic improvements were often preferentially translated in further device miniaturization and not in prolonging device service life. In his analysis, Bob Hauser reported a prolonged device service life of 2.3 years in ICD models with a larger battery capacity of 0.54 up to 0.69 Ah. Between 2008 and 2014, several studies had been published on the problem of ICD longevity in clinical scenarios. These analyses included "older" and currently used single chamber, dual chamber and CRT devices. The reported average 5-year device service life ranged from 0 to 75%. Assuming today technology, larger battery capacities will only result in minimal increase in device volume. Selected

  5. Associations of Quality of Life with Service Satisfaction in Psychotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petkari, Eleni; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) has gained increasing attention as a desired outcome of psychosocial treatments targeting psychotic patients. Yet, the relationship between the patients’ satisfaction with services and QoL has not been clearly established, perhaps due to the multidimensionality of the QoL concept and the variability in its assessment. Aim This is the first systematic meta-analysis of all available evidence assessing the relationship between QoL and service satisfaction. Methods: In all, 19 studies reporting data of 21 independent samples (N = 5,337) were included in the present meta-analysis. In moderator analyses, effects of age, sex, diagnoses (schizophrenia vs. other psychoses), treatment context (inpatients vs. outpatients), study design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal), and QoL domain (subjective vs. health-related) were examined. Results Analyses revealed a highly significant medium-sized effect (r = .30, p < .001) for the associations of QoL and service satisfaction. Effect sizes were significantly stronger for subjective than health-related quality of life (r = .35 vs. r = .14, respectively). Moreover, associations with subjective QoL remained largely robust when accounting for moderating variables, although there was a trend of stronger associations for outpatients compared to inpatients. In contrast, effect sizes for health-related QoL were small and only observable for samples with longitudinal designs. Conclusion Associations between QoL and service satisfaction appear to be robust but are differentiated in regard to QoL domain. Our findings suggest that agents responsible for service design and implementation need to take the patients’ perception of the service adequacy for achieving QoL enhancement into account. PMID:26275139

  6. 'I've used the word cancer but it's actually good news': discursive performativity of cancer and the identity of urological cancer services.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, Karolina Agata; Skea, Zoe

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on the ethnographic study of urological cancer services, this article explores how a set of particular discourses embedded in the everyday clinical work in a large teaching hospital in the UK helps materialise particular configurations of cancer and related professional identities. Emerging on the intersection of specific socio-material arrangements (cancer survival rates, treatment regimens, cancer staging classifications, metaphors, clinical specialities) and operating across a number of differential relations (curable/incurable, treatable/untreatable, aggressive/nonaggressive), these configurations help constitute the categories of 'good' and 'bad' cancers as separate and contrasting entities. These categories help materialise particular distributions of power and are thus implicated in the making of specific claims about the identity of urological cancer services as unique and privileged. Exploring these issues in view of feminist and material-semiotic approaches to studying science, technology and medicine, this article seeks to move away from the understanding of cancer discourses as primarily linguistic performances, proposing to see them instead as arrangements of practices and relations simultaneously material and semiotic through which particular categories, entities and phenomena acquire their determinate nature. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to sociology's broader concern with discursive performativity of cancer.

  7. Integrating the life course into MCH service delivery: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carol; Johnson, Faye

    2014-02-01

    To describe the efforts of a community-based maternal and child health coalition to integrate the life course into its planning and programs, as well as implementation challenges and results of these activities. Jacksonville-Duval County has historically had infant mortality rates that are significantly higher than state and national rates, particularly among its African American population. In an effort to address this disparity, the Northeast Florida Healthy Start Coalition embraced the life course approach as a model. This model was adopted as a framework for (1) community needs assessment and planning; (2) delivery of direct services, including case management, education and support in the Magnolia Project, its federal Healthy Start program; (3) development of community collaborations, education and awareness; and, (4) advocacy and grass roots leadership development. Implementation experience as well as challenges in transforming traditional approaches to delivering maternal and child health services are described. Operationalizing the life course approach required the Coalition to think differently about risks, levels of intervention and the way services are organized and delivered. The organization set the stage by using the life course as a framework for its required local planning and needs assessments. Based on these assessments, the content of case management and other key services provided by our federal Healthy Start program was modified to address not only health behaviors but also underlying social determinants and community factors. Individual interventions were augmented with group activities to build interdependence among participants, increasing social capital. More meaningful inter-agency collaboration that moved beyond the usual referral relationships were developed to better address participants' needs. And finally, strategies to cultivate participant advocacy and community leadership skills, were implemented to promote social change at the

  8. Testing of Minuteman launch facility flooded lead acid batteries for service life projection

    SciTech Connect

    Oley, F.; Ang, V. |

    1996-11-01

    Capacity performance tests were completed on 47 flooded lead-calcium batteries ranging from 5- to 23-years-old. These batteries had been maintained in the Minuteman missile silos on float charge over the majority of their life to provide emergency or secondary power. Capacity results showed no capacity degradation in the oldest batteries and cell dissections revealed only minor deterioration of the lead calcium grids. However, an increase in the cell float voltage range was observed in the 23-year-old batteries. Although signs of deterioration have begun, the solid capacity results indicate additional service life is still available. Additional data is also presented from on-going cycle tests being performed on a 5- and 21-year-old battery which supports the performance capability remaining in these aged batteries.

  9. LASERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Service life of dye-impregnated polymer active laser elements at various energy densities and pump powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, L. K.; Kytina, I. G.; Kytin, V. G.; Tsogoeva, S. A.; Saprykin, L. G.; Konstantinov, B. A.

    1997-02-01

    The dependence of the rate of photodecomposition of the dye rhodamine 6G in polymer active elements on the average pump intensity was studied. The service life of such active elements pumped transversely with low-intensity (less than 1MW cm-2) pump pulses was also investigated. When the average intensity was reduced below a certain value, the dye photodecomposition rate decreased significantly and the service life of the active elements rose strongly.

  10. Accounting for ecosystem services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: toward an ecologically based LCA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    Despite the essential role of ecosystem goods and services in sustaining all human activities, they are often ignored in engineering decision making, even in methods that are meant to encourage sustainability. For example, conventional Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the impact of emissions and consumption of some resources. While aggregation and interpretation methods are quite advanced for emissions, similar methods for resources have been lagging, and most ignore the role of nature. Such oversight may even result in perverse decisions that encourage reliance on deteriorating ecosystem services. This article presents a step toward including the direct and indirect role of ecosystems in LCA, and a hierarchical scheme to interpret their contribution. The resulting Ecologically Based LCA (Eco-LCA) includes a large number of provisioning, regulating, and supporting ecosystem services as inputs to a life cycle model at the process or economy scale. These resources are represented in diverse physical units and may be compared via their mass, fuel value, industrial cumulative exergy consumption, or ecological cumulative exergy consumption or by normalization with total consumption of each resource or their availability. Such results at a fine scale provide insight about relative resource use and the risk and vulnerability to the loss of specific resources. Aggregate indicators are also defined to obtain indices such as renewability, efficiency, and return on investment. An Eco-LCA model of the 1997 economy is developed and made available via the web (www.resilience.osu.edu/ecolca). An illustrative example comparing paper and plastic cups provides insight into the features of the proposed approach. The need for further work in bridging the gap between knowledge about ecosystem services and their direct and indirect role in supporting human activities is discussed as an important area for future work.

  11. Life-Course Timing and Sequencing of Marriage and Military Service and Their Effects on Marital Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Vaughn R. A.; Teachman, Jay D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the life-course sequencing hypothesis that marriage before military service has a greater disruptive effect on marital stability than marriage during or after military service. Used event-history data from a 13-year panel study of 2,857 white males from Washington State high schools in 1966. Compares Vietnam combat veterans (n=610),…

  12. End-of-Life Decision Making for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Survey of Nursing Home Social Services Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to describe nursing home social services staff roles and perceptions related to end-of-life medical decision making for nursing home residents in endstage dementia. Using a self-designed questionnaire, 138 nursing home social services staff from across New York State answered questions about advance directives,…

  13. Quality of Life: Domains for Understanding Maths Anxiety in First Year Pre-Service Teachers through Identity Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety in primary pre-service teachers' affects their future teaching of mathematics and achievement of students. Data collected via Critical Incident Technique were used to investigate this anxiety as perceived and identified by first year pre-service teachers. This paper proposes the application of the Quality of Life conceptual…

  14. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  15. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  16. The Belgian supercontainer concept: Study of the concrete buffer behaviour in service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyet, S.

    2006-11-01

    The ONDRAF/NIRAS agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials is in charge of the management of the radioactive wastes in Belgium. In the framework of the study of a new concept for the disposal of high level wastes, a project of a supercontainer has been considered and studied. The main goal of this study was to estimate the Thermo-Hydrological behaviour of the concrete buffer in service life. Water (liquid and vapour) and heat transfers were described through coupled differential equations by the means of the procedure THYDR developed at the Department of Physico-Chemistry of the French Commission for Atomic Energy (CEA/DPC) and implemented in the code CAST3M. Two different configurations for the concrete buffer were investigated: concrete cured with no water loss or partially dried. The simulations allowed the estimation of the evolution of both vapour pressure and liquid saturation.

  17. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Volkov-Husoviae, T. D.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  18. Migration of formaldehyde and melamine from melaware and other amino resin tableware in real life service.

    PubMed

    Mannoni, Veruscka; Padula, Giorgio; Panico, Oronzo; Maggio, Antonino; Arena, Claudio; Milana, Maria-Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    The migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers has been measured on 90 samples of plastic tableware in three different situations - new articles, already used articles and artificially aged articles - by using simulant, contact times and temperatures prescribed by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Formaldehyde was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy analysis of the coloured complex obtained by reaction with chromotropic acid. Melamine was measured by an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method. Fourier Transformed - Infrared Analysis was applied to characterise the plastic. The results highlighted the presence of different amino resins based on formaldehyde-melamine, urea-formaldehyde or melamine-urea-formaldehyde with different migration behaviour. The migration of monomers was related to progressive degradation of the resins. Ageing studies demonstrated that the potential degradation of the resins and the consequent migration of the monomers may continue throughout the service life of the product. The specific migration limit (SML) of melamine was exceeded after ageing.

  19. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  20. Quality of life of public health service dental hygienists in Goiânia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, M F; Freire, M C M; Leles, C R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL) and related factors among dental hygienists. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of dental hygienists working in the public health service of Goiânia, Central-West Region, Brazil, in 2004. All active dental hygienists received a mailed questionnaire containing the shortened version of the World Health Organization instrument to measure quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref), demographic and job-related data, and questions about self-rated general health status and QoL. Response rate was 58.5% (n = 93). Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple logistic regressions were used in the analysis of data. The WHOQOL-Bref instrument revealed that the Social Relationships domain had the highest mean score (70.56), followed by the Physical (65.49), Psychological (61.3) and Environment domains (56.25). Most of the dental hygienists had a high QoL in the Social Relationships domain and a low QoL in the Physical, Psychological and Environment domains. There was an association between self-rated health status and the Physical domain; satisfaction with health and the Physical, Psychological and Social Relationships domain and self-rated QoL and the Psychological and Social Relationships domains. The conclusion is that a low QoL was common among the dental hygienists and has perceptible effects on their perceptions of their health status and QoL.

  1. LifeWatch Greece data-services: Discovering Biodiversity Data using Semantic Web Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Marketakis, Yannis; Doerr, Martin; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Papadakos, Panagiotis; Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources. New information To cope with these issues, in the context of the LifeWatch Greece project, i) we supported cataloguing and publishing of all the relevant metadata information of the Greek biodiversity domain, ii) we integrated data from heterogeneous sources by supporting the definitions of appropriate models, iii) we provided means for efficiently discovering biodiversity data of interest and iv) we enabled the answering of complex queries that could not be answered from the individual sources. This work has been exploited, evaluated and scientificaly confirmed by the biodiversity community through the services provided by the LifeWatch Greece portal. PMID:27932908

  2. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Applications § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service...

  3. Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, A.A.; Neil-Sztramko, S.E.; Morgan, J.; Hodson, S.; Weller, S.; McRae, T.; Campbell, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rigorously applied exercise interventions undertaken in a research setting result in improved health-related quality of life (hrqol) in cancer survivors, but research to demonstrate effective translation of that research to practice is needed. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs in the community on hrqol and on self-reported physical activity and its correlates. Methods After enrolment and 17 ± 4 weeks later, new clients (n = 48) to two fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (rand-36: rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, U.S.A.), the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and questions about physical activity correlates. Normal fee-for-service operations were maintained, including a fitness assessment and individualized exercise programs supervised in a group or one-on-one setting, with no minimum attendance required. Fees were associated with the assessment and with each exercise session. Results Of the 48 participants, 36 (75%) completed both questionnaires. Improvements in the physical functioning, role physical, pain, and energy/fatigue scales on the rand-36 exceeded minimally important differences and were of a magnitude similar to improvements reported in structured, rigorously applied, and free research interventions. Self-reported levels of vigorous-intensity (p = 0.021), but not moderate-intensity (p = 0.831) physical activity increased. The number of perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.035) and the prevalence of fatigue as a barrier (p = 0.003) decreased. Exercise self-efficacy improved only in participants who attended 11 or more sessions (p = 0.002). Exercise enjoyment did not change (p = 0.629). Conclusions Enrolment in fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs results in meaningful improvements in hrqol comparable to those reported by research interventions, among other benefits. The fee-for-service

  4. Cargo Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Thacker, Karen; Williams, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, retired in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  5. Commercial Orbital Transportation Cargo Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Williams, Dave; Orozco, Nicole; Philistine, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, will retire in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  6. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Devitt, John William; Ruud, James Anthony; Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    2004-05-04

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  7. Semi-automatic web service composition for the life sciences using the BioMoby semantic web framework.

    PubMed

    DiBernardo, Michael; Pottinger, Rachel; Wilkinson, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Researchers in the life-sciences are currently limited to small-scale informatics experiments and analyses because of the lack of interoperability among life-sciences web services. This limitation can be addressed by annotating services and their interfaces with semantic information, so that interoperability problems can be reasoned about programmatically. The Moby semantic web framework is a popular and mature platform that is used for this purpose. However, the number of services that are available to select from when building a workflow is becoming unmanageable for users. As such, attempts have been made to assist with service selection and composition. These tasks fall under the general label of automated service composition. We present a prototype workflow assembly client that reduces the number of choices that users have to make by (1) restricting the overall set of services presented to them and (2) ranking services so that the the most desirable ones are presented first. We demonstrate via an evaluation of this prototype that a unification of relatively simple techniques can rank desirable services highly while maintaining interactive response times.

  8. Parental Stress, Socioeconomic Status, Satisfaction with Services, and Family Quality of Life among Parents of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Heather F.

    2011-01-01

    Family quality of life (FQOL) refers to the degree to which families of individuals with disabilities are able to meet their basic needs, enjoy time together, and pursue leisure interests and activities (Park et al., 2003). Researchers have identified barriers that families of individuals with disabilities encounter as they pursue a life of…

  9. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently offers…

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Scientific Literacy, Environmental Literacy and Life-Long Learning Tendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saribas, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between pre-service teachers' scientific literacy (SL) and their environmental literacy (EL). It also seeks significant differences in SL at different levels of a tendency towards life-long learning (LLT). With the world facing critical environmental problems, an interdisciplinary approach to teaching…

  11. Evaluation of a passive optical based end of service life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    Checky, Melissa; Frankel, Kevin; Goddard, Denise; Johnson, Erik; Thomas, J. Christopher; Zelinsky, Maria; Javner, Cassidy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A passive visual end of service life indicator (ESLI) for certain organic vapors has been attached to the inside wall of an organic vapor respirator cartridge. The opposite side of the ESLI touches activated carbon inside the cartridge. During use, organic vapors moving through the cartridge adsorb into both the carbon and the ESLI. The cartridge body is clear so that when vapor concentrations meet a certain threshold, the user may observe the progressive development of an indicator bar down the side of the ESLI. The cartridge is deemed ready to change when any part of the indicator bar touches a marked end line. The performance of the ESLI was observed when the cartridge was tested against a variety of organic vapors, exposure concentrations above the minimum indication level, humidities, temperatures, flow rates, and mixtures. In all cases, the ESLI indicated end of service life with more than 10% cartridge service life remaining (which is a NIOSH test criteria). The results were also compared to mathematical predictions of cartridge service life. PMID:26418577

  12. 77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: As a component of its ongoing update of respirator...) remaining service-life indicators (indicators), which are devices built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is close to depletion. HHS intends to revise...

