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Sample records for actual stress levels

  1. A Basic study on Navigators’ Visual Observation Area and Stress Level for ShipHandling by Actual Ships and Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Hayashi, Yuji; Miyoshi, Yuichi; Inokuchi, Seiji

    A navigator gets navigational information for safe navigation from own ship and her environment through their five senses, and navigates her. We think that the most important thing is the ability to judge in various environments more than the knowledge of how to handle some instruments or equipments. What does the navigator do when he/she navigates? Recently, we use a ship handling simulator (simulator in short) to train the ship handling for safe navigation. We need to recognize the effect of training, the better usage of a simulator and the difference of stress level between actual ships and simulators. The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of visual observation area and stress level of the navigator in the case of arriving and leaving port. In our experiments, we measured subject’s eye movement and heart rate variability which means the R-R interval. Our experimental ship is Training Ship FUKAE-MARU of Kobe University of Mercantile Marine (KUMM in short). The results show that characteristics of subject’s visual observation area and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS in short) value calculated with R-R interval is how dependency of cue for both navigational environments.

  2. Vietnam Veteran Levels of Combat: Perceived and Actual Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, William; Hutchinson, Roger L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not a relationship exists between levels of combat experienced by Vietnam veterans and later perceptions of violence, violent attitudes, or violent behavior. Comparison groups included: (1) heavy combat Vietnam veterans; (2) light combat Vietnam veterans; (3) no combat Vietnam veterans; and…

  3. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  4. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  5. Measuring Science Teachers' Stress Level Triggered by Multiple Stressful Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, Lilia; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Meerah, T. Subahan M.; Osman, Kamisah

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of science teaching requires science teachers to encounter a range of tasks. Some tasks are perceived as stressful while others are not. This study aims to investigate the extent to which different teaching situations lead to different stress levels. It also aims to identify the easiest and most difficult conditions to be regarded…

  6. Theoretical Foundations of Yoga Meditation: A Contribution to Self-Actualization and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowiak, John J.

    Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stress management techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…

  7. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Reid A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-06-27

    The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution.

  8. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  9. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, L.A.; Rapko, B.M.; Poloski, A.P.; Peterson, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Southwest Washington State. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate, which can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, and boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, but is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Chromium, which makes up a much smaller amount ({approx}3%) of the sludge, must also be removed because there is a low tolerance for chromium in the HLW immobilization process. In this work, the coupled dissolution kinetics of aluminum and chromium species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford HLW samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a model that provides a basis for predicting dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of Water Stress Coefficient Methods to Estimate Actual Corn Evapotranspiration in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract for Kullberg Hydrology Days: Abstract. Increased competition for water resources is placing pressure on the agricultural sector to remain profitable while reducing water use. Remote sensing techniques have been developed to monitor crop water stress and produce information for evapotranspi...

  11. Writing at the Graduate Level: What Tasks Do Professors Actually Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amy; Bikowski, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of writing tasks in graduate courses at a large, American university. The study investigates writing tasks across the curriculum and draws implications for curriculum design in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Using actual course syllabi for task analysis, the researchers analyzed 200 course syllabi from 20…

  12. Levels of meaning in family stress theory.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J M; Garwick, A W

    1994-09-01

    Major stressful life events, particularly those that have chronic hardships, create a crisis for families that often leads to reorganization in the family's style of functioning. A major factor in this reorganization is the meaning the family gives to the stressful event. Often the meaning extends beyond the event itself and leads to a changed view of the family system and even to a changed view of the world. Building on other family stress models, we elaborate the family's definition of the stressor into three levels of family meanings: (1) situational meanings, (2) family identity, and (3) family world view. Examples from clinical work and studies of families adapting to chronic illness are used to illustrate the relationship between these three levels of meaning, particularly as they change in response to crisis. Implications for clinical and empirical work are discussed.

  13. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    SciTech Connect

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  14. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  15. Center-level patterns of indicated willingness to and actual acceptance of marginal kidneys.

    PubMed

    Massie, A B; Stewart, D E; Dagher, N N; Montgomery, R A; Desai, N M; Segev, D L

    2010-11-01

    UNet(SM) , the UNOS data collection and electronic organ allocation system, allows centers to specify organ offer acceptance criteria for patients on their kidney waiting list. We hypothesized that the system might not be fully utilized and that the criteria specified by most transplant centers would be much broader than the characteristics of organs actually transplanted by those centers. We analyzed the distribution of criteria values among waitlist patients (N = 304 385) between January 2000 and February 2009, mean criteria values among listed candidates on February 19, 2009 and differences between a center's specified criteria and the organs it accepted for transplant between July 2005 and April 2009. We found wide variation in use of criteria variables, with some variables mostly or entirely unused. Most centers specified very broad criteria, with little within-center variation by patient. An offer of a kidney with parameters more extreme than the maximum actually transplanted at that center was designated a 'surplus offer' and indicated a potentially avoidable delay in distribution. We found 7373 surplus offers (7.1% of all offers), concentrated among a small number of centers. The organ acceptance criteria system is currently underutilized, leading to possibly avoidable inefficiencies in organ distribution.

  16. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  17. Transport code for radiocolloid migration: with an assessment of an actual low-level waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1984-12-31

    Recently, there is increased concern that radiocolloids may act as a rapid transport mechanism for the release of radionuclides from high-level waste repositories. The role of colloids is, however, controversial because the necessary data and assessment methodology have been limited. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that colloids are an important consideration in the geological disposal of nuclear waste. To quantitatively assess the role of colloids, the TRACR3D transport code has been enhanced by the addition of the population balance equations. This new version of the code can simulate the migration of colloids through combinations of porous/fractured, unsaturated, geologic media. The code was tested against the experimental laboratory column data of Avogadro et al. in order to compare the code results to both experimental data and an analytical solution. Next, a low-level radioactive waste site was investigated to explore whether colloid migration could account for the unusually rapid and long transport of plutonium and americium observed at a low-level waste site. Both plutonium and americium migrated 30 meters through unsaturated volcanic tuff. The nature and modeling of radiocolloids are discussed along with site simulation results from the TRACR3D code. 20 references.

  18. [The actual approaches to the analysis of the decrease of population mortality on the territorial level].

    PubMed

    Krasnenkov, V L; Kamruzzaman, Saĭed

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with one of the major medical demographic problems of Tver region's higher population mortality, including mortality of able-bodied population. The prevalence of main causes of death and their structure are analyzed. The prospective forecast of death rate indicators based on extrapolation technique is proposed. The main strategic approaches to the development of target programs of decreasing premature population mortality in Tverskaya oblast on the basis of the expertise of hospital lethality and analysis of demographic situation is presented. The proposed approaches can promote the study of optimal management and organization decision-making by administrations of different levels.

  19. Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for Level 3 and 4 PSHAs - Experience Gained from Actual Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norm A.; Boore, David M.; Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Knepprath, Nichole E.

    2009-01-01

    In April 1997, after four years of deliberations, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee released its report 'Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts' through the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as NUREG/CR-6372, hereafter SSHAC (1997). Known informally ever since as the 'SSHAC Guidelines', SSHAC (1997) addresses why and how multiple expert opinions - and the intrinsic uncertainties that attend them - should be used in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses (PSHA) for critical facilities such as commercial nuclear power plants. Ten years later, in September 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a 13-month agreement with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) titled 'Practical Procedures for Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines and for Updating PSHAs'. The NRC was interested in understanding and documenting lessons learned from recent PSHAs conducted at the higher SSHAC Levels (3 and 4) and in gaining input from the seismic community for updating PSHAs as new information became available. This study increased in importance in anticipation of new applications for nuclear power facilities at both existing and new sites. The intent of this project was not to replace the SSHAC Guidelines but to supplement them with the experience gained from putting the SSHAC Guidelines to work in practical applications. During the course of this project, we also learned that updating PSHAs for existing nuclear power facilities involves very different issues from the implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for new facilities. As such, we report our findings and recommendations from this study in two separate documents, this being the first. The SSHAC Guidelines were written without regard to whether the PSHAs to which they would be applied were site-specific or regional in scope. Most of the experience gained to date from high-level SSHAC studies has been for site-specific cases, although three

  20. Self-Reported and Actual Use of Proactive and Reactive Classroom Management Strategies and Their Relationship with Teacher Stress and Student Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clunies-Ross, Penny; Little, Emma; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between primary school teachers' self-reported and actual use of classroom management strategies, and examined how the use of proactive and reactive strategies is related to teacher stress and student behaviour. The total sample consisted of 97 teachers from primary schools within Melbourne. Teachers…

  1. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    PubMed

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing.

  2. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  3. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness. PMID:26989456

  4. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  5. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    PubMed

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress.

  6. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...stress-related conditions. The findings suggest that measuring salivary α- amylase levels may help to determine a Soldier’s resilience or risk of

  7. Leadership is associated with lower levels of stress

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Gary D.; Lee, Jooa J.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Renshon, Jonathan; Oveis, Christopher; Gross, James J.; Lerner, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    As leaders ascend to more powerful positions in their groups, they face ever-increasing demands. As a result, there is a common perception that leaders have higher stress levels than nonleaders. However, if leaders also experience a heightened sense of control—a psychological factor known to have powerful stress-buffering effects—leadership should be associated with reduced stress levels. Using unique samples of real leaders, including military officers and government officials, we found that, compared with nonleaders, leaders had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and lower reports of anxiety (study 1). In study 2, leaders holding more powerful positions exhibited lower cortisol levels and less anxiety than leaders holding less powerful positions, a relationship explained significantly by their greater sense of control. Altogether, these findings reveal a clear relationship between leadership and stress, with leadership level being inversely related to stress. PMID:23012416

  8. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  9. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.; Hay, Michael S.

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  10. Stress level of people with psoriasis at a public hospital*

    PubMed Central

    Leovigildo, Érida Silva; David, Rose Ana Rios; Mendes, Andreia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis of unknown etiology with a tendency to relapse after treatment. The disease is frequently linked to psychological stress due to the embarrassment caused by the lesions. Objective To analyze the stress level presented by psoriasis patients followed at the Dermatology Service of a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study of a consecutive convenience sample composed of 60 participants. We used Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults to assess stress levels. The questionnaire identifies and classifies physical and psychological symptoms according to three stages of stress: alarming, resistance, and exhaustion. We also collected socio-demographic and clinical data that could be associated with psoriasis. Results 85% of the participants presented stress. Lipp's questionnaire results revealed that 48% were in the resistance stage and 37% in the exhaustion stage. Women presented higher levels of stress. Of the total 28 women, 64% were in exhaustion stage, 29% in the resistance stage, and only 7% presented no stress symptoms. Of the total 32 men, 44% were in resistance stage, 34% in exhaustion stage, and 22% presented no stress symptoms. Regarding physical and psychological symptoms, psychological symptomatology was prevalent (55%). Conclusions Based on the number of patients in exhaustion stage, we can conclude that stress levels of the participants were high regardless the type of psoriasis and treatment duration. PMID:27579739

  11. 'Gun! Gun! Gun!': An exploration of law enforcement officers' decision-making and coping under stress during actual events.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin R; Eccles, David W; Freeman, Carlos; Ward, Paul

    2016-11-30

    Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event. Officers experienced a wide range of events, coped with stress predominantly via problem-focused strategies, and adapted their decision-making under stress based on the available context. Future officer training should involve a greater variety of training scenarios than is involved in current training, and expose trainees to the possible variants of each situation to foster better situational representation and, thus, a more reliable and adaptive mental model for use in decision-making. Practitioner Summary: This study concerns decision-making and coping strategies used by skilled police officers during real threat-of-death situations. Officers' decision-making strategies differed according to the complexity of the situation and they coped with the stress of these situations via attempts to resolve the situations (e.g. by planning responses) and, to a lesser extent, via attempts to deal with their emotions.

  12. Viscosity, Shear Waves, and Atomic-Level Stress-Stress Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, V. A.; Morris, J. R.; Egami, T.

    2011-03-01

    The Green-Kubo equation relates the macroscopic stress-stress correlation function to a liquid’s viscosity. The concept of the atomic-level stresses allows the macroscopic stress-stress correlation function in the equation to be expressed in terms of the space-time correlations among the atomic-level stresses. Molecular dynamics studies show surprisingly long spatial extension of stress-stress correlations and also longitudinal and transverse waves propagating in liquids over ranges which could exceed the system size. The results reveal that the range of propagation of shear waves corresponds to the range of distances relevant for viscosity. Thus our results show that viscosity is a fundamentally nonlocal quantity. We also show that the periodic boundary conditions play a nontrivial role in molecular dynamics simulations, effectively masking the long-range nature of viscosity.

  13. Assessment of the level of the actual and desirable levels of computer literacy, usage and expected knowledge of undergraduate students of nursing.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of students entering nursing at the bachelors level, of their actual and desirable knowledge about computers and their applications relevant to nursing and health care. Within the health care system the use of computerized systems is increasing rapidly. In Australia, the NSW Health Department's Information Management Resource Consortium pilot project--to introduce the First Data Hospital Information System into NSW public hospitals--is a significant example of this trend. While the importance of computerized systems is fairly well recognized for the areas of management and research, they are becoming increasingly significant in the delivery of clinical care and quality assurance. It is important that nurses during their undergraduate education develop the computer literacy and awareness that will allow them access to the both the information and its management. To achieve this effectively it is essential to determine both the entry knowledge of students and what skills and knowledge are essential and desirable for their future roles as nurses. The research undertaken replicated an American study [2] and used their validated questionnaire. Both pre-registration(n=20) and post-registration (n=24) undergraduate students responded to a 21 item questionnaire. The issues addressed related to computer literacy, usage, and knowledge of clinical applications. Both groups desired more "hands on" experience and knowledge in the nurse's role in developing applications and using computers to help care for patients. These results were consistent with the Parks et. al. study. The significance of comparing actual and desirable levels of computer knowledge and awareness is in assisting educators to shape curriculum and course content to more effectively meet the educational needs of these groups in terms of Health Informatics.

  14. Anxiety and Stress Levels on Liver Transplantation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, H R S; Marques, D M; Lopes, A R F; Ziviani, L C; Magro, J T J; Mente, Ênio D; Castro-E-Silva, O; Galvão, C M; Mendes, K D S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anxiety and stress levels of liver transplant candidates during the preoperative period. A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on 52 liver transplantation candidates seen at a specialized public hospital outpatient clinic in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected from November 2014 to April 2015 using a self-applicable questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, short version) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale), in addition to sociodemographic and clinic characterization. The mean (±SD) anxiety level detected was 23.06 ± 5.51 points, with 1.92% of the subjects showing minimum levels (0 to 12 points), 59.62% a medium level (12 to 24 points), 36.54% a moderate level (24 to 36 points), and 1.92% a severe level (36 to 48 points) of anxiety. The mean level on the stress scale was 12.10 ± 5.62 points, with 7.69% of the subjects showing high stress levels. When individuals with good and poor stress levels were compared, a significant difference was observed between them (P = .0004). The Spearman correlation test showed that the higher the stress, the higher the levels of anxiety (r = 0.4258), P < .0001. The present study contributes to the analysis of the mental health of liver transplantation candidates in view of the need for interventions for the improvement of anxiety and stress levels since the waiting period for the organ generates emotional changes that can affect the quality of life of the patient and the success of this complex therapeutic modality.

  15. The Level of Stress in Male and Female School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zamirullah; Lanin, Abul Barkat; Ahmad, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the level of stress in male and female school students. For the purpose of the study the researcher randomly selected 64 school students aged between 14-18 years. To collect the data researcher used students stress scale (SSS) developed by Dr. Zaki Akhtar (2011). During collection of data researcher used means and method fit…

  16. Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Barker, Erin; Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Forsmark, Joy; Li, Mei

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results. This indicates that the developed 3D extrinsic modeling method may be used to examine the influence of various aspects of pore sizes/distributions as well as intrinsic properties (i.e., matrix properties) on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings.

  17. Folate levels modulate oncogene-induced replication stress and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Noa; Maoz, Karin; Bester, Assaf C; Im, Michael M; Shewach, Donna S; Karni, Rotem; Kerem, Batsheva

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by replication stress. One mechanism by which oncogene expression induces replication stress is to drive cell proliferation with insufficient nucleotide levels. Cancer development is driven by alterations in both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we investigated whether replication stress can be modulated by both genetic and non-genetic factors and whether the extent of replication stress affects the probability of neoplastic transformation. To do so, we studied the effect of folate, a micronutrient that is essential for nucleotide biosynthesis, on oncogene-induced tumorigenicity. We show that folate deficiency by itself leads to replication stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Folate deficiency significantly enhances oncogene-induced replication stress, leading to increased DNA damage and tumorigenicity in vitro. Importantly, oncogene-expressing cells, when grown under folate deficiency, exhibit a significantly increased frequency of tumor development in mice. These findings suggest that replication stress is a quantitative trait affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors and that the extent of replication stress plays an important role in cancer development. PMID:26197802

  18. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  19. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  20. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  1. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  2. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Mounia N.; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  3. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Fraser, William D; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-12-08

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24-28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = -0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = -0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental "programming" the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated.

  4. Levels and sources of stress in medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Firth, J

    1986-01-01

    Levels of stress, as measured by the general health questionnaire, were assessed in 318 medical students in their fourth year at three British universities. Mean scores were higher than those in other groups within the general population, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 31.2%, a proportion similar to that reported in medical students in the United States. There were no differences in prevalence or in mean scores of stress between the sexes. Twelve (4%) students reported high intake of alcohol, and almost half of the students had increased their intake in the past two years. The four categories most commonly cited in answers to an open ended question on recent stressful events were talking to psychiatric patients, effects on personal life, presenting cases, and dealing with death and suffering. Relationships with consultants raised the strongest negative feelings, with 102 (34%) students finding these particularly stressful. Stress among medical students should be acknowledged and attempts made to alleviate it. PMID:3085772

  5. Sequence determinants of prokaryotic gene expression level under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Heng; Yang, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Pan; He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Prokaryotic gene expression is environment-dependent and temperature plays an important role in shaping the gene expression profile. Revealing the regulation mechanisms of gene expression pertaining to temperature has attracted tremendous efforts in recent years particularly owning to the yielding of transcriptome and proteome data by high-throughput techniques. However, most of the previous works concentrated on the characterization of the gene expression profile of individual organism and little effort has been made to disclose the commonality among organisms, especially for the gene sequence features. In this report, we collected the transcriptome and proteome data measured under heat stress condition from recently published literature and studied the sequence determinants for the expression level of heat-responsive genes on multiple layers. Our results showed that there indeed exist commonness and consistent patterns of the sequence features among organisms for the differentially expressed genes under heat stress condition. Some features are attributed to the requirement of thermostability while some are dominated by gene function. The revealed sequence determinants of bacterial gene expression level under heat stress complement the knowledge about the regulation factors of prokaryotic gene expression responding to the change of environmental conditions. Furthermore, comparisons to thermophilic adaption have been performed to reveal the similarity and dissimilarity of the sequence determinants for the response to heat stress and for the adaption to high habitat temperature, which elucidates the complex landscape of gene expression related to the same physical factor of temperature.

  6. Social support reduces stress hormone levels in wild chimpanzees across stressful events and everyday affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Weltring, Anja; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major cause of poor health and mortality in humans and other social mammals. Close social bonds buffer stress, however much of the underlying physiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we test two key hypotheses: bond partner effects occur only during stress (social buffering) or generally throughout daily life (main effects). We assess urinary glucocorticoids (uGC) in wild chimpanzees, with or without their bond partners, after a natural stressor, resting or everyday affiliation. Chimpanzees in the presence of, or interacting with, bond partners rather than others have lowered uGC levels across all three contexts. These results support the main effects hypothesis and indicate that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis regulation is mediated by daily engagement with bond partners both within and out of stressful contexts. Regular social support with bond partners could lead to better health through daily ‘micro-management' of the HPA axis, a finding with potential medical implications for humans. PMID:27802260

  7. Influence of low level maternal Pb exposure and prenatal stress on offspring stress challenge responsivity.

    PubMed

    Virgolini, M B; Rossi-George, A; Weston, D; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2008-11-01

    We previously demonstrated potentiated effects of maternal Pb exposure producing blood Pb(PbB) levels averaging 39microg/dl combined with prenatal restraint stress (PS) on stress challenge responsivity of female offspring as adults. The present study sought to determine if: (1) such interactions occurred at lower PbBs, (2) exhibited gender specificity, and (3) corticosterone and neurochemical changes contributed to behavioral outcomes. Rat dams were exposed to 0, 50 or 150ppm Pb acetate drinking water solutions from 2 mos prior to breeding through lactation (pup exposure ended at weaning; mean PbBs of dams at weaning were <1, 11 and 31microg/dl, respectively); a subset in each Pb group underwent prenatal restraint stress (PS) on gestational days 16-17. The effects of variable intermittent stress challenge (restraint, cold, novelty) on Fixed Interval (FI) schedule controlled behavior and corticosterone were examined in offspring when they were adults. Corticosterone changes were also measured in non-behaviorally tested (NFI) littermates. PS alone was associated with FI rate suppression in females and FI rate enhancement in males; Pb exposure blunted these effects in both genders, particularly following restraint stress. PS alone produced modest corticosterone elevation following restraint stress in adult females, but robust enhancements in males following all challenges. Pb exposure blunted these corticosterone changes in females, but further enhanced levels in males. Pb-associated changes showed linear concentration dependence in females, but non-linearity in males, with stronger or selective changes at 50ppm. Statistically, FI performance was associated with corticosterone changes in females, but with frontal cortical dopaminergic and serotonergic changes in males. Corticosterone changes differed markedly in FI vs. NFI groups in both genders, demonstrating a critical role for behavioral history and raising caution about extrapolating biochemical markers across

  8. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  9. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  10. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Methods Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. Results A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Conclusions Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP. PMID:23678393

  11. Economic Stress and Suicide: Multilevel Analyses. Part 2: Cross-Level Analyses of Economic Stress and Suicidal Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted two studies on economic stress and suicide on same population. Second study combined aggregate economic indicators with individual-level measures of stressful events, symptoms, and suicidal ideation obtained in survey of Los Angeles, California (1978-82). Findings revealed small associations between economic stress and suicide or…

  12. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  13. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention.

  14. The Perceived Stress Levels of Primary and Secondary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savery, Lawson K.; Detiuk, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Research conducted in Western Australian government schools indicates perceived stress among principals, particularly role overload and role conflict. Primary principals experienced greater stress than secondary principals. Suggestions on how the education department can reduce employee stress include altering leadership styles and offering stress…

  15. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life.

  16. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  17. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances an increase of plasma corticosterone levels induced by forced swim-stress.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazunori; Koushi, Emi; Irie, Keiichi; Higuchi, Sei; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Egashira, Nobuaki; Oishi, Ryozo; Uchida, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on susceptibility to stress. We reported that THC significantly prolonged the immobility time during the forced swim-stress. The selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist O-2050 significantly reduced the enhancement of immobility by THC. We investigated the effect of THC on levels of stress hormone corticosterone under non-stress and forced swim-stress conditions. THC did not affect plasma corticosterone levels under non-stress conditions. However, THC, together with forced swim-stress, significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels. This effect was inhibited by O-2050. This evidence suggests that THC, under stressful conditions, enhances the susceptibility of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis to stress via the CB(1) receptor, thereby increasing the risk of depression.