  13. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, GlobalWarming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water andWaste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  14. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  15. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  16. Long-term Outcomes of Military Service in Aging and the Life Course: A Positive Re-envisioning.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Avron; Settersten, Richard A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2016-02-01

    Most research on military service focuses on its short-term negative consequences, especially the mental and physical injuries of those deployed in warzones. However, studies of long-term outcomes reveal surprisingly positive effects of military service--both those early in adulthood that grow over time and others that can emerge later in life. These multidomain effects have been found in veterans of World War II and the Korean War and are now being seen in veterans of the Vietnam War. Although some are directly attributable to public policies such as the GI Bill, which facilitate educational and economic gains, there are personal developmental gains as well, including autonomy, emotional maturity and resilience, mastery, and leadership skills, that lead to better health and well-being in later life. These long-term effects vary across persons, change over time within persons, and often reflect processes of cumulative advantage and disadvantage. We propose a life-span model of the effects of military service that provides a perspective for probing both long-term positive and negative outcomes for aging veterans. We further explicate the model by focusing on both sociocultural dynamics and individual processes. We identify public-use data that can be examined to evaluate this model, and offer a set of questions that can be used to assess military service. Finally, we outline an agenda for dedicated inquiry into such effects and consider policy implications for the health and well-being of aging veterans in later life.

  17. Directions for effectiveness research to improve health services for late-life depression in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Theresa J.; Hinton, Ladson; Liu, Jessica; Unützer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of late-life depression over the past 20 years, yet considerable gaps in care remain. Gaps in care are particularly pronounced for older men, certain racial and ethnic minority groups or those with comorbid medical or mental disorders. We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature and conducted interviews with experts in late-life depression to identify promising directions for effectiveness research to address these gaps in care. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and CINHAL databases between January 01, 1998 – August 31, 2013 using terms related to late-life depression and any of the following: epidemiology, services organization, economics of care, underserved groups including health disparities, impact on caregivers, and interventions. The results of this selective review supplemented by more current recommendations from national experts highlight three priority research areas to improve health services for late-life depression: focusing on the unique needs of the patient through patient-centered care and culturally sensitive care, involving caregivers outside the traditional clinical care team, and involving alternate settings of care. We build on these results to offer five recommendations for future effectiveness research that hold considerable potential to advance intervention and health services development for late-life depression. PMID:26525996

  18. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life,…

  19. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  20. Improving the service life of the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope azimuth track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symmes, Arthur; Anderson, Robert; Egan, Dennis

    2008-07-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT), located in Green Bank, West Virginia, is supported by 16 steel wheels which rest upon a composite steel and concrete Azimuth Track, 210 feet (64 meters) in diameter. From the start of observing in February 2001, the Azimuth Track design presented an operational problem for NRAO. By the spring of 2001, slippage of the top plate on the base plate was causing hold-down bolt failures. In July 2002, wear between the top and base plates (fretting) had become evident around the entire track circumference. NRAO engineers took immediate action to reduce both the track slippage and wear problems. But in January 2003, cracks were discovered in two adjacent top plates; by 2006 the top plates were cracking at a rate of almost one a month - an alarming rate given the design service life of 20 years. This paper will summarize the engineering analysis efforts that were subsequently conducted to assess the root cause of the GBT track degradation problem. We will also discuss a trial modification section that was installed in June 2004. Finally, we will discuss the design solution that was developed to remedy the track performance problem.

  1. Assessment of Life Cycle Impacts on Ecosystem Services: Promise, Problems, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Othoniel, Benoit; Rugani, Benedetto; Heijungs, Reinout; Benetto, Enrico; Withagen, Cees

    2016-02-02

    The analysis of ecosystem services (ES) is becoming a key-factor to implement policies on sustainable technologies. Accordingly, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are more and more oriented toward the development of harmonized characterization models to address impacts on ES. However, such efforts are relatively recent and have not reached full consensus yet. We investigate here on the transdisciplinary pillars related to the modeling of LCIA on ES by conducting a critical review and comparison of the state-of-the-art in both LCIA and ES domains. We observe that current LCIA practices to assess impacts on "ES provision" suffer from incompleteness in modeling the cause-effect chains; the multifunctionality of ecosystems is omitted; and the "flow" nature of ES is not considered. Furthermore, ES modeling in LCIA is limited by its static calculation framework, and the valuation of ES also experiences some limitations. The conceptualization of land use (changes) as the main impact driver on ES, and the corresponding approaches to retrieve characterization factors, eventually embody several methodological shortcomings, such as the lack of time-dependency and interrelationships between elements in the cause-effect chains. We conclude that future LCIA modeling of ES could benefit from the harmonization with existing integrated multiscale dynamic integrated approaches.

  2. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model.

  3. Development of a Hydrogen Sulfide End-of-Service-Life Indicator for Respirator Cartridges Using Cobinamide.

    PubMed

    Greenawald, Lee A; Boss, Gerry R; Reeder, Aaron; Bell, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    An inexpensive paper-based sensor was developed for detecting low ppm concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas. A piece of filter paper containing aquohydroxocobinamide [OH(H2O)Cbi] was placed on the end of a bifurcated optical fiber, and the reflectance spectrum of the OH(H2O)Cbi was monitored during exposure to 10.0 ppm hydrogen sulfide gas (NIOSH recommended exposure limit). Reaction of sulfide (HS-) yielded an increase in reflectance from 400-450 nm, and decrease from 470-550 nm. Spectral changes were monitored as a function of time at 25, 50, and 85% relative humidity. Spectral shifts at high-er humidity suggested reduction of the Cbi(III) compound. The sensor was used to detect hydrogen sulfide breakthrough from respirator carbon beds and results correlated well with a standard electrochemical detector. The simple paper-based sensor could provide a real-time end-of-service-life alert for hydrogen sulfide gas.

  4. [Years of potential life lost in Mexico. Applications in the planning of health services].

    PubMed

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Bustamante-Montes, P; López Carrillo, L; Lona Zamora, A; López Cervantes, M

    1989-01-01

    During health care services planning, rational and coherent information is required in order to allocate resources in accordance with local relative need. In an attempt to recognize the national condition, Stone's method was used. This is a semi-quantitative method for analysing the relationship between health care resources and need. Years of potential life lost index was used for need assessment among the states, and confronted to its Federal Public Health Investment. The optimum resource/need ratio is regarded as that pertaining to the reference population, the nation as a whole. Deviation from the optimum ratio in the states is interpreted as a manifestation of inequitable resource distribution. The results show striking differences in needs and resources. Resource/need ratio varied from 0.21 in Oaxaca to 3.79 in Distrito Federal. The states least favoured in resource sharing were Oaxaca, Puebla, Hidalgo and México. On the other hand, Tamaulipas, Baja California Sur, Quintana Roo and Distrito Federal exceeded the optimum. These indexes permit a quantitative expression of the relationship between need and resources in order to reach geographical equity.

  5. Analysis on regulation strategies for extending service life of hydropower turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Norrlund, P.; Yang, J.

    2016-11-01

    Since a few years, there has been a tendency that hydropower turbines experience fatigue to a greater extent, due to increasingly more regulation movements of governor actuators. The aim of this paper is to extend the service life of hydropower turbines, by reasonably decreasing the guide vane (GV) movements with appropriate regulation strategies, e.g. settings of PI (proportional-integral) governor parameters and controller filters. The accumulated distance and number of GV movements are the two main indicators of this study. The core method is to simulate the long-term GV opening of Francis turbines with MATLAB/Simulink, based on a sequence of one-month measurements of the Nordic grid frequency. Basic theoretical formulas are also discussed and compared to the simulation results, showing reasonable correspondence. Firstly, a model of a turbine governor is discussed and verified, based on on-site measurements of a Swedish hydropower plant. Then, the influence of governor parameters is discussed. Effects of different settings of controller filters (e.g. dead zone, floating dead zone and linear filter) are also examined. Moreover, a change in GV movement might affect the quality of the frequency control. This is also monitored via frequency deviation characteristics, determined by elementary simulations of the Nordic power system. The results show how the regulation settings affect the GV movements and frequency quality, supplying suggestions for optimizing the hydropower turbine operation for decreasing the wear and tear.

  6. Identifying Life Challenges of Women at a Branch Campus through Life Course Interviews: Implications for Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn-Johnson, Tancy Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of women are returning to school as nontraditional students to complete their bachelor's degrees. These women may have specific needs related to life transitions and re-entry into postsecondary education that traditional students do not. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of women who are…

  7. Long-term Outcomes of Military Service in Aging and the Life Course: A Positive Re-envisioning

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Avron; Settersten, Richard A.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on military service focuses on its short-term negative consequences, especially the mental and physical injuries of those deployed in warzones. However, studies of long-term outcomes reveal surprisingly positive effects of military service—both those early in adulthood that grow over time and others that can emerge later in life. These multidomain effects have been found in veterans of World War II and the Korean War and are now being seen in veterans of the Vietnam War. Although some are directly attributable to public policies such as the GI Bill, which facilitate educational and economic gains, there are personal developmental gains as well, including autonomy, emotional maturity and resilience, mastery, and leadership skills, that lead to better health and well-being in later life. These long-term effects vary across persons, change over time within persons, and often reflect processes of cumulative advantage and disadvantage. We propose a life-span model of the effects of military service that provides a perspective for probing both long-term positive and negative outcomes for aging veterans. We further explicate the model by focusing on both sociocultural dynamics and individual processes. We identify public-use data that can be examined to evaluate this model, and offer a set of questions that can be used to assess military service. Finally, we outline an agenda for dedicated inquiry into such effects and consider policy implications for the health and well-being of aging veterans in later life. PMID:26655859

  8. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0...

  9. Landslide risk impact management and web services for improving resilience: the LIFE+IMAGINE project approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congi, Maria Pia; Campo, Valentina; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The increasing damage caused by natural disasters in the last decades points out the need for interoperable added-value services to support environmental safety and human protection, by reducing vulnerability of exposed elements as well as improving the resilience of the involved communities. For this reason, to provide access to harmonized and customized data is only one of several steps towards delivering adequate support to risk assessment, reduction and management. Scope of the present work is to illustrate a methodology under development for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement an infrastructure based on web services for environmental analysis, that integrates in its own architecture specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services will be customized during the project to provide functionalities for supporting the environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure will be applied to landslide risk scenarios, to be developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. More in detail, the landslide pilot will be aimed at providing a landslide risk scenario through the implementation and analysis of: 1) a landslide inventory from available historical databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements (e.g. population, road network, residential area, cultural heritage). The pilot will be implemented in Liguria, Italy, in two different catchment areas located

  10. Converging Streams: The Power of Collaboration among Service Groups. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Sam F., Jr.

    This booklet discusses the collective power of collaboration among the three agencies that compose the Corporation for National Service (AmeriCorps, Learn and Serve America, and the National Senior Service Corps) and introduces the reader to a process of collaboration intended to strengthen existing services and to create new and higher-quality…

  11. Determining pump wear and remaining life from electric submersible pump test curves. [Wear and service life estimation of oil well pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.; Lannom, R.W.; Johnson, R.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The remaining useful life of an electric submersible pump (ESP) is an important economic consideration in deciding whether the used pump should be returned to service without repair. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative techniques to determine the type and amount of wear that a pump has experienced from analysis of pump test data. This paper discusses methods of categorizing used pumps, depending on the wear and associated performance deterioration. This work also describes failure modes, pump reliability, and the concept of pump (product) infant mortality. The authors show that a used pump can be more reliable and have a longer run life than a new or rebuilt pump. They use test data, tear-down analysis, and a case history to develop these concepts.

  12. Fracture-mechanical analysis of the residual service life of the welded main girders of the highway bridges of Ruedersdorf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edel, Karl-Otto

    1992-07-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis was carried out on a certain type of weld defect contained in the main girders of the Ruedersdorf highway bridges (River Luehlen, Germany). To assess fatigue cracks which start from welding defects of about 10 mm height at the end of the inner cover plates, specimens were taken from the bridges. The fracture mechanical properties of the 55 years old steel and the stress intensity factors were determined to analyze the unstable and stable crack extension. The essential influence on the residual life is the extending traffic density. The assesssment of the critical crack size and that of the crack growth show a residual service life of some years. Only limited data can be generated from specimens removed from the bridges, and the effect of the service environment of any specific structure must be taken into account.

  13. Symptoms, functioning and quality of life after treatment in a residential sub-acute mental health service in Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J; Brown, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clients' and service providers' perspectives on changes in mental health after an admission to a residential recovery-focused, sub-acute service, in Australia. Clients were either step-up clients, entering the service directly from the community, or step-down clients who were transitioning from an inpatient unit to home. During the 30-month period of data collection (August 2011 to January 2014) all clients (N = 102) were invited to participate in the longitudinal study and 41 clients consented to be involved (38% response rate). At admission and exit, participants completed the Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (Basis-32) and service providers completed the Life Skills Profile-16 and Health of the Nations Outcome Scales. Follow-up data 3 months after exit were available for 12 clients, including the Basis-32 and a self-report measure of quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimension). Both client groups reported positive improvements between admission and exit in the areas of relation to self and others, psychosis, daily living and presence of depression or anxiety symptoms. Service providers reported gains for clients in the areas of self-care, level of symptoms and presence of social problems. At 3 months, clients generally reported positive quality of life, although there was no significant change in symptoms and functioning. This study demonstrates that after an admission to a sub-acute service, step-up clients experience an improvement in their symptoms and functioning, have avoided a hospital admission and are well enough to return home. Step-down clients also experience further improvements in their symptoms and functioning, indicating that the service has assisted them in their transition to independent living after a hospital admission. Sub-acute residential units provide a continuation of care for inpatients preparing to return home, and people with a mental health problem living in the

  14. Determinants of life satisfaction among Japanese elderly women attending health care and welfare service facilities.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Chiemi; Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Ewis, Ashraf A; Nakano, Takuro; Munakata, Hokuma; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Prolonged life expectancy must be recognized as an excellent achievement of modern medicine, but not all the elderly people are satisfied with their lives. Life satisfaction is a multi-dimensional issue that depends on many objective and subjective characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting life satisfaction of 314 elderly Japanese women attending in 28 elderly-care and welfare facilities at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Our results indicated that elderly subjects with depression tendencies always show significantly lower degrees of life satisfaction than others who are not depressed (p<0.001) regardless of their cognitive status. Furthermore, elderly women who shared decision for their living place and whose opinions were considered for daily life decisions reported significantly more life satisfaction levels than others. We conclude that elderly life satisfaction is affected by various determinants however, with different influencing weight. Life satisfaction of elderly people, with or without dementia, is greatly affected by their mood status and share in decision making. Avoiding elderly people depressive mood, sharing them in various daily decisions, considering their opinions, and allowing them to decide their elderly-care facility placement are crucial determinants for their life satisfaction and essential for their coping, adaptation, well-being and successful aging.

  15. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  16. Using architecture and technology to promote improved quality of life for military service members with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Paul F; Pasquina, Lavinia Fici; Anderson-Barnes, Victoria C; Giuggio, Jeffrey S; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-02-01

    Today, injured service members are surviving wounds that would have been fatal in previous wars. A recent RAND report estimates that approximately 320,000 service members may have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during deployment, and it is not uncommon for a soldier to sustain multiple associated injuries such as limb loss, paralysis, sensory loss, and psychological damage. As a result, many military service members and their families face significant challenges returning to a high quality of independent life. The architectural concepts of universal design (UD) and evidence-based design (EBD) are gaining interest as an integral part of the rehabilitation process of veterans with TBI. This article examines the possibilities presented by UD and EBD in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, in terms of high-end building and interior design quality, and possible technological options for individuals with disabilities.

  17. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  18. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  19. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  20. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  1. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  2. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  3. The Connection Competencies of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers about Geometric Concepts to Daily-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirasa, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    However, geometry is the area with the most concrete possibility of mathematical topics which contains more abstract concepts, students experience difficulties while understanding. Therefore, the connection of issues with daily life to concrete the subjects and the ability of connecting geometric concepts with daily life of the teachers and…

  4. Life Enhancement Counseling: A Psychosocial Model of Services for Cuban Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    The Life Enhancement Counseling Model was developed specifically for the treatment of the problems of meaninglessness and purposelessness among depressed Cuban elders. The model is based on psychosocial development and ecological theoretical orientations. A life review approach is used to help the depressed individuals complete unfinished business…

  5. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  6. Service-Learning in Christian Higher Education: Bringing Our Mission to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Regan Harwell

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to develop a working definition of service-learning, identify the best practices of service-learning in the context of Christian colleges and universities and, based upon that information, develop a model for replication. The study undertaken included: (a) examination of the findings of…

  7. Counseling and Connecting with the Military Undergraduate: The Intersection of Military Service and University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Ted C.; Domenici, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on "wounded…

  8. Take a Class Outdoors. A Guidebook for Environmental Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Linda; Mauney, Tammy; Falkner, Rebekah

    This guidebook focuses on the addition of environmental service learning in elementary, middle, or high school. Sections 1 and 2 describe an administrator's view of the success of service learning in her middle school and a student's opinion of her encounters with Mississippi's natural resources. Section 3 provides a rationale for environmental…

  9. Protecting our life support systems: US federal research and policy on ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, a broad range of federal entities are conducting research related to ecosystem services, and government agencies at all levels are increasingly interested in measuring the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits. However, ...

  10. The effect of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on health service utilisation of a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cindy L K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lauder, Ian J; Lam, Tai-Pong D

    2002-11-01

    This study was designed to find out whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was an independent determinant of health service utilisation of a Chinese population and to determine whether the addition of HRQOL data to sociodemographic and morbidity factors could significantly increase the explanatory power of risk-adjustment models. A cross-sectional random telephone survey of the general adult Chinese population in Hong Kong was conducted among 2410 Chinese aged 18-88yr old, 52% were females and 38% had one or more chronic diseases. Health service utilisation was measured by annual consultation, monthly consultation and hospitalisation rates. HRQOL was measured by the SF-36. Multivariate regressions were used to test the dependence of service utilisation rates on sociodemographic factors, chronic morbidity and the SF-36 scores. Structured multiphase regression analyses were used to determine the magnitude of the effect of the SF-36 scores, in addition to those of sociodemographic and chronic morbidity factors, on service utilisation. Five of eight SF-36 scores were independent determinants of consultation rates. They doubled and tripled the percentages of variance explained for annual and monthly consultation rates, respectively. Role limitation by physical problems and bodily pain scores had a significant effect on hospitalisation rates. This was the first study showing a linear relationship between HRQOL and service utilisation on a Chinese population. It confirmed the clinical relevance of the SF-36 to a culture and health care system that is different from that of the United States where the instrument originated.

  11. Payment by salary or fee-for-service. Effect on health care resource use in the last year of life.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.; Cowie, S.; Slobodian, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physician payment method on use of health care resources. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patient health care data collected for 3 years (1994 to 1996) from the Vital Statistics Department of the British Columbia Ministry of Health. Billing numbers identified physician payment method. SETTING: Salaried and fee-for-service primary care practices in the Capital Region District of Victoria, BC. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 582 patients in their last year of life: 106 were attended by salaried family physicians at a community health clinic; 476 were attended by fee-for-service practitioners. Groups were comparable in age, sex, and geographical location. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and cost of specialist and diagnostic services and medications, number of days in hospital (acute and extended care), and main causes of death. RESULTS: None of the dependent measures showed any statistically significant differences based on comparisons between many variables for patients in the two groups. Costs of pharmaceutical, specialist, and diagnostic services were not significantly different for the two groups. There were three main causes of death, according to codes on death certificates: heart disease, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Whether physicians were paid by salary or fee-for-service had no empirical effect on health care resource use. PMID:10509221

  12. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    samples suffered less than 1% in when exposed to contaminants such as HCl(g), Hg(g), and Zn(g), and SbO(g) at levels of 8 ppm and above. AsH3 vapor at 0.5 ppm did not affect the electrical performance of an SOFC sample even after 1000 h at 750°C. In Phase II of the program, long-term tests will be performed with multiple contaminants at a temperature range of 750° to 850°C. These tests will be at contaminant levels typical of coal-derived gas streams that have undergone gas cleanup using Selexol technology. The chemical nature of the contaminant species will be identified at the operating temperature of SOFC and compare them with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The results of the testing will be used to recommend the sensitivity limits for SOFC operation and to assess the reduction in the service life of the SOFC for trace level contaminants.

  13. A resolution honoring the life and service of the late Staff Sergeant Robert Henry Anderson.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McCain, John [R-AZ

    2014-11-18

    11/18/2014 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6097) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Protecting Our Life Support Systems: An Inventory of US Federal Research on Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, a broad range of federal resource management and environmental agencies are conducting research related to ecosystem services, and government agencies at all levels are increasingly interested in measuring the outcomes of proposed decision and policy options...

  15. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Seth D. Messinger, PhD... Reintegration of Service- 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0811 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... success . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Community Reintegration , Qualitative Research 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  16. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems.

  17. Prevalence and clinical presentation of headache in a National Neurofibromatosis 1 Service and impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Shazia K; Leschziner, Guy D; Ferner, Rosalie E

    2015-10-01

    In our clinical practice, we noticed a high frequency of headaches amongst NF1 patients. We sought to characterize the phenotype and prevalence of headache in our cohort of NF1 patients attending the London NF clinic and to determine the impact on quality of life. Participants over the age of 16 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for NF1 from the general NF1 outpatient clinics at Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and the nationally commissioned Complex NF1 service were asked to fill in a questionnaire during the clinic consultation. Data were recorded regarding the headache frequency, intensity, duration, and phenotype, and a validated quality of life questionnaire, HIT-6 was also completed by the participant. IHS (International Headache Society) criteria were used to diagnose migraine. One hundred fifteen patients (48 males, 67 females) completed the questionnaire. The age range of participants was 16-67 with a mean age of 36 years. Twenty-five reported no headaches. Seventy-five (65%) fulfilled IHS diagnostic criteria for migraine (15 with aura). The mean HIT-6 score was 56 (out of a maximum 78) implying a significant effect on quality of life. Migraine is common in our NF1 population and has a significant impact on quality of life. Patients may not volunteer information regarding headache and this should be actively sought during consultations and the headache phenotype should be carefully characterized.

  18. Art Therapy Services to Support Veterans' Transition to Civilian Life: The Studio and the Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Jennifer Marie

    2016-01-01

    Beyond having knowledge of the treatment of combat-related trauma, art therapists need to understand veterans' experiences of transition from military to civilian life in order to offer effective interventions. This article reviews the literature on veteran transition and the challenges common to transition difficulty and describes two major…

  19. Integrating Speech-Language Pathology Services in Palliative End-of-Life Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollens, Robin D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may receive referrals to consult with teams serving patients who have a severe and/or terminal disease. Palliative care focuses on the prevention or relief of suffering to maximize quality of life for these patients and their families. This article describes how the role of the SLP in palliative care…

  20. Techniques for Developing Health Quality of Life Scales for Point of Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Sun; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chewning, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and health policy research frequently involves health status measurement using generic or disease specific instruments. These instruments are generally developed to arrive at several scales, each measuring a distinct domain of health quality of life (HQOL). Clinical settings are starting to explore how to integrate patient perspectives of…

  1. A Comparison of Alternative Models of Individual Quality of Life for Social Service Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Laura E.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Arias, Benito; Arias, Victor

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure of the QOL construct that is focused on the number and composition of QOL factors and domains, and its hierarchical nature. The main goal of this study involve testing by means of confirmatory factor analyses five models that have been…

  2. Creating a Pedagogical Space That Fosters the (Re)Construction of Self through Life Stories of Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero Polo, Álvaro Hernán

    2016-01-01

    People's true selves comprise a life story that may be considered as a narrative. With that idea in mind, the purpose of this article is to report on a pedagogical intervention that bridged life stories and a narrative perspective to examine nine, out of eighty, pre-service English language teachers' (re)construction of their true selves while…

  3. Behavioral Health and Adjustment to College Life for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Braue, Lawrence A.; Stire, Sheryl; Gum, Amber M.; Cross, Brittany L.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of student service members/veterans (SSM/Vs) are enrolling in college. However, little is known about how their previous military experience affects their adjustment to this new role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SSM/Vs who report adjustment problems in college have a higher incidence of posttraumatic…

  4. Service Learning and Character Education: Walking the Talk. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Winecoff, Larry; Nesbit, Ben; Kemper, Richard; Rowls, Michael; Freeman, Nancy K.; Creech, Nena; Mason, Janet; Kent, Laura Brinker

    This guidebook is designed to provide teachers, schools, parents, and other community leaders with the needed ideas, strategies, and resources to combine service learning and character education in meaningful educational activities for children and young people. The booklet contains seven short sections that provide an overview of character…

  5. Deconstructing the surrogate species concept:a life history approach to the protection of ecosystem services.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of the surrogate species concept is widespread in environmental risk assessment and in particular the protection of species that provide ecosystem services, yet there are no standard protocols in place for the choice of surrogates. Surrogates are often chosen on the basis of convenience or v...

  6. Deconstructing the surrogate species concept: a life history approach to the protection of ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of the surrogate species concept is widespread in environmental risk assessment and in particular the protection of species that provide ecosystem services, yet there are no standard protocols in place for the choice of surrogates. Surrogates are often chosen on the basis of convenience or ...

  7. Job and Life Stress and Strain Outcomes among Service and Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dytell, Rita Scher

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has ranked 130 jobs in terms of the level of stress they engender. According to this ranking, clerical and service workers are in occupations which engender very high levels of stress. This study examined the relative contribution of a variety of occupational and nonoccupational sources of…

  8. Public Special Services Provided to People with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden: A Life-Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, Oie

    2008-01-01

    This study describes public special services, support, and health care provided to an administratively defined county sample of people with intellectual disabilities from early childhood to adult age. Comparisons were made on the variables year of birth, sex, and assessed level of intellectual disabilities in 1974. Information was obtained from…

  9. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service...

  10. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service...

  11. A study comparing changes in loading conditions of an extended service life system using aluminum 2024-T351

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, Roger Zack

    The current fiscally austere environment prevalent in the military and industry is driving extreme measures to save money. In the United States Air Force, this has driven enormous efforts to trim sustainment spending on extended life aircraft. The challenge to the aerospace engineer is to ensure flight safety in the midst of this economic pressure. One method of cutting costs is to increase the time an aircraft is in service by delaying the point when the aircraft is taken out of service for depot maintenance. To ensure flight safety, in depth fatigue and fracture analysis needs to be accomplished to assess increasing the inspection interval. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Aluminum 2024-T351 alloy, a common material used in tension dominated aerospace applications, to two different loading spectra---one that is aggressive and the other that is benign. This was accomplished by conducting five different combinations of the two spectra, developing computer simulations using the AFGROW software and comparing with the measured data. The results showed that the material demonstrated significantly different behavior between the two spectra. These results provide a valuable tool for the aerospace engineer for fatigue life prediction and inspection interval evaluation.

  12. A Plasma Reactor for the Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials: Electro Thermal, Processing and Service Life Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskiy, S. G.; Tomas, K. I.; Zubkov, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    The three-jet direct-flow plasma reactor with a channel diameter of 0.054 m was studied in terms of service life, thermal, technical, and functional capabilities. It was established that the near-optimal combination of thermal efficiency, required specific enthalpy of the plasma-forming gas and its mass flow rate is achieved at a reactor power of 150 kW. The bulk temperature of plasma flow over the rector of 12 gauges long varies within 5500÷3200 K and the wall temperature within 1900÷850 K, when a cylinder from zirconium dioxide of 0.005 m thick is used to thermally insulate the reactor. The specific electric power reaches a high of 1214 MW/m3. The rated service life of electrodes is 4700 hours for a copper anode and 111 hours for a tungsten cathode. The projected contamination of carbides and borides with elec-trode-erosion products doesn't exceed 0.0001% of copper and 0.00002% of tungsten.

  13. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    military veteran who suffered a service-related traumatic SCI. Methods: An in-depth anthropological interview was used with Jake, a 28-year old marine...spinal cord injury. 9 Participants Seth Messinger, Principal Investigator Associate Professor of Anthropology Seth Messinger is responsible...Networks for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury in Obtaining Employment. Annals of Anthropological Practice. 37,2:40-56 Fritz, H., Lysack, C

  14. Research to Improve Emotional Health and Quality of Life Among Service Members with Disabilities (RESTORE LIVES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Lester D. Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide risk: a systematic review. Archives of Suicide Research 2010;14:1-23. 8. Oquendo MA, Friend JM...Statement of Work and milestones. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Post-traumatic stress disorder, psychotherapy, stress , mild traumatic brain injury, women veterans...with varying levels of stress -induced comorbidities. It is anticipated that the proposed day of recognition and services for female veterans within

  15. The Impact of Community-Based Supports and Services on Quality of Life Among the Elderly in China: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongkang; Yeager, Valerie A; Hou, Shengtian

    2016-08-01

    Community-based supports and services (CBSS) have been developing rapidly in China as a new way of satisfying the needs of elderly people. However, it is not clear how pervasive these services are or whether the availability of CBSS impacts quality of life. This study examines trends in CBSS and the impact of the perceived CBSS availability on self-reported quality of life among the elderly in China. We found a significant increase in perceived CBSS availability from 2005 to 2011, but the perceived availability of CBSS varies by the type of CBSS. Multivariate analyses show that home medical visits (β = .181, p = .03), psychological support (β = .332, p = .02), social and recreation activities (β = .231, p = .02), and legal consulting services (β = .271, p = .02) were each significantly associated with a good quality of life. Results from this study provide insight that can inform CBSS strategies and the development of new services for the elderly in China.

  16. The effect of service satisfaction and spiritual well-being on the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lanfredi, Mariangela; Candini, Valentina; Buizza, Chiara; Ferrari, Clarissa; Boero, Maria E; Giobbio, Gian M; Goldschmidt, Nicoletta; Greppo, Stefania; Iozzino, Laura; Maggi, Paolo; Melegari, Anna; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2014-05-15

    Quality of life (QOL) has been considered an important outcome measure in psychiatric research and determinants of QOL have been widely investigated. We aimed at detecting predictors of QOL at baseline and at testing the longitudinal interrelations of the baseline predictors with QOL scores at a 1-year follow-up in a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs). Logistic regression models were adopted to evaluate the association between WHOQoL-Bref scores and potential determinants of QOL. In addition, all variables significantly associated with QOL domains in the final logistic regression model were included by using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). We included 139 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum. In the final logistic regression model level of activity, social support, age, service satisfaction, spiritual well-being and symptoms' severity were identified as predictors of QOL scores at baseline. Longitudinal analyses carried out by SEM showed that 40% of QOL follow-up variability was explained by QOL at baseline, and significant indirect effects toward QOL at follow-up were found for satisfaction with services and for social support. Rehabilitation plans for people with schizophrenia living in RFs should also consider mediators of change in subjective QOL such as satisfaction with mental health services.

  17. Urinary Incontinence Symptoms and Impact on Quality of Life in Patients Seeking Outpatient Physical Therapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Alappattu, Meryl; Neville, Cynthia; Beneciuk, Jason; Bishop, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and types of urinary incontinence (UI) in patients seeking outpatient physical therapy for neuro-musculoskeletal conditions. Design Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Patients A convenience sample of patients that positively responded to a UI screening question were included in this study. Methods Data were collected for age, sex, and primary treatment condition classified into one of the following (i.e. urinary dysfunction; fecal dysfunction; pelvic pain; spine; neurological disorders; or extremity disorders); UI type (i.e. mixed, urge, stress, or insensible); UI symptom severity; and quality of life impact. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of UI type, symptom severity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact, and pad use were compared between treatment groups. Results The mean age of the sample (n=599) was 49.8 years (SD=18.5) and 94.7% were female. The urinary dysfunction group comprised 44.2% of the total sample, followed by the spine group with 25.7%, and pelvic pain with 17.2%. The urinary dysfunction group scored significantly higher on UI symptom severity and impact on quality of life compared to the pelvic pain and spine groups, but not compared to the extremity disorders, fecal dysfunction, or neurological disorders group. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that UI is a condition afflicting many individuals who present to outpatient physical therapy beyond those seeking care for UI. We recommend using a simple screening measure for UI and its impact on HRQoL as part of a routine initial evaluation in outpatient physical therapy settings. PMID:26863987

  18. A Study of Military-Civil Service Differences in Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    for a Job well done, considered their glade too low for their work, had more freedom to do their jobs, expressed more satisfaction with their jobs... satisfaction with the F,’UITY aspects of their lives. The only relevant differences found in the PEOPI.E aspects of the ,uality of Air Force Life between...major determinant of JOB SATISF,ýCTICN’ however, tVhe zue-.tlon of feed- back affecting JCB SATISFACTION is not as well documented, nor uas it

  19. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Experiences concerning the service life of rubber linings applied in flue gas desulfurization plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, W.

    1999-11-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties scrubbers and other components in European FGD plants have been protected against corrosion using rubber lining. Extensive experience is available based on service lives of rubber lining of more than 15 years. The paper will consider the various rubber types and curing systems used. While the USA and Japan had already begun retrofitting their existing coal-fired power stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants in the seventies, Germany followed suit in the eighties as a result of the decree issued for large-scale firing plants. Concurrent with this development retrofitting has also been enhanced in other European countries like Austria and the Netherlands, later followed by Denmark, Finland and England. After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc retrofitting work has been implemented in Eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Today FGD plants are being put into operation in Spain, Italy, Turkey and Greece or are on the verge of being put into service. More than 150 plants of this kind are operated by using the wet-scrubbing process with limestone or calcium hydroxide suspensions.

  1. Quality of life in mental health services with a focus on psychiatric rehabilitation practice.

    PubMed

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Giuliani, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Only recently the interest in the quality of life (QoL) has gained prominence in mental health practice with respect to other medical disciplines, such as oncology or cardiology, perhaps because the QoL measures were considered as tautological and largely overlapping with measures of psychopathology. Moreover, most of the recognized components of QoL represent the main areas of psychiatric intervention. For example, psychological functioning impairment represents the main area of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions, social functioning impairment the main area of rehabilitation intervention. In addition, measures of QoL in psychiatric patients may be biased by some aspects of the disease, including impaired evaluation capacity or decreased expectations. Nowadays, QoL issues in relation to mental health care are especially relevant with regard to part of evaluation of treatment outcomes. Suggestions for the choice of the most appropriate QoL instruments for research and routine evaluation in mental health care are given.

  2. Investigation and rehabilitation to extend service life of DSS-13 antenna concrete foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riewe, A. A., Jr.