  18. Differential Stress Levels in Primary Versus Secondary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. Reid

    A study investigated sources of stress among 61 elementary and secondary school teachers who had attended an inservice stress clinic. Teachers completed test or survey instruments which collected data on problem situations for classroom teachers, including personal information on their teaching situations, job satisfaction, consideration of…

  19. Assessment of nursing students' stress levels and coping strategies in operating room practice.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping.

  20. The relationships among work stress, resourcefulness, and depression level in psychiatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu Mi; Lai, Chien Yu; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Yu, Ching-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric nurses are exposed to highly stressful work environments that can lead to depression over time. This study aimed to explore the relationships among work stress, resourcefulness, and depression levels of psychiatric nurses. A cross-sectional design with randomized sampling was used; 154 psychiatric nurses were recruited from six medical centers in Taiwan. Psychiatric nurses' work stress was found positively correlated with their depression level, and negatively related to resourcefulness. Work stress significantly predicted depression level. These results suggest that the hospital administrative units may develop training courses about resourcefulness skills to reduce psychiatric nurses' work stress, and improve their mental health.

  1. Stress-system genes and life stress predict cortisol levels and amygdala and hippocampal volumes in children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-04-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol reactivity and differences in limbic brain volumes, yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations are unclear. One main hypothesis is that stress causes these effects. This is supported by animal studies showing that chronic stress or glucocorticoid administration can lead to alterations in hippocampal and amygdala structures. Relatedly, life stress is cited as one of the major risk factors for depression and candidate gene studies have related variation in stress-system genes to increased prevalence and severity of depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic profile scores combining variance across 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms from four stress-system genes (CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) and early life stress would predict increases in cortisol levels during laboratory stressors in 120 preschool-age children (3-5 years old), as well as hippocampal and amygdala volumes assessed with MRI in these same children at school age (7-12 years old). We found that stress-system genetic profile scores positively predicted cortisol levels while the number of stressful/traumatic life events experienced by 3-5 years old negatively predicted cortisol levels. The interaction of genetic profile scores and early life stress predicted left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Cortisol partially mediated the effects of genetic variation and life stress on limbic brain volumes, particularly on left amygdala volume. These results suggest that stress-related genetic and early environmental factors contribute to variation in stress cortisol reactivity and limbic brain volumes in children, phenotypes associated with depression in adulthood.

  2. Effects of Anosognosia on Perceived Stress and Cortisol Levels in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Whitehead, Victor; Lupien, Sonia; Chertkow, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Anosognosia, or unawareness of one's own cognitive deficits, may cause issues when measuring perceived stress and cortisol levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The goal of this study was to examine the effects of anosognosia on perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels in normal elderly (NE) adults, MCI individuals, newly diagnosed AD patients, and long-lasting AD patients, suspected to show more anosognosia. An anosognosia index for perceived stress was computed by subtracting the score on the Perceived Stress Scale measured in the participants and their relative. Cortisol levels were measured four times a day over two nonconsecutive days. Greater anosognosia for dementia correlated with greater anosognosia for perceived stress in the group as a whole. However, no correlation between cortisol levels and either anosognosia for dementia or perceived stress was observed. Our results suggest that measuring perceived stress in AD patients may be influenced by anosognosia. PMID:22500245

  3. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Results Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory. PMID:25056725

  4. Effects of Different Genres of Music on Stress Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, O. W.; Tomcala, Maryjane

    The response of patients with stress problems to one of five music genres during biofeedback training is measured. Fifty male and female patients between the ages of 15 and 25 who were receiving psychotherapy, self-help counseling, and physical fitness training as well as biofeedback training comprised the sample. Using a Biofeedback Systems…

  5. Effect of Sulfonylureas Administered Centrally on the Blood Glucose Level in Immobilization Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  6. Effect of examination stress on mood, performance and cortisol levels in medical students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Goyal, Manish; Tiwari, Sunita; Ghildiyal, Archana; Nattu, Shankar M; Das, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    Stress produces definable mental and physiological reactions in the body. Mild stress is beneficial in cognitive tasks and performance but persistently high stress may lead to neuropsychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. Examinations act as stressor and activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis causing an increase in cortisol level, which is reflected in saliva. Present study was done on 35 medical students. Their mood parameters were assessed, using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scoring, and salivary cortisol levels using quantitative ELISA. Subjects were evaluated for mood parameters two times, one during relaxed state (with no examinations in preceding 2 weeks and in coming 2 weeks) and another during stressed state (on the day of viva voce examination). The levels of mood parameters and salivary cortisol were significantly raised during examination stress. The changes in stress level significantly correlated with change in levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol though there was no significant effect on the performance. Males and females showed similar changes in mood parameters. This study suggests that as examinations act as unavoidable stressors, the medical educators as well as students should be made aware of the negative consequences of stress faced during medical training. Efficient relaxation program as well as counseling services should be provided to stressed students so that they are able to cope better with examination stress.

  7. Effects of physical environment on the stress levels of hemodialysis nurses in Ankara Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uğur, Sultan; Acuner, Ahmet M; Göktaş, Bayram; Senoğlu, Birdal

    2007-08-01

    This study has been planned and executed as a field study for identifying the effect of physical environment on the stress levels of hemodialysis nurses who work in the official and private hemodialysis centers in the capital city of Turkey, Ankara (n=161). According to the results obtained from the study, it has been seen that "education level" and "institution of employment" of the hemodialysis nurses are significantly related with the stress levels of the hemodialysis nurses. Nurses' age, marital status, number of children, occupational seniority, years of working, employment status, husbands' occupation and husbands' educational levels are not significantly related with their stress levels.

  8. Effect of stress inoculation training on the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Fahimeh; Kashani, Parisa; Moghimian, Maryam; Shakour, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a broad group (over 270 types) of diseases. This disease, like other chronic diseases, occurs in all ages and ethnic groups, and is considered as a major health problem. Stress is one of the most important psychological factors influencing the occurrence of physical diseases, and can lead to severe anxiety, depression, and negative effects on health. It can also make individuals vulnerable to physical diseases, and in the long term, leads to death. This study was conducted to determine the effect of inoculation training on stress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2013 as a clinical trial with convenient random sampling of patients from the chemotherapy clinic of Seyed Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan. Forty patients with cancer who were eligible for the study were randomly assigned to either case or control group. The case and control groups had the same treatment plans, and the only difference was stress inoculation training administered in the case group, which was composed of eight 90-min sessions over 8 weeks. Data were collected using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales 42 (DASS-42) questionnaire and demographic questionnaire, and analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and t-test in SPSS. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between case and control groups in terms of stress, anxiety, and depression (P < 0.001). Stress inoculation training reduced stress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients. Conclusions: Stress inoculation training significantly reduced stress, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, teaching this skill and the strategies of coping with stress is recommended for these patients, in addition to medicational treatment. PMID:26120337

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The test... work, each about 8 inches (203 millimeters) long with the weld located approximately in the center,...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe C Appendix C to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe C Appendix C to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe C Appendix C to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The...

  13. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  14. Gender correlation of stress levels and sources of stress among first year students in a medical college.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Singhi, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Medical courses in India are very demanding for the students thus making career in medical education very stressful. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of stress levels in 100 first year medical students and to explore the sources of stress & it's relationship across the male and female students. Demographic information and Qualitative data from investigator tailored Medical Student Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ) by self rating under supervision of investigators were subjected to a thematic analysis. Stress perceived was more in males students (82.2%) as compared to females (61.8%) and their MSSQ index score was significantly different (U=985; P=0.02). Moderate to high academic stress was present among 79% of students more so in males with the academic domain score significantly different from that of females (U=883; P=0.007). Females perceived more stress in inter personal domain (12.7%) with the score significantly different from males (U=953.5; P=0.02). Group and Teaching stress was equally present in males and females.

  15. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  16. STRESS LEVELS IN CAPTURED RIVER OTTERS (LONTRA CANADENSIS) DECREASED AFTER TRANSPORTATION TO REINTRODUCTION SITES.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebekah T; Wong, Jennifer A; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    The level of stress that animals endure during capture, handling, transportation, and release processes is a major concern of animal reintroduction projects. Animals under chronic stress are more susceptible to disease and other deleterious issues that could reduce their survival in a new environment. Northern river otters ( Lontra canadensis ) have been reintroduced in 22 states in the United States and may be susceptible to developing chronic stress during the reintroduction process. We assessed stress levels in five river otters captured from wild populations in Washington, held in captivity for up to 21 days, and then transported to New Mexico for reintroduction. Glucocorticoid levels in fecal samples of all otters tested decreased from when they were held captive in Washington to the time of release. This outcome suggests that habituation to captivity before transport and release may serve to minimize the likelihood of an otter being released while experiencing a potentially burdensome level of stress.

  17. Displacement behaviour is associated with reduced stress levels among men but not women.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching--represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported) measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders.

  18. Displacement Behaviour Is Associated with Reduced Stress Levels among Men but Not Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour - activities such as scratching and face touching - represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported) measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders. PMID:23457555

  19. Reboxetine Improves Auditory Attention and Increases Norepinephrine Levels in the Auditory Cortex of Chronically Stressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Valenzuela, Catherine; Gárate-Pérez, Macarena F.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Delano, Paul H.; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs auditory attention in rats and monoamines regulate neurotransmission in the primary auditory cortex (A1), a brain area that modulates auditory attention. In this context, we hypothesized that norepinephrine (NE) levels in A1 correlate with the auditory attention performance of chronically stressed rats. The first objective of this research was to evaluate whether chronic stress affects monoamines levels in A1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to chronic stress (restraint stress) and monoamines levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC)-electrochemical detection. Chronically stressed rats had lower levels of NE in A1 than did controls, while chronic stress did not affect serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels. The second aim was to determine the effects of reboxetine (a selective inhibitor of NE reuptake) on auditory attention and NE levels in A1. Rats were trained to discriminate between two tones of different frequencies in a two-alternative choice task (2-ACT), a behavioral paradigm to study auditory attention in rats. Trained animals that reached a performance of ≥80% correct trials in the 2-ACT were randomly assigned to control and stress experimental groups. To analyze the effects of chronic stress on the auditory task, trained rats of both groups were subjected to 50 2-ACT trials 1 day before and 1 day after of the chronic stress period. A difference score (DS) was determined by subtracting the number of correct trials after the chronic stress protocol from those before. An unexpected result was that vehicle-treated control rats and vehicle-treated chronically stressed rats had similar performances in the attentional task, suggesting that repeated injections with vehicle were stressful for control animals and deteriorated their auditory attention. In this regard, both auditory attention and NE levels in A1 were higher in chronically stressed rats treated with reboxetine than in vehicle

  20. Improving parental stress levels among mothers living with HIV: a randomized control group intervention study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica R; Davies, Susan L; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-04-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85(th) and 90(th) percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH.

  1. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  2. Chronic stress alters the expression levels of longevity-related genes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ana C; Muñoz, Mario F; Herrera, Antonio J; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Stowell, Rianne; Ayala, Antonio; Machado, Alberto; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2016-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effects of psychological stress on cellular stress during aging and neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of chronic psychological stress, and the consequent increase of circulating glucocorticoids, on several hippocampal genes involved in longevity. Sirtuin-1, p53, thioredoxin-interacting protein, and heat shock protein 70 were studied at the mRNA and protein levels in stressed and non-stressed animals. Stress treatment for 10 days decreased sirtuin-1 and heat shock protein 70 levels, but increased levels of p53, thioredoxin-interacting protein and the NADPH oxidase enzyme. Examination of protein expression following two months of stress treatment indicated that sirtuin-1 remained depressed. In contrast, an increase was observed for thioredoxin-interacting protein, heat shock protein 70, p53 and the NADPH oxidase enzyme. The effect of stress was reversed by mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that chronic stress could contribute to aging in the hippocampus.

  3. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms.

  4. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  5. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  6. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  7. Stress Levels of Kuwaiti Mothers of Children with SLD: Does Work and Educational Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazemi, Saad S.; Hadadian, Azar; Merbler, John B.; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Existing research literature indicates that parents of children with disabilities have higher stress. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress levels between mothers in relation to their children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). A sub sample of 91 mothers participated in the study. The outcome of the research…

  8. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

    PubMed Central

    Kourmousi, Ntina; Darviri, Christina; Varvogli, Liza; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2015-01-01

    Background The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were posted on all Greek educators’ official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Results Satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (above 0.70) were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively), confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students’ difficulties. Conclusion The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted. PMID:25834469

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Stress-Induced Alternations of Intrinsic Amygdala Connectivity and Neuroendocrine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Quaedflieg, C. W. E. M.; van de Ven, V.; Meyer, T.; Siep, N.; Merckelbach, H.; Smeets, T.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in functional brain connectivity have been linked to the etiology of stress-related disorders. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) is especially informative in characterizing the temporal trajectory of glucocorticoids during stress adaptation. Using the imaging Maastricht Acute Stress Test (iMAST), we induced acute stress in 39 healthy volunteers and monitored the neuroendocrine stress levels during three runs of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI): before (run 1), immediately following (run 2), and 30min after acute stress (run 3). The iMAST resulted in strong increases in cortisol levels. Whole-brain analysis revealed that acute stress (run 2 - 1) was characterized by changes in connectivity of the amygdala with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), cuneus, parahippocampal gyrus, and culmen. Additionally, cortisol responders were characterized by enhanced amygdala - medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connectivity. Stress recovery (run 3 - 2) was characterized by altered amygdala connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior hippocampal complex, cuneus, and presupplementary motor area (preSMA). Opposite to non-responders, cortisol responders were characterized by enhanced amygdala connectivity with the anterior hippocampal complex and parahippocampal gyrus, and reduced connectivity with left dlPFC, dACC, and culmen during early recovery. Acute stress responding and recovery are thus associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the amygdala network. Our findings show that these changes may be regulated via stress-induced neuroendocrine levels. Defining stress-induced neuronal network changes is pertinent to developing treatments that target abnormal neuronal activity. PMID:25946334

  10. A new stress model, a scream sound, alters learning and monoamine levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen

    2014-01-17

    Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time.

  11. Are symptoms associated with increased levels of perceived stress in first-episode psychosis?

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Jackson, Deirdre; Turner, Niall; Sutton, Marie; Foley, Sharon; McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2009-06-01

    Several studies report on the presence of external stress and life events prior to the onset and exacerbation of psychotic illness. However, the relationship between the subjective appraisal of stress at first presentation with psychosis is less well understood. This paper reports on the relationship between the individual perception of stress and symptomatology in individuals with first-episode psychosis at presentation to community mental health services. We assessed 123 individuals using standardized measures of symptoms, quality of life, perceived stress, global functioning, and duration of untreated psychosis. At first presentation, people with more depressive symptoms and reduced overall functioning were more likely to report increased levels of perceived stress. In addition, people with less positive symptoms of psychosis were experiencing higher levels of subjective stress. In terms of stress vulnerability models, it is important to consider how functioning and symptoms can influence individual appraisal of stress. Acknowledging this interaction can provide opportunities for nursing interventions directed at enhancing adaptive coping and provide benchmarks for assessing the effectiveness of nursing interventions provided in the acute phase of psychosis. Further research should focus on the interaction between symptoms and individually-appraised stress over time.

  12. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health.

  13. An optimized whole-body cortisol quantification method for assessing stress levels in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish.

  14. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  15. Energetics of stress: linking plasma cortisol levels to metabolic rate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Haase, Catherine G; Long, Andrea K; Gillooly, James F

    2016-01-01

    Physiological stress may result in short-term benefits to organismal performance, but also long-term costs to health or longevity. Yet, we lack an understanding of the variation in stress hormone levels (i.e. glucocorticoids) that exist within and across species. Here, we present comparative analyses that link the primary stress hormone in most mammals (i.e. cortisol) to metabolic rate. We show that baseline concentrations of plasma cortisol vary with mass-specific metabolic rate among cortisol-dominant mammals, and both baseline and elevated concentrations scale predictably with body mass. The results quantitatively link a classical measure of physiological stress to whole-organism energetics, providing a point of departure for cross-species comparisons of stress levels among mammals.

  16. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity.

  17. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  18. Can community structure track sea-level rise? Stress and competitive controls in tidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Suding, Katharine N; Kelly, N Maggi

    2017-02-01

    Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus. We simulated sea-level rise across existing marsh elevations and those not currently found to reflect potential future sea-level rise conditions in two tidal wetlands differing in salinity. Plants were grown individually and together at five tidal elevations, the lowest simulating an 80-cm increase in sea level, and harvested to assess differences in biomass after one growing season. Inundation time, salinity, sulfides, and redox potential were measured concurrently. As predicted, increasing inundation reduced biomass of the species commonly found at higher marsh elevations, with little effect on the species found along channel margins. The presence of neighbors reduced total biomass of both species, particularly at the highest elevation; facilitation did not occur at any elevation. Contrary to predictions, we documented the competitive superiority of the stress tolerator under increased inundation, which was not predicted by the stress gradient hypothesis. Multifactor manipulation experiments addressing plant response to accelerated climate change are integral to creating a more realistic, valuable, and needed assessment of potential ecosystem response. Our results point to the important and unpredicted synergies between physical stressors, which are predicted to increase in intensity with climate change, and competitive forces on biomass as

  19. The effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on serum oxidative stress levels.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Aslan, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Selek, Sahbettin; Sabuncu, Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    Some authors have investigated the effects of oxidative stress in some process such as undergoing laparoscopic. However, the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress is unclear. We evaluated the short-term effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress. Thirty patients who underwent endoscopy process and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the prospective study. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurements were measured before and after endoscopy process. The ratio percentage of total oxidant status to total antioxidant capacity was regarded as oxidative stress index. Before endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity levels were higher, while serum total oxidant status levels and oxidative stress index values were lower in patients than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (all, p > 0.05). After endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were significantly higher in patients than before endoscopy process (both, p < 0.05). However, oxidative stress index values were slight higher in patients but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We observed that serum TAC and TOS levels were increased in patients who underwent endoscopy process after endoscopy process. However, short-time upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process did not cause an important change in the oxidative stress index. Further studies enrolling a larger number of patients are required to clarify the results obtained here.

  20. Rotational stress-induced increase in epinephrine levels delays cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Romana-Souza, Bruna; Otranto, Marcela; Vieira, Andreza M; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Fierro, Iolanda M; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2010-03-01

    Stress impairs wound healing of cutaneous lesions; however, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rotational stress on cutaneous wound healing in mice and propose a mechanism. Male mice were spun at 45 rpm for 15 min every hour beginning 3 days before wounding until euthanasia. Control animals were not subjected to stress. To confirm that catecholamines participate in stress-induced delay of wound healing, mice were treated daily with propranolol. An excisional lesion was created and measured. Seven and 14 days later, animals were killed and lesions collected. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostained for alpha-smooth muscle actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity, nitrite levels, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were measured in the wounds. In addition, murine skin fibroblast cultures were treated with high levels of epinephrine and fibroblast activity was evaluated. Stressed mice exhibited reduced locomotor activity and increased normetanephrine plasma levels. Rotational stress was associated with decreased wound contraction, reduced re-epithelialization, reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation, but with strongly increased nitrite levels. Furthermore, inflammatory cell infiltration, TNF-alpha expression, myofibroblastic differentiation, and angiogenesis were all delayed in the stress group. Propranolol administration reversed the deleterious effects of stress on wound contraction and re-epithelialization. High epinephrine concentrations increased murine skin fibroblast proliferation and nitric oxide synthesis, and strongly inhibited skin fibroblast migration and both pro- and active MMP-2. In conclusion, rotational stress impairs cutaneous wound healing due to epinephrine increased levels.

  1. Gender differences in aggression and cortisol levels in zebrafish subjected to unpredictable chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Marcon, Matheus; Villanova, Débora; Koakoski, Gessi; de Abreu, Murilo S; Oliveira, Thiago A; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Piato, Angelo L; Bonan, Carla D

    2017-03-15

    Chronic stress may cause physical, behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes, affecting the health condition of an individual. Aggression is a universal behavior with great relevance on human and animal social systems. Despite studies showing the influence of chronic stress on aggression, the effects of unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) on aggressive behavior in male and female zebrafish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of UCS on the aggressive behavior and cortisol levels in adult zebrafish of both sexes. Our results showed that UCS increased aggression in males, but not in females, which displayed more aggressive behavior at baseline than control males. Increased whole-body cortisol levels were observed in stressed males; however, no differences were found between female groups. In conclusion, we reported for the first time gender differences on behavioral parameters and cortisol levels in response to UCS in zebrafish. These results highlight the relevance of studying behavioral and physiological parameters in both sexes separately.

  2. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-02-21

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  3. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.

  4. The effect of stress level, amino acid formula, and nitrogen dose on nitrogen retention in traumatic and septic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Cerra, F; Blackburn, G; Hirsch, J; Mullen, K; Luther, W

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-seven patients were entered into a randomized, prospective, double-blind, six-center study to evaluate the effect of amino acid loading and a formula that was branched chain enriched (50%) on nitrogen retention in metabolic stress. The patients had varying levels of metabolic stress (0-3) after major surgery, polytrauma, or surgical sepsis. The study was isocaloric and isonitrogenous and lasted for 7 days. The patients received either a standard amino acid formula (SAA) (Travasol) or a 50% branched chain enriched formula that was equimolar, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (MAA) (Travasol + Branchamin concentrate) at a dose of 1.0-2.0 g/kg/day in a fixed ratio with 114 glucose calories per gram of nitrogen administered. The nitrogen retention was proportionate to the nitrogen (and, therefore, caloric) load in both groups. The MAA group, however, had better nitrogen retention, reached nitrogen equilibrium at a lower dose of amino acids, and had less urinary nitrogen excretion per gram of nitrogen administered. Since the groups were isonitrogenous and the calorie to nitrogen ratios were fixed, it appears that nitrogen equilibrium in surgical stress is proportionate to the amino acid load over a range of 0.05-0.4 g/kg/day of nitrogen; and that MAA are more efficient at inducing nitrogen retention and a reduction in urea excretion. These effects on nitrogen retention were more significant at level 2 stress or greater. At these higher stress levels, a dose of 2 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day of MAA seemed most efficient in promoting nitrogen retention. PMID:3548612

  5. The effect of stress level, amino acid formula, and nitrogen dose on nitrogen retention in traumatic and septic stress.