    1984-08-01

    An investigation to establish the cause and, devise a repair technique to maintain the serviceability of the DSS-13 26 meter antenna is described. Core samples are obtained from the concrete and various laboratory tests conducted. In-place nondestructive type tests are also performed. The tests established that the concrete is deteriorating because of alkali aggregate reactivity. This is a phenomenon wherein certain siliceous constituents present in some aggregates react with alkalies in the portland cement to produce a silica gel which, in turn, imbibes water, swells, and cracks the concrete. The scheme consists of a supplemental steel frame friction pile anchored grade beam encircling the existing foundation. This system provides adequate bracing against base shear and overturning due to seismic loading. Larger cracks are sealed using a pressure injected two-component epoxy.

  3. Investigation and Rehabilitation to Extend Service Life of DSS-13 Antenna Concrete Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riewe, A. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation to establish the cause and, devise a repair technique to maintain the serviceability of the DSS-13 26 meter antenna is described. Core samples are obtained from the concrete and various laboratory tests conducted. In-place nondestructive type tests are also performed. The tests established that the concrete is deteriorating because of alkali aggregate reactivity. This is a phenomenon wherein certain siliceous constituents present in some aggregates react with alkalies in the portland cement to produce a silica gel which, in turn, imbibes water, swells, and cracks the concrete. The scheme consists of a supplemental steel frame friction pile anchored grade beam encircling the existing foundation. This system provides adequate bracing against base shear and overturning due to seismic loading. Larger cracks are sealed using a pressure injected two-component epoxy.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  5. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  6. The effect of social networks and social support on mental health services use, following a life event, among the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area cohort.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Pallab K; Eaton, William W; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the association between life events and mental health services use, accounting for social networks and social support. Main and stress-buffering effects were estimated using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area cohort (1,920 participants in 1993-1996, of whom 1,071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005). Following a life event, the odds of using general medical services were increased by almost 50% when there was increased social support from spouse/partner (referral function). The odds of using mental health services within general health setup were reduced by 60% when there was increased support from relatives (stress-reduction function). Increased social support from friends and relatives was associated with a 40-60% decreased odds of using specialty psychiatric services after experiencing different life events (stress-reduction function). Overall, social support rather than social networks were more strongly associated with increased mental health service use following a life event. The implications for service delivery and program development are discussed.

  7. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of

  8. Towards Practical Carbonation Prediction and Modelling for Service Life Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekolu, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the scientific community, the interest in durability of concrete structures has been high for quite a long time of over 40 years. Of the various causes of degradation of concrete structures, corrosion is the most widespread durability problem and carbonation is one of the two causes of steel reinforcement corrosion. While much scientific understanding has been gained from the numerous carbonation studies undertaken over the past years, it is still presently not possible to accurately predict carbonation and apply it in design of structures. This underscores the complex nature of the mechanisms as influenced by several interactive factors. Based on critical literature and some experience of the author, it is found that there still exist major challenges in establishing a mathematical constitutive relation for realistic carbonation prediction. While most current models employ permeability /diffusion as the main model property, analysis shows that the most practical material property would be compressive strength, which has a low coefficient of variation of 20% compared to 30 to 50% for permeability. This important characteristic of compressive strength, combined with its merit of simplicity and data availability at all stages of a structure's life, promote its potential use in modelling over permeability. By using compressive strength in carbonation prediction, the need for accelerated testing and permeability measurement can be avoided. This paper attempts to examine the issues associated with carbonation prediction, which could underlie the current lack of a sound established prediction method. Suggestions are then made for possible employment of different or alternative approaches.

  9. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-08-18

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54].

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  11. Actually, What Is an Actuary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Susan; Finkelstein, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The actuarial profession is described to provide secondary school mathematics teachers insights into how actuaries use mathematics in solving real life problems. Examples are provided involving compound interest, the probability of dying, and inflation with computer modeling. (MDH)

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Service Utilization in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chu-Hong; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Ji; Zhong, Jian-Hu; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The number of rural-to-urban migrant workers has been increasing rapidly in China over recent decades, but there is a scarcity of data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health service utilization among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers in comparison to local urban residents. We aimed to address this question. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2315 rural-to-urban migrant workers and 2347 local urban residents in the Shenzhen-Dongguan economic zone (China) in 2013. Outcomes included HRQOL (measured by Health Survey Short Form 36) and health service utilization (self-reported). Results: Compared to local urban residents, rural-to-urban migrant workers had lower scores in all domains of HRQOL, and were more likely to report chronic illnesses (9.2% vs. 6.0%, adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.28–2.04) and recent two-week morbidity (21.3% vs. 5.0%, adjusted OR = 5.41, 95% CI 4.26–6.88). Among individuals who reported sickness in the recent two weeks, migrant workers were much less likely to see a doctor (32.7% vs. 66.7%, adjusted OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.13–0.36). Conclusions: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers have lower HRQOL, much more frequent morbidity, but are also much less likely to see a doctor in times of sickness as compared to local urban residents, indicating the existence of significant unmet medical care needs in this population. PMID:25689996

  13. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  14. Life, Learning, and Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Biology. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, David C., Ed.; Ostroff, Joel H., Ed.

    This volume is the 18th in a series of monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. The articles in this volume provide an array of service learning courses in biology that demonstrate active student participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet real community needs and are integrated with the students'…

  15. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  16. Service Life Assessment of Historical Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational Analysis Based on Experimental Input Data

    PubMed Central

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  17. Service-Learning in Afterschool: Helping Students Grow and Communities Prosper. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the third in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on service-learning opportunities for middle schoolers. Pairing service…

  18. Preferences for Expansion of Public Services in Eight Northwest Wisconsin Counties. Report No. 2 of a Series on Quality of Life and Development in Northwestern Wisconsin, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Virginia

    As part of a study of the quality of life in northwestern Wisconsin, 1974 sample populations (N=150 residents per county) from each of 5 Wisconsin counties (Bayfield, Douglas, Price, Taylor, and Washburn) were presented with a list of public service programs and asked if they should be "expanded", "kept the same", or "cut…

  19. End-of-Life Care and Dying: Issues Raised by Staff Supporting Older People with Intellectual Disability in Community Living Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Michele; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Balandin, Susan; Howarth, Glennys; Dew, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of end-of-life care and dying of people with intellectual disability based on the experiences of staff in community living services. Materials and Methods: Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted, guided by grounded theory methodology. Results: The current status of…

  20. Service Utilization, Perceived Changes of Self, and Life Satisfaction among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Abuse: The Mediation Effect of Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Li-yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A…

  1. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    PubMed

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure.

  2. Effect of service-simulated aging on the microstructure and properties of casing casting steel (1CrMoV) vis-à-vis remnant life assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S. C.; Reddy, K. S.; Reddy, G. Jaipal; Singh, Kulvir; Sarma, D. S.

    2003-06-01

    In many cases, it was observed that service-exposed material delivers creep life comparable to unaged material. To understand the mechanism, a 1Cr-1Mo-¼ V casing casting steel has been given service-simulated aging treatment covering up to 150,000 hours. Room-temperature tensile strength, hardness, and fracture appearance transition temperature are evaluated for each time-temperature slot. Stress-rupture tests have been carried out following isostress methodology. Microstructural changes subsequent to aging and after stress rupture tests are evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results have shown that, though there is a drop in mechanical properties of aged material, stress-rupture property behaved differently. Life steadily declines at intermediate simulation aging conditions up to 100,000 hours, but improves on further aging (≡ 150,000 hours). Thus, extrapolated rupture life at 530 °C (service temperature) produced a “C” shape plot in aging time vs rupture life. Metallographic observation revealed that, at intermediate aging condition, metastability and transitional behavior of alloy carbides are responsible for the drop in rupture life. On the contrary, improvement in rupture strength at the extreme aged condition (≡ 150,000 hours) is attributed to the stable carbides, viz. MC, M23C6, in-situ formation of (V, Mo)C (“H” type), and secondary precipitation of MC and M2C, in a ferrite matrix possessing relatively low density dislocation network.

  3. Development of a cobinamide-based end-of-service-life indicator for detection of hydrogen cyanide gas

    PubMed Central

    Greenawald, Lee A.; Snyder, Jay L.; Fry, Nicole L.; Sailor, Michael J.; Boss, Gerry R.; Finklea, Harry O.; Bell, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive paper-based sensor for rapid detection of low concentrations (ppm) of hydrogen cyanide gas. A piece of filter paper pre-spotted with a dilute monocyanocobinamide [CN(H2O)Cbi] solution was placed on the end of a bifurcated optical fiber and the reflectance spectrum of the CN(H2O)Cbi was monitored during exposure to 1.0–10.0 ppm hydrogen cyanide gas. Formation of dicyanocobinamide yielded a peak at 583 nm with a simultaneous decrease in reflectance from 450–500 nm. Spectral changes were monitored as a function of time at several relative humidity values: 25, 50, and 85% relative humidity. With either cellulose or glass fiber papers, spectral changes occurred within 10 s of exposure to 5.0 ppm hydrogen cyanide gas (NIOSH recommended short-term exposure limit). We conclude that this sensor could provide a real-time end-of-service-life alert to a respirator user. PMID:26213448

  4. Ecosystem Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  5. Accelerated life testing of solar absorber coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Moeller, K.; Frei, Ulrich; Koehl, Michael

    1994-09-01

    Results from a comprehensive case study on accelerated life testing of some selective solar collector absorber coatings for DHW systems are reviewed. The study was conducted within Task X `Solar Materials Research and Development' of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program from 1987 to 1992 and is unique due to its quantitative and systematic approach for durability assessment. The work of case study involved the development of both experimental and theoretical tools to aid the assessment of service life or absorber coatings. This entailed performance analysis, failure analysis, microclimate characterization, environmental resistance testing and life date analysis. Predicted in-service degradation of coatings from accelerated life testing was found to be in fairly good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with what was actually observed on coatings installed and tested for three years in solar collectors working under typical DHW conditions.

  6. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  7. Enhancing Quality of Life of Families Who Use Adult Day Services: Short- and Long-Term Effects of the Adult Day Services Plus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Reever, Karen; Dennis, Marie P.; Mathieu, Esther; Hauck, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the short- and long-term effects of Adult Day Services Plus (ADS Plus), a low-cost care management intervention designed to enhance family caregiver well-being, increase service utilization, and decrease nursing home placement of impaired older adults enrolled in adult day care. Design and Methods: We used a…

  8. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  9. The psychosocial experience of patients with end-stage renal disease and its impact on quality of life: findings from a needs assessment to shape a service.

    PubMed

    Finnegan-John, Jennifer; Thomas, Veronica J

    2013-01-01

    Background. A needs assessment was conducted on renal patients registered to a leading hospital trust in London in order to explore their psychological, social, and spiritual needs. The aim of the needs assessment was to create an evidence base for the development of a comprehensive health psychology service to run concurrently with a renal counselling support service within the department. Methodology. This study utilised a series of semistructured face-to-face interviews and focus groups with renal patients and their carers, to explore how ESRD impacted quality of life. Results. A thematic analysis was undertaken. Seven emergent themes were identified that influenced the quality of life of people with EDRD: physiological impact, impact of treatment, impact on daily life, psychological impact, impact on relationships, social impact and coping responses. Conclusion. The needs assessment clearly identified that ESRD carries with it emotional, physical, psychological, social, and existential burdens. The data from this needs assessment study has created an evidence base upon which future health psychology services can be built within this leading UK hospital.

  10. Service utilization, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction among women who experienced intimate partner abuse: the mediation effect of empowerment.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Yu

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A survey study was conducted through the collaboration of social workers in the Centers of Prevention and Intervention for Domestic Violence and private sectors in Taiwan. Through contact by their social workers, 191 participants completed the questionnaires. The results revealed that the participants had growth mainly in their psychological and interpersonal domains. The independent variables in the regression model explained 45.3% (adjusted) variance in perceived changes of self. In addition to empowerment and negative impact of violence, intensity of contact and professional relationship were two important service variables that directly and significantly correlated with perceived changes of self. A significant amount of variance (adjusted R² = .556) in life satisfaction could be explained by the independent variables. Social support and empowerment directly correlated with life satisfaction. The findings also supported the mediation effect of empowerment. Seven variables (e.g., social support, coping method, and professional relationship) indirectly associated with perceived changes of self and life satisfaction through empowerment.

  11. Quality of life of caregivers with relatives suffering from mental illness in Hong Kong: roles of caregiver characteristics, caregiving burdens, and satisfaction with psychiatric services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study attempted to explore the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese caregivers with mentally ill relatives. It also aimed to examine the differential roles of caregiving burdens, caregiver characteristics, and satisfaction with psychiatric services in caregivers' QoL. Methods 276 caregivers with relatives attending community psychiatric facilities in Hong Kong were invited to fill out a questionnaire. One sample t-tests were conducted to compare the results of this study with that of other Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the relative influence of different factors on caregivers' QoL. Results Our sample of caregivers had significantly lower QoL scores than other Chinese populations. Results also suggest that Chinese caregivers who had chronic illness, younger in age, a lower education level, experienced more difficulties in handling negative symptoms, and were more dissatisfied with mental health services had poorer quality of life. Indeed, caregiver characteristics displayed a much stronger association with caregivers' QoL than did caregiving burdens and satisfaction with psychiatric services. Conclusions This study supports the strong association of caregiver characteristics and the QoL of caregivers and establishes the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with mental health services and caregiver QoL. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22289443

  12. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  13. End-of-life Characteristics of the Elderly: An Assessment of Home-based Palliative Services in Two Panchayats of Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, R; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra; Chatterjee, Debolina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home-based palliative services form the cornerstone of Kerala's palliative program. However, two issues need research: (a) whether family-homes can be considered as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations who experience deprivation and poverty and (b) whether the present delivery structure meets the needs of elderly population. These issues are examined in the context of two rural areas. The study explores end-of-life characteristics of the elderly – their sociodemographic status and living patterns, morbidity profile, and functional status. It also looks into the accessibility and utilization of palliative services and respondents’ satisfaction with different components of the services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey design is used. Data were collected based on the interviews of sixty service users sampled randomly from a roster of palliative care services. Semi-structured interviews were substantiated by personal field observations. Results: The study has found people living under extreme financial distress with inadequate shelter and poor social security provisions. The health profile is characterized by high level of functional dependence. Many dependent widowed women were living alone without appropriate care and shelter. The palliative program as perceived by the respondents is characterized by few doctor visitations and poor frequency. Conclusion: The study concludes that home-based palliation in its present form does not promote good end-of-life care. It lacks an integrated approach with good service-mix. It raises serious questions on family-home as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations, and suggests need for restructuring of the palliative program. PMID:27803573

  14. Developing Leadership in Faculty and Students: The Power of Service Learning in Teacher Education. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Winecoff, H. Larry; Rowls, Michael; Kemper, Richard; Freeman, Nancy K.; Mason, Janet; Janes, David; Creech, Nena

    This guidebook provides information on necessary elements for quality service learning and teacher education (SLATE), emphasizing the nurturing of leadership skills in preservice and inservice teachers. Chapter 1, "Leadership and Service Learning: Interactive Processes that Enhance Teacher Development," describes shared leadership,…

  15. Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest (ALASCA) and the effectiveness of an early intervention service: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Moulaert, Véronique RMP; Verbunt, Jeanine A; van Heugten, Caroline M; Bakx, Wilbert GM; Gorgels, Anton PM; Bekkers, Sebastiaan CAM; de Krom, Marc CFTM; Wade, Derick T

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest survivors may experience hypoxic brain injury that results in cognitive impairments which frequently remain unrecognised. This may lead to limitations in daily activities and participation in society, a decreased quality of life for the patient, and a high strain for the caregiver. Publications about interventions directed at improving quality of life after survival of a cardiac arrest are scarce. Therefore, evidence about effective rehabilitation programmes for cardiac arrest survivors is urgently needed. This paper presents the design of the ALASCA (Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest) trial, a randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a new early intervention service for survivors of a cardiac arrest and their caregivers. Methods/design The study population comprises all people who survive two weeks after a cardiac arrest and are admitted to one of the participating hospitals in the Southern part of the Netherlands. In a two-group randomised, controlled clinical trial, half of the participants will receive an early intervention service. The early intervention service consists of several consultations with a specialised nurse for the patient and their caregiver during the first three months after the cardiac arrest. The intervention is directed at screening for cognitive problems, provision of informational, emotional and practical support, and stimulating self-management. If necessary, referral to specialised care can take place. Persons in the control group will receive the care as usual. The primary outcome measures are the extent of participation in society and quality of life of the patient one year after a cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome measures are the level of cognitive, emotional and cardiovascular impairment and daily functioning of the patient, as well as the strain for and quality of life of the caregiver. Participants and their caregivers will be followed for twelve months after the

  16. Lower health related quality of life in U.S. military personnel is associated with service-related disorders and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jessica; Lee, Hyunhwa; Barr, Taura; Baxter, Tristin; Heinzelmann, Morgan; Rak, Hannah; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2014-04-30

    Military personnel who have combat exposures are at increased risk for the service-related disorders of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, sleep disturbances and decreased health related quality of life (HRQOL). Those with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at even greater risk. Inflammation is associated with these disorders and may underlie the risk for health declines. We evaluated 110 recently deployed, military personnel presenting with sleep disturbances for service-related disorders (TBI, PTSD, and depression) as well as HRQOL. ANOVA models were used to examine differences among military personnel with two or more service-related disorders (high comorbid group), or one or no disorders (low comorbid group). Logistic regression models were used to determine associations among interleukin-6 (IL-6) to HRQOL and service-related disorders. Approximately one-third of the sample had two or more service-related disorders. HRQOL was lower and IL-6 concentrations were higher in military personnel with PTSD or depression, with the most profound differences in those with more service-related disorders, regardless of sleep disorder. Having symptoms of depression and PTSD resulted in a 3.5-fold risk to be in the lower quartile of HRQOL and the highest quartile of IL-6. In a linear regression model, 41% of the relationship between HRQOL and IL-6 concentrations was mediated by PTSD and depression. Military personnel with PTSD and depression are at high risk for lower HRQOL, and higher IL-6 concentrations. Comprehensive treatment is required to address co-occurring service-related disorders in military personnel to promote health and well-being.

  17. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  18. Linguistic competence/language access services (LAS) in end-of-life and palliative care: a social work leadership imperative.

    PubMed

    Le Sage, Margie Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Despite the mandated and moral imperative to advance linguistic competence in all health care contexts, leadership that addresses this area of practice and study in end-of-life and palliative care is not readily obvious. Because social work is ideally suited to lead efforts to advance linguistically-accessible end-of-life and palliative care, social workers are encouraged to assume the challenge. This article focuses on topics that are elementary yet central to discussions on language diversity and leadership initiatives to advance language access in end-of-life and palliative care contexts: importance and function of language, extent of language diversity, inequity related to language diversity, mandates and standards related to language access, and approaches and competencies that contribute positively to language access.

  19. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children.

  20. Software and Information Life Cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization. Analysis and implementation phase adaptations of the Sandia software guidelines: Issue A, April 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated information Services (IIS) Center. This issue A describes the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the analysis set deliverables. Subsequent issues will describe the other life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The analysis phase as described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  1. Re-imagining long-term services and supports: towards livable environments, service capacity, and enhanced community integration, choice, and quality of life for seniors.

    PubMed

    Kane, Rosalie A; Cutler, Lois J

    2015-04-01

    In the half century since enactment of the 1965 Great Society programs, accomplishments were gradually made to improve access to and quality of long-term services and supports (LTSS), including: mitigation of financial and care abuses in nursing facilities (NFs); substantial rebalancing of LTSS towards consumer-preferred home-and-community-based services (HCBS); increasing flexible consumer-centered HCBS including payment to family caregivers; and more assisted-living and housing options for seniors with heavy care needs. A unified planning and advocacy agenda across age and disability type and greater consumer transparency fueled progress. Nonetheless, LTSS is a broken system; persistent problems interfere with substantial and necessary change. These include; over-emphasis on safety for LTSS consumers; inattention to physical environments in all settings; regulatory and professional rigidity; and poor communication and information. Our recommendations are aimed at builders and designers, LTSS professionals, regulators, and educators/trainers; the last may be crucial in forging new consensus and over-coming entrenched beliefs. Policy recommendations include relatively narrow steps-for example, requiring single occupancy in all NFs and assisted living settings financed with public dollars-to broad reworking of the prerequisites for livable age-friendly (and dementia-friendly) communities and for a capable, flexible LTSS workforce.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal food waste and sewage sludge: A comparative life cycle assessment in the context of a waste service provision.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This study used life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) and compared it against the current waste management system in two case study areas. Results indicated AcoD to have less environmental impact for all categories modelled excluding human toxicity, despite the need to collect and pre-treat food waste separately. Uncertainty modelling confirmed that AcoD has a 100% likelihood of a smaller global warming potential, and for acidification, eutrophication and fossil fuel depletion AcoD carried a greater than 85% confidence of inducing a lesser impact than the current waste service.

  3. The Effects of Practice Teaching Sessions in Second Life on the Change in Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Donguk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of practice teaching in Second Life on the change of preservice teachers' teaching efficacy, and the difference of changes between individual teaching practice and collaborative teaching practice in their teaching efficacy. Participants were placed into the individual teaching practice or…

  4. Second Life to Support Multicultural Literacy: Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…

  5. Using Information To Improve Services to Minnesota Youth with Disabilities in Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.

    This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations of a symposium which focused on issues addressing the collection, sharing, and use of information to improve transition services and supports to youth and young adults with disabilities. Participants included representatives from state agencies, advocates, family members, and Community…

  6. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  7. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  8. Development of an Accelerated Test Design for Predicting the Service Life of the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Noel, G. T.; Shilliday, T. S.; Wood, V. E.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated life test is described which was developed to predict the life of the 25 kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses was used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation was then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses, such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The correction factors for the nonthermal stresses included temperature-dependent exponents to account for the effects of interactions between thermal and nonthermal stresses on the rate of degradation of power output. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and UV types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field.

  9. The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening on Service Life of the Butt-Welded High-Temperature Steel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daavari, Morteza; Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough

    2015-09-01

    Residual stresses introduced by manufacturing processes such as casting, forming, machining, and welding have harmful effects on the mechanical behavior of the structures. In addition to the residual stresses, weld toe stress concentration can play a determining effect. There are several methods to improve the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior of the welded structures. In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic peening on the fatigue life of the high-temperature seamless steel pipes, used in the petrochemical environment, have been investigated. These welded pipes are fatigued due to thermal and mechanical loads caused by the cycle of cooling, heating, and internal pressure fluctuations. Residual stress measurements, weld geometry estimation, electrochemical evaluations, and metallography investigations were done as supplementary examinations. Results showed that application of ultrasonic impact treatment has led to increased fatigue life, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance of A106-B welded steel pipes in petrochemical corrosive environment.

  10. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  11. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  12. Use of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) for end-of-life prognostication in a palliative medicine consultation service.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis; Maida, Vincent; Downing, Michael; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the use of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) in end-of-life prognostication within a regional palliative care program in a Canadian province. The analysis was done on a prospective cohort of 513 patients assessed by a palliative care consult team as part of an initial community/hospital-based consult. The variables used were initial PPS score, age, gender, diagnosis, cancer type, and survival time. The findings revealed initial PPS to be a significant predictor of survival, along with age, diagnosis, cancer type and site, but not gender. The survival curves were distinct for PPS 10%, 20%, and 30% individually, and for 40%-60% and > or =70% as bands. This is consistent with earlier findings of the ambiguity and difficulty when assessing patients at higher PPS levels because of the subjective nature of the tool. We advocate the use of median survival and survival rates based on a local cohort where feasible, when reporting individual survival estimates.

  13. 42 CFR 414.48 - Limits on actual charges of nonparticipating suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suppliers. 414.48 Section 414.48 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.48 Limits on actual charges of nonparticipating suppliers. (a) General rule. A supplier, as defined in § 400.202 of this chapter, who is nonparticipating...

  14. Utilization and cost of services in the last 6 months of life of patients with cancer - with and without home hospice care.

    PubMed

    Bentur, Netta; Resnizky, Shirli; Balicer, Ran; Eilat-Tsanani, Tsofia

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the utilization and cost of all health services consumed during the last six months of life by cancer patients, and compared those with and without home-hospice care. Detailed information was extracted from the health care electronic administrative data files on 193 deceased cancer patients that their family approved the study (out of 429, 45%). About 88% had been hospitalized for 19 days on average and 53% visited the ER. One quarter received home-hospice care. Their average cost was $13,648 compared to $18,503 for patients without home-hospice care. Hospitalization contributed 32% to the total cost of patients with home-hospice care and 64% for those with it. The findings support the justification for significant expansion of home-hospice care.

  15. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  16. A study protocol for tracking quality of life among U.S. service members wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Galarneau, Michael R; Luu, Bethi N; Sack, Daniel; Han, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    There is a need for more work to understand the quality of life (QOL) outcomes of survivors of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom combat injury to improve care and treatment, and prevent poor physical, psychological, and social outcomes. We describe the study design and methods of the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project, a study supported by the Department of Defense that will track close to 10,000 military personnel wounded in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The overall objective of the 6-year longitudinal study is to track changes in QOL and describe variations in those changes as they relate to sociodemographic factors, injury characteristics, service-related factors, clinical/diagnostic measures including traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder, and medical procedures and services. The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project study will be among the first longitudinal population-based investigations of QOL outcomes after combat injury and will provide a basis upon which large-scale epidemiological studies can be conducted.

  17. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  18. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  19. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  20. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  1. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  2. What Are Physicians' Reasons for Not Referring People with Life-Limiting Illnesses to Specialist Palliative Care Services? A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Pardon, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Devroey, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Many people who might benefit from specialist palliative care services are not using them. Aim We examined the use of these services and the reasons for not using them in a population in potential need of palliative care. Methods We conducted a population-based survey regarding end-of-life care among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n = 6188) of deaths in Flanders, Belgium. Results Palliative care services were not used in 79% of cases of people with organ failure, 64% of dementia and 44% of cancer. The most frequently indicated reasons were that 1) existing care already sufficiently addressed palliative and supportive needs (56%), 2) palliative care was not deemed meaningful (26%) and 3) there was insufficient time to initiate palliative care (24%). The reasons differed according to patient characteristics: in people with dementia the consideration of palliative care as not meaningful was more likely to be a reason for not using it; in older people their care needs already being sufficiently addressed was more likely to be a reason. For those patients who were referred the timing of referral varied from a median of six days before death (organ failure) to 16 days (cancer). Conclusions Specialist palliative care is not initiated in almost half of the people for whom it could be beneficial, most frequently because physicians deem regular caregivers to be sufficiently skilled in addressing palliative care needs. This would imply that the safeguarding of palliative care skills in this regular ‘general’ care is an essential health policy priority. PMID:26356477

  3. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  4. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  5. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  6. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  7. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  8. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  9. A sociodental approach to assessing children's oral health needs: integrating an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure into oral health service planning.

    PubMed Central

    Gherunpong, Sudaduang; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We adopted a sociodental approach to assess the real dental needs of Thai primary school children, and integrated an oral health-related quality of life measure (OHRQoL) into oral health service planning. We then compared the results of this sociodental assessment with standard estimates of a child's oral health needs. METHODS: We developed a new model of sociodental needs assessment and used it to assess the level of impact that various oral health conditions have on the everyday lives of school children. We then carried out a cross-sectional study of all grade-6 children (11-12 years old) in Suphan-buri Province, Thailand. We examined the sample (n = 1034) to assess the children's oral health and then we interviewed each child individually to assess what impact any dental conditions he or she may have on their quality of life. This assessment was done using an OHRQoL indicator, the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (child-OIDP). We integrated the results obtained using this indicator with those estimates obtained using more traditional, standard clinical methods, in order to generate a clearer picture of exactly which non-progressive dental conditions really needed treatment. These results take into account the impact those conditions have on the overall well-being of children and their ability to function normally and unimpeded. We were then able to prioritize their dental needs according to the severity of disruption caused in their daily lives. FINDINGS: Using standard or "normative" estimates of dental health care needs, the children's need was 98.8%. This level of need decreased signifi cantly to 39.5% when adopting the sociodental approach (P <0.001). Overall, per 100 children with a standard or normative need for dental treatment, only 40 had a sociodental need for treatment when taking into account the impact their condition has on their everyday lives. Children thus identifi ed as requiring treatment were further categorized

  10. Predicting use of case management support services for adolescents and adults living in community following brain injury: A longitudinal Canadian database study with implications for life care planning

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, B.; Dawson, D.R.; Streiner, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with case management (CM) service use in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a published model for service use. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort, with nested case-control design. Correlational and logistic regression analyses of questionnaires from a longitudinal community data base. STUDY SAMPLE: Questionnaires of 203 users of CM services and 273 non-users, complete for all outcome and predictor variables. Individuals with TBI, 15 years of age and older. Out of a dataset of 1,960 questionnaires, 476 met the inclusion criteria. METHODOLOGY: Eight predictor variables and one outcome variable (use or non-use of the service). Predictor variables considered the framework of the Behaviour Model of Health Service Use (BMHSU); specifically, pre-disposing, need and enabling factor groups as these relate to health service use and access. RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant differences between users and non-users of CM services. In particular, users were significantly younger than non-users as the older the person the less likely to use the service. Also, users had less education and more severe activity limitations and lower community integration. Persons living alone are less likely to use case management. Funding groups also significantly impact users. CONCLUSIONS: This study advances an empirical understanding of equity of access to health services usage in the practice of CM for persons living with TBI as a fairly new area of research, and considers direct relevance to Life Care Planning (LCP). Many life care planers are CM and the genesis of LCP is CM. The findings relate to health service use and access, rather than health outcomes. These findings may assist with development of a modified model for prediction of use to advance future cost of care predictions. PMID:26409333

  11. Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

    2007-12-01

    University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an

  12. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  13. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  14. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  15. Climate regulation, energy provisioning and water purification: Quantifying ecosystem service delivery of bioenergy willow grown on riparian buffer zones using life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; Börjesson, Pål; D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Birkhofer, Klaus; Dauber, Jens; Adams, Paul; Patil, Sopan; Pagella, Tim; Pettersson, Lars B; Peck, Philip; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Rosenqvist, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Whilst life cycle assessment (LCA) boundaries are expanded to account for negative indirect consequences of bioenergy such as indirect land use change (ILUC), ecosystem services such as water purification sometimes delivered by perennial bioenergy crops are typically neglected in LCA studies. Consequential LCA was applied to evaluate the significance of nutrient interception and retention on the environmental balance of unfertilised energy willow planted on 50-m riparian buffer strips and drainage filtration zones in the Skåne region of Sweden. Excluding possible ILUC effects and considering oil heat substitution, strategically planted filter willow can achieve net global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP) savings of up to 11.9 Mg CO2e and 47 kg PO4e ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, compared with a GWP saving of 14.8 Mg CO2e ha(-1) year(-1) and an EP increase of 7 kg PO4e ha(-1) year(-1) for fertilised willow. Planting willow on appropriate buffer and filter zones throughout Skåne could avoid 626 Mg year(-1) PO4e nutrient loading to waters.

  16. The Effect of Carbon Layer Variations in Carbon/Porous Silicon Composite Rugate Filters for End-of-Service-Life Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofus, John Stephen, III

    Carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters, for use as end-of service-life indicators in gas mask filters, are more capable of increased sensitivity to volatile organic chemical vapors than porous silicon sensors alone. Compositional variations of the carbon layer within these composite materials have not been well studied. At low carbon content, the carbonized surface will not effectively mimic the active carbon used in gas mask filters. At high carbon content, there is increased noise and a broader, less intense rugate stop band, reducing the signal to noise level of the sensor response. The focus of this thesis is the optimization of the carbon layer in the carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters. To accomplish this, porous silicon rugate filters were etched and then carbonized using varying concentrations of the poly(furfuryl alcohol) precursor. Variations in the carbon layer were then analyzed via spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. At concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol there is minimal difference observed in the carbon layer on the porous silicon surface. Samples were also shown to have a minimal increase in sensitivity at concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol, and an increased signal-to-noise with increased furfuryl alcohol concentration. It is shown that the optimal carbon layer for volatile organic vapor sensing is achieved by using a furfuryl alcohol concentration of 50% furfuryl alcohol (in ethanol) during carbon layer synthesis.

  17. Reauthorization of the Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects Act of 1981. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on an Overview of the Adolescent Pregnancy Problem and Reauthorization of Title XX of the Public Health Service Act: The Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects Act of 1981 (April 24 and 26, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document provides witness testimony and prepared statements from two Congressional hearings called to consider the reauthorization of the Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects. Testimony is presented from two officials of the Department of Health and Human Services who are responsible for administering the law, representatives from…

  18. 78 FR 59817 - Revision to United States Marshals Service Fees for Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Marshals Service fees to reflect current costs to the United States Marshals Service for service of process....S.C. 1921(a). To the extent practicable, these fees shall reflect the actual and reasonable costs of... in 1991 based on the actual costs, e.g., salaries, overhead, etc., of the services rendered and...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  4. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  5. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  6. Serious Illness, Injury, and Death in Child Protection and Preparation for End-of-Life Situations among Child Welfare Services Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…

  7. Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Sarah; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their

  8. Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach.

    PubMed

    Amador, Sarah; Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline

    2016-06-03

    In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their

  9. [Social medicine's actuality: epidemiology sanitary's foundation].

    PubMed

    Grijalba, Francisco Javier Yuste

    2007-01-01

    Appear the Spanish official data of mortality and morbility, as well as available of obesity and the metabolic syndrome to base the thesis of which the pathogenic style of life is the main determinant of one and others. Considerations become on their meaning epidemiologist as well as the forced repercussions in the decisions on the sanitary policy, that must take care of the social causes of becoming ill than their individual consequences more, in a etiologic perspective than more anatomoclinic.

  10. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning.

    PubMed

    Plant, Christopher P; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers' happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one's own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning.