    PubMed

    Cerra, F; Blackburn, G; Hirsch, J; Mullen, K; Luther, W

    1987-03-01

    Eighty-seven patients were entered into a randomized, prospective, double-blind, six-center study to evaluate the effect of amino acid loading and a formula that was branched chain enriched (50%) on nitrogen retention in metabolic stress. The patients had varying levels of metabolic stress (0-3) after major surgery, polytrauma, or surgical sepsis. The study was isocaloric and isonitrogenous and lasted for 7 days. The patients received either a standard amino acid formula (SAA) (Travasol) or a 50% branched chain enriched formula that was equimolar, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (MAA) (Travasol + Branchamin concentrate) at a dose of 1.0-2.0 g/kg/day in a fixed ratio with 114 glucose calories per gram of nitrogen administered. The nitrogen retention was proportionate to the nitrogen (and, therefore, caloric) load in both groups. The MAA group, however, had better nitrogen retention, reached nitrogen equilibrium at a lower dose of amino acids, and had less urinary nitrogen excretion per gram of nitrogen administered. Since the groups were isonitrogenous and the calorie to nitrogen ratios were fixed, it appears that nitrogen equilibrium in surgical stress is proportionate to the amino acid load over a range of 0.05-0.4 g/kg/day of nitrogen; and that MAA are more efficient at inducing nitrogen retention and a reduction in urea excretion. These effects on nitrogen retention were more significant at level 2 stress or greater. At these higher stress levels, a dose of 2 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day of MAA seemed most efficient in promoting nitrogen retention.

  6. Physical fitness level affects perception of chronic stress in military trainees.

    PubMed

    Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-12-13

    This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R(2)  = 0.444, F = 23.334, p < .001). The explained variance of VO2 max was 4.14% (R(2)  = 0.041), with a Cohen's f(2) effect size of 0.045 (assigned as a small effect by Cohen, ). The results indicate a moderating influence of good aerobic fitness on the varied level of perceived stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons.

  7. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  8. Stress-responsiveness influences baseline glucocorticoid levels: Revisiting the under 3min sampling rule.

    PubMed

    Small, Thomas W; Bebus, Sara E; Bridge, Eli S; Elderbrock, Emily K; Ferguson, Stephen M; Jones, Blake C; Schoech, Stephan J

    2017-02-09

    Plasma glucocorticoid (CORT) levels collected within 3min of capture are commonly believed to reflect pre-stressor, baseline CORT levels. Differences in these "baseline" values are often interpreted as reflecting differences in health, or the amount of social and environmental stress recently experienced by an individual. When interpreting "baseline" values it is generally assumed that any effect of capture-and-handling during the initial sampling period is small enough and consistent enough among individuals to not obscure pre-capture differences in CORT levels. However, plasma CORT increases in less than 3min post-capture in many free-living, endothermic species in which timing has been assessed. In addition, the rate of CORT secretion and the maximum level attained (i.e., the degree of stress-responsiveness) during a severe stressor often differs among individuals of the same species. In Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), an individual's stress-responsiveness during a 30min post-capture stressor is correlated with CORT levels in samples collected within 1.5min of capture, suggesting there is an intrinsic connection between stress-responsiveness and pre-capture CORT levels. Although differences in stress-responsiveness accounted for just 11% of the variance in these samples, on average, higher stress-responsive jays (top third of individuals) had baseline values twice that of lower stress-responsive jays (bottom third). Further, plasma CORT levels begin to increase around 2min post-capture in this species, but the rate of increase between 2 and 3min differs markedly with CORT increasing more rapidly in jays with higher stress-responsiveness. Together, these data indicate that baseline CORT values can be influenced by an individual's stress response phenotype and the differences due to stress-responsiveness can be exaggerated during sample collection. In some cases, the effects of differences in stress-responsiveness and the increase in CORT during

  9. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal.

  10. Do smart birds stress less? An interspecific relationship between brain size and corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Bókony, Veronika; Angelier, Frédéric; Chastel, Olivier; Sol, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Vertebrates respond to unpredictable noxious environmental stimuli by increasing secretion of glucocorticoids (CORT). Although this hormonal stress response is adaptive, high levels of CORT may induce significant costs if stressful situations are frequent. Thus, alternative coping mechanisms that help buffer individuals against environmental stressors may be selected for when the costs of CORT levels are elevated. By allowing individuals to identify, anticipate and cope with the stressful circumstances, cognition may enable stress-specific behavioural coping. Although there is evidence that behavioural responses allow animals to cope with stressful situations, it is unclear whether or not cognition reduces investment in the neuroendocrine stress response. Here, we report that in birds, species with larger brains relative to their body size show lower baseline and peak CORT levels than species with smaller brains. This relationship is consistent across life-history stages, and cannot be accounted for by differences in life history and geographical latitude. Because a large brain is a major feature of birds that base their lifetime in learning new things, our results support the hypothesis that enhanced cognition represents a general alternative to the neuroendocrine stress response.

  11. Intervention Effects on Foster Parent Stress: Associations With Children's Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Foster children exhibit high rates of atypical neuroendocrine functioning compared to children in the general population. In particular, alterations in the daytime diurnal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been observed in foster children, often characterized by blunted salivary cortisol levels (i.e., low morning levels that remain low throughout the day). There is emerging evidence that therapeutic interventions for foster children can affect this pattern of HPA axis activity, but the specific intervention components responsible for change have not been fully explicated. Within a randomized trial to evaluate a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers (n = 57 intervention condition; n = 60 comparison condition; n = 60 community comparison condition), the present study examined whether diurnal cortisol activity was associated with caregiver self-reported stress in response to child problem behavior. Results showed immediate reductions in caregiver stress that were sustained through 12 months postbaseline in the intervention condition. In contrast, caregivers in the regular foster care condition showed higher rates of stress across time and increased stress sensitivity to child problem behaviors. In addition, among caregivers in regular foster care, higher self-reported stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels and more blunted diurnal cortisol activity. These results provide evidence that interventions can simultaneously impact caregiver stress and buffer children from the negative impacts of caregiver stress on HPA axis regulation PMID:18606041

  12. Cold-induced changes in stress hormone and steroidogenic transcript levels in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), a fish capable of metabolic depression.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Hori, Tiago S; Hall, Jennifer R; Rise, Matthew L; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2015-12-01

    The cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a fish with a wide latitudinal distribution that is capable of going into metabolic depression during the winter months, and thus, represents a unique model to investigate the impacts of cold temperatures on the stress response. In this study, we measured resting (pre-stress) plasma cortisol levels in 10 °C and 0 °C acclimated cunner from Newfoundland, and both catecholamine and cortisol levels after they were given a standardized handling stress (i.e. 1 min air exposure). In addition, we cloned and characterized cDNAs for several key genes of the cortisol-axis [cytochrome P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) most likely to be an ortholog of the teleost GR2], determined the tissue distribution of their transcripts, and measured their constitutive (i.e. pre-stress) transcript levels in individuals acclimated to both temperatures. In cunner acclimated to 0 °C, post-stress epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were much lower (by approximately 9- and 5-fold, respectively) compared to 10 °C acclimated fish, and these fish had relatively low resting cortisol levels (~15 ngml(-1)) and showed a typical post-stress response. In contrast, those acclimated to 10 °C had quite high resting cortisol levels (~75 ngml(-1)) that actually decreased (to ~20 ngml(-1)) post-stress before returning to pre-stress levels. Finally, fish acclimated to 10 °C had higher P450scc transcript levels in the head kidney and lower levels of GR transcript in both the head kidney and liver. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) temperature has a profound effect on the stress response of this species; and (2) although the ancestors of this species inhabited warm waters (i.e. they are members of the family Labridae), populations of cunner from colder regions may show signs of stress at temperatures as low as 10 °C.

  13. The stress protein level under clinorotation in context of the seedling developmental program and the stress response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Lyudmyla; Kordyum, Elizabeth

    2006-09-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90) are present in plant cells under the normal growth conditions. At the same time, a variety of environmental disruptions results in their rapid synthesis as a substantial part of adaptation. HSP amounts can be indicative of a cellular stress level. Altered gravity (clinorotation) is unnatural for plants, so it may be a kind of stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal clinorotation on the HSP70 and HSP90 level during seedling development. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings grown for 3 days from seed imbibitions in stationary control and under slow clinorotation (2 rpm) are used for this investigation. Western blot analysis indicated that HSP70 and HSP90 were abundant in the embryos of dry seeds and their amount decreased significantly during seed germination. But under horizontal clinorotation, their level in seedlings remained higher compared to the control. Furthermore, a comparison of the influence of horizontal and vertical clinorotation on the HSP level was carried out. On the ELISA data, HSP70 and HSP90 amounts in the 3-day old seedlings were higher after horizontal clinorotation than after vertical. The obtained data show an increased HSP70 and HSP90 level in pea seedlings under clinorotation. Both, rotation and change in the cell position relatively to a gravity vector affect the HSP level.

  14. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, Fatemeh; ADHA, Nikmatul; ZAINOL, Rosilawati; ISAHAK, Marzuki; NEMATI, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels. PMID:26060694

  15. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Adha, Nikmatul; Zainol, Rosilawati; Isahak, Marzuki; Nemati, Nahid

    2014-10-01

    The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  16. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk.

  17. The effects of palm vitamin E on stress hormone levels and gastric lesions in stress-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Aziz Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel; Kamisah, Yusof; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study examines the effects of palm vitamin E (PVE) or α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementation on adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Material and methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups. Group I: 20 rats as a control group were given a normal diet. Group II: 20 rats received oral supplementation of PVE at 60 mg/kg body weight. Group III: 20 rats received oral supplementation of α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28 days, each group was further subdivided into two groups: 10 rats not exposed to stress, and the other 10 rats subjected to WIRS for 3.5 h. Blood samples were taken to measure the ACTH and corticosterone levels. The rats were then sacrificed and the stomach excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions. Results Rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementation of PVE or α-TF was able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed controls. The WIRS increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone significantly. Palm vitamin E and α-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed controls. Conclusions Supplementation with either PVE or α-TF reduces the formation of gastric lesions, probably by inhibiting the elevation of ACTH and corticosterone levels induced by stress. PMID:22457670

  18. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  19. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Wiechert, D; Wagner, T O; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acute stress during a parachute jump on hormonal responses were studied in 12 experienced and 11 inexperienced military parachutists. Each subject performed two jumps. Prior to and immediately after each jump blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin (TSH), somatotropin (STH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While there was a significant increase in cortisol, prolactin and TSH levels after both jumps, no alterations could be observed in STH and LH levels. Stress-induced hormonal responses were not affected by jump experience. There was also no association between the endocrine variables and anxiety scores.

  20. Common stress and serum cortisol and IL-12 levels in missed abortion.

    PubMed

    Tian, C-F; Kang, M-H

    2014-01-01

    To investigate stress levels, serum cortisol levels, and changes in IL-12 concentration in patients with missed abortion. Patients with missed abortion (n = 48) were age and gestational age-matched with normal early pregnancy cases (n = 48). All subjects completed a stress evaluation survey questionnaire about common stressors. Venous blood samples were collected at 07.00 hours, and serum cortisol and IL-12 concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and ELISA methods, respectively. Missed abortion patients demonstrated a significantly higher number of common stressors and higher serum cortisol levels compared to controls (both p < 0.05). Dilation and curettage did not lead to significant differences in serum cortisol and IL-12 levels (p > 0.05). Stress and immunity alterations of the immune system may contribute to the aetiology of missed abortion.

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Sonya Colman

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between high-stakes testing and the stress levels of secondary teachers in Jackson's Jackson Public School District. The independent variables of age, gender, subject taught, teaching experience, degree and school level were used to determine the differences of the various groups. A survey was piloted and…

  2. [Impact of a music therapy program on the stress level of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taets, Gunnar Glauco de Cunto; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; de Figueiredo, Nébia Maria Almeida; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

  3. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  4. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Parameters and Urinary Deoxypyridinoline Levels in Geriatric Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Ulas, Turgay; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Karakas, Emel Yigit; Sezen, Hatice; Ustunel, Murat; Bilinc, Hasan; Gencer, Mehmet; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the oxidative stress parameters and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels in geriatric patients with osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty geriatric patients aged over 65 years were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40) consisted of patients with osteoporosis, and Group 2 (n=40) consisted of patients without osteoporosis. Bone mineral density measurements were performed for all patients using DEXA. Oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in blood samples, and deoxypyridinoline levels were analyzed in 24-hour urinary samples. [Results] Compared to Group 2, the total antioxidant status and oxidative stress index levels of Group 1 were not significantly different; however, total oxidant status and 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were significantly higher. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that OSI and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were not correlated with any biochemical parameters. ROC-curve analysis revealed that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels over 30.80 mg/ml predicted osteoporosis with 67% sensitivity and 68% specificity (area under the curve = 0.734; %95 CI: 0.624–0.844). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that oxidative stress would play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels may be a useful screening test for osteoporosis. PMID:25276024

  5. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  6. KDM5 Interacts with Foxo to Modulate Cellular Levels of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Greer, Christina; Secombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cellular levels of oxidative stress are implicated in a large number of human diseases. Here we describe the transcription co-factor KDM5 (also known as Lid) as a new critical regulator of cellular redox state. Moreover, this occurs through a novel KDM5 activity whereby it alters the ability of the transcription factor Foxo to bind to DNA. Our microarray analyses of kdm5 mutants revealed a striking enrichment for genes required to regulate cellular levels of oxidative stress. Consistent with this, loss of kdm5 results in increased sensitivity to treatment with oxidizers, elevated levels of oxidized proteins, and increased mutation load. KDM5 activates oxidative stress resistance genes by interacting with Foxo to facilitate its recruitment to KDM5-Foxo co-regulated genes. Significantly, this occurs independently of KDM5's well-characterized demethylase activity. Instead, KDM5 interacts with the lysine deacetylase HDAC4 to promote Foxo deacetylation, which affects Foxo DNA binding. PMID:25329053

  7. Association between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level 1

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi-Donato, Edilaine Cristina da Silva; Cardoso, Lucilene; Teixeira, Carla Araújo Bastos; Pereira, Sandra de Souza; Reisdorfer, Emilene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analize the relationship between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level of a teaching hospital in a city of the state of São Paulo. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 310 nursing technicians and nursing assistants, randomly selected. The outcome analyzed was the report of depression and its relationship with high levels of work stress, measured using the Job Stress Scale. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results: the prevalence of depression in this study was 20%, and it was more expressive in females, aged over 40 years, living without a partner and in smokers. The chance of depression was twice as high among professionals showing high levels of work stress, even after multiple regression adjusting. Conclusion: depressive symptoms were strongly associated with high stress levels among nursing assistants and nursing technicians, evidencing a problem to be considered along with the planning of specific intervention programs for this population, as well as the need for better cases management by the supervisors. PMID:26444177

  8. Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Tamara B; Perrot-Sinal, Tara S

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the

  9. Effect of Self-Management Intervention on Cortisol and Daily Stress Levels in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deechakawan, Wimon; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Burr, Robert L.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Self-management programs that include cognitive behavioral strategies have been shown to improve gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, less is known about the physiological impact of such a change. As part of a randomized controlled trial using a Comprehensive Self-Management (CSM) intervention (n = 126) compared to Usual Care (UC) (n = 62), cortisol levels were measured in four weekly first morning urine samples at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up. In addition, diary (28 days) ratings of stress were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The omnibus test of all three outcome times showed no differences in urine cortisol levels between CSM and UC groups (p = .400); however, at 3 months the CSM group had significantly higher cortisol levels than the UC group (p = .012). The CSM group reported lower daily stress levels (p = .046 from omnibus test of all three time points) than UC, with the effect getting stronger over time. Despite marked improvements in reported stress and previously reported gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms at later follow-ups, the CSM program did not reduce urine cortisol levels in adults with IBS. These results suggest that the first void urine cortisol levels are not reflective of self reported daily stress in this patient population. PMID:21765120

  10. Effect of self-management intervention on cortisol and daily stress levels in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deechakawan, Wimon; Cain, Kevin C; Jarrett, Monica E; Burr, Robert L; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    Self-management programs that include cognitive behavioral strategies have been shown to improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life (QoL) in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, less is known about the physiological impact of such a change. As part of a randomized controlled trial using a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention (n = 126) compared to usual care (UC; n = 62), cortisol levels were measured in 4 weekly first morning urine samples at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In addition, diary (28 days) ratings of stress were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The omnibus test of all three outcome times showed no differences in urine cortisol levels between the CSM and UC groups (p = .400); however, at 3 months the CSM group had significantly higher cortisol levels than the UC group (p = .012). The CSM group reported lower daily stress levels (p = .046 from the omnibus test of all 3 time points) than the UC group, with the effect getting stronger over time. Despite marked improvements in reported stress and previously reported GI and psychological distress symptoms at later follow-ups, the CSM program did not reduce urine cortisol levels in adults with IBS. These results suggest that the first-void urine cortisol levels are not reflective of self-reported daily stress in this patient population.

  11. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  12. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and

  13. Military Experience and Levels of Stress and Coping in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study. Officers were categorized into three groups: non-military (n=334), non-combat military (n=84), and military with combat (n=34). Age, sex and education adjusted levels of psychological stress and coping measures were compared across the three groups using ANCOVA. P-values were derived from post-hoc comparisons. Non-military police officers had significantly higher stress levels for physically and psychological threatening events compared to non-combat officers (p=0.019). Non-military officers also reported experiencing significantly more organizational stressors and physically and psychologically threatening events in the past year than combat and non-combat officers (p<0.05). Combat officers had significantly lower levels of planning and active coping styles compared to non-combat officers (p=0.026, p=0.032, respectively) and non-military officers (p=0.010, p=0.005, respectively). In summary, police officers without military experience reported experiencing more organizational and life-threatening events than officers who served in the military. Yet combat officers were less likely to utilize positive coping than non-combat and non-military officers. These findings demonstrate the potential positive influence of military experience on police stress. Further research is needed as military veterans return to police work. PMID:24707586

  14. Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ajay K.; Kim, Ju-Kon; Owens, Thomas G.; Ranwala, Anil P.; Choi, Yang Do; Kochian, Leon V.; Wu, Ray J.

    2002-01-01

    Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide of glucose that functions as a compatible solute in the stabilization of biological structures under abiotic stress in bacteria, fungi, and invertebrates. With the notable exception of the desiccation-tolerant “resurrection plants,” trehalose is not thought to accumulate to detectable levels in most plants. We report here the regulated overexpression of Escherichia coli trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsA and otsB) as a fusion gene for manipulating abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The fusion gene has the advantages of necessitating only a single transformation event and a higher net catalytic efficiency for trehalose formation. The expression of the transgene was under the control of either tissue-specific or stress-dependent promoters. Compared with nontransgenic rice, several independent transgenic lines exhibited sustained plant growth, less photo-oxidative damage, and more favorable mineral balance under salt, drought, and low-temperature stress conditions. Depending on growth conditions, the transgenic rice plants accumulate trehalose at levels 3–10 times that of the nontransgenic controls. The observation that peak trehalose levels remain well below 1 mg/g fresh weight indicates that the primary effect of trehalose is not as a compatible solute. Rather, increased trehalose accumulation correlates with higher soluble carbohydrate levels and an elevated capacity for photosynthesis under both stress and nonstress conditions, consistent with a suggested role in modulating sugar sensing and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of engineering rice for increased tolerance of abiotic stress and enhanced productivity through tissue-specific or stress-dependent overproduction of trehalose. PMID:12456878

  15. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM.

  16. Effects of exercise induced oxidative stress on glutathione levels in Parkinson's disease on and off medication.

    PubMed

    Elokda, Ahmed; DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Joanne; Lamberg, Eric M; Werner, William G

    2010-10-01

    Resting plasma glutathione (GSH) levels are lower in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) than any other neurological condition. Medications used to treat PD have also been shown to further decrease this depletion. Acute exercise has been shown to be an effective tool to produce oxidative stress in other populations as reflected in lowering levels of GSH. The purpose of this study was to determine how PD responds to acute exercise stress and how medication affects these responses. Fourteen men with PD and 14 men without PD underwent an exercise stress test. Subjects with PD performed the test once off PD medication (PD-Off-med) for 12 h then again 1 week later on PD medication (PD-On-med). GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), were collected via blood draws at rest and after peak exercise along with peak VO(2). At rest and at peak exercise GSH levels and the GSH:GSSG ratio were significantly lower in the PD-On-med and PD-Off-med as compared to controls. GSSG levels were significantly higher in both medication conditions at rest and peak exercise compared to controls. When comparing PD-On-med vs. PD-Off-med at rest and peak exercise, the PD-On-med had lower GSH levels, a lower GSH:GSSG ratio and higher GSSG levels. VO(2) correlated positively with GSH levels. Subjects with PD have lower plasma GSH levels than healthy controls at rest and at peak exercise.

  17. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

  18. [Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].

    PubMed

    Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  19. Low-level laser effects on bacterial cultures submitted to heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, E. M.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Low-level lasers have been used worldwide to treat a number of diseases, pain relief, and wound healing. Some studies demonstrated that low-level laser radiations induce effects depending on the physiological state and DNA repair mechanisms of cells. In this work we evaluated the effects of low-level red and infrared lasers on Escherichia coli cells deficient in SOS responses submitted to heat stress. Exponential and stationary E. coli cultures of wild type (AB1157), RecA deficient (AB2463) and LexA deficient (AB2494), both SOS response deficient, were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences and submitted to heat stress (42 °C, 20 min). After that, cell survival and morphology were evaluated. Previous exposure to red, but not infrared lasers, increases survival fractions and decreases the area ratios of E. coli AB1157 cells submitted to heat stress. Our research suggests that a low-level red laser increases cell viability and protects cells from morphological alteration in E. coli cultures submitted to heat stress depending on laser wavelength and SOS response.

  20. Medical Students' Stress Levels and Sense of Well Being after Six Weeks of Yoga and Meditation

    PubMed Central

    Varrey, Aneesha; Sisti, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of six weeks of yoga and meditation on medical students' levels of perceived stress and sense of wellbeing prior to taking their exams. Methods. We conducted a prospective case-control study of first-through-third-year medical students at our academic institution, measuring levels of perceived stress and sense of wellbeing before and after a six-week yoga and meditation intervention. Questionnaires used for evaluation included the perceived stress scale (PSS) and self-assessment surveys (SAS). The postintervention surveys were completed on the day of the students' written exams. Results. A total of thirteen women and fourteen men participated. Median age was 28 (24 yrs–32 yrs). 48.1% were Caucasian, 7.4% Black, 11.1% Hispanic, 11.1% Asian, and 22.2% other. Paired t-tests showed a statistically significant reduction in perceived stress (18.44 versus 14.52; p = 0.004) after the six-week yoga and meditation program. After the yoga intervention, self-assessment survey results showed a significant improvement in feelings of peace, focus, and endurance. Improvements in happiness, positivity, personal satisfaction, and self-confidence were also seen. An improvement in unsubstantiated parameters such as patience and fatigue was observed. Conclusion. Yoga and meditation may be effective in reducing stress levels and improving aspects of personal wellbeing in medical students. PMID:28053644

  1. Response of Solid He-4 to External Stress: Interdigital Capacitor Solid Level Detector and Optical Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, J.; Wada, Y.; Masutomi, R.; Elkholy, T.; Kojima, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are being conducted to observe the liquid/solid interface of He-4 near 1 K. Interesting instabilities are expected to occur when the solid is non-hydrostatically stressed. (1)A compact interdigital capacitor is used as a level detector to observe solid He-4 to which stresses are applied externally. The capacitor consists of 38 interlaced 50 m wide and 3.8 mm long gold films separated by 50 m and deposited onto a 5 mm by 5 mm sapphire substrate. The capacitor is placed on one flat end wall of a cylindrical chamber (xx mm diameter and xx mm long). The solid is grown to a known height and a stress is applied by a tubular PZT along the cylindrical axis. The observed small change in height of the solid at the wall is linearly proportional to the applied stress. The solid height decreases under compressive stress but does not change under tensile stress. The response of the solid on compressive stress is consistent with the expected quadratic dependence on strain. (2)Interferometric techniques are being developed for observing the solid He-4 surface profile. A laser light source is brought into the low temperature region via single mode optical fiber. The interference pattern is transmitted back out of the low temperature apparatus via optical fiber bundle. The solid He-4 growth chamber will be equipped with two PZT's such that stress can be applied from orthogonal directions. Orthogonally applied stress is expected to induce surface instability with island-like deformation on a grid pattern. Apparatus design and progress of its construction are described.