  11. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  12. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 206.180 Section 206.180 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 206.180 How do I...

  13. ‘Why does it happen like this?’ Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-01-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was ‘Why does it happen like this?’ Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families’ needs. The theme that linked families’ concerns with those of professionals was ‘assessing individual needs’. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  15. Service Modeling for Service Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Yoshiki; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    Intensification of service and knowledge contents within product life cycles is considered crucial for dematerialization, in particular, to design optimal product-service systems from the viewpoint of environmentally conscious design and manufacturing in advanced post industrial societies. In addition to the environmental limitations, we are facing social limitations which include limitations of markets to accept increasing numbers of mass-produced artifacts and such environmental and social limitations are restraining economic growth. To attack and remove these problems, we need to reconsider the current mass production paradigm and to make products have more added values largely from knowledge and service contents to compensate volume reduction under the concept of dematerialization. Namely, dematerialization of products needs to enrich service contents. However, service was mainly discussed within marketing and has been mostly neglected within traditional engineering. Therefore, we need new engineering methods to look at services, rather than just functions, called "Service Engineering." To establish service engineering, this paper proposes a modeling technique of service.

  16. Transicion de la Escuela a la Vida Adulta Manual de Informacion para la Provision de Servicios de Transicion a los Jovenes con Impedimentos (Transition from School to Adult Life. Manual of Information for the Provision of Transitional Services for Youth with Disabilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    This manual has been prepared to orient school personnel in the development of programs for the transition of students with disabilities from school to adult life so that they can fulfill their responsibilities in planning and providing services. The laws under which such services are required are reviewed, and the services and planning are…

  17. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  18. The use of long term monitoring data for the extension of the service duration of existing wind turbine support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loraux, C.; Brühwiler, E.

    2016-09-01

    Actual wind energy converter (WEC) are designed for a relatively short service life of 20 years and the limiting criterion is the fatigue safety. However, effective fatigue loading endured by the structural components of the wind turbines (WT) is likely to be much below design assumptions provided by current codes. This paper describes a simple but efficient long term monitoring system that allows owners to verify the fatigue safety of their existing WTs. The monitored data will also help to drastically extend the service life of existing wind turbine support structure and will thus reduce the global environmental footprint of WTs.

  19. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied.

  20. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  1. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  2. How the Tea Is Made; Or, the Scoping and Scaling of "Everyday Life" in Changing Services for "People with Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In the late 20th century, the day services which had been set up for adults defined as having learning disabilities became understood as problematic because of the effects of segregation. The new solution became the adjustment of services to support a governmental form of personhood; a model of personhood defined by independence, the ability to…

  3. Mammography screening services: market segments and messages.

    PubMed

    Scammon, D L; Smith, J A; Beard, T

    1991-01-01

    Mammography has become a vital tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Although many organizations and health care facilities are working to educate and motivate women to take advantage of the life saving opportunity that is offered through screening mammography, only twenty percent of women who should be screened actually have the procedure performed. In order to reach women who have not been screened, it is important to learn which factors most strongly motivate those women who do choose to have a mammogram. Depth interviews with 18 women attending a mobile mammography unit were conducted to explore the decision making process of women obtaining mammography screening services and to develop a profile of prevalent emotions, attitudes, and feelings associated with receiving breast cancer screening services. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several important themes to which health care professionals can direct marketing and health promotion strategies.

  4. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    forward to her visits. Case managers help negotiate compliance to medication, housing, meaningful activity, substance abuse, poverty, isolation, and everything else living in the community can throw at you. Without a spouse you tend to spend a lot of time alone. One of the main reasons Marie-Claude and I moved in with each other was that neither of us was enjoying living alone. It was very romantic at first but now we are just friends who see less and less of each other. I suspect schizophrenia interferes with the quality and depth of relationships you have with other people. Amongst the people I know, schizophrenia has meant a pretty solitary life of poverty. I have a lot of acquaintances, and colleagues, but few close friends when not at work. Over the last ten years of living with schizophrenia on medication it is celibacy that has hurt the most. It saps the life out of you, your self confidence, your self esteem. In some Scandinavian countries and Holland disabled people are allowed monthly visits by state approved sex workers. To me that is only common sense. To live without sex is unnatural and can only cause emotional suffering. We don't recognize the importance of quality sexual experience in keeping people healthy and happy in France. That doesn't mean it isn't I have a pretty high profile in my community through the meaningful activity I do. From having a half dozen names and faces to remember, I now have what seems like hundreds. I have a lot of trouble remembering people's names and faces. I am still meeting new people but I'm rarely invited to socialize with any after work. They have families, full time jobs, kids, cars, cottages, etc. My life at home is pretty solitary. It's a nuisance to travel across the city to visit people. There are few people that I share a similar background with. Since people with schizophrenia tend to have trouble learning new things, and change very little as a result, we tend to have trouble making new friends. People with

  5. Actualities in big segments replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Clemente, Alessandra; Pontini, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Replantation of an amputation is no longer a difficult technical problem. Indeed, the experience gathered over the last few decades, right from the first concepts posed by the pioneers up to the present era and the improved technical aids, all go to suggest that the majority of amputated segments may now be reconstructed. However, what we really want from a replant is not just survival but function. Indications for replantations must follow careful and objective patient selection together with the evaluation of type and site of lesion and possible complications. Furthermore, the important role of emergency organization in this type of surgery is to be emphasized. Nowadays, clean cut injuries are rarer and are being substituted by high energy trauma which may produce extensive tissue lesions that increase complications and lead to poor functional results. Consequently, some authors were induced to describe evaluation systems for decision making which still present problems which are in part due to the large number of parameters to be taken into consideration as well as to the complex functionality of the upper limb. This led us to evaluate our case series of 52 major replantations of the upper limb over the last 10 years and to compare it with other published series. The best form of reconstruction following total amputation of a major limb segment is still its replantation. The highly significant increase in the quality of life is able to justify the higher social costs and the number of operations required.

  6. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A taxometric analysis of actual Internet sports gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2011-03-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a cohort of 48,114 people using an Internet service to gamble on sporting events. We applied two taxometric procedures (i.e., MAMBAC and MAXCOV) to three indicators of betting behavior: total money lost, total number of bets, and total money wagered. The results fail to provide support for the view that the most involved Internet sports gamblers include a distinct category of gamblers. More research is necessary to clarify the similar features of recreational and extreme gamblers and the dimensions that scientists can use to measure these behaviors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for clinical, research, and public policy activities.

  8. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications.

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  9. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  10. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  11. Using a Service Audit Project for Improving Student Learning in a Service-Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Padron, Tracy; Ferguson, Jeffery M.

    2015-01-01

    Service-marketing education provides students customer service skills sought by employers who recognize the relationship between service and profit. Students in service marketing benefit from active-learning activities with actual organizations to apply customer service frameworks taught in the course. The purpose of this paper is to describe an…

  12. A profile of the belief system and attitudes to end-of-life decisions of senior clinicians working in a National Health Service Hospital in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pugh, E J; Song, R; Whittaker, V; Blenkinsopp, J

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence from outside the United Kingdom to show that physicians' religious beliefs influence their decision making at the end of life. This UK study explores the belief system of consultants, nurse key workers and specialist registrars and their attitudes to decisions which commonly must be taken when caring for individuals who are dying. All consultants (N = 119), nurse key workers (N = 36) and specialist registrars (N = 44) working in an acute hospital in the north-east of England were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. In all, 65% of consultants, 67% of nurse key workers and 41% of specialist registrars responded. Results showed that consultants' religion and belief systems differed from those of nurses and the population they served. Consultants and nurses had statistically significant differences in their attitudes to common end of life decisions with consultants more likely to continue hydration and not withdraw treatment. Nurses were more sympathetic to the idea of physician-assisted suicide for unbearable suffering. This study shows the variability in belief system and attitudes to end of life decision making both within and between clinical groups. This may have practical implications for the clinical care given and the place of care. The personal belief system of consultants was not shown to affect their overall attitudes to withdrawing life-sustaining treatment or physician-assisted suicide.

  13. Knowledge and Life-Experiences: Finland Seen through Its Libraries and Information Services = Kunskap och Upplevelser: Finland som BDI-land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksovirta, Tuula H.; Haavisto, Tuula

    This illustrated publication, printed in both English and Finnish, describes Finland's libraries and information services. Topics covered include: (1) library users; (2) the conceptual role of the library; (3) the growth and development of the library system through Finland's agrarian, industrial, and budding infotech social phases; (4) the…

  14. Fighter Aircraft: Better Cost Estimates Needed for Extending the Service Life of Selected F-16s and F/A-18s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    United States Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-13-51, a report to congressional committees November 2012 FIGHTER AIRCRAFT ...reproduce this material separately. Page 1 GAO-13-51 Fighter Aircraft United States Government Accountability Office Washington, DC 20548 November...Tactical Air and Land Forces Committee on Armed Services House of Representatives Fighter aircraft are important to achieving and maintaining air

  15. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  16. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  17. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  18. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  19. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  20. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  1. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  2. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  3. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  4. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  5. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  6. Integration of Sensor Technologies into Respirator Vapor Cartridges as End-of-Service-Life Indicators: Literature and Manufacturer’s Review and Research Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    Mercury Vapor CBRN Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear First Responders Respiratory protection using respirators equipped with respirator cartridges...colorimetric method for monitoring the permeation of chemical agents through protective clothing materials. The new method for monitoring dibutyl sulphide , a...with mercury vapor. MSA has a cartridge life expectancy calculator on their website and respirators that have an ESLI suitable for mercury vapor. The

  7. Service Learning and Learning Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Kimberly

    This paper argues that service learning and learning communities can be key to student retention. Anderson (1998) argues that service learning reflects the belief that education should develop social responsibility and prepare students to be involved citizens in democratic life. Service learning blends service activities with the academic…

  8. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  9. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  10. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  11. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  12. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  13. Emergency Medical Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.

  14. Fatigue life of laser cut metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted to determine the actual reduction in fatigue life due to weight removal for balancing by: hand grinding, low power (20 watt) Nd:glass laser, and high power (400 watt) Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  16. An integrated degradation and structural model for predicting the service life of buried reinforced concrete structures for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Lolcama, J.L.; Reed, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the possible rates of roof and wall failure and the times to structural collapse of the roof and walls of three vault designs at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Failure was defined as a loss of ability to divert soil water around the vault. Collapse was defined as the total loss of structure integrity of the vault. Failure and eventual collapse of the three vault types results from concrete deterioration under stress, in the presence of corrosive soil water. Degradation rates for reinforced concrete were utilized, and the resultant changes in properties (such as strength, thickness, cracking and hydraulic conductivity) were evaluated. Baseline times to failure and collapse of the walls and roof components were modeled, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to provide boundaries on these estimated times. Thus, the goal of the project was to provide a bounding analysis of the time to roof and wall failure and potential collapse, rather than an actual prediction of the time to failure, and collapse.

  17. Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

  18. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  19. 40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual Negative 4'x5') STAR PLAN, COURTYARD FACADE PROFILE AND DEFENSIVE LINKS - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  20. ON THE DISTRIBUTION THEORY FOR SOME CONSTRAINED LIFE TESTING EXPERIMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RELIABILITY, *TEST METHODS, * DISTRIBUTION THEORY , MATHEMATICAL MODELS, STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DECISION THEORY, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS, THESES.

  1. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  2. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  3. The Protective Role of Resilience in Attenuating Emotional Distress and Aggression Associated with Early-life Stress in Young Enlisted Military Service Candidates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohan; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Kang; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyun Ju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjeong

    2015-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) may induce long-lasting psychological complications in adulthood. The protective role of resilience against the development of psychopathology is also important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among ELS, resilience, depression, anxiety, and aggression in young adults. Four hundred sixty-one army inductees gave written informed consent and participated in this study. We assessed psychopathology using the Korea Military Personality Test, ELS using the Childhood Abuse Experience Scale, and resilience with the resilience scale. Analyses of variance, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for statistical analyses. The regression model explained 35.8%, 41.0%, and 23.3% of the total variance in the depression, anxiety, and aggression indices, respectively. We can find that even though ELS experience is positively associated with depression, anxiety, and aggression, resilience may have significant attenuating effect against the ELS effect on severity of these psychopathologies. Emotion regulation showed the most beneficial effect among resilience factors on reducing severity of psychopathologies. To improve mental health for young adults, ELS assessment and resilience enhancement program should be considered.

  4. The Protective Role of Resilience in Attenuating Emotional Distress and Aggression Associated with Early-life Stress in Young Enlisted Military Service Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joohan; Choi, Kang; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyun Ju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjeong

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) may induce long-lasting psychological complications in adulthood. The protective role of resilience against the development of psychopathology is also important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among ELS, resilience, depression, anxiety, and aggression in young adults. Four hundred sixty-one army inductees gave written informed consent and participated in this study. We assessed psychopathology using the Korea Military Personality Test, ELS using the Childhood Abuse Experience Scale, and resilience with the resilience scale. Analyses of variance, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for statistical analyses. The regression model explained 35.8%, 41.0%, and 23.3% of the total variance in the depression, anxiety, and aggression indices, respectively. We can find that even though ELS experience is positively associated with depression, anxiety, and aggression, resilience may have significant attenuating effect against the ELS effect on severity of these psychopathologies. Emotion regulation showed the most beneficial effect among resilience factors on reducing severity of psychopathologies. To improve mental health for young adults, ELS assessment and resilience enhancement program should be considered. PMID:26539013

  5. Shame amplifies the association between stressful life events and paranoia amongst young adults using mental health services: Implications for understanding risk and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Judith; Jones, Christopher; Lin, Ashleigh; Wood, Stephen; Heinze, Kareen; Jackson, Christopher

    2014-12-15

    Shame is associated with a range of psychological disorders, and is a trans-diagnostic moderator of the association between stressors and symptoms of disorder. However, research has yet to investigate shame in relation to specific psychotic symptoms in clinical groups. In order to address this, the present study investigated shame in young adults with mental health problems, to test whether shame was i) directly associated with paranoia, a prevalent psychotic symptom, and ii) a moderator of the association between stress and paranoia. Sixty participants completed measures of stressful events, paranoia, shame, depression and anxiety. Results from a cross-sectional regression analysis suggested that shame was associated with paranoia after the stressful life event measure was entered into the model, and shame moderated the association between stress and paranoia. For individuals scoring high on shame, shame amplified the association between stress and paranoia, but for low-shame individuals, the association between stress and paranoia was non-significant. These findings suggest that high levels of shame could confer vulnerability for paranoia amongst clinical groups, and that resistance to experiencing shame could be a marker of resilience.

  6. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  7. The TAPS Project 41: homes for life? Residential stability five years after hospital discharge. Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services.

    PubMed

    Trieman, N; Smith, H E; Kendal, R; Leff, J

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes pathways followed by 567 long-stay patients who were resettled into the community, as part of a program to close two psychiatric hospitals in London and replace them with community-based services. Sixty-one percent of the former patients remained in their original placement--mostly group homes--over the five-year follow-up. Transition from one house to another mostly took a direct course, with only 27 patients changing houses by way of long intermediate hospitalisation. Change of residence was at the same level of support, with only a slight trend towards less supervised facilities. Ten patients could not be traced and have possibly become homeless. Only 3 patients were in prison during the five-year follow-up. More than a third of the sample were readmitted at least once during that period. It is concluded that community residences established under the resettlement program served as relatively stable homes for the majority of patients.

  8. The Effect of a Home Delivery Meal Service of Energy- and Protein-Rich Meals on Quality of Life in Malnourished Outpatients Suffering from Lung Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina; Mellemgaard, Anders; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Rask, Katrine; Astrup, Arne

    2017-04-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer patients. Forty lung cancer patients with nutritional risk score ≥3 (NRS-2002) were randomized to control or intervention. The intervention group was offered energy- and protein-rich main meals and snacks, delivered 3 times per week. The control group continued their habitual diet. Primary endpoint, QoL, and secondary endpoints were assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 wk. Data on unplanned readmissions, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected 3 and 6 mo post-intervention. Intervention group improved standard Chair Stand Test (30-s CST) after 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.01) compared to control. Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P  =  0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals and snacks can improve lower body strength and performance status in malnourished lung cancer patients.

  9. Multicenter survey analysis of satisfaction according to actual utilization of rehabilitation services

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byoung-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Jong-Won; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Most such studies have been limited to evaluating the muscle activity patterns of lower extremity muscles using surface electromyograms, but studies of muscle activity patterns according to chair types are lacking. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 52 university students in their 20s (26 males, 26 females) were selected in order to analyze the activity of five lower extremity muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius). The selected subjects had sufficient muscle strength for the experiment and normal joint range of motion. [Results] To examine the sociodemographic variables of the study subjects, the frequencies and percentages of individual items were presented as follows Table 3. [Conclusion] Differences in lower extremity muscle activity levels during standing and sitting were identified, and differences between genders were also seen. There was no significant difference in lower extremity muscle activity levels between use of fixed and wheeled chairs. PMID:27065547

  10. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  11. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  12. ICT services for active ageing and independent living: identification and assessment.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, Christophoros; Kleanthous, Styliani; Georgiadis, Dimosthenis; Cereghetti, Donato M; Andreou, Panayiotis; Wings, Cindy; Christodoulou, Eleni; Samaras, George

    2016-09-01

    Based on the demographic changes and the rapid increase of older population in Europe, major challenges are expected to rise, both in the economy as well as the society, whether the dominant care model for supporting elderly in living independently at home continues to rely on informal and formal caregivers' assistance. To respond to the above challenges, assistive technologies are called to develop Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services for supporting seniors to remain active and independent, for as long as possible, in their chosen home environment. The work described in this Letter is based on the Miraculous-Life project and it emphasises the identification and assessment of a set of services that an ICT system for Ageing Well should support, in an actual end-users setting. The outcome of this work may inform fellow researchers and other projects in the area of Ageing Well in: (i) understanding which ICT services can be the most valuable for end-users' Quality of Life, (ii) prioritising the development of related ICT services and (iii) facilitating better recourse allocation in order to reduce any risks associated to implementation failures of these services within their respective projects. A final trial phase is planned, aiming to validate the Miraculous Life prototype longitudinally in a naturalistic environment with a larger sample size. During this trial, it will be investigated if perceived usefulness, satisfaction and motivation could be predicted by sociodemographic variables and personality.

  13. Interference fits and stress-corrosion failure. [aircraft parts fatigue life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Carter, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that any proper design of interference fit fastener, interference fit bushings, or stress coining processes should consider both the stress-corrosion susceptibility and fatigue-life improvement together. Investigations leading to such a methodology are discussed. A service failure analysis of actual aircraft parts is considered along with the stress-corrosion susceptibility of cold-working interference fit bushings. The optimum design of the amount of interference is considered, giving attention to stress formulas and aspects of design methodology.

  14. Benchmark notch test for life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domas, P. A.; Sharpe, W. N.; Ward, M.; Yau, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The laser Interferometric Strain Displacement Gage (ISDG) was used to measure local strains in notched Inconel 718 test bars subjected to six different load histories at 649 C (1200 F) and including effects of tensile and compressive hold periods. The measurements were compared to simplified Neuber notch analysis predictions of notch root stress and strain. The actual strains incurred at the root of a discontinuity in cyclically loaded test samples subjected to inelastic deformation at high temperature where creep deformations readily occur were determined. The steady state cyclic, stress-strain response at the root of the discontinuity was analyzed. Flat, double notched uniaxially loaded fatigue specimens manufactured from the nickel base, superalloy Inconel 718 were used. The ISDG was used to obtain cycle by cycle recordings of notch root strain during continuous and hold time cycling at 649 C. Comparisons to Neuber and finite element model analyses were made. The results obtained provide a benchmark data set in high technology design where notch fatigue life is the predominant component service life limitation.

  15. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  16. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  17. William Brennan and the Failed "Theory" of Actual Malice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Donald M.

    This paper contains an analysis of Justice William Brennan's Supreme Court opinions concerning cases on freedom of expression and his interpretations of Alexander Meiklejohn's theory of actual malice in cases of libel. Particular attention is paid to Brennan's landmark contribution to the law of libel, his opinion in "New York Times v.…

  18. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  19. Venture actualization in nursing. An analysis of innovation.

    PubMed

    Neidlinger, S H; Bartleson, B J; Drews, N; Hukari, D

    1992-01-01

    From innovations shared by nurse executives and nurse intrapreneurs in acute care hospitals, The Venture Actualization in Nursing Model emerged. Derived from a nursing perspective, this model captures the steps of the nurse innovation process, linking the nurse executive and nurse intrapreneur role components to the process that leads to venture success.

  20. Comparison of Actual Surgical Outcomes and 3D Surgical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Scott; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The advent of imaging software programs have proved to be useful for diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measurement, but precision of 3D surgical simulation still needs to be tested. This study was conducted to determine if the virtual surgery performed on 3D models constructed from Cone-beam CT (CBCT) can correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome and to validate the ability of this emerging technology to recreate the orthognathic surgery hard tissue movements in 3 translational and 3 rotational planes of space. Methods Construction of pre- and post-surgery 3D models from CBCTs of 14 patients who had combined maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery and 6 patients who had one-piece maxillary advancement surgery was performed. The post-surgery and virtually simulated surgery 3D models were registered at the cranial base to quantify differences between simulated and actual surgery models. Hotelling T-test were used to assess the differences between simulated and actual surgical outcomes. Results For all anatomic regions of interest, there was no statistically significant difference between the simulated and the actual surgical models. The right lateral ramus was the only region that showed a statistically significant, but small difference when comparing two- and one-jaw surgeries. Conclusions Virtual surgical methods were reliably reproduced, oral surgery residents could benefit from virtual surgical training, and computer simulation has the potential to increase predictability in the operating room. PMID:20591553

  1. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  2. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  3. Computer/PERT technique monitors actual versus allocated costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houry, E.; Walker, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    A computer method measures the users performance in cost-type contracts utilizing the existing nasa program evaluation review technique without imposing any additional reporting requirements. progress is measured by comparing actual costs with a value of work performed in a specific period.

  4. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  5. Fair Equality of Opportunity in Our Actual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Fair equality of opportunity, a principle that governs the competition for desirable jobs, can seem irrelevant in our actual world, for two reasons. First, parents have broad liberty to raise their children as they see fit, which seems to undermine the fair equality of opportunity-based commitment to eliminating the effects of social circumstances…

  6. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  7. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  8. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  9. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  10. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  11. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  12. Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

  13. Treatment satisfaction of patients undergoing ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a real-life setting

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Rishma; Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Forbes, Angus; Burton, Ben J; Hykin, Philip; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Context Treatment satisfaction with a loading phase of monthly injections for 3 months followed by a pro-re-nata regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) remains unclear. Aims The aim was to evaluate the treatment satisfaction of persons with nAMD treated with ranibizumab in a real-life setting. Settings and design A cross-sectional study was conducted across three eye clinics within the National Health Service in the UK, where treatment is provided free at point of contact. Materials and methods A total of 250 patients were selected randomly for the study. Treatment satisfaction was assessed using the Macular Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were collected on satisfaction of the service provided (Client Service Questionnaire-8) and the patients’ demographic and quality of life and treatment history. Factors governing treatment questionnaire were determined. Results The most important factors that determined the satisfaction were the service provided at the clinic (Client Service Questionnaire-8), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), and duration of AMD. Visual acuity changes were rated as less important than one would have expected. Conclusion The study result suggested that treatment satisfaction for nAMD was governed by the perception of being reviewed and injected regularly over a long period of time than the actual change in visual acuity from the treatment. PMID:27307715

  14. 78 FR 21862 - Revision to United States Marshals Service Fees for Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... reflects the current costs to the United States Marshals Service for service of process in federal court... current fee schedule is inadequate and no longer reflects the actual and reasonable costs of the services... under the current fee structure. This revenue increase represents a recovery of costs based on...

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  17. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  19. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  20. The impact of the monetary crisis and the development of a health and social safety-net with a special note on donor participation--real life experiences on the role of health services in public health.

    PubMed

    Suparmanto, S A; Sundoro, T; Stokoe, P

    1999-01-01

    South-East Asia (i.e. Indonesia) has enjoyed economic boom and rapid unbridled growth for the last decade. This rapid expansion was fuelled by cheap labour, foreign and local investments and the extensive development of the oil and non-oil sector. Dark clouds, however, loomed on the economic and financial horizons of these rapidly developing 'tiger' economies. Indonesia was not only affected by various facts-of-life elements which contributed to these grave forecasts but also by a wave of natural disasters on an unprecedented scale, with devastating social and economic effects on the poor and susceptible groups. Although economic recovery will take time, the most pressing and practical measure remains the need to create a health and social safety net to maintain the health, social and nutritional status of the "population-at-risk". This paper is an exposure of "lessons learnt" and the invaluable role of health services and public health to the negative impact of the monetary crisis experienced by various inter-sectors, which the authors believe can be used as a long-term investment measure in other countries.

  1. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.S.; Catapano, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  2. An overview of service lifetime prediction (SLP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the need for service life prediction for photovoltaic cells and associated devices, coatings, and other related technologies. Information regarding outdoor exposure tests is given.

  3. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life... information technology. Title: Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29... Service Life Insurance and United States Government Life Insurance policies. The information collected...

  4. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention.

  5. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  6. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  7. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  8. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2015-09-15

    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term.

  9. Virtual vision system with actual flavor by olfactory display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have researched multimedia system and support system for nursing studies on and practices of reminiscence therapy and life review therapy. The concept of the life review is presented by Butler in 1963. The process of thinking back on one's life and communicating about one's life to another person is called life review. There is a famous episode concerning the memory. It is called as Proustian effects. This effect is mentioned on the Proust's novel as an episode that a story teller reminds his old memory when he dipped a madeleine in tea. So many scientists research why smells trigger the memory. The authors pay attention to the relation between smells and memory although the reason is not evident yet. Then we have tried to add an olfactory display to the multimedia system so that the smells become a trigger of reminding buried memories. An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  10. Medical Services: Ophthalmic Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    optometrist may be employed according to Service regulations. Such examinations will include fitting and adjusting of spectacles. All prescriptions...below. a. An ophthalmologist or optometrist competent in contact lens fitting must be available. b. Adequate diagnostic, inspection, and modification...the prescribing officer. Enter name, grade, and title of the prescribing officer (oph- thalmologist or optometrist ). DD Form 577 (Signature Card) will

  11. Relation Between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outerrace conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life--that includes the life of the ball set--caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.

  12. Relation between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.

    2006-01-01

    ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outer-race conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life, that includes the life of the ball set, caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.

  13. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  14. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  15. Actual ratio of triacylglycerol positional isomers in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kojima, Koichi; Kuroda, Ikuma; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi; Ishida, Hiroki; Wada, Shun

    2012-01-01

    Actual ratios of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomers in human, rat, and cow milk fat and cow, buffalo, goat, and sheep cheese fat were analyzed using HPLC-UV-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS system equipped with an octacosyl silylation column or polymeric ODS column. We substituted cheese fats for milk fats in parts of our study because milks from ruminants, with the exception of cows, are difficult to get in Japan. The actual ratio of β-PPC (the TAG consisting of two palmitic acids (P) and one capric acid (C), with the palmitic acid located at the β position) and β-PCP in human milk was different from those in ruminants, with more than half of the medium-chain fatty acids located at the β position even though other fats possessed it mainly at the α position. Palmitic acid was mainly located at the β position for human milk and rat milk; however, the location in ruminant cheese fat was mainly at the α position. The location of fatty acids is thought to be very important for infant nutrition. Particularly, the location of palmitic acid in case of human milk and of medium-chain fatty acids in case of ruminant milk was very characteristic and is considered to be very important to the fatty acids in milk fat.

  16. Actual and actuarial probabilities of competing risks: apples and lemons.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, Gary L; Jin, Ruyun; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2007-05-01

    The probability of a type of failure that is not inevitable, but can be precluded by other events such as death, is given by the cumulative incidence function. In cardiac research articles, it has become known as the actual probability, in contrast to the actuarial methods of estimation, usually implemented by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimate. Unlike cumulative incidence, KM attempts to predict what the latent failure probability would be if death were eliminated. To do this, the KM method assumes that the risk of dying and the risk of failure are independent. But this assumption is not true for many cardiac applications in which the risks of failure and death are negatively correlated (ie, patients with a higher risk of dying have a lower risk of failure, and patients with a lower risk of death have a higher risk of failure, which is a condition called informative censoring). Recent editorials in two cardiac journals have promoted the use of the KM method (actuarial estimate) for competing risk events (specifically for heart valve performance) and criticized the use of the cumulative incidence (actual) estimates. This report has two aims: to explain the difference between these two estimates and to show why the KM is generally not appropriate. In the process we will rely on alternative representations of the KM estimator (using redistribution to the right and inverse probability weighting) to explain the difference between the two estimates and to show how it may be possible to adjust KM to overcome the informative censoring.

  17. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  18. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  19. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  20. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  1. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  2. Embryonic life and human life.

    PubMed

    Shea, M C

    1985-12-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body as a whole.

  3. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  4. Actualizing the Goals of Environmental Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Erhabor Igbinosa

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of aiding citizens of Nigeria in becoming environmentally knowledgeable and above all skilled and dedicated citizens who are willing to work individually and collectively towards achieving or maintaining a dynamic equilibrium between quality of life and that of the environment, this raises the pertinent role of environmental…

  5. Matematica Actual: Libro del Professor (Modern Mathematics: Teacher's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parot, Jean Jacques

    This document suggests learning activities for kindergarten children to develop skills of basic reasoning and numerical calculation that the children will be using throughout life. This teacher's guide provides a list of games and activities and discusses the relationship between the games and their themes and their intended educational…

  6. Perceived and actual environmental benefits of the Los Angeles urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; McCarthy, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a widespread movement to plant more trees and increase canopy cover in cities throughout the United States, in order to enhance ecosystem services provided by urban forests. The city of Los Angeles has been engaged in a widespread tree planting program with the goal of increasing tree cover, particularly in low income neighborhoods. However, the Los Angeles urban forest is almost entirely non-native, located predominately in former semi-arid shrublands and grasslands. We used multiple approaches to evaluate environmental costs and benefits of urban trees in Los Angeles, both as they are perceived by local residents, as well as actual physical impacts of urban tree processes on the environment. We conducted an internet survey of attitudes and preferences for specific tree functional types, ecosystem services, and potential costs. We also directly measured urban forest structure and function including species and functional biodiversity, transpiration, basal area increments, hydraulic architecture, and leaf gas exchange. We translated these processes into categories of ecosystem services and costs such as water use, latent heat fluxes, water use efficiency, growth rates, sensitivity to drought stress, and aesthetic traits (flowering, fruiting, etc.). We found that provision of shade by urban trees is highly valued by local residents, and in fact, the urban forest has a significant impact on surface temperatures. Aesthetics benefits are also commonly cited as desirable traits. Although aesthetic and other cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify, we found spatial patterns in aesthetic traits influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Local residents seemed less concerned about the water use of irrigated urban trees, but we found significant rates of transpiration in urban trees and forest plots depending on species that may be important in the local hydrologic budget, which is increasingly constrained by water shortages. There was

  7. Welcoming Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A health education program developed by the Indian Health Service and tribal leaders has reduced previously high infant mortality among American Indians to near the national norm. The program combines Native cultural practices and beliefs, pregnancy and child-rearing classes, and improved medical services. (LP)

  8. Theology after contact: religion and extraterrestrial intelligent life.

    PubMed

    Haught, J F

    2001-12-01

    The prospect of encountering extraterrestrial intelligent life raises important questions for religion and theology. Even if an actual encounter with extraterrestrials never actually takes place, or proves impractical, terrestrial religious thought already has resources that can render intelligible and allow us theologically to appreciate such an eventuality.

  9. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  10. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  11. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  12. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  13. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus.

  14. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  15. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makabe, Sachiko; Takagai, Junko; Asanuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Kazuo; Kimura, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses' health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance.

  17. Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

  18. Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  19. Calculation of reactor life in delayed coking units

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzeev, I.R.; Filimonov, E.A.; Gribanov, A.V.; Polyakov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The operational reliability of delayed coking reactors may vary considerably from one unit to another. This paper presents a method for calculating the reliability and service life of such reactors based on cycle frequency, materials defects, stresses, fatigue, and temperature and service loads. The method was developed for service life prediction in the design stage of delayed coking reactors.

  20. Estimating the effects of toxicants on ecosystem services.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J; Niederlehner, B R

    1994-01-01

    Numerous functions of ecosystems are essential to the quality of human life, including the provision of food, the decomposition of sewage, the provision of portable water, and the replacement of breathable air. Although attributes of ecosystems directly of use to human societies are not the only ones worth protecting, emphasizing their services may be the most effective means of communicating risks of toxicants to the general public. However, although spatial and temporal scales of experiments to assess risk vary relatively little, actual spatial scales vary considerably, from local environments to global ecosystems. Generally, models are used to bridge these gaps in scale. In this paper, we examine ways in which toxicity test endpoints have been developed to describe effects of pollutants on essential ecosystem functions and the ways in which results are then extrapolated to scales that risk managers can use. Images p936-a PMID:9738207

  1. Reflections: Service to Our Nation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Service to others is something that physicians understand and undertake on a daily basis. Military physicians are in a unique role of serving both our patients and our nation. Millions of Americans have answered the call to military service since the attacks of September 11, 2001. As otolaryngologists, we will increasingly care for veterans of the Global War on Terror. Service to our nation is a mutual goal that brings together people from very different walks of life.

  2. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  3. Ancillary services

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B

    1996-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC identified six ancillary services reactive power and voltage control, loss compensation, scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, and energy imbalance. Our earlier work identified 19 ancillary services Here we offer a revised set of seven ancillary services and mention several other services that merit consideration. In preparing its final rule on open-access transmission service, we suggest that FERC consider splitting its system-protection service into its two primary pieces, reliability reserve and supplemental-operating reserve. We also suggest that FERC define more sharply all of the ancillary services. especially load-following reserve and energy imbalance. Finally, we suggest that FERC consider other services and their provision in a restructured electricity industry; these services include black-start capability, time correction, standby service. planning reserve, redispatch. transmission services, power quality, and planning and engineering services.