  2. Stress Transfer Mechanisms at the Submicron Level for Graphene/Polymer Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping. PMID:25644121

  3. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  4. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  5. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    PubMed

    Sulmon, Cécile; van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning.

  6. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  7. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  8. Early Childhood Inservice and Preservice Teachers' Perceived Levels of Preparedness to Handle Stress in Their Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onchwari, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…

  9. Levels of Stress among Secondary School Administrators and Its Implication in Education Management in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngari, S. M.; Ndungu, A.; Mwonya, R.; Ngumi, O.; Mumiukha, C.; Chepchieng, M.; Kariuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress significantly affects performance and service delivery of workers. Given the important role that education plays in the society, coupled with the dynamic nature of the education sector there has been an increased social pressure on the education system in general and school administrators in particular. This influences their levels of…

  10. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. Total oxidative stress, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels at patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Feyza; Vural Ozec, Ayse; Aydin, Huseyin; Topalkara, Aysen; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Arici, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the oxidative stress status of the aqueous humor and serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG) and to measure paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) levels. METHODS A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study, with 26 patients in each separate group. The patients were divided into three groups: the first group entailed PEX syndrome patients, while the second group consisted of patients with PEG and the third group involved patients with no additional systemic diseases, other than the diagnosis of cataract as control. Total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), PON, and ARE levels in aqueous humor and serum were measured. RESULTS TAC, PON and arylesterase levels in aqueous humor and serum of the PEX syndrome and PEG patients were significantly decreased compared with control group (P<0.05). TOS values were higher in patients with PEX syndrome and PEG than controls (P<0.05). TAC, PON and ARE levels of aqueous humor did not differ significantly between the PEX syndrome and PEG groups CONCLUSION These findings are potentially of significance and add to the growing body of evidence for oxidative stress in PEX syndrome and PEG. Decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEX syndrome and PEG. PMID:26558214

  12. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  13. Death Anxiety as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Levels among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…

  14. Genetic interactions for heat stress and production level: predicting foreign from domestic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic by environmental interactions were estimated from U.S. national data by separately adding random regressions for heat stress (HS) and herd production level (HL) to the all-breed animal model to improve predictions of future records and rankings in other climate and production situations. Yie...

  15. Family-level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers’ social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires about stress in their roles as partners, workers, and parents and their child’s social–emotional adjustment. Consistent with previous research, higher levels of family stress were associated with poorer adjustment for children. Family harmony, represented by warmth and cooperation, was significantly associated with fewer internalizing problems for children even when family stress was considered. Conversely, coparental banter or ‘playful humour’ between parents moderated the nature of the association between family stress and children’s adjustment. Banter between parents was especially protective for girls suggesting that, even in families with toddler-aged children, gender plays an important role in family-level coparenting processes. Future research needs to consider more fully the impact that child characteristics, such as gender, have on the interplay between the family context and children’s development. PMID:19907670

  16. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats

    PubMed Central

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Martínez-García, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Soto, Joel; Ramos-Frausto, Víctor Manuel; González-Ramírez, Leivy Patricia; Nowack, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system’s ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20) by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition) were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC). The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments. PMID:26793009

  17. Systems-level understanding of ethanol-induced stresses and adaptation in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huansheng; Wei, Du; Yang, Yuedong; Shang, Yu; Li, Gaoyang; Zhou, Yaoqi; Ma, Qin; Xu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Understanding ethanol-induced stresses and responses in biofuel-producing bacteria at systems level has significant implications in engineering more efficient biofuel producers. We present a computational study of transcriptomic and genomic data of both ethanol-stressed and ethanol-adapted E. coli cells with computationally predicated ethanol-binding proteins and experimentally identified ethanol tolerance genes. Our analysis suggests: (1) ethanol damages cell wall and membrane integrity, causing increased stresses, particularly reactive oxygen species, which damages DNA and reduces the O2 level; (2) decreased cross-membrane proton gradient from membrane damage, coupled with hypoxia, leads to reduced ATP production by aerobic respiration, driving cells to rely more on fatty acid oxidation, anaerobic respiration and fermentation for ATP production; (3) the reduced ATP generation results in substantially decreased synthesis of macromolecules; (4) ethanol can directly bind 213 proteins including transcription factors, altering their functions; (5) all these changes together induce multiple stress responses, reduced biosynthesis, cell viability and growth; and (6) ethanol-adapted E. coli cells restore the majority of these reduced activities through selection of specific genomic mutations and alteration of stress responses, ultimately restoring normal ATP production, macromolecule biosynthesis, and growth. These new insights into the energy and mass balance will inform design of more ethanol-tolerant strains. PMID:28300180

  18. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Martínez-García, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Soto, Joel; Ramos-Frausto, Víctor Manuel; González-Ramírez, Leivy Patricia; Nowack, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system's ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20) by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition) were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC). The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments.

  19. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  20. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  1. Heat Stress Decreases Levels of Nutrient-Uptake and -Assimilation Proteins in Tomato Roots

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Anju; Heckathorn, Scott; Mishra, Sasmita; Krause, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Global warming will increase root heat stress, which is already common under certain conditions. Effects of heat stress on root nutrient uptake have rarely been examined in intact plants, but the limited results indicate that heat stress will decrease it; no studies have examined heat-stress effects on the concentration of nutrient-uptake proteins. We grew Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) at 25 °C/20 °C (day/night) and then transferred some plants for six days to 35 °C /30 °C (moderate heat) or 42 °C/37 °C (severe heat) (maximum root temperature = 32 °C or 39 °C, respectively); plants were then moved back to control conditions for seven days to monitor recovery. In a second experiment, plants were grown for 15 days at 28 °C/23 °C, 32 °C/27 °C, 36 °C/31 °C, and 40 °C/35 °C (day/night). Concentrations of nutrient-uptake and -assimilation proteins in roots were determined using protein-specific antibodies and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). In general, (1) roots were affected by heat more than shoots, as indicated by decreased root:shoot mass ratio, shoot vs. root %N and C, and the level of nutrient metabolism proteins vs. less sensitive photosynthesis and stomatal conductance; and (2) negative effects on roots were large and slow-to-recover only with severe heat stress (40 °C–42 °C). Thus, short-term heat stress, if severe, can decrease total protein concentration and levels of nutrient-uptake and -assimilation proteins in roots. Hence, increases in heat stress with global warming may decrease crop production, as well as nutritional quality, partly via effects on root nutrient relations. PMID:28106834

  2. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation.

  3. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  4. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  5. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G; Salisbury, Frank B

    2002-03-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  6. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  7. Low-level lasers affect Escherichia coli cultures in hyperosmotic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, C. C.; Barboza, L. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    Physical characteristics and practical properties have made lasers of interest for biomedical applications. Effects of low-level lasers on biological tissues could occur or be measurable depending on cell type, presence of a pathologic process or whether the cells are in an adverse environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival, morphology and filamentation of E. coli cells proficient and deficient in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions exposed low-level red and infrared lasers submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Wild type and endonuclease VIII deficient E. coli cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed to red and infrared lasers and submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Cell viability, filamentation phenotype and cell morphology were evaluated. Cell viability was not significantly altered but previous laser exposure induced filamentation and an altered area of stressed cells depending on physiologic condition and presence of the DNA repair. Results suggest that previous exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers could not affect viability but induced morphologic changes in cells submitted to hyperosmotic stress depending on physiologic conditions and repair of oxidative DNA lesions.

  8. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  9. Stressed snakes strike first: Hormone levels and defensive behavior in free ranging cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    PubMed

    Herr, Mark W; Graham, Sean P; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-03-01

    Stress is believed to be an important factor mediating animal behavior. Here we explore the relationship between concentrations of a stress hormone and defensive behavior of a snake. The cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) is an abundant, large-bodied pitviper that is well known for its intense defensive behaviors. The defensive behaviors and hormonal ecology of cottonmouths have been studied extensively, but the interaction between these is not well understood. We conducted field trials, recording the snake's behavior and obtaining blood samples to quantify plasma CORT concentrations, both upon first encountering a snake and after a 30min standardized confinement stressor. We found that snakes with elevated levels of baseline CORT at first encounter were more likely to strike than exhibit a threat display when approached in the field. However, this behavior was not related to the magnitude of the snake's CORT increase following confinement, suggesting that more stress-prone snakes are not more defensive. Post-stressor antipredator behavior was also not related to any of our CORT measures. This study suggests that baseline CORT levels can be important correlates of defensive behavior. If this is a causative relationship, environmental challenges that increase baseline stress levels of populations may elevate cottonmouth defensive behavior. This would increase costs associated with defensive behavior (energetic, lost opportunity, etc.) and have important consequences for animal-human interactions.

  10. Methylglyoxal levels in plants under salinity stress are dependent on glyoxalase I and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Ray, Manju; Reddy, M K; Sopory, S K

    2005-11-11

    Methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic by-product produced mainly from triose phosphates, is used as a substrate by glyoxalase I. In this paper, we report on the estimation of MG level in plants which has not been reported earlier. We show that MG concentration varies in the range of 30-75 microM in various plant species and it increases 2- to 6-fold in response to salinity, drought, and cold stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco underexpressing glyoxalase I showed enhanced accumulation of MG which resulted in the inhibition of seed germination. In the glyoxalase I overexpressing transgenic tobacco, MG levels did not increase in response to stress compared to the untransformed plants, however, with the addition of exogenous GSH there was a decrease in MG levels in both untransformed and transgenic plants. The exogenous application of GSH reduced MG levels in WT to 50% whereas in the transgenic plants a 5-fold decrease was observed. These studies demonstrate an important role of glyoxalase I along with GSH concentration in maintaining MG levels in plants under normal and abiotic stress conditions.

  11. Shelter availability, stress level and digestive performance in the aspic viper.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Fizesan, Alain; Michel, Catherine Louise

    2013-03-01

    The lack of shelter can perturb behaviors, increase stress level and thus alter physiological performance (e.g. digestive, immune or reproductive functions). Although intuitive, such potential impacts of lack of shelter remain poorly documented. We manipulated shelter availability and environmental and physiological variables (i.e. access to a heat source, predator attack, feeding status) in a viviparous snake, and assessed sun-basking behavior, digestive performance (i.e. digestive transit time, crude estimate of assimilation, regurgitation rate) and plasma corticosterone levels (a proxy of stress level). Shelter deprivation provoked a strong increase in sun-basking behavior and thus elevated body temperature, even in unfed individuals for which energy savings would have been otherwise beneficial. The lack of heat was detrimental to digestive performance; simulated predator attacks worsened the situation and entailed a further deterioration of digestion. The combination of the lack of shelter with cool ambient temperatures markedly elevated basal corticosterone level and was associated with low digestive performance. This hormonal effect was absent when only one negative factor was involved, suggesting a threshold response. Overall, our results revealed important non-linear cascading impacts of shelter availability on stress-hormone levels, behaviors and physiological performance. These results infer that shelter availability is important for laboratory studies, captive husbandry and possibly conservation plans.

  12. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  13. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  14. Stress and physiological, behavioral and performance patterns of children under varied air ion levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornof, K. T.; Gilbert, G. O.

    1988-12-01

    The possibility that individual differences in reactivity to stressors are a major factor underlying discordant results reported for air ion studies prompted an investigation of response patterns in school children under both normal indoor air ion levels and moderately increased negative air ion levels (4000±500/cm3). It was hypothesized that the impact of stressors is reduced with high negative air ionization, and that resultant changes in stress effects would be differentially exhibited according to the children's normal degree of stimulus reactivity. A counter-balanced, replicative, withinssubject design was selected, and the subjects were 12 environmentally sensitive, 1st 4th grade school children. In addition to monitoring stress effects on activity level, attention span, concentration to task and conceptual performance, measures were also made of urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and skin resistance response (SRR) to determine if changes extended to the physiological state. The cold water test was used to add physical stress and enable calculations of Lacey's autonomic lability scores (ALS) as indicators of individual reactivity. The results show main effects for air ions on both physiological parameters, with 48% less change in %SRR ( P<0.01) and 46% less change in urinary 5-HIAA levels ( P<0.055) during negative air ions, indicating increased stress tolerance. Strong interactive effects for ALS x air ion condition appeared, with high and low ALS children reacting oppositely to negative air ions in measures of skin resistance level ( P<0.01), wrist activity ( P<0.01) and digit span backwards ( P<0.004). Thus individual differences in autonomic reactivity and the presence or absence of stressors appear as critical elements for internal validity, and in preventing consequent skewed results from obscuring progress in air ion research.

  15. Regulation of plasma histamine levels by the mast cell clock and its modulation by stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuki; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2017-01-01

    At steady state, plasma histamine levels exhibit circadian variations with nocturnal peaks, which is implicated in the nighttime exacerbation of allergic symptoms. However, the regulatory mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study determined how steady-state plasma histamine levels are regulated and affected by environmental factors. We found that plasma histamine levels decreased in mast cell–deficient mice and their circadian variations were lost in mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) harboring a mutation in the circadian gene Clock. Clock temporally regulates expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), which is involved in histamine transport, in mast cells; OCT inhibition abolished circadian variations in plasma histamine levels. Mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions or suffering from restraint stress exhibited de-synchronization of the mast cell clockwork, concomitant with the loss of circadian variations in OCT3 expression and plasma histamine levels. The degree of compound 48/80–induced plasma extravasation in mice was correlated with plasma histamine levels. Collectively, the mast cell clock mediates circadian regulation of plasma histamine levels at steady state, in part by controlling OCT3 expression, which can be modulated by stress. Additionally, we propose that plasma histamine levels potentiate mast cell–mediated allergic reactions. PMID:28074918

  16. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  17. Modeling of Stress Corrosion Cracking for High Level Radioactive-Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C; Gordon, G M; Andresen, P L; Herrera, M L

    2003-06-20

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model has been adapted for performance prediction of high level radioactive-waste packages to be emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository. SCC is one form of environmentally assisted cracking due to three factors, which must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. For waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, the outer barrier material is Alloy 22, a highly corrosion resistant alloy, the environment is represented by the water film present on the surface of the waste package from dripping or deliquescence of soluble salts present in any surface deposits, and the stress is principally the weld induced residual stress. SCC has historically been separated into ''initiation'' and ''propagation'' phases. Initiation of SCC will not occur on a smooth surface if the surface stress is below a threshold value defined as the threshold stress. Cracks can also initiate at and propagate from flaws (or defects) resulting from manufacturing processes (such as welding). To account for crack propagation, the slip dissolution/film rupture (SDFR) model is adopted to provide mathematical formulas for prediction of the crack growth rate. Once the crack growth rate at an initiated SCC is determined, the time to through-wall penetration for the waste package can be calculated. The SDFR model relates the advance (or propagation) of cracks, subsequent to the crack initiation from bare metal surface, to the metal oxidation transients that occur when the protective film at the crack tip is continually ruptured and repassivated. A crack, however, may reach the ''arrest'' state before it enters the ''propagation'' phase. There exists a threshold stress intensity factor, which provides a criterion for determining if an initiated crack or pre-existing manufacturing flaw will reach the ''arrest'' state. This paper presents the research

  18. Heat shock proteins in relation to heat stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass at different N levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kehua; Zhang, Xunzhong; Goatley, Mike; Ervin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a primary factor causing summer bentgrass decline. Changes in gene expression at the transcriptional and/or translational level are thought to be a fundamental mechanism in plant response to environmental stresses. Heat stress redirects protein synthesis in higher plants and results in stress protein synthesis, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs). The goal of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of major HSPs in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) during different heat stress periods and to study the influence of nitrogen (N) on the HSP expression patterns. A growth chamber study on 'Penn-A4' creeping bentgrass subjected to 38/28°C day/night for 50 days, was conducted with four nitrate rates (no N-0, low N-2.5, medium N-7.5, and high N-12.5 kg N ha-1) applied biweekly. Visual turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), shoot electrolyte leakage (ShEL), and root viability (RV) were monitored, along with the expression pattern of HSPs. There was no difference in measured parameters between treatments until week seven, except TQ at week five. At week seven, grass at medium N had better TQ, NDVI, and Fv/Fm accompanied by lower ShEL and higher RV, suggesting a major role in improved heat tolerance. All the investigated HSPs (HSP101, HSP90, HSP70, and sHSPs) were up-regulated by heat stress. Their expression patterns indicated cooperation between different HSPs and their roles in bentgrass thermotolerance. In addition, their production seems to be resource dependent. This study could further improve our understanding about how different N levels affect bentgrass thermotolerance.

  19. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  20. Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Perry, John L; Pühse, Uwe; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2013-04-01

    Mental toughness has been explored predominantly within sport contexts. Nevertheless, it is difficult to conceive mental toughness as only applicable to athletes. This study examines whether mentally tough participants exhibit resilience against stress. This is a cross-sectional study based on two different samples: Sample 1 consisted of 284 high school students (99 males, 185 females, M = 18.3 years). Sample 2 consisted of 140 first through fifth semester undergraduate students (53 males, 87 females, M = 20.0 years). Participants provided information about their level of perceived stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale), mental toughness (48-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Consistent across the two samples, mental toughness mitigated the relationship between high stress and depressive symptoms. The interaction between stress and mental toughness explained 2% of variance in the adolescent sample and 10% of variance among young adults. The promotion of protective factors that foster resilient adaptation is a relevant issue. Mental toughness may appeal to individuals that are typically difficult to be reached with health interventions. Because mental toughness is part of young people's daily speech, it may serve as a less academic resource than other health psychology concepts.

  1. Salt tolerance and stress level affect plant biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenxing; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Haishui; Tang, Jianjun; Weiner, Jacob; Chen, Xin

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown that plant biomass-density relationships are altered under extreme or stressed conditions. We do not know whether variation in biomass-density relationships is a direct result of stress tolerance or occurs via changes in plant-plant interactions. Here, we evaluated biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects in six plant species that differ in salt tolerance in a salt marsh, and conducted a literature review of biomass-density relationship under higher and lower stress levels. Our field study showed that both neighbor effects and the exponent of the biomass-density relationship (α) varied among plant species with different degrees of salt tolerance. There was a positive relationship between neighbor effects (measured as relative interaction index) and α-value among the tested species. The literature review showed that α and its variation increased under higher stress. Our results indicate that plant species with different salinity tolerance differ in the direction and strength of neighbor effects, resulting in variation in biomass-density relationships. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in biomass-density relationships among species are not due to differences in stress tolerance alone, they are mediated by changes in plant-plant interactions.

  2. Additional shear resistance from fault roughness and stress levels on geometrically complex faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zijun; Dunham, Eric M.

    2013-07-01

    The majority of crustal faults host earthquakes when the ratio of average background shear stress τb to effective normal stress σeff is τb/σeff≈0.6. In contrast, mature plate-boundary faults like the San Andreas Fault (SAF) operate at τb/σeff≈0.2. Dynamic weakening, the dramatic reduction in frictional resistance at coseismic slip velocities that is commonly observed in laboratory experiments, provides a leading explanation for low stress levels on mature faults. Strongly velocity-weakening friction laws permit rupture propagation on flat faults above a critical stress level τpulse/σeff≈0.25. Provided that dynamic weakening is not restricted to mature faults, the higher stress levels on most faults are puzzling. In this work, we present a self-consistent explanation for the relatively high stress levels on immature faults that is compatible with low coseismic frictional resistance, from dynamic weakening, for all faults. We appeal to differences in structural complexity with the premise that geometric irregularities introduce resistance to slip in addition to frictional resistance. This general idea is quantified for the special case of self-similar fractal roughness of the fault surface. Natural faults have roughness characterized by amplitude-to-wavelength ratios α between 10-3 and 10-2. Through a second-order boundary perturbation analysis of quasi-static frictionless sliding across a band-limited self-similar interface in an ideally elastic solid, we demonstrate that roughness induces an additional shear resistance to slip, or roughness drag, given by τdrag=8π3α2G∗Δ/λmin, for G∗=G/(1-ν) with shear modulus Gand Poisson's ratio ν, slip Δ, and minimum roughness wavelength λmin. The influence of roughness drag on fault mechanics is verified through an extensive set of dynamic rupture simulations of earthquakes on strongly rate-weakening fractal faults with elastic-plastic off-fault response. The simulations suggest that fault rupture, in

  3. The relationship between job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Rujnan; Baykal, Ülkü

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses increase day-by-day in connection with rapidly increasing cancer cases worldwide as well as in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to establish job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses and the relationship in between. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study comprised of 189 nurses that are selected by nonprobability sampling method, employed by 11 hospitals in Istanbul. Survey form of 20 questions, Job Stressors Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were used during collection of data. Data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: In the study, there was a positively weak correlation between “Work Role Ambiguity” subdimension of Job Stressors Scale and “Emotional Exhaustion” and “Personal Accomplishment” subdimensions, whereas a positively weak and medium correlation was encountered between “Work Role Conflict” subdimension and “Emotional Exhaustion” and “Depersonalization” subdimensions. A negatively weak correlation was found between “Work Role Overload” subdimension and “Emotional Exhaustion” and “Depersonalization” subdimensions. Conclusion: A significant relationship was established between subdimensions of job stress level and of burnout level, that a lot of oncology nurses who have participated in the study wanted to change their units, because of the high attrition rate. PMID:27981080

  4. Recondensation level of repetitive sequences in the plant protoplast nucleus is limited by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ondřej, Vladan; Navrátilová, Božena; Protivánková, Iva; Piterková, Jana; Sedlářová, Michaela; Luhová, Lenka; Lebeda, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Protoplast cultures are remarkable examples of plant cell dedifferentiation. The state of dedifferentiation is evidenced by changes in cell morphology, genome organization, as well as by the capability of protoplasts to differentiate into multiple types of cells (depending on the type of the stimulus applied). The first change in the genome structure is connected with large-scale chromatin decondensation, affecting chromocentres involving various types of these repetitive sequences. This paper describes not only the de- and recondensation of satellite DNA type I and 5S rDNA repetitive sequences, but it also compares the recondensation level of chromatin with the levels of oxidative stress which were decreased by using an antioxidant, as well as the capabilities of the antioxidative systems within protoplasts, during the first 72 h of their culture. It is demonstrated that the treatment of protoplasts with ascorbic acid not only decreased the level of oxidative stress but also positively stimulated the expression of the ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. It also led to a greater recondensation of the chromatin (when compared to the untreated protoplasts); in addition, it supported cell proliferation. It is concluded that large-scale genome relaxation is more directly connected with oxidative stress than with large changes in the expression of genes; and further, that its recondensation is related to the start of (as well as the level of) protection by the antioxidative systems. PMID:20363868

  5. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  6. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS.

  7. Reiki brief report: using Reiki to reduce stress levels in a nine-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Elaine L; Berardi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A nine-year-old female with a history of perinatal stroke, seizures, and type-I diabetes was seen for six weeks of Reiki to determine the effects of Reiki on relaxation, and in turn, the prevention of future seizures. The secondary and tertiary aims were to determine the effects of Reiki on sleep patterns and the stress levels of the mother. There was a decrease in stress in both the child and the mother, as measured by a modified Perceived Stress Scale and a Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. There was no change in the child's overall sense of well-being, as measured by a global questionnaire. There was a positive change in sleep patterns on 33.3% of the nights during which the study occurred, as reported on a sleep log kept by the mother. The child and the Reiki Master (a Reiki practitioner who has completed all three levels of Reiki certification training and trains and certifies individuals in the practice of Reiki as well as provides Reiki to individuals) experienced warmth and tingling sensations on the same area of the child during the Reiki sessions. The child relaxed within the first five to seven minutes of each session as reported by the Reiki Master. There were no reports of seizures during this study. Reiki may be a useful adjunct for children with increased stress levels and sleep disturbances secondary to their medical condition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the use of Reiki in children, particularly with a large sample size, and to evaluate the long-term use of Reiki and its effects on adequate sleep.

  8. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  9. Utilizing a Wristband Sensor to Measure the Stress Level for People with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kikhia, Basel; Stavropoulos, Thanos G.; Andreadis, Stelios; Karvonen, Niklas; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Pijl, Marten; Melander, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a common problem that affects most people with dementia and their caregivers. Stress symptoms for people with dementia are often measured by answering a checklist of questions by the clinical staff who work closely with the person with the dementia. This process requires a lot of effort with continuous observation of the person with dementia over the long term. This article investigates the effectiveness of using a straightforward method, based on a single wristband sensor to classify events of “Stressed” and “Not stressed” for people with dementia. The presented system calculates the stress level as an integer value from zero to five, providing clinical information of behavioral patterns to the clinical staff. Thirty staff members participated in this experiment, together with six residents suffering from dementia, from two nursing homes. The residents were equipped with the wristband sensor during the day, and the staff were writing observation notes during the experiment to serve as ground truth. Experimental evaluation showed relationships between staff observations and sensor analysis, while stress level thresholds adjusted to each individual can serve different scenarios. PMID:27886155

  10. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  11. POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H. |

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

  12. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey's Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santillán-Doherty, Ana M; Valdez, Ricardo A; Romano, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging) and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation) variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels-hormones associated with animal health and fitness-of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys.

  13. Differential stress response in rats subjected to chronic mild stress is accompanied by changes in CRH-family gene expression at the pituitary level.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Magdalena; Faron-Górecka, Agata; Kuśmider, Maciej; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Solich, Joanna; Żurawek, Dariusz; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine molecular markers of the stress response at the pituitary and peripheral levels in animals that responded differently to chronic mild stress (CMS). Rats were subjected to 2-weeks CMS and symptoms of anhedonia was measured by the consumption of 1% sucrose solution. mRNA levels of CRH-family neuropeptides (Crh-corticotropin-releasing hormone, Ucn1-urocortin 1, Ucn2-urocortin 2, Ucn3-urocortin 3), CRH receptors (Crhr1-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, Crhr2-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2) and Crhbp (corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein) in the pituitaries of rats were determined with real-time PCR. Plasma levels of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), CRH and urocortins were measured with ELISA assays. CMS procedure led to the development of anhedonia manifested by the decreased sucrose consumption (stress-reactive, SR, stress-susceptible group). Additionally, the group of animals not exhibiting any signs of anhedonia (stress non-reactive, SNR, stress-resilient group) and the group characterized by the increased sucrose consumption (stress invert-reactive group SIR) were selected. The significant increases in ACTH plasma level accompanied by the decreases in the pituitary gene expression of the Crh, Ucn2 and Ucn3 in both stress non-reactive and stress invert-reactive groups were observed. The only molecular change observed in stress-reactive group was the increase in UCN2 plasma level. The differentiated behavioral stress responses were reflected by gene expression changes in the pituitary. Alterations in the mRNA levels of Crh, Ucn2 and Ucn3 in the pituitary might confirm the paracrine and/or autocrine effects of these peptides in stress response. The opposite behavioral effect between SNR vs. SIR groups and the surprising similarity at gene expression and plasma ACTH levels in these two groups may suggest the discrepancy between molecular and behavioral stress responses; however, there results might

  14. Repeated forced swim stress has additive effects in anxiety behavior and in cathecolamine levels of adult rats exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Habr, Soraya F; Macrini, Daclé J; Florio, Jorge C; Bernardi, Maria M

    2014-01-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide that elicits autonomic and neuroendocrine responses that indicate high levels of stress, presumably caused by the neurotoxic effect of the insecticide. This study investigated the effect of DTM exposure (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and an additional stress induced in the forced swim test (FST) in behavioral tasks related to anxiety, serum corticosterone levels, and striatal neurotransmitter levels. Open field behavior and social interaction were evaluated after DTM administration (10 mg kg(-1), p.o). DTM per se reduced rearing frequency in the open field, but no alterations in locomotion frequency or immobility duration were detected. Stress increased immobility duration compared with non-stressed animals. DTM reduced social interaction and increased corticosterone levels, and these effects were enhanced in stressed animals. Mainly stress affected dopaminergic and serotoninergic activity. In anxiety behavior and in both neurotransmitters and metabolites levels it was observed an additive effect of stress in DTM treated rat data. These results indicate that DTM enhanced the anxiogenic responses and stress had an additive effect over the DTM stress. The neurochemical data did not indicate an interaction between stress and DTM exposure. The present results maybe important for implementing pyrethroid insecticide safety standards.

  15. Stress levels of glucocorticoids inhibit LHβ-subunit gene expression in gonadotrope cells.

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Thackray, Varykina G; Hsu, Tracy; Mak-McCully, Rachel A; Coss, Djurdjica; Mellon, Pamela L

    2012-10-01

    Increased glucocorticoid secretion is a common response to stress and has been implicated as a mediator of reproductive suppression upon the pituitary gland. We utilized complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches in the mouse to investigate the role of glucocorticoids as a stress-induced intermediate capable of gonadotrope suppression. Repeated daily restraint stress lengthened the ovulatory cycle of female mice and acutely reduced GnRH-induced LH secretion and synthesis of LH β-subunit (LHβ) mRNA, coincident with increased circulating glucocorticoids. Administration of a stress level of glucocorticoid, in the absence of stress, blunted LH secretion in ovariectomized female mice, demonstrating direct impairment of reproductive function by glucocorticoids. Supporting a pituitary action, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in mouse gonadotropes and treatment with glucocorticoids reduces GnRH-induced LHβ expression in immortalized mouse gonadotrope cells. Analyses revealed that glucocorticoid repression localizes to a region of the LHβ proximal promoter, which contains early growth response factor 1 (Egr1) and steroidogenic factor 1 sites critical for GnRH induction. GR is recruited to this promoter region in the presence of GnRH, but not by dexamethasone alone, confirming the necessity of the GnRH response for GR repression. In lieu of GnRH, Egr1 induction is sufficient for glucocorticoid repression of LHβ expression, which occurs via GR acting in a DNA- and dimerization-independent manner. Collectively, these results expose the gonadotrope as an important neuroendocrine site impaired during stress, by revealing a molecular mechanism involving Egr1 as a critical integrator of complex formation on the LHβ promoter during GnRH induction and GR repression.

  16. Minireview: Stress-related psychiatric disorders with low cortisol levels: a metabolic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, Rachel; Seckl, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Several stress-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, notably posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain and fatigue syndromes, paradoxically exhibit somewhat low plasma levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The effects appear greatest in those initially traumatized in early life, implying a degree of developmental programming, perhaps of both lower cortisol and vulnerability to psychopathology. In these conditions, lowered cortisol is not due to any adrenal or pituitary insufficiency. Instead, two processes appear involved. First, there is increased target cell sensitivity to glucocorticoid action, notably negative feedback upon the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (stress) axis. Altered density of the glucocorticoid receptor is inferred, squaring with much preclinical data showing early life challenges can permanently program glucocorticoid receptors in a tissue-specific manner. These effects involve epigenetic mechanisms. Second, early life trauma/starvation induces long-lasting lowering of glucocorticoid catabolism, specifically by 5α-reductase type 1 (predominantly a liver enzyme) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (in kidney), an effect also seen in model systems. These changes reflect a plausible early-life adaptation to increase the persistence of active cortisol in liver (to maximize fuel output) and kidney (to increase salt retention) without elevation of circulating levels, thus avoiding their deleterious effects on brain and muscle. Modestly lowered circulating cortisol and increased vulnerability to stress-associated disorders may be the outcome. This notion implies a vulnerable early-life phenotype may be discernable and indicates potential therapy by modest glucocorticoid replacement. Indeed, early clinical trials with cortisol have shown a modicum of promise.

  17. Juvenile Male Rape Victims: Is the Level of Post-Traumatic Stress Related to Personality and Parenting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    A study of 15 Russian juvenile male rape victims found their level of post-traumatic stress correlated with the temperament dimensions of harm avoidance and reward dependence. The total level of post-traumatic stress reaction was negatively correlated with parental emotional warmth and positively with paternal rejection. (Author/CR)

  18. Fermented soy permeate reduces cytokine level and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Malardé, Ludivine; Groussard, Carole; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Vincent, Sophie; Efstathiou, Théo; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development of type 1 diabetes and its complications. Because two compounds found in soy, that is, isoflavones and alpha-galactooligosaccharides, have been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, this study aimed to assess the effects of a dietary supplement containing these two active compounds, the fermented soy permeate (FSP). We hypothesized that FSP would be able to reduce in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the control placebo, diabetic placebo, and diabetic FSP-supplemented groups. They received daily, by oral gavage, water (placebo groups) or diluted FSP (0.1 g/day; FSP-supplemented group). After 3 weeks, glycemic regulation (glycemia and fructosamine level); the plasma level of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a marker of systemic oxidative stress in diabetes; and the plasma levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, and uric acid) were evaluated. Markers of oxidative damage (isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG), antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD and GPX), and Mn-SOD content were determined in skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius). Diabetic placebo rats exhibited higher CML levels, lower SOD and GPX activities, and decreased Mn-SOD contents. FSP supplementation in diabetic animals normalized the CML and antioxidant enzymatic activity levels and tended to increase Mn-SOD expression. The markers of inflammation whose levels were increased in the diabetic placebo group were markedly decreased by FSP (IL-1β: -75%, IL-6: -46%, and uric acid: -17%), except for CRP. Our results demonstrate that FSP exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey’s Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santillán-Doherty, Ana M.; Valdez, Ricardo A.; Romano, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging) and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation) variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels–hormones associated with animal health and fitness–of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys. PMID:26901767

  20. The relationship between levels of resilience and coping styles in chiropractic students and perceived levels of stress and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Stanley I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between chiropractic students' coping styles and levels of resilience with their physical injuries, perceived levels of stress, and well-being. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to the entire student body of the chiropractic program at Murdoch University, and gathered demographic variables and responses to the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Levels of Stress Scale, Everyday Feelings Questionnaire, and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate for significant relationships. Results Of 244 students, 194 (81%) completed the surveys. Being female and not having recovered from an injury within 12 months was significantly associated with lower levels of well-being and higher levels of stress. Being female, possessing an increased use of an emotional-based coping style, and having lower levels of well-being were associated with higher levels of stress (R2 = 0.65, F(6,164) = 50.47, p < .001). Lower levels of well-being were associated with being female, higher perceived levels of stress, lower levels of resilience, and an increased use emotional coping styles (R2 = 0.64, F[6,164] = 49.5, p < .001). Conclusion It is possible to identify chiropractic students at the university who are at risk of experiencing low levels of well-being and high levels of stress. These students may benefit from interventions aimed at enhancing their coping style choices and increasing their resilience levels. Future studies are recommended to see if these findings are consistent across chiropractic programs nationally and internationally. PMID:27459674

  1. Increase in Levels of BDNF is Associated with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Amoureux, Sébastien; Sicard, Pierre; Korandji, Claudia; Borey, Angélique; Benkhadra, Salima; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Vergely, Catherine; Girard, Claude; Rochette, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) is thought to generate reactive oxygen species associated with a systemic inflammation and neurotrophins seem to be involved in cardiovascular inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CPB on plasma neurotrophins levels and to appreciate the links existing between inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophins. Blood samples were taken from 27 patients undergoing cardiac surgery: before CPB, during ischemia and at reperfusion under CPB. Oxidative stress was evaluated using an Electron Spin Resonance technique by superoxide detection, and antioxidant defences by measurement of Endogenous Peroxidase Activity (EPA). The evolution of two neurotrophins: Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) was assessed with an ELISA method. An inflammatory index was determined by a multiplex flow cytometry method. The inflammatory index showed that MCP-1, P-selectin, t-PA and interleukins 6, 8 and 10 levels increased during CPB (p<0.05). Superoxide production and EPA were higher during ischemia and reperfusion than before CPB (p<0.05). BDNF plasma levels were higher at reperfusion (p<0.05). NGF levels did not change. Our study shows an increase of BDNF levels, associated with an inflammatory phenomenon and a redox modification, in the plasma of patients undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB. The role played by this neurotrophin in this complex situation still needs to be elucidated, in particular its cellular origin. It is also necessary to understand whether BDNF has a beneficial or deleterious effect during CPB. PMID:23675091

  2. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  3. Effect of heat stress and feeding phosphorus levels on pig electron transport chain gene expression.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Alebrante, L; Campos, P H R F; Saraiva, A; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Silva, F F; Gasparino, E; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and different levels of available phosphorus (aP) on the expression of nine genes encoding electron transport chain proteins in the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs. Two trials were carried out using 48 high-lean growth pigs from two different growth phases: from 15 to 30 kg (phase 1) and from 30 to 60 kg (phase 2). Pigs from growth phase 1 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.107%, 0.321% or 0.535%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (24°C and RH at 76%) or to a heat stress (34°C and RH at 70%) environment. Pigs from growth phase 2 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.116%, 0.306% or 0.496%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (22ºC and RH at 77%) or to a heat stress (32ºC and RH at 73%) environment. Heat stress decreased (P<0.001) average daily feed intake at both growth phases. At 24°C, pigs in phase 1 fed the 0.321% aP diet had greater average daily gain and feed conversion (P<0.05) than those fed the 0.107% or 0.535% while, at 34°C pigs fed the 0.535% aP had the best performance (P<0.05). Pigs from phase 2 fed the 0.306% aP had best performance in both thermal environments. Gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Irrespective of growing phase, the expression of six genes was lower (P<0.05) at high temperature than at thermoneutrality. The lower expression of these genes under high temperatures evidences the effects of heat stress by decreasing oxidative metabolism, through adaptive physiological mechanisms in order to reduce heat production. In pigs from phase 1, six genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in the thermoneutral and one gene in the heat stress. In pigs from phase 2, two genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in both thermal environments. These data revealed strong evidence that phosphorus and thermal environments are key factors to

  4. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (p<0.05) blood glucose levels (CN: 4.43±0.05; GI: 4.46±0.04; PI: 4.68±0.08), insulinemia (CN: 6.93±0.45; GI: 8.87±0.79; PI: 12.77±1.30), insulin resistance (CN: 1.40±0.10; GI: 1.81±0.18; PI: 2.66±0.29) compared with the CN and GI groups. The levels of perceived stress were higher (p<0.05) in PI and GI groups when compared to CN group (CN: 20.5±1.26; GI: 25.8±1.95; PI: 26.6±1.36). There was no significant difference in the concentration of salivary cortisol between the groups (CN: 11.13±0.58; GI: 11.96±0.74; PI: 11.47±0.74). It was concluded that there is a relationship between higher levels of perceived stress, insulin resistance and the occurrence of periodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the

  5. [Stress and nursing : study to evaluation the level of satisfaction in nurses].

    PubMed

    Murgia, Carla; Sansoni, Julita

    2011-01-01

    Not unfrequently stress in nurses is related to work organization. The literature shows that the nursing profession has a high risk of psychological stress. Stress is one of the factors that contributes to inefficiency, increasing staff turnover and sick leave, and reduces the quality and quantity of care , affecting health costs and diminishing work satisfaction. This article presents the results of a study performed to evaluate 34 variables, constituting the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) , and their level in the nursing staff of a Rome specialistic hospital. Of the 80 nurses who received the questionaire , 49 responded, a sufficient number to make the results of the study significant. The authors illustrate the methods used together with some socio-demographic considerations and how some of these can be correlated to the 7 factors adopted for multi-variate analysis. The results obtained were concordant with those described in the literature, confirming that poor organization and conflictual or ambiguous work roles negatively affect well-being and that nursing directors should bear this in mind when aiming to create a harmonious work environment.

  6. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Natalie H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2013-12-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentrations of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism. Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20% PEG (-0.5 MPa) for an extended period had significantly higher concentrations of dhurrin in their shoots but lower dhurrin concentrations in their roots. The total amount of dhurrin in the shoots of plants from the various treatments was not significantly different on a per mass basis, although a greater proportion of shoot N was allocated to dhurrin. Following transfer from medium containing 20% PEG to medium lacking PEG, shoot dhurrin concentrations decreased but nitrate concentrations increased to levels potentially toxic to grazing ruminants. This response is likely due to the resumption of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress.

  7. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  8. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  9. Neighborhood disorder and telomeres: connecting children's exposure to community level stress and cellular response.

    PubMed

    Theall, Katherine P; Brett, Zoë H; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Dunn, Erin C; Drury, Stacy S

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to explore the utility of salivary telomere length (sTL) as an early indicator of neighborhood-level social environmental risk during child development. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sTL would be associated with markers of social stress exposure in children. Children age 4-14 from 87 neighborhoods were recruited through five urban schools in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. Data were collected at the level of the child, family/household, and neighborhood. DNA was obtained from saliva using commercially available kits and sTL was determined for 104 children using quantitative PCR. Analysis was performed on 99 children who had complete data including sTL, social environmental stress, and additional covariates. The mean sTL value was 7.4 T/S (telomere signal/single-copy signal) ratio units (±2.4, range = 2.5-18.0), and 4.7% of the variance in sTL was attributed to differences across neighborhoods. Children living in neighborhoods characterized by high disorder had an sTL value 3.2 units lower than children not living in high disordered environments (p < 0.05) and their odds of having low relative sTL (defined as <1 standard deviation below standardized Z-score mean) values was 3.43 times that of children not living in high disorder environments (adjusted OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.22, 9.62). Our findings are consistent with previous studies in adults demonstrating a strong link between psychosocial stress and sTL obtained from peripheral blood, consistent with previous studies in youth demonstrating an association between early life stress and sTL obtained from buccal cell DNA and offer increased support for the hypothesis that sTL represents a non-invasive biological indicator of psychosocial stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) able to reflect differences in stress exposure levels even in young children.

  10. The role of stress and level of burnout in job performance among nurses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nurses' empathy for and connection with patients demonstrates core professional values which are essential but, consequently, attract certain factors capable of inducing stress. Studies of the roles and responsibilities associated with nursing have implicated multiple and conflicting demands which might not be without some resultant effects. However, little research has been conducted on these work characteristics in developing economies to determine how these might impact the nurse employees' performance. There is need for evidence-based empirical findings to facilitate improvement in healthcare services. This study examined stress and level of burnout among Nigerian nurses (n = 2245) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The participants were measured using an ‘abridged measures booklet’ adopted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Job Autonomy Questionnaire (JAQ), Questionnaire on Organisational Stress-Doetinchem (VOS-D) and Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS). The roles of work–home interference (WHI) and home–work interference (HWI), with respect to work characteristics and burnout (paying special attention to gender), were examined. Analyses using t-tests and linear regression showed no gender differences in burnout levels among Nigerian nurses, who experience medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and high levels of personal accomplishment. WHI and HWI were found to mediate the relationship between work characteristics and burnout. The meditational relationship differs between genders. This study calls for further research into gender and burnout among the caring professions, especially in under-developed and developing economies of the world. PMID:22942900

  11. Multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulation of atomic level stresses in Si(111)/Si3N4(0001) nanopixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Omeltchenko, Andrey; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya; Ebbsjö, Ingvar; Madhukar, Anupam; Messina, Paul

    1998-04-01

    Ten million atom multiresolution molecular-dynamics simulations are performed on parallel computers to determine atomic-level stress distributions in a 54 nm nanopixel on a 0.1 μm silicon substrate. Effects of surfaces, edges, and lattice mismatch at the Si(111)/Si3N4(0001) interface on the stress distributions are investigated. Stresses are found to be highly inhomogeneous in the nanopixel. The top surface of silicon nitride has a compressive stress of +3 GPa and the stress is tensile, -1 GPa, in silicon below the interface.

  12. Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-10-01

    Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA.

  13. Solar radiation stress in climbing snails: behavioural and intrinsic features define the Hsp70 level in natural populations of Xeropicta derbentina (Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Seifan, Merav; Troschinski, Sandra; Mazzia, Christophe; Capowiez, Yvan; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-11-01

    Ectotherms from sunny and hot environments need to cope with solar radiation. Mediterranean land snails of the superfamily Helicoidea feature a behavioural strategy to escape from solar radiation-induced excessive soil heating by climbing up vertical objects. The height of climbing, and also other parameters like shell colouration pattern, shell orientation, shell size, body mass, actual internal and shell surface temperature, and the interactions between those factors may be expected to modulate proteotoxic effects in snails exposed to solar radiation and, thus, their stress response. Focussing on natural populations of Xeropicta derbentina, we conducted a 'snapshot' field study using the individual Hsp70 level as a proxy for proteotoxic stress. In addition to correlation analyses, an IT-model selection approach based on Akaike's Information Criterion was applied to evaluate a set of models with respect to their explanatory power and to assess the relevance of each of the above-mentioned parameters for individual stress, by model averaging and parameter estimation. The analysis revealed particular importance of the individuals' shell size, height above ground, the shell colouration pattern and the interaction height × orientation. Our study showed that a distinct set of behavioural traits and intrinsic characters define the Hsp70 level and that environmental factors and individual features strongly interact.

  14. p53 controls CDC7 levels to reinforce G1 cell cycle arrest upon genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tudzarova, Slavica; Dey, Ayona; Stoeber, Kai; Okorokov, Andrei L.; Williams, Gareth H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA replication initiation is a key event in the cell cycle, which is dependent on 2 kinases - CDK2 and CDC7. Here we report a novel mechanism in which p53 induces G1 checkpoint and cell cycle arrest by downregulating CDC7 kinase in response to genotoxic stress. We demonstrate that p53 controls CDC7 stability post-transcriptionally via miR-192/215 and post-translationally via Fbxw7β E3 ubiquitin ligase. The p53-dependent pathway of CDC7 downregulation is interlinked with the p53-p21-CDK2 pathway, as p21-mediated inhibition of CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of CDC7 on Thr376 is required for GSK3ß-phosphorylation and Fbxw7ß-dependent degradation of CDC7. Notably, sustained oncogenic high levels of active CDC7 exert a negative feedback onto p53, leading to unrestrained S-phase progression and accumulation of DNA damage. Thus, p53-dependent control of CDC7 levels is essential for blocking G1/S cell-cycle transition upon genotoxic stress, thereby safeguarding the genome from instability and thus representing a novel general stress response. PMID:27611229

  15. Macro-level Modeling of the Response of C. elegans Reproduction to Chronic Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Luis A. N.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    A major goal of systems biology is to understand how organism-level behavior arises from a myriad of molecular interactions. Often this involves complex sets of rules describing interactions among a large number of components. As an alternative, we have developed a simple, macro-level model to describe how chronic temperature stress affects reproduction in C. elegans. Our approach uses fundamental engineering principles, together with a limited set of experimentally derived facts, and provides quantitatively accurate predictions of performance under a range of physiologically relevant conditions. We generated detailed time-resolved experimental data to evaluate the ability of our model to describe the dynamics of C. elegans reproduction. We find considerable heterogeneity in responses of individual animals to heat stress, which can be understood as modulation of a few processes and may represent a strategy for coping with the ever-changing environment. Our experimental results and model provide quantitative insight into the breakdown of a robust biological system under stress and suggest, surprisingly, that the behavior of complex biological systems may be determined by a small number of key components. PMID:22291584

  16. Increasing ascorbate levels in crops to enhance human nutrition and plant abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Macknight, Richard C; Laing, William A; Bulley, Sean M; Broad, Ronan C; Johnson, Alexander At; Hellens, Roger P

    2017-02-20

    Ascorbate (or vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient predominantly obtained from plants. In addition to preventing scurvy, it is now known to have broader roles in human health, for example as a cofactor for enzymes involved in epigenetic programming and as regulator of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, ascorbate is the major antioxidant in plants and underpins many environmentally induced abiotic stress responses. Biotechnological approaches to enhance the ascorbate content of crops therefore have potential to improve both human health and abiotic stress tolerance of crops. Identifying the genetic basis of ascorbate variation between plant varieties and discovering how some 'super fruits' accumulate extremely high levels of ascorbate should reveal new ways to more effectively manipulate the production of ascorbate in crops.

  17. Acute stress-mediated increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the rat amygdala: differential effects of antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Leah R; Grillo, Claudia A; Piroli, Gerardo G; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Reagan, Lawrence P; Fadel, Jim

    2007-05-01

    Depressive illness is associated with changes in amygdalar volume, and stressful life events are known to precipitate depressive episodes in this patient population. Stress affects amygdalar synaptic plasticity and several neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in stress-mediated changes in the brain, including the glutamatergic system. However, the role of the glutamatergic system in stress-mediated plasticity in the amygdala remains to be determined. Accordingly the current study examined the stress modulation of extracellular glutamate levels in the basolateral nucleus (BLA) and the central nucleus (CeA) of the amygdala by in vivo microdialysis. Acute stress increased extracellular glutamate levels in the BLA and CeA, although the dynamics of these stress-mediated changes were dramatically different in these amygdalar nuclei. Tetrodotoxin administration reduced basal, and completely eliminated stress-mediated increases in glutamate efflux in the amygdala, demonstrating that stress effects are dependent on local axonal depolarization. Moreover, stress-mediated increases in glutamate efflux in the BLA were inhibited by the antidepressant tianeptine but not by the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Collectively, these data demonstrate that stress-induced modulation of glutamate neurochemistry reflects a fundamental pathological change that may contribute to the aetiology and progression of depressive illness, and suggest that some antidepressants such as tianeptine may elicit their clinical effects by modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  18. Effects of developmental stress and lead (Pb) on corticosterone after chronic and acute stress, brain monoamines, and blood Pb levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Graham, Devon L; Grace, Curtis E; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Tang, Peter H; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    Despite restrictions, exposure to lead (Pb) continues. Moreover, exposure varies and is often higher in lower socioeconomic status (SES) families and remains a significant risk to cognitive development. Stress is another risk factor. Lower SES may be a proxy for stress in humans. When stress and Pb co-occur, risk may be increased. A few previous experiments have combined Pb with intermittent or acute stress but not with chronic stress. To determine if chronic developmental stress affects outcome in combination with Pb, we tested such effects on growth, organ weight, brain monoamines, and response to an acute stressor. Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged with Pb acetate (1 or 10 mg/kg) or vehicle every other day from postnatal day (P)4-29 and reared in standard or barren cages. Subsets were analyzed at different ages (P11, 19, 29). Chronic stress did not alter blood Pb levels but altered HPA axis response during early development whereas Pb did not. Pb treatment and rearing each altered organ-to-body weight ratios, most notably of thymus weights. Both Pb and rearing resulted in age- and region-dependent changes in serotonin and norepinephrine levels and in dopamine and serotonin turnover. The model introduced here may be useful for investigating the interaction of Pb and chronic developmental stress.

  19. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood.

  20. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  1. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals.

  2. Loop Current variability due to wind stress and reduced sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildner, T. C.; Eden, C.; Nuernberg, D.; Schoenfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most prominent features of the circulation in the Gulf of Mexico is the Loop Current (LC). It is of special interest as it influences not only the climate in the Gulf of Mexico. Although causation is not well understood yet, dynamical relationships between LC retraction and extension, seasonal migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the related wind stress curl over the subtropical North Atlantic, and changes in the thermohaline circulation are indicated by model simulations. A characteristic feature of the LC is the shedding of anticyclonic eddies. These eddies can have depth signatures of up to 1000 m and are of special interest as they supply heat and moisture into the western and northern Gulf. The eddies are generated aperiodically every 3 to 21 months, with an average shedding time of 9.5 months. Eddy shedding appears to be related to a suite of oceanographic forcing fields such as the Yucatan Channel throughflow, the Florida Current and North Brazil Current variability, as well as synoptic meteorological forcing variability. By combining state-of-the-art paleoceanographic and meso-scale eddy-resolving numerical modeling techniques, we examined the Loop Current dynamics and hydrographic changes in the Gulf going back in time up to ~21,000 years. To assess the impact of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) wind stress and reduced sea level we have re-configured an existing hierarchy of models of the North Atlantic Ocean (FLAME) with a horizontal grid resolution of ca. 30 km (wind stress was taken from the PMIP-II database). The sea level was lowered compared to the CONTROL run by 110 m and 67 m. These sea level changes have been chosen according to the cold-deglacial periods Heinrich I and Younger Dryas. The result of our model simulations is a continuous increase in eddy shedding from the LGM to the Holocene. This increase is predominantly controlled by the continuous deglacial sea level rise. Changes in wind stress curl related to the

  3. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-06-10

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers.

  4. Serum Fetuin-A levels, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enli, Yasar; Fenkci, Semin Melahat; Fenkci, Veysel; Oztekin, Ozer

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to determine serum Fetuin-A levels and establish whether serum Fetuin-A level is related with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, ovarian hyperandrogenism and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two patients with PCOS and twenty-one healthy control women were evaluated in this controlled clinical study. Serum Fetuin-A, lipid fractions, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other hormone (gonadotropins, androgens) levels were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting glucose, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), MDA, Fetuin-A levels, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, free androgen index (FAI), HOMA-IR than healthy women. However, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and GSH levels were significantly lower in patients with PCOS compared with controls. Fetuin-A was positively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and FAI. Multiple regression analysis revealed that FAI was strong predictor of serum Fetuin-A level. Serum Fetuin-A level was related with insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. These results suggest that Fetuin-A may have a role in triggering the processes leading to insulin resistance and androgen excess in PCOS.

  5. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  6. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease. PMID:28298818

  7. Root adaptations at stress levels of nitrate, phosphate, or both simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, V.P.; Kay, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Sunflowers in flowing hydroponic culture show reduced growth rates at nitrate levels below 10 ..mu..M nitrate or phosphate levels below 0.3 ..mu..F. At least for phosphate, this level is a very small fraction (0.003) of the K/sub m/ for the uptake systems. We have quantified four major adaptations that enable high growth rates under incipient stress: increased root:shoot ratio; increased uptake capacity (V/sub max/) per unit root mass; nocturnal uptake of nutrients; and (only partially adaptive) reduced tissue concentrations of nutrients. We show that capital energy costs (in root growth) for acquiring nutrients can exceed direct or operational costs of internal metabolism (nitrate reduction, e.g.,); this has implications for the plant-controlled trade-off of NO/sub 3//sup -/-NH/sub 4//sup +/ - N/sub 2/ as N sources for legumes and other plant types. We outline needed further research and suggest guidelines for breeding plants for tolerating nutritional stresses; we also suggest that some measures of nutrient-use efficiency may be misleading. 6 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.

  9. Low level laser therapy reduces oxidative stress in cortical neurons in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tedford, Clark E.; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    It is accepted that the mechanisms of low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves photons that are absorbed in the mitochondria of cells and lead to increase of mitochondrial metabolism resulting in more electron transport, increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, and more ATP production. Intracellular calcium changes are seen that correlate with mitochondrial stimulation. The situation with two other intermediates is more complex however: reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Evidence exists that low levels of ROS are produced by LLLT in normal cells that can be beneficial by (for instance) activating NF-kB. However high fluences of light can produce large amounts of ROS that can damage the cells. In oxidatively stressed cells the situation may be different. We exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cobalt chloride (CoCl2) oxidative insults in the presence or absence of LLLT (810-nm laser at 0.3 or 3 J/cm2). Cell viability of cortical neurons was determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. ROS in neurons was detected using an ROS probe, MitoRox with confocal microscopy. Results showed that LLLT dose-dependently reversed ROS production and protected cortical neurons against H2O2 or CoCl2 induced oxidative injury in cultured cortical neurons. Conclusion: LLLT can protect cortical neurons against oxidative stress by reversing the levels of ROS.

  10. Stress Education Curriculum: Grades K-5, Elementary School Level. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Jennie C.

    Stress is an inevitable part of living, but too much stress can have damaging consequences. Ways in which children can respond positively to stress are covered in this curriculum guide. It was developed to help teachers teach students, grades K-5, ways to cope with stress. Its curriculum objectives include helping students understand stress and…

  11. The effects of doxepin on stress-induced learning, memory impairments, and TNF-α level in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Azadbakht, Ali Ahmad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooye; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Stress has a profound impact on the nervous system and causes cognitive problems that are partly related to the inflammatory effects. Besides influencing the content of neurotransmitters, antidepressants such as doxepin are likely to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of doxepin on passive avoidance learning and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the rat hippocampus following repeated restraint stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Chronic stress was induced by keeping animals within an adjustable restraint chamber for 6 h every day for 21 successive days. In stress-doxepin group, stressed rats were given 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg of doxepin intraperitoneally (i.p) for 21 days and before placing them in restraint chamber. Healthy animals who served as control group and stressed rats received normal saline i.p. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency and step-through latency were determined using passive avoidance learning test. TNF-α levels were measured in hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) at the end of experiment. Induced stress considerably decreased the step through latencies in the rats (P<0.05) but doxepin administration prevented these changes. Stress-doxepin groups did not reveal any differences compared to control group at any given doses. TNF-α level was increased significantly (P<0.05) in stress group. Only the low dose of doxepin (1 mg/kg) decreased TNF-α level. The present findings indicated that learning and memory are impaired in stressful conditions and doxepin prevented memory deficit. It seems that inflammation may involve in induced stress memory deficits, and that doxepin is helpful in alleviating the neural complications due to stress. PMID:26752995

  12. The effects of doxepin on stress-induced learning, memory impairments, and TNF-α level in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Ali Ahmad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooye; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Stress has a profound impact on the nervous system and causes cognitive problems that are partly related to the inflammatory effects. Besides influencing the content of neurotransmitters, antidepressants such as doxepin are likely to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of doxepin on passive avoidance learning and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the rat hippocampus following repeated restraint stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Chronic stress was induced by keeping animals within an adjustable restraint chamber for 6 h every day for 21 successive days. In stress-doxepin group, stressed rats were given 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg of doxepin intraperitoneally (i.p) for 21 days and before placing them in restraint chamber. Healthy animals who served as control group and stressed rats received normal saline i.p. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency and step-through latency were determined using passive avoidance learning test. TNF-α levels were measured in hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) at the end of experiment. Induced stress considerably decreased the step through latencies in the rats (P<0.05) but doxepin administration prevented these changes. Stress-doxepin groups did not reveal any differences compared to control group at any given doses. TNF-α level was increased significantly (P<0.05) in stress group. Only the low dose of doxepin (1 mg/kg) decreased TNF-α level. The present findings indicated that learning and memory are impaired in stressful conditions and doxepin prevented memory deficit. It seems that inflammation may involve in induced stress memory deficits, and that doxepin is helpful in alleviating the neural complications due to stress.

  13. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2016-11-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  14. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mazière, Cécile; Salle, Valéry; Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  15. Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.

  16. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    PubMed

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  17. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems.

  18. Sources of Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Experience: Effects of the Level of Experience in Primary School Teachers in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Annie; Fruchart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to determine whether the level of experience affected sources of stress, coping responses and emotional experience in primary school teachers. The first aim was to identify sources of stress and to evaluate coping strategies using the questionnaire of Graziani et al. ("Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et…

  19. Occupational Stress Levels among Rural Teachers in the Areas of Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities, and Emotional Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Tommy; Wiley, Susan

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 154 rural special educators in the areas of mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional conflict found no significant differences in stress levels among groups, as measured by the Teacher Stress Inventory. An ad-hoc analysis found no significant differences among groups in supervisor support, room type, or job…

  20. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  1. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed.

  2. Multi-level detection of toxic stress in the mudpuppy (amphibian, salamander)

    SciTech Connect

    Gendron, A.D.; Fortin, R.; Hontela, A.; Bishop, C.A.; Van Der Kraak, G.

    1994-12-31

    Worldwide reports of declining amphibian populations highlight the need for ecotoxicological research on amphibians. The authors have investigated the response to toxic stress in the mudpuppy. Sites (N = 9) along mixed pollution gradients in the St. Lawrence/Ottawa Rivers systems were sampled on two consecutive winters (1992-93). Elevated concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDFs detected in female gonads at the most contaminated sites, led the investigation toward signs of reproductive dysfunction. High levels of skeletal deformities were observed in the most polluted group where mudpuppies were found significantly more at risk to develop limb defects than at the reference site. The frequencies of terata, including oligodactyly and polydactyly, significantly increased with the intensity of exposure to recognized teratogens, in the St. Lawrence River system. The finding of deformities in adults could signal a more important impact during early life stages. The shift toward older t the most impacted site suggest a decrease in recruitment, that is consistent with lower survival of embryos developing under a toxic stress. Among site differences in other indicators of reproductive performance such as fecundity, gonado-somatic indices, circulating levels of 17{beta}-estradiol, testosterone, and corticosterone in females with vitellogenic eggs, were not detected.

  3. Effects of type of light on mouse circadian behaviour and stress levels.

    PubMed

    Alves-Simoes, Marta; Coleman, Georgia; Canal, Maria Mercè

    2016-02-01

    Light is the principal synchronizing environmental factor for the biological clock. Light quantity (intensity), and light quality (type of light source) can have different effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of light experienced from the time of birth on mouse growth, circadian behaviour and stress levels. We raised pigmented and albino mice under 24 h light-dark cycles of either fluorescent or white light-emitting diode (LED) light source during the suckling stage, and the animals were then exposed to various light environments after weaning and their growth rate, locomotor activity and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured. We found that the type of light the animals were exposed to did not affect the animals' growth rates or stress levels. However, we observed significant effects on the expression of the locomotor activity rhythm under low contrast light-dark cycles in pigmented mice, and under constant light in both albino and pigmented mice. These results highlight the importance of environmental light quality (light source) on circadian behavioural rhythms, and the need for close monitoring of light environments in animal facilities.

  4. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  5. Ab-initio atomic level stresses in Cu-Zr crystal, liquid and glass phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Madhusudan; Nicholson, Don M.; Egami, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    The Cu-Zr system provides interesting playground for the study of glass structure, stability, and formability and liquid dynamics. Glasses form over a wide range of concentrations while they compete against various intermetallic compounds. We have calculated from first-principles the atomic level stresses, a new tool to characterize materials, within the local approximation to Density Functional Theory (DFT) for Cu-Zr glasses and compounds from low temperature to 4500K. Comparisons between ordered crystalline compounds and liquids and glasses allow us to relate atomic level stress to relaxation of chemical short-range order and structural relaxation. The results are counter-intuitive at times; a smaller atom is under higher compressive pressure, whereas geometrically they should be under tension. Ab-initio calculations were done using Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) and Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) codes. The work at the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  6. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  7. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  8. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-30

    A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.

  9. Modeling of stress distributions on the microstructural level in Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Petrovic, B.G.; Ruud, C.O.; Mcllree, A.R.

    1995-04-01

    Stress distribution in a random polycrystalline material (Alloy 600) was studied using a topologically correct microstructural model. Distributions of von Mises and hydrostatic stresses at the grain vertices, which could be important in intergranular stress corrosion cracking, were analyzed as functions of microstructure, grain orientations and loading conditions. Grain size, shape, and orientation had a more pronounced effect on stress distribution than loading conditions. At grain vertices the stress concentration factor was higher for hydrostatic stress (1.7) than for von Mises stress (1.5). The stress/strain distribution in the volume (grain interiors) is a normal distribution and does not depend on the location of the studied material volume i.e., surface vs/bulk. The analysis of stress distribution in the volume showed the von Mises stress concentration of 1.75 and stress concentration of 2.2 for the hydrostatic pressure. The observed stress concentration is high enough to cause localized plastic microdeformation, even when the polycrystalline aggregate is in the macroscopic elastic regime. Modeling of stresses and strains in polycrystalline materials can identify the microstructures (grain size distributions, texture) intrinsically susceptible to stress/strain concentrations and justify the correctness of applied stress state during the stress corrosion cracking tests. Also, it supplies the information necessary to formulate the local failure criteria and interpret of nondestructive stress measurements.

  10. Time Course of Behavioral Alteration and mRNA Levels of Neurotrophic Factor Following Stress Exposure in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Takumi; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Ogawa, Mami; Matsuo, Yumi; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi

    2015-08-01

    Stress is known to affect neurotrophic factor expression, which induces depression-like behavior. However, whether there are time-dependent changes in neurotrophic factor mRNA expression following stress remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether chronic stress exposure induces long-term changes in depression-related behavior, serum corticosterone, and hippocampal proliferation as well as neurotrophic factor family mRNA levels, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), in the mouse hippocampus. The mRNA level of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and CNTF) was measured using the real-time PCR. The serum corticosterone level was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, for each subject, the hippocampal proliferation was examined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Mice exhibited depression-like behavior in the forced-swim test (FST) and decreased BDNF mRNA and hippocampal proliferation in the middle of the stress exposure. After 15 days of stress exposure, we observed increased immobility in the FST, serum corticosterone levels, and BDNF mRNA levels and degenerated hippocampal proliferation, maintained for at least 2 weeks. Anhedonia-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and NGF mRNA levels were decreased following 15 days of stress. NGF mRNA levels were significantly higher 1 week after stress exposure. The current data demonstrate that chronic stress exposure induces prolonged BDNF and NGF mRNA changes and increases corticosterone levels and depression-like behavior in the FST, but does not alter other neurotrophic factors or performance in the sucrose preference test.

  11. Parkin elimination of mitochondria is important for maintenance of lens epithelial cell ROS levels and survival upon oxidative stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Lisa; Khoury, Josef; Kantorow, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Age-related cataract is associated with oxidative stress and death of lens epithelial cells (LECs) whose survival is dependent on functional mitochondrial populations. Oxidative stress-induced depolarization/damage of LEC mitochondria results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and cell death suggesting the need for a LEC mechanism to remove mitochondria depolarized/damaged upon oxidative stress exposure to prevent ROS release and LEC death. To date, a mechanism(s) for removal of depolarized/damaged LEC mitochondria has yet to be identified and the importance of eliminating oxidative stress-damaged mitochondria to prevent LEC ROS release and death has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that Parkin levels increase in LECs exposed to H2O2-oxidative stress. We establish that Parkin translocates to LEC mitochondria depolarized upon oxidative stress exposure and that Parkin recruits p62/SQSTM1 to depolarized LEC mitochondria. We demonstrate that translocation of Parkin results in the elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria and that Parkin clearance of LEC mitochondria is dependent on its ubiquitin ligase activity. Importantly, we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of damaged LEC mitochondria results in reduced ROS levels and increased survival upon oxidative stress exposure. These results establish that Parkin functions to eliminate LEC mitochondria depolarized/damaged upon oxidative stress exposure and that elimination of damaged mitochondria by Parkin is important for LEC homeostasis and survival. The data also suggest that mitochondrial quality control by Parkin could play a role in lens transparency.

  12. Comorbidity and personality traits in patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Berger, Zoë; Rudd, Hannah

    2007-08-30

    More research is needed to further our understanding of posttraumatic stress responses and comorbidity following myocardial infarction (MI), and to help us identify more clearly the personality traits which indicate that a person is more prone to developing post-MI posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to 1) investigate the comorbidity of patients who suffered from different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction (i.e. post-MI PTSD), and 2) investigate to what extent patients with different levels of post-MI PTSD differed in their personality traits. One hundred and twenty MI patients from two general practices were recruited for the study. They were asked to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). They were divided into a no-PTSD group, a partial-PTSD group and a full-PTSD group, according to the scores of the PDS. One hundred and sixteen members of the general public were also recruited for comparison purposes. They were asked to complete the GHQ-28. The results showed that patients with full-PTSD reported significantly more somatic problems, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression than the other two patient groups and the control group. When age, bypass surgery, mental health problems before MI and angioplasty were controlled for, patients with full-PTSD also reported greater symptom severity of the four GHQ subscales than the other two patient groups. Patients with full-PTSD were significantly more neurotic than those with no-PTSD and partial-PTSD. Patients with full-PTSD were less agreeable than patients with no-PTSD. Regression analyses showed that personality did not moderate the relationship between PTSD and comorbidity. To conclude, following MI, those with full-PTSD tend to report more severe comorbidity than those who have not developed PTSD fully. The former can also be distinguished from the

  13. Tudor-SN, a component of stress granules, regulates growth under salt stress by modulating GA20ox3 mRNA levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunxia; Yan, Zongyun; Wang, Yizheng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Han, Yuzhen

    2014-11-01

    The Tudor-SN protein (TSN) is universally expressed and highly conserved in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, TSN is reportedly involved in stress adaptation, but the mechanism involved in this adaptation is not understood. Here, we provide evidence that TSN regulates the mRNA levels of GA20ox3, a key enzyme for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The levels of GA20ox3 transcripts decreased in TSN1/TSN2 RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic lines and increased in TSN1 over-expression (OE) transgenic lines. The TSN1 OE lines displayed phenotypes that may be attributed to the overproduction of GA. No obvious defects were observed in the RNAi transgenic lines under normal conditions, but under salt stress conditions these lines displayed slower growth than wild-type (WT) plants. Two mutants of GA20ox3, ga20ox3-1 and -2, also showed slower growth under stress than WT plants. Moreover, a higher accumulation of GA20ox3 transcripts was observed under salt stress. The results of a western blot analysis indicated that higher levels of TSN1 accumulated after salt treatment than under normal conditions. Subcellular localization studies showed that TSN1 was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm under normal conditions but accumulated in small granules and co-localized with RBP47, a marker protein for stress granules (SGs), in response to salt stress. The results of RNA immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that TSN1 bound GA20ox3 mRNA in vivo. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that TSN is a novel component of plant SGs that regulates growth under salt stress by modulating levels of GA20ox3 mRNA.

  14. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels.

  15. Tianeptine influence on plasmatic catecholamine levels and anxiety index in rats under variable chronic stress after early maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Verónica; Masseroni, María Lujan; Levin, Gloria; Suárez, Marta Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of chronic treatment with 5 mg/kg of tianeptine in male adult Wistar rats separated from the mother as neonates and submitted to variable chronic stress, plasma catecholamines, and anxiety. The plus maze test was performed in order to calculate the anxiety index and catecholamine levels were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Both stress and maternal separation elevated catecholamine levels without affecting anxiety. In the maternally separated stress group, tianeptine decreased epinephrine. Anxiety was reduced in the maternally separated unstressed tianeptine group. Also, all groups showed a tendency to lower anxiety index.

  16. Modeling for Fatigue Hysteresis Loops of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites under Multiple Loading Stress Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the fatigue hysteresis loops of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple loading stress levels considering interface wear has been investigated using micromechanical approach. Under fatigue loading, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress decreases with the increase of cycle number due to interface wear. Upon increasing of fatigue peak stress, the interface debonded length would propagate along the fiber/matrix interface. The difference of interface shear stress existed in the new and original debonded region would affect the interface debonding and interface frictional slipping between the fiber and the matrix. Based on the fatigue damage mechanism of fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading, the interface slip lengths, i.e., the interface debonded length, interface counter-slip length and interface new-slip length, are determined by fracture mechanics approach. The fatigue hysteresis loops models under multiple loading stress levels have been developed. The effects of single/multiple loading stress levels and different loading sequences on fatigue hysteresis loops have been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis loops of unidirectional C/SiC composite under multiple loading stress levels have been predicted.

  17. High altitude induced anorexia: effect of changes in leptin and oxidative stress levels.

    PubMed

    Vats, Praveen; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Singh, Som Nath; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2007-01-01

    High altitude (HA) exposure usually leads to a significant weight loss in non-acclimatized humans. Anorexia is believed to be the main cause of this body weight loss. Appetite regulatory peptides, i.e. leptin and neuropeptide Y play a key role in food intake and energy homeostasis. Recent studies suggests increased oxidative stress during HA exposure. In present study effect of HA exposure on levels of leptin and NPY was evaluated along with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin E supplementation in relation to food intake and body weight changes. The study was conducted on 30 healthy male volunteers (age 19-29 years). Subjects were divided randomly into three groups of 10 each. Group 1 (placebo) supplemented with 400 mg of calcium gluconate, group 2 and 3 were supplemented with 400 mg of NAC and 400 mg vitamin E, respectively per day. The study was conducted at low altitude (320 m, Phase I), at HA 3600 m (Phase II) and at an altitude of 4580 m (Phase III). On HA exposure significant reduction in plasma leptin levels was observed in all the groups on day 2 (Phase II) along with decrease in food intake and reduction in body weight. Statistically significant increase in blood malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was seen in all the groups on HA exposure (Phase II, Day 2), but the maximum increase was in case of placebo group (65.1%) on day 2 (Phase II) in comparison to low altitude values. The decrease in energy intake was almost same in all the groups indicating that antioxidant supplementation did not provide any protection against HA anorexia. From the study, it may be concluded that leptin and oxidative stress possibly are not the key players for HA anorexia.

  18. Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Halford, K.J.; Fenelon, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period.

  19. Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard B.; Chen, Ting-huei; Herr, Natalie; Takeda, Shunichi; Sun, Wei; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequently reported that OCDLs are fingerprint of high-energy IR, our results indicate for the first time that H2O2, even at low levels, can also cause OCDLs leading to DSBs specifically in G1 cells. Furthermore, a reverse genetic approach revealed a significant contribution of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in H2O2-induced DNA repair & mutagenesis. This genomic instability induced by low levels of ROS may be involved in spontaneous mutagenesis and the etiology of a wide variety of human diseases like chronic inflammation-related disorders, carcinogenesis, neuro-degeneration and aging. PMID:27015367

  20. Detecting Drawdowns Masked by Environmental Stresses with Water-Level Models

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, CA; Halford, KJ; Fenelon, JM

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period. PMID:23469925

  1. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  2. [Stress level assessment of the nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample.

  3. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  4. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  5. Comparison of pre- and post-operative stress levels in patients with allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dae Han; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Sung Wan; Shin, Seung Youp; Cho, Joong Saeng

    2012-11-01

    The effects of stressful events, such as surgery, on patients with allergic diseases are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) are more susceptible to stress and oxidative stress than non-allergic individuals. 20 AR patients and 20 non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) patients were recruited to this study and underwent nasal septoplasty. To evaluate the degrees of stress and oxidative stress, we collected urine and blood samples 1 day before and 1 day after surgery. Stress was assessed by measuring urine cortisol levels. Oxidative stress was assessed by calculating the balance of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) measured by the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites test, and antioxidant capacity (AC) was measured by the biological antioxidant potential test. In both groups, the level of post-operative urine cortisol was significantly higher than the pre-operative level, with no significant difference between the two groups. ROM levels were significantly higher in both groups after surgery than before surgery. The antioxidant capacity of the AR group was lower after surgery than before surgery, while it was greater in the NAR group after surgery. There were no significant differences in pre- or post-operative ROM or AC levels between the two groups. The ROM/AC ratio was significantly higher after surgery in the AR group than it was in the NAR group. The post-operative ROM/AC imbalance of AR patients suggests that these patients might be vulnerable to stress, especially oxidative stress.

  6. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  7. Cartilage mechanical response under dynamic compression at physiological stress levels following collagenase digestion.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonghun; Nicoll, Steven B; Mauck, Robert L; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that enzymatic degradation by collagenase significantly reduces dynamic moduli and increases compressive strains of bovine articular cartilage under physiological compressive stress levels and loading frequencies. Twenty-seven distal femoral cartilage plugs (3 mm diameter) were loaded in a custom apparatus under load control, with a load up to 40 N and loading frequencies of 0.1, 1, 10, and 40 Hz, before and after incubation in physiological buffered saline containing various concentrations of collagenase (0, 2, and 10 U/mL). Collagenase digestion reduced the equilibrium Young's modulus by 49% with 2 U/mL and 61% with 10 U/mL, while the decrease in dynamic modulus at 40 Hz was in the range of 13-20% with 2 U/mL and 24-33% with 10 U/mL, relative to respective controls. The amplitudes of dynamic compressive strains increased from 22 +/- 6% to 26 +/- 8% at 0.1 Hz and 9.6 +/- 3.3% to 13.5 +/- 3.2% at 40 Hz, with 10 U/mL collagenase. This experimental study serves to confirm that collagen contributes significantly to the dynamic compressive properties of cartilage, by demonstrating that collagenase digestion impairs these properties, under stress amplitudes and frequencies which are representative of physiological loading conditions.

  8. 'The effect of different genres of music on the stress levels of kennelled dogs'.

    PubMed

    Bowman, A; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2017-03-15

    Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n=38) to medium-term (5days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment. Dogs were found to spend significantly more time lying and significantly less time standing when music was played, regardless of genre. There was no observable effect of music on barking, however, dogs were significantly (z=2.2, P<0.05) more likely to bark following cessation of auditory enrichment. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was significantly higher, indicative of decreased stress, when dogs were played Soft Rock and Reggae, with a lesser effect observed when Motown, Pop and Classical genres were played. Relative to the silent period prior to auditory enrichment, urinary cortisol:creatanine (UCCR) values were significantly higher during Soft Rock (t=2.781, P<0.01) and the second silent control period following auditory enrichment (t=2.46, P<0.05). Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided.

  9. Effect of Circadian Rhythm Disruption and Alcohol on the Oxidative Stress Level in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Varadinova, Miroslava Georgieva; Valcheva-Traykova, Maria Lozanova; Boyadjieva, Nadka Ivanova

    Alcohol abuse is often associated with disrupted circadian rhythms and sleep, and the link seems to be bidirectional. In addition, it has been shown that exposure to constant illumination may increase lipid peroxidation in tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) and chronic alcohol intake (A) alone and in combination (CRD+A), on the oxidative stress in total rat brain homogenate. Our results demonstrated that lipid peroxidation was increased in the brain samples of all experimental animals compared with the control ones. The oxidative stress levels increased in the order: C

  10. The effects of nongenetic memory on population level sensitivity to stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Rhys; Nevozhay, Dmitry; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    While gene expression is often thought of as a unidirectional determinant of cellular fitness, recent studies have shown how growth retardation due to protein expression can affect gene expression levels in single cells. We developed two yeast strains carrying a drug resistance protein under the control of different synthetic gene constructs, one of which was monostable, while the other was bistable. The gene expression of these cell populations was tuned using a molecular inducer so that their respective means and noises were identical, while their nongenetic memory properties were different. We tested the sensitivity of these two cell population distributions to the antibiotic zeocin. We found that the gene expression distributions of bistable cell populations were sensitive to stressful environments, while the gene expression distribution of monostable cells were nearly unchanged by stress. We conclude that cell populations with high nongenetic memory are more adaptable to their environment. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health through the NIH Director's New Innovator Award Program, 1-DP2- OD006481-01.

  11. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  12. Stress level evaluation of thin films under thermal loading from a brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1996-06-01

    X-ray front end beamline windows are made of thin beryllium foil that is commonly brazed or diffusion bonded onto a copper frame. In the brazing process, due to differences in the thermal expansion coefficient of the beryllium and copper materials, the beryllium film ends up in a state of very high level compression stress after cooling from 700{degrees}C (the brazing temperature) to room temperature. This makes the thin Be foil deform into a dome-shaped structure due to the usual asymmetrical geometry of the window. This paper studies the brazing process using a finite element method and explains the reason for such phenomena. Recommendations are offered for possible improvement in the bonding process of beryllium to the window block.

  13. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Osterloff, Jonas; Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, [Formula: see text]) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors.

  14. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  15. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ΦPSIImax) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors. PMID:27285611

  16. The Effect of Spiritual Care on Stress Levels of Mothers in NICU.

    PubMed

    Küçük Alemdar, Dilek; Kardaş Özdemir, Funda; Güdücü Tüfekci, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalization of an infant is a difficult situation for the family, and parents require support from the health care team during this difficult time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spiritual care on levels of stress in mothers with infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. This spiritual care study was performed by comparing control and spiritual care pre- and posttest groups. The study population included 62 mothers. The Mother-Baby Introductory Information Form and the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU) were used for data collection. Prior to spiritual care, no significant difference was found between the mothers' PSS:NICU scores, whereas following spiritual care, there was a significant difference between PSS:NICU scores of the mothers, in favor of the spiritual care group ( p < .05). Findings indicate that nurses should be aware and consider the spiritual needs of mothers and must identify and meet these needs.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  18. Perceived sources and levels of stress, general self-efficacy and coping strategies in clinical dental students.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Nilüfer; Fişekçioğlu, Erdoğan; Dölekoğlu, Semanur; Oktay, İnci; İlgüy, Dilhan

    2017-02-06

    The aims of this study were to identify sources of stress among clinical students and to evaluate the students' perceived levels of stress, general self-efficacy and effective coping strategies in a private dental school environment. The study group consisted of 130 undergraduate clinical dental students in a Turkish private dental school, during the academic year 2014-2015. The students were surveyed using modified version of the dental environment stress (DES) survey, the perceived stress scale, the general self-efficacy scale (G-SES) and the brief coping scale. Age, sex, year of study, history of psychiatric treatment and factors that affected the choice of dentistry were also recorded. Final year and female clinical dental students, who were found to be the most stressful students, had moderate to high perceived stress scores. Total and 'Faculty and administration' related DES scores increased with the year of study. Stressors related to 'Workload' and 'Clinical training' affected females more than males. G-SES scores were higher in male students and students, who had no history of psychiatric treatment. The most and the least common coping strategies were 'Planning' and 'Substance abuse', respectively. 'Religion' was found to be one of the main coping strategies. Stress factors affecting Turkish clinical dental students studying at private dental school differed from the previously reported stress factors affecting students studying at a governmental dental school. Advanced year and female students experienced more stress than the other students.

  19. Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Comparisons between the 2 groups revealed that mean TOS and OSI values were significantly lower in adults with CCHF than in their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Similarly, mean TTL levels were lower in both children and adults with CCHF when compared separately with healthy controls (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean serum TTL levels between children and adults with CCHF (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients.

  20. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS DURING SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-18

    Aluminum is a principal element in alkaline nuclear sludge waste stored in high level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site. The mass of sludge in a HLW tank can be reduced through the caustic leaching of aluminum, i.e. converting aluminum oxides (gibbsite) and oxide-hydroxides (boehmite) into soluble hydroxides through reaction with a hot caustic solution. The temperature limits outlined by the chemistry control program for HLW tanks to prevent caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) in concentrated hydroxide solutions will potentially be exceeded during the sludge mass reduction (SMR) campaign. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the potential for CSCC under expected conditions. The experimental test program, developed based upon previous test results and expected conditions during the current SMR campaign, consisted of electrochemical and mechanical testing to determine the susceptibility of ASTM A516 carbon steel to CSCC in the relevant environment. Anodic polarization test results indicated that anodic inhibition at the temperatures and concentrations of interest for SMR is not a viable, consistent technical basis for preventing CSCC. However, the mechanical testing concluded that CSCC will not occur under conditions expected during SMR for a minimum of 35 days. In addition, the stress relief for the Type III/IIIA tanks adds a level of conservatism to the estimates. The envelope for corrosion control is recommended during the SMR campaign is shown in Table 1. The underlying assumption is that solution time-in-tank is limited to the SMR campaign. The envelope recommends nitrate/aluminate intervals for discrete intervals of hydroxide concentrations, although it is recognized that a continuous interval may be developed. The limits also sets temperature limits.

  1. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarasimhan, Harini; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day) causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h) leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  2. Investigations into the organism level effects of the copper-induced oxidative stress response of Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, V.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The use of biochemical endpoints to indicate exposure to environmental toxicants is becoming an accepted technique to determine chemical bio-availability. However, these biochemical endpoints, or biomarkers, have not fulfilled their potential as indicators of sublethal stress when used in this capacity. Difficulties associated with using biochemical endpoints to assess stress arise in differentiating an ``abnormal`` stress response from a physiologically acceptable one and identifying sublethal stress in a biologically and ecologically significant manner. This research examines organism level effects of the copper-induced oxidative-stress response in Lemna gibba. The growth of Lemna gibba was significantly inhibited by aqueous copper concentrations greater than 0.05 ppm during a 10 day exposure. Although effects were dose dependent, the results indicated a conspicuous decrease in growth rates and increase in malformation and chlorosis at 0.5 ppm copper and higher. There were significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS)) at 0.1 ppm copper and higher. A decrease in growth rates without an increase in TBARS suggested a diversion of energy towards defensive mechanisms, primarily, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione. These parameters were investigated and analyzed with respect to the organism-level effects (growth rates) of Lemna gibba. The utility and relevance of these sub-cellular parameters as indicators of chemical induced stress at the organism level will be discussed.

  3. Low-level Pb and Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Stress in Children: The Role of Cardiac Autonomic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Bendinskas, Kestutis; Morgan, Robert; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A number of studies suggest that Pb exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk in humans. As a potential mechanism for this effect, we recently reported a significant association between early childhood Pb levels and cardiovascular response to acute stress. The current study considers the association between current Pb levels and the autonomic nervous system activation pattern underlying the cardiovascular response to stress in a new cohort of children. Methods We assessed blood Pb levels as well as cardiovascular responses to acute stress in 9–11 year old children (N = 140). Sympathetic activation (measured with pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic activation (measured with high frequency heart rate variability) were also assessed. Results In a sample with very low levels of blood Pb (M = 1.01 μg/dL), we found that increasing blood Pb was associated with coinhibition of sympathetic and parasympathetic activation in response to acute stress. In addition, increasing Pb levels were associated with the hemodynamic stress response pattern typical of coinhibition – significantly greater vascular resistance and reduced stroke volume and cardiac output. Conclusions Blood Pb levels were associated with significant autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation in response to acute psychological stress in children. Moreover, these effects were significant at Pb levels considered to be very low and notably well below the 10 μg/dL the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood Pb level. The potential for autonomic dysregulation at levels of Pb typical for many US children would suggest potentially broad public health ramifications. PMID:20934510

  4. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Coastal Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sheneatha Lashelle Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between high-stakes tests and stress with secondary teachers. Furthermore, this study investigated whether veteran teachers experience more stress than novice teachers and whether or not self-efficacy, gender, accountability status, and years of experience influence teacher stress as it…

  5. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  6. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  7. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  8. Effects of the Higashi-Nihon earthquake: posttraumatic stress, psychological changes, and cortisol levels of survivors.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Pacific side of Japan's northeast was devastated by an earthquake and tsunami. For years, many researchers have been working on ways of examining the psychological effects of earthquakes on survivors in disaster areas who have experienced aftershocks, catastrophic fires, and other damage caused by the earthquake. The goal of this study is to examine scores on psychological measures and salivary cortisol level in these individuals both before and three months after the earthquake. The participants had been measured for these variables before the earthquake. After the earthquake, we carried out PTSD screening using CAPS for participants for another experiment, and then again conducted the aforementioned tests. We collected saliva samples from all survivors. Our results show that social relationship scores on the WHO-QOL26, negative mood scores of the WHO-SUBI, total GHQ score, POMS confusion scores, and CMI emotional status score after the earthquake showed scores indicating significantly decreased compared to before the earthquake. On the other hand, salivary cortisol levels after the earthquake was significantly increased compared to before the earthquake. Moreover, the result of a multiple regression analysis found that negative mood score on the WHO-SUBI and social relationship score on the WHO-QOL26 were significantly related to salivary cortisol levels. Our results thus demonstrate that several psychological stress induced by the earthquake was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol levels. These results show similar findings to previous study. We anticipate that this study will provide a better understanding of posttraumatic responses in the early stages of adaptation to the trauma and expand effective prevention strategies and countermeasures for PTSD.

  9. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  10. Process and outcome evaluation of an organizational-level stress management intervention in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Gregor J; Brauchli, Rebecca; Inauen, Alice; Füllemann, Désirée; Fridrich, Annemarie; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-09-01

    This field study evaluates the process and outcome of an organizational-level stress management intervention (SMI) in eight companies, taking into account the lessons learned from previous evaluation research. It utilizes the RE-AIM evaluation framework to capture the Reach and Adoption of the intervention in the companies, the appraisal of the Implementation process and the project's Effectiveness and Maintenance with a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. It applies an adapted research design in the context of a field study involving entire organizations, retrospectively assigning study participants to comparison groups. The results of a longitudinal analysis (n = 1400) showed that the SMI had a positive impact on the participants' job demands and resources, when controlled for baseline levels. Qualitative data analysis revealed that the companies had built capacities for ongoing health promotion and showed what issues must be borne in mind when implementing such projects. The study also showed that participation in such interventions alone does not suffice to achieve the desired impact, but that the individual participants' appraisal of the intervention and the collective involvement of the teams must be further researched to fully understand how change occurs.

  11. Excitotoxic and Radiation Stress Increase TERT Levels in the Mitochondria and Cytosol of Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Erez; Braverman, Carmel; Tichon, Ailone; Gitler, Daniel; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P; Priel, Esther

    2016-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, an enzyme that elongates telomeres at the ends of chromosomes during DNA replication. Recently, it was shown that TERT has additional roles in cell survival, mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and Wnt signaling, all of which are unrelated to telomeres. Here, we demonstrate that TERT is enriched in Purkinje neurons, but not in the granule cells of the adult mouse cerebellum. TERT immunoreactivity in Purkinje neurons is present in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm. Furthermore, TERT co-localizes with mitochondrial markers, and immunoblot analysis of protein extracts from isolated mitochondria and synaptosomes confirmed TERT localization in mitochondria. TERT expression in Purkinje neurons increased significantly in response to two stressors: a sub-lethal dose of X-ray radiation and exposure to a high glutamate concentration. While X-ray radiation increased TERT levels in the nucleus, glutamate exposure elevated TERT levels in mitochondria. Our findings suggest that in mature Purkinje neurons, TERT is present both in the nucleus and in mitochondria, where it may participate in adaptive responses of the neurons to excitotoxic and radiation stress.

  12. Studies of deep level transient spectroscopy of DX centers in GaAlAs: Te under uniaxial stress

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming-Fu |; Yu, Y.P. |; Weber, E.R.; Haller, E.E. |; Hansen, W.L.; Bauser, E.

    1991-11-01

    DX centers in Al{sub 0.38}Ga{sub 0.62}As doped with Te have been studied by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) as a function of uniaxial stress. No splitting nor broadening of the DLTS peaks were observed. However, the peak positions and heights depend on the stress and its directions. The results have been analyzed by comparison with existing models and hydrostatic pressure measurements.

  13. Use of heat stress responsive gene expression levels for early selection of heat tolerant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Chulwook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-06-04

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), "HO", and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), "JK", by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  14. Modulation of p-eIF2α cellular levels and stress granule assembly/disassembly by trehalose

    PubMed Central

    Dimasi, Pasquale; Quintiero, Annamaria; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana A.; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2017-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are an important component of cellular stress response. Compromised assembly of SGs as well as their premature or delayed disassembly affect physiology and survival of cells under stress or during recovery from stress. Consequently, abnormal turnover of SGs has been implicated in the development of various pathologies, including neurodegeneration. We found that pretreatment of cells with a natural disaccharide trehalose, a known autophagy enhancer, delays SG assembly and facilitates their premature post-stress disassembly. Mechanistically, the effect of trehalose on SGs is mediated via the p-eIF2α rather than autophagosome pathway. Trehalose increases pre-stress levels of p-eIF2α and its phosphatase subunits and promotes post-stress translational recovery. Upon prolonged treatment, trehalose impairs basal translation affecting production of transiently expressed proteins. Early translational recovery and SG disassembly induced by trehalose pretreatment can sensitise cells to stress and impair survival. Our study has important implications for the use of trehalose in studies of autophagic clearance of misfolded proteins and for targeting SGs as a possible therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative and other diseases. PMID:28276506

  15. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  17. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  18. Effects of Acute Restraint Stress, Prolonged Captivity Stress and Transdermal Corticosterone Application on Immunocompetence and Plasma Levels of Corticosterone on the Cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica)

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon Jr., Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity. PMID:25831055

  19. Effects of acute restraint stress, prolonged captivity stress and transdermal corticosterone application on immunocompetence and plasma levels of corticosterone on the cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica).

    PubMed

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon, Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity.

  20. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al.

  1. The DeStress for Success Program: effects of a stress education program on cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Ouellet-Morin, I; Trépanier, L; Juster, R P; Marin, M F; Francois, N; Sindi, S; Wan, N; Findlay, H; Durand, N; Cooper, L; Schramek, T; Andrews, J; Corbo, V; Dedovic, K; Lai, B; Plusquellec, P

    2013-09-26

    Various studies have shown that increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can predict the onset of adolescent depressive symptomatology. We have previously shown that adolescents making the transition to high school present a significant increase in cortisol levels, the main product of HPA axis activation. In the present study, we evaluated whether a school-based education program developed according to the current state of knowledge on stress in psychoneuroendocrinology decreases cortisol levels and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents making the transition to high school. Participants were 504 Year 7 high school students from two private schools in the Montreal area. Adolescents of one school were exposed to the DeStress for Success Program while adolescents from the other school served as controls. Salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology were measured before, immediately after as well as 3 months after exposure to the program. Measures of negative mood were obtained at baseline in order to determine whether adolescents starting high school with specific negative moods were differentially responsive to the program. The results show that only adolescents starting high school with high levels of anger responded to the intervention with a significant decrease in cortisol levels. Moreover, we found that adolescents who took part in the intervention and showed decreasing cortisol levels following the intervention (responders) were 2.45 times less at risk to suffer from clinical and subclinical depressive states three months post-intervention in comparison to adolescents who showed increasing cortisol levels following the intervention (nonresponders). This study provides the first evidence that a school-based program on stress is effective at decreasing cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school and it helps explain which adolescents are sensitive to the program and what

  2. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  3. Some constraints on levels of shear stress in the crust from observations and theory.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1980-01-01

    In situ stress determinations in North America, southern Africa, and Australia indicate that on the average the maximum shear stress increases linearly with depth to at least 5.1 km measured in soft rock, such as shale and sandstone, and to 3.7 km in hard rock, including granite and quartzite. Regression lines fitted to the data yield gradients of 3.8 MPa/km and 6.6 MPa/km for soft and hard rock, respectively. Generally, the maximum shear stress in compressional states of stress for which the least principal stress is oriented near vertically is substantially greater than in extensional stress regimes, with the greatest principal stress in a vertical direction. The equations of equilibrium and compatibility can be used to provide functional constrains on the state of stress. If the stress is assumed to vary only with depth z in a given region, then all nonzero components must have the form A + Bz, where A and B are constants which generally differ for the various components. - Author

  4. Study of heat-stress levels in naturally ventilated sheep barns during heat waves: development and assessment of regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Bartzanas, T.; Panagakis, P.; Zhang, G.; Kittas, C.

    2016-11-01

    It is well documented that heat-stress burdens sheep welfare and productivity. Peak heat-stress levels are observed when high temperatures prevail, i.e. during heat waves; however, continuous measurements inside livestock buildings are not usually available for long periods so as to study the variation of summer heat-stress levels for several years, especially during extreme hot weather. Α methodology to develop a long time series of summer temperature and relative humidity inside naturally ventilated sheep barns is proposed. The accuracy and the transferability of the developed linear regression models were verified. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was used to assess sheep's potential heat-stress. Τhe variation of THI inside a barn during heat wave and non-heat wave days was examined, and the results were comparatively assessed. The analysis showed that sheep were exposed to moderate, severe, and extreme severe heat-stress in 10, 21 and 66 % of hours, respectively, during heat wave days, while the corresponding values during non-heat wave days were 14, 33 and 43 %, respectively. The heat load on sheep was much higher during heat wave events than during non-heat wave periods. Additionally, based on the averaged diurnal variation of THI, it was concluded that extreme severe heat-stress conditions were prevailing between 1000 and 2400 hours local time during heat wave days. Cool off night periods were never and extremely rarely detected during heat wave and non-heat wave days, respectively.

  5. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (p<0.05). However, a non-significant although substantial reduction observed in women. A significant correlation was found between extroversion (r=-0.33) and openness to experience (r=0.30) with salivary testosterone (p<0.05). Extraversion, aggression control and emotional inhibition predicted 28% of variance of salivary testosterone under stress. Conclusion Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone. PMID:27909455

  6. Differential Modulation of Cocaine’s Discriminative Cue by Repeated and Variable Stress Exposure: Relation to Monoamine Transporter Levels

    PubMed Central

    Decicco-Skinner, Kathleen L.; Johari, Shirin; Hurwitz, Zachary E.; Baumann, Michael H.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Discriminative stimulus functions of drugs of abuse play an important role in the acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of drug-taking behavior. The present study tested whether two different schedules of stressor presentation, i.e., repeated and variable, for 10 days, can modify the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in male rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. Dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter levels in mesocorticolimbic areas were also measured using western blotting after stress exposure to determine if the relative ratio of these proteins may explain differences in behavior. Rats exposed to both repeated and variable stress displayed shifts in the cocaine dose-response curve but with different patterns of responding. In handled controls, ED50 values for cocaine-like responding were stable after 10 days of handling compared to baseline. Repeated stress produced a transient left-ward shift in cocaine-like responding, indicating increased sensitivity to the cocaine cue. ED50 values after variable stress did not differ from baseline, although maximal cocaine-like responding was lower at the two highest doses of cocaine tested at which variably stressed rats switched from cocaine to saline-like responding. Alterations in DAT and NET were found in the Repeated stress group and DAT and SERT in the Variable stress group in select brain regions which may be responsible for differences in behavior. PMID:22516586

  7. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  8. [Changes of polyamines level in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingjun; Ji, Xiaojia; Liu, Jun; Liu, Youliang

    2004-07-01

    With internationally common-used Glycine max (the salt-tolerant Lee68) and Glycine soja (the salt-sensitive N23232) as reference, this paper studied the polyamines (PAs) contents and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in the highly salt-tolerant BB52 (Glycine soja) seedlings, which showed that under 150mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress for 2d, the decrease of Put and Spd contents was more significant, but that of Spd content was less significant in roots of BB52 than in those of Lee68 and N23232. For leaves, the decrease of Put and increase of Spd contents were markedly observed in BB52. The ascent of (Spm + Spd)/Put ratios and descent of Put/PAs ratios showed a positive relation to their salt tolerance. The PAO activity in roots and leaves was all increased, and most obvious in N23232. The relationship between PAs levels in BB52 and its salt tolerance was also discussed.

  9. Effect of Different Selenium Supplementation Levels on Oxidative Stress, Cytokines, and Immunotoxicity in Chicken Thymus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yachao; Jiang, Li; Li, Yuanfeng; Luo, Xuegang; He, Jian

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of different selenium (Se) supplementation levels on oxidative stress, cytokines, and immunotoxicity in chicken thymus. A total of 180 laying hens (1 day old; Mianyang, China) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 45). The chickens were maintained either on a basic diet (control group) containing 0.2 mg/kg Se, a low-supplemented diet containing 5 mg/kg Se, a medium-supplemented diet containing 10 mg/kg Se, or a high-supplemented diet containing 15 mg/kg Se for 15, 30, and 45 days, respectively. Over the entire experimental period, serum and thymus samples were collected and used for the detection of the experimental index. The results indicated that the antioxidative enzyme activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of antioxidative enzymes, IFN-γ and IL-2 in the thymus, and the content of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the serum of excessive-Se-treated chickens at all time points (except for the 5 mg/kg Se supplement group at 15 days) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to the corresponding control groups. Interestingly, a significantly increase (P < 0.05) in the content of IFN-γ was observed in the serum and thymus in the 5 mg/kg Se supplement group at 15 and 30 days compared to the corresponding control groups. In histopathological examination, the thymus tissue from excessive-Se-treated chickens revealed different degrees of cortex drop, incrassation of the medulla, and degeneration of the reticular cells. These results suggested that the excessive Se could result in a decrease in immunity, an increase in oxidative damage, and a series of clinical pathology changes, such as cortex drop, incrassation of the medulla, and degeneration of the reticular cells.

  10. Trauma exposure in elementary school children: Description of screening procedures, level of exposure, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Monzon, Nicholas; Solis, Diana; Jaycox, Lisa; Langley, Audra K

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic childhood events can have a significant impact on overall child functioning. Early identification and intervention could offer significant benefits for children's mental health and educational trajectories, but how to effectively identify young children is a challenge. In this paper, we describe screening for exposure to traumatic events and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and examine differences by child gender and grade level. A total of 402 elementary school children in grades 1-5 participated across four elementary schools. We describe modified administration procedures of screening instruments for these young children. Children who endorsed exposure to one or more traumatic events were individually assessed for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Thirty-four percent (n=138) of children screened experienced one or more traumatic events, and 75.4% of those exposed to at least one traumatic event endorsed moderate levels or higher of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Internal consistency of the symptom self-report instrument was adequate for children of all grade levels. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity increased for children exposed to more types of events. No gender/grade differences were found in symptom severity. Findings suggest that young children are impacted by traumatic events in relatively high numbers, that they can reliably report their posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that a large portion of those exposed to trauma experience significant distress. These results highlight the importance of early screening and identification of these children to curtail potential risk for future academic, social, and psychological maladjustment.

  11. Trauma exposure in elementary school children: Description of screening procedures, level of exposure, and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Monzon, Nicholas; Solis, Diana; Jaycox, Lisa; Langley, Audra K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events can have a significant impact on overall child functioning. Early identification and intervention could offer significant benefits for children’s mental health and educational trajectories, but how to effectively identify young children is a challenge. In this paper, we describe screening for exposure to traumatic events and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and examine differences by child gender and grade level. A total of 402 elementary school children in grades 1-5 participated across four elementary schools. We describe modified administration procedures of screening instruments for these young children. Children who endorsed exposure to one or more traumatic events were individually assessed for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Thirty-four percent (n=138) of children screened experienced one or more traumatic events, and 75.4% of those exposed to at least one traumatic event endorsed moderate levels or higher of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Internal consistency of the symptom self-report instrument was adequate for children of all grade levels. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity increased for children exposed to more types of events. No gender/grade differences were found in symptom severity. Findings suggest that young children are impacted by traumatic events in relatively high numbers, that they can reliably report their posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that a large portion of those exposed to trauma experience significant distress. These results highlight the importance of early screening and identification of these children to curtail potential risk for future academic, social, and psychological maladjustment. PMID:27721907

  12. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  13. Comparing Stress Levels of Graduate and Undergraduate Pre-Service Teachers Following Their Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard; Buckworth, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to undergraduate pre-service teachers (PSTs), graduate PSTs have previously completed a three-year bachelor degree and are enrolled in initial teacher education (ITE) programs to become a teacher. Following a review of literature on teachers' sense of stress, reflection and identity development, this study compared the stress levels…

  14. Ultra-fast alterations in mRNA levels uncover multiple players in light stress acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Devireddy, Amith R; Inupakutika, Madhuri A; Baxter, Aaron; Miller, Gad; Song, Luhua; Shulaev, Elena; Azad, Rajeev K; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mittler, Ron

    2015-11-01

    The acclimation of plants to changes in light intensity requires rapid responses at several different levels. These include biochemical and biophysical responses as well as alterations in the steady-state level of different transcripts and proteins. Recent studies utilizing promoter::reporter constructs suggested that transcriptional responses to changes in light intensity could occur within seconds, rates for which changes in mRNA expression are not routinely measured or functionally studied. To identify and characterize rapid changes in the steady-state level of different transcripts in response to light stress we performed RNA sequencing analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants subjected to light stress. Here we report that mRNA accumulation of 731 transcripts occurs as early as 20-60 sec following light stress application, and that at least five of these early response transcripts play an important biological role in the acclimation of plants to light stress. More than 20% of transcripts accumulating in plants within 20-60 sec of initiation of light stress are H2 O2 - and ABA-response transcripts, and the accumulation of several of these transcripts is inhibited by transcriptional inhibitors. In accordance with the association of rapid response transcripts with H2 O2 and ABA signaling, a mutant impaired in ABA sensing (abi-1) was found to be more tolerant to light stress, and the response of several of the rapid response transcripts was altered in mutants impaired in reactive oxygen metabolism. Our findings reveal that transcriptome reprogramming in plants could occur within seconds of initiation of abiotic stress and that this response could invoke known as well as unknown proteins and pathways.

  15. Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Ruth E; Cepeda, Ivan L; Chau, Cecil M Y; Brummelte, Susanne; Weinberg, Joanne; Lavoie, Pascal M; Ladd, Mihoko; Hirschfeld, Aaron F; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Brant, Rollin; Turvey, Stuart E

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to school age, and if common genetic variants in the promoter region of the NFKBIA gene involved in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, modify the association between early experience and later life stress as indexed by hair cortisol levels, which provide an integrated index of endogenous HPA axis activity. Cortisol was assayed in hair samples from 128 children (83 born preterm ≤ 32 weeks gestation and 45 born full-term) without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments at age 7 years. We found that hair cortisol levels were lower in preterm compared to term-born children. Downregulation of the HPA axis in preterm children without major impairment, seen years after neonatal stress terminated, suggests persistent alteration of stress system programming. Importantly, the etiology was gender-specific such that in preterm boys but not girls, specifically those with the minor allele for NFKBIA rs2233409, lower hair cortisol was associated with greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term), independent of medical confounders. Moreover, the minor allele (CT or TT) of NFKBIA rs2233409 was associated with higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines, supporting the hypothesis that neonatal pain-related stress may act as a proinflammatory stimulus that induces long-term immune cell activation. These findings are the first evidence that a long-term association between early pain-related stress and cortisol may be mediated by a genetic variants that regulate the activity of NF-κB, suggesting possible involvement of stress/inflammatory mechanisms in HPA programming in boys born very

  16. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    PubMed Central

    Cappiello, Mario; Del Corso, Antonella; Lenzarini, Francesca; Peroni, Eleonora; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis), and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size) allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:27781156

  17. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  18. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  19. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  20. Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care. Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNFα, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Results Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine

  1. Effect of Posttraumatic Stress on Study Time in a Task Measuring Four Component Processes Underlying Text-Level Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael P.; Griffiths, Gina G.; Sohlberg, Mckay Moore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on 4 components underlying text-level reading comprehension. Method: A group of 17 veterans with PTSD and 17 matched control participants took part. An experimental task required participants to read and study 3-sentence paragraphs describing semantic…

  2. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  3. Investigating the Stress Levels of Early Childhood, Primary and Secondary Pre-Service Teachers during Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard; Buckworth, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated stress levels of pre-service teachers (PSTs) across three categories of teaching context: early childhood, primary and secondary. This paper focused on exploring the stressors in the completion of tasks in teaching practicum in the three categories of teaching context and an awareness of and access to support systems. The…

  4. Stress Levels in Tenure-Track and Recently Tenured Faculty Members in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the stress, strain, and coping levels between pretenured faculty and recently tenured faculty in institutions of higher education in Northeast Tennessee. Aging faculty population combined with talented people leaving the area is common in rural parts of the United States. There is a need to…

  5. Relationship between biomass production and nitrogen fixation under drought stress conditions in peanut genoytpes with different levels of drought resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between biomass production and N2 fixation under drought stress conditions in peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation by evaluating t...

  6. Tomato QM-like protein protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress by regulating intracellular proline levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changbin; Wanduragala, Srimevan; Becker, Donald F; Dickman, Martin B

    2006-06-01

    Exogenous proline can protect cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from oxidative stress. We altered intracellular proline levels by overexpressing the proline dehydrogenase gene (PUT1) of S. cerevisiae. Put1p performs the first enzymatic step of proline degradation in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of Put1p results in low proline levels and hypersensitivity to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. A put1-disrupted yeast mutant deficient in Put1p activity has increased protection from oxidative stress and increased proline levels. Following a conditional life/death screen in yeast, we identified a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) gene encoding a QM-like protein (tQM) and found that stable expression of tQM in the Put1p-overexpressing strain conferred protection against oxidative damage from H2O2, paraquat, and heat. This protection was correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction and increased proline accumulation. A yeast two-hybrid system assay was used to show that tQM physically interacts with Put1p in yeast, suggesting that tQM is directly involved in modulating proline levels. tQM also can rescue yeast from the lethality mediated by the mammalian proapoptotic protein Bax, through the inhibition of ROS generation. Our results suggest that tQM is a component of various stress response pathways and may function in proline-mediated stress tolerance in plants.

  7. PREDICTING LEVELS OF STRESS FROM BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DATA: EMPIRICAL MODELS FROM THE EASTERN CORN BELT PLAINS, OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest is increasing in using biological community data to provide information on the specific types of anthropogenic influences impacting streams. We built empirical models that predict the level of six different types of stress with fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data as...

  8. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  9. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  10. Increased levels of oxidative and carbonyl stress markers in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts.

    PubMed

    Di Emidio, Giovanna; D'Alfonso, Angela; Leocata, Pietro; Parisse, Valentina; Di Fonso, Adina; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Patacchiola, Felice; Tatone, Carla; Carta, Gaspare

    2014-11-01

    Many evidence support the view that endometriotic cyst may exert detrimental effect on the surrounding ovarian microenvironment so representing a risk to functionality of adjacent follicles. Patients with benign ovarian cyst (endometriotic, follicular and dermoid cysts) subjected to laparoscopic cystectomy were enrolled in the present retrospective study in order to analyze whether endometriotic tissue could negatively affect the surrounding normal ovarian cortex more severely than other ovarian cysts. To this end we carried out immunohistochemistry analysis and comparative determination of the transcription factor FOXO3A, oxidized DNA adduct 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) and damaged proteins known as AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products) as markers of ovarian stress response and molecular damage. Our results show that all the markers analyzed were present in normal ovarian tissue surrounding benign cysts. We observed higher levels of FOXO3A (15.90 ± 0.28), 8-OHdG (13.33 ± 2.07) and AGEs (12.58 ± 4.34) staining in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts in comparison with follicular cysts (9.04 ± 0.29, 2.67 ± 2.67, 11.31 ± 2.95, respectively) and dermoid cysts (2.02 ± 0.18, 4.33 ± 2.58 and 10.56 ± 4.03, respectively). These results provide evidence that ovarian endometrioma is responsible for more severe alterations to cellular biomolecules than follicular and dermoid cysts.

  11. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P < 0.05). No differences were found in HC levels between BH and WH groups (P > 0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

  12. Blunted cardiac stress reactors exhibit relatively high levels of behavioural impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Bibbey, Adam; Ginty, Annie T; Brindle, Ryan C; Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas

    2016-05-15

    Blunted physiological reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with a range of adverse health and behavioural outcomes. This study examined whether extreme stress reactors differ in their behavioural impulsivity. Individuals showing blunted (N=23) and exaggerated (N=23) cardiovascular reactions to stress were selected by screening a healthy student population (N=276). Behavioural impulsivity was measured via inhibitory control and motor impulsivity tasks. Blunted reactors exhibited greater impulsivity than exaggerated reactors on both stop-signal, F(1,41)=4.99, p=0.03, ηp(2)=0.108, and circle drawing, F(1,43)=4.00, p=0.05, η p(2)=0.085, tasks. Individuals showing blunted cardiovascular stress reactions are characterized by greater impulsivity which may contribute to their increased susceptibility to outcomes such as obesity and addiction.

  13. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been

  14. Physiological Stress Responses in Amphibian Larvae to Multiple Stressors Reveal Marked Anthropogenic Effects even below Lethal Levels.

    PubMed

    Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology. Here we study the physiological stress response in spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) against three levels of a series of natural and anthropogenic stressors common to many aquatic systems: salinity (0, 6, and 9 ppt), herbicide (0, 1, and 2 mg/L acid equivalent of glyphosate), water acidity (pH 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5), predators (absent, native, and invasive), and temperature (21°, 25°, and 29°C). The physiological stress response was assessed examining corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative cellular damage in lipids, and immunological status. We found that common stressors substantially altered the physiological state of tadpoles. In particular, salinity and herbicides cause dramatic physiological changes in tadpoles. Moreover, tadpoles reduced corticosterone levels in the presence of natural predators but did not do so against invasive predators, indicating a lack of innate recognition. Corticosterone and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase were the most sensitive parameters to stress in this study. Anthropogenic perturbations of aquatic systems pose serious threats to larval amphibians even at nonlethal concentrations, judging from the marked physiological stress responses generated, and reveal the importance of

  15. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Lotte C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M

    2016-03-21

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Lotte C.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A.; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Creyghton, Menno P.; Kahn, René S.; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Boks, Marco P. M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10−6). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability. PMID:26997371

  17. Evaluation of Stress Intensity and Anxiety Level in Preoperative Period of Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosiek, Anna; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The stress related to patient's stay in a hospital increases when it is necessary to perform a surgery. Therefore, the study of the phenomenon of stress intensity in hospitalized patients has become an important issue for public health. Material and Method. The study was conducted in University Hospital No. 1 in the cardiosurgery clinic. The study involved 58 patients who were admitted as planned to the hospital. The study used a standardized questionnaire measuring intensity of the stress and also deepened interviews with patients about stress and anxiety felt before the surgery. Results. The greater the patient's anxiety resulting from his state of health, the greater the intensity of stress in the preoperative period. This relationship is linear. The results of the study also made it possible to see intrapersonal factors (pain, illness, and suffering) and extrapersonal factors (anesthesia, surgery, and complications after surgery), which are causes of anxiety before surgery. Conclusion. The research showed high (negative) results of anxiety and stress associated with the disease, surgery, and complications after cardiac surgery. Active involvement in hospitalization elements, such as patient education before surgery, psychological support, and medical care organization taking into account patient's preferences, reduces the impact of stressors. PMID:27042655

  18. Differential Transcript Levels of Genes Associated with Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, M.; Uchimiya, H.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in specialized metabolic pathways is assumed to be regulated coordinately to maintain homeostasis in plant cells. We analyzed transcript levels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes associated with glycolysis and alcohol fermentation under submergence stress. When each transcript was quantified at several times, two types (I and II) of mRNA accumulation were observed in response to submergence stress. Transcripts of type I genes reached a maximum after 24 h of submergence and were reduced by transfer to aerobic conditions or by partial exposure of shoot tips to air. In a submergence-tolerant rice cultivar