  4. Defining Life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

  5. Web life: Foldit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    So what is the site about? Like the popular SETI@home program, which uses the downtime of home computers to sift radio-telescope data for evidence of alien life, Foldit draws on the idle hours of several thousand data-crunchers for help in solving scientific puzzles. But there is a twist. For a start, Foldit is all about biophysics. The project's goal is to understand how proteins - the chains of amino acids that drive processes inside living cells - fold themselves into a myriad of different shapes. But the most striking difference is that Foldit's protein-folding operators are actual human beings, and the datasets they are sifting are disguised as an amazingly addictive computer game.

  6. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  7. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  8. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  9. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  10. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinus, Pieter G. E. F.

    1980-04-01

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached mudflats (sometimes considered as giant mudwaves), which migrate continuously to the west due to deposition of slingmud at their west side and simultaneous erosion of the east side. In between the mudflats cheniers may develop. Thin-section analysis of the clay deposits revealed that they are built up of an alternation of thick clayey laminae and thin laminae of silt and fine sand. The clayey laminae chiefly show a unistrial plasmic fabric. Disturbaces in the upper zone are caused by bioturbation. Two types of cheniers can be distinguished. One type contains fine sand which has been winnowed out of the pelite deposits. Since this sand is brought from the shelf the chenier formation begins at approximately mean low-water level. Longshore bars are formed and these are driven shoreward by wave action. The other type is built up of medium to coarse sand supplied by a local river. It is transported westward by beachdrift in a narrow zone around the mean high-water line. These cheniers develop therefore at or just above the mean high-tide level. The sedimentary structures of both types of cheniers have many characteristics in common. However, each type also has its own distinct features.

  11. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  12. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  13. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  14. Remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration: implications for groundwater management in Botswana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, W. J.; Meijerink, A. M. J.

    In order to determine evapotranspiration losses from the groundwater of an aquifer in Botswana during the dry season, the multi-step Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was applied using sequential Landsat TM and NOAA-AVHRR data. During satellite overpasses, continuous data on surface temperatures and soil moisture were available from a meteorological tower and field observations for calibration and partial validation of the results. The SEBAL method yielded high actual evapotranspiration (E a) rates (1.5 - 3 mm/d), if relatively dense savannah vegetation was present, even when the water-table was over 30 m deep, as is the case in the upper part of the aquifer. No relationship between Ea and depth to water-table was found, except in the valleys, where riverine forests are fed by a system of discharging groundwater flow. The patterns on a vegetation map, based on a supervised classification using TM data, including thermal bands, showed similarity with the E a patterns. The spatial distributions of vegetation types and of E a have been interpreted as important uptake of water by deep roots; this is supported by increasing evidence from other parts of the world. Sap flow was measured in tall bushes near the tower site. The upper part (2 m) of the soil was dry. The results have implications for the groundwater recharge mechanism and the management of groundwater. Further validation studies have been initiated.

  15. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, M.C.; Thomas, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O&M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of {open_quotes}insurance{close_quotes} plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  16. 26 CFR 1.162-7 - Compensation for personal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compensation for personal services. 1.162-7...-7 Compensation for personal services. (a) There may be included among the ordinary and necessary... compensation for personal services actually rendered. The test of deductibility in the case of...

  17. 19 CFR 351.511 - Provision of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case where goods or services are provided, a benefit exists to... imports, or, in certain circumstances, actual sales from competitively run government auctions. In... import duties. (b) Time of receipt of benefit. In the case of the provision of a good or service,...

  18. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  19. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  20. Evidence-Based Services in a Statewide Public Mental Health System: Do the Services Fit the Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Jason; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which a literature review of evidence-based services identified services appropriate for the actual problems of youth involved in intensive public mental health services. The diagnostic profiles and specific intervention targets reported by treatment providers were coded to determine whether a relevant empirically…

  1. Service Learning and Its Influenced to Pre-Service Teachers: Social Responsibility and Self-Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasertsang, Parichart; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Pumipuntu, Chaloey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study pre-service teachers on social responsibility and self-efficacy through service learning. The mixed methodology included two major procedures (i) the actual use of a developed service learning instructional model by means of action research principles and qualitative research and (ii) the study into the…

  2. Defining life partnerships: does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Kline, Todd M; Martz, Gary; Lesperance, C Jason; Waldo, Merilyne C

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the responses of gay men, lesbians, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women to a number of questions investigating the needs and tensions in life partnerships between two individuals. Overall, the groups had similar attitudes toward life partnerships. Nearly all respondents found great meaning in the idea of life partnership, the pursuits of psychological and physical intimacy and the importance of family and social support, and all three of these categories were actually considered more important than the ability to marry legally. Respondents recognized that having children may encourage commitment to life partnerships, though this was less influential for gay men. A significant percentage of respondents, regarding HIV status, either had no opinion or felt that HIV was not particularly or not at all threatening to life partnerships. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to experience similar needs and aspirations regarding life partnerships.

  3. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  4. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  5. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  6. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

    PubMed

    Tyack, Peter L; Zimmer, Walter M X; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L; Claridge, Diane E; Durban, John W; Clark, Christopher W; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L

    2011-03-14

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  7. "I've Had a Pretty Tough Life but That's Not Why I Do This": Narratives of Autonomy and Control among Alcohol and Drug Service-Engaged Early Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Sarah J.; Bruun, Andrew; Mallett, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The provision of alcohol and other drug (AOD) programmes in Australia targeting a broad age range of young people may inadvertently obscure the particular service needs of early teenagers. In this study, we describe four main accounts of substance use identified through interviews with 20 AOD service-engaged participants in Victoria, aged from 13…

  8. Chapter 59: Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. J.

    Web services are a cornerstone of the distributed computing infrastructure that the VO is built upon yet to the newcomer, they can appear to be a black art. This perception is not helped by the miasma of technobabble that pervades the subject and the seemingly impenetrable high priesthood of actual users. In truth, however, there is nothing conceptually difficult about web services (unsurprisingly any complexities will lie in the implementation details) nor indeed anything particularly new. A web service is a piece of software available over a network with a formal description of how it is called and what it returns that a computer can understand. Note that entities such as web servers, ftp servers and database servers do not generally qualify as they lack the standardized description of their inputs and outputs. There are prior technologies, such as RMI, CORBA, and DCOM, that have employed a similar approach but the success of web services lies predominantly in its use of standardized XML to provide a language-neutral way for representing data. In fact, the standardization goes further as web services are traditionally (or as traditionally as five years will allow) tied to a specific set of technologies (WSDL and SOAP conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization). Alternative implementations are becoming increasingly common and we will cover some of these here. One important thing to remember in all of this, though, is that web services are meant for use by computers and not humans (unlike web pages) and this is why so much of it seems incomprehensible gobbledegook. In this chapter, we will start with an overview of the web services current in the VO and present a short guide on how to use and deploy a web service. We will then review the different approaches to web services, particularly REST and SOAP, and alternatives to XML as a data format. We will consider how web services can be formally described and discuss how advanced features such as security, state

  9. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  10. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.

  11. Marketing Student Services in a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Marguerite McGann

    This paper applies business marketing principles to college student services, introduces a model for measuring the life cycle of a service, outlines strategic planning procedures, and describes the implementation of a comprehensive student service marketing program at Seminole Community College in Florida. An overview of marketing defines…

  12. What Will We Actually Do On the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Descriptions are provided for eleven specific, representative lunar activity scenarios selected from among hundreds that arose in 2006 from the NASA-sponsored development of a "global lunar strategy." The scenarios are: pave for dust control; establish a colony of continuously active robots; kitchen science; designer biology; tend the machinery; search for pieces of ancient Earth; build simple observatories that open new wavelength regimes; establish a virtual real-time network to enable public engagement; institute a public-private lunar development corporation; rehearse planetary protection protocols for Mars; and expand life and intelligence beyond Earth through settlement of the Moon. Evocative scenarios such as these are proposed as a communications tool to help win public understanding and support of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  13. IGP Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren

    2003-01-01

    The goal is location-independent computing. Implementing a set of services to satisfy this goal, build upon the GLOBUS toolkit services, and implementing with OGSA. Current status includes: Event service, Job manager, Resource selector and Broker, Next versions in development.Development includes: Monitoring and testing, Portability manager, Performance prediction, Dynamic accounting, and MDS evaluation.

  14. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  15. Life as a military spouse.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Military spouses live a capricious life. They often move away from everything familiar to support their active duty spouse. Honor, courage, and commitment are values military spouses need to assist them in being strong and resilient. Effective coping skills aid in the various roles these spouses assume, which may cause personal sacrifices to be made in support of the service member.

  16. Are Africa's actual problems a result of overpopulation?

    PubMed

    Logie, D; Woodroffe, J

    1994-01-01

    After the lost decade of the 1980s, Africa seems to be mired in debt, ecological devastation, drought, and disease. Malnutrition claims the lives of 11,000 children each day, and exposure to disease is heightened by the fact that 2/3 of all Africans do not have access to clean water for cooking and drinking. Sub-Saharan African countries are currently spending 50% more on servicing their debt than on the health and education of their children and less now on health per capita than they did in 1980. Despite paying out more than US$ 1,300 billion between 1982 and 1990, debtor countries are now 61% more indebted than they were in 1982. The first step toward a solution is to reduce the outstanding debt burden. Debt relief initiatives have resulted in some short-term alleviation, but so far less than 3% of total African debt has been cancelled. The considerable amount of debt owed to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, which now absorb 36% of total debt service payments, has not been addressed. Governed by immutable laws, they cannot currently forgive debt, they can only delay its repayment. A major problem with all debt reduction schemes has been that they are linked to adjustment programs. The USA's latest offer to cancel 50% of debt to the very poorest African countries is conditional on their acceptance of such programs. The second step is to make sure that adjustment programs put the needs and aspirations of the poor at the center of any planning. In the past few years, Unicef, Oxfam, Christian Aid, and other non-governmental organizations have called for such reforms. Though some change has taken place in the rhetoric of the World Bank, it is vital to maintain pressure to ensure that reforms are put into practice.

  17. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  18. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

  19. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    Human behavior understanding in everyday life is promising but not established research field. Our project named 'open life matrix' is focused on this field. In these years, many sensor houses and robotic room projects have been studied and sensing and network technology have been established. However, still we have problems to realize everyday life support information systems and services. There are two major problems. The first one is data representation and computational modeling problem in everyday life. The second one is that we don't have a good way to realize valuable services from research outcomes. We propose a challenge to solve these problems by a scheme for accumulating common data set and probabilistic causal modeling during everyday life services.

  20. Relationship between Burnout Syndrome Symptoms and Self-Actualization Scores in Critical-Care Nurses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    opportunities, satisfactory supervision, and self-actualization. One study indicated that nursing education promotes self-actualization at least to... nursing education achieved in burnout syndrome symptoms? 8. Is there a difference by level of nursing education achieved in self-actualization...level of nursing education achieved in the burnout scores or the self-actualization scores. The exception was that the associate degree nurses scored

  1. Services marketing for the enlightened manager.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, M R

    1999-01-01

    A marketing focus emphasizes the customer's perspective rather than the supplier's internal perspective. The needs of the customer determine what services are brought to the market and how they are supplied, marketed, and sold. The marketing orientation differs drastically from the production orientation on a number of key sales and marketing criteria. For example, technical innovation is seen as a means of locating new opportunities for firms with a marketing orientation, whereas a firm with production orientation sees innovation as a mechanism for cutting costs. Biomedical equipment service managers who adopt these marketing principles understand the subtle differences between products and services, and in doing so have become enlightened marketers. Enlightened service marketers define and articulate their services to the customer and provide the customer with good knowledge of the service(s) to be delivered, before they are actually delivered. The customer is able to achieve a comfort level with the service provided before it is provided.

  2. Starting Labor-Management Quality of Work Life Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Michael

    This report summarizes the experiences of the Massachusetts Quality of Working Life Center in assisting the attempted and actual start-up of a number of quality of work life (QWL) programs in 1976 and 1977 and in providing ongoing assistance. Lessons learned by the three sites the center launched, other sites, as well as those sites that chose not…

  3. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  4. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and...

  5. At Their Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    For years, doing laundry at Columbia University (New York) was just as labor-intensive as it is at most universities. Fortunately, as of last spring, laundry life at Columbia has changed dramatically. Today, with the help of a real-time Web-based service called LaundryView, students can log on to the system via the LaundryView Web site from a link…

  6. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is...

  7. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations...

  8. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  9. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  10. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  11. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  12. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  13. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  14. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  15. Armed Services Pricing Manual (ASPM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    specifications so that potential suppliers can know exactly what is wanted and make intelligent bids or offers. The product or service required will...dividing their sum by the number of values. The mean is an artificial concept because it may not coincide with any actual value. For example, the mean...do it, either. They say that offeror must show you what costs, if any, have been incurred. This intelligence may be of limited value except for

  16. Cosmic life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The existence and detection of extraterrestrial life are discussed. The evolution of life on earth is not considered possible if earth were 5% closer (runaway greenhouse effect) or 1% farther (runaway glaciation) from the sun, or if the sun were slightly more or less massive or hot. The Space Telescope and a possible interferometer search at infrared wavelengths, which offers a 100,000 times advantage over the visible in the ratio of planetary to stellar power, are proposed to help detect planetary systems about stars such as Barnard's star. The proposed NASA-Ames Project Cyclops, consisting of a 10 km phased array of 1026 dishes (perhaps on the back side of the moon), as well as a Soviet proposal to assemble 2 similar telescopes at the orbit of Saturn, would search in the radio frequency range for planets 100 light years or more distant.

  17. 77 FR 3842 - Proposed Information Collection (Conversion from Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Conversion from Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans' Group Life Insurance); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... members, especially service members with disabilities are informed about their life insurance...

  18. Quality of life theory III. Maslow revisited.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-10-13

    In 1962, Abraham Maslow published his book Towards a Psychology of Being, and established a theory of quality of life, which still is considered a consistent theory of quality of life. Maslow based his theory for development towards happiness and true being on the concept of human needs. He described his approach as an existentialistic psychology of self-actualization, based on personal growth. When we take more responsibility for our own life, we take more of the good qualities that we have into use, and we become more free, powerful, happy, and healthy. It seems that Maslow's concept of self-actualization can play an important role in modern medicine. As most chronic diseases often do not disappear in spite of the best biomedical treatments, it might be that the real change our patients have for betterment is understanding and living the noble path of personal development. The hidden potential for improving life really lies in helping the patient to acknowledge that his or her lust for life, his or her needs, and his or her wish to contribute, is really deep down in human existence one and the same. But you will only find this hidden meaning of life if you scrutinize your own life and existence closely enough, to come to know your innermost self.

  19. Towards an Operational Monitoring of Actual Evapotranspiration With Modis Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Holtslag, B.; Wolski, P.; Arneth, A.; Wohland, P.

    2002-12-01

    as daily rates of ET. They are compared with ground-based energy flux measurements using a meteorological flux tower, situated at a homogeneous site in the savannah. The model returns estimates of sensible and soil heat fluxes that agree well with the tower measurements, but net radiation and latent heat flux show deviations. The net radiation is slightly low and mostly due to differences between modeled and actual albedo. Latent heat fluxes are overestimated by about 35 Wm-2, if compared to the eddy measurements. However, if the energy closure gap is due entirely to errors in the towers latent heat fluxes, which is done in the remote sensing approach, they are underestimated by about 30 Wm-2. In other words, further improvement of the model is hampered by possible errors in the validation data. Using this model output, a regional estimate of daily ET can be retrieved, assuming a constant daytime evaporative fraction. Typical values that emerge are 6 mm for the swamps, 2 for the grasslands and 1 mm for the savannah.

  20. Actual concepts in rhinosinusitis: a review of clinical presentations, inflammatory pathways, cytokine profiles, remodeling, and management.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Philippe; Poirrier, Anne Lise; De Dorlodot, Clotilde; Van Zele, Thibaut; Watelet, Jean Baptiste; Bertrand, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. It is a significant and increasing health problem that affects about 15% of the population in Western countries. It has a substantial impact on patients' health-related quality of life and daily functioning and represents a huge financial burden to society and the health care system as a result of the direct and indirect costs. In addition, RS is not well-understood, and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology. In the past decade, many papers have been published that have changed our understanding of RS. RS is commonly classified into acute and chronic RS based on symptom duration. In acute RS, an inflammatory reaction initiated by a viral infection characterizes most uncomplicated, mild to moderate cases. Therefore, the first line of treatment for these cases are intranasal steroids and not antibiotics. In severe and complicated cases, antibiotics combined with topical steroids remain the treatment of choice. On the other hand, chronic RS is actually subdivided into two distinct entities (chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps), as growing evidence indicates that these entities have specific inflammatory pathways and cytokine profiles. The authors review recent data regarding the clinical presentations, cytokine profiles, tissue remodeling, and modalities of treatment for each form of RS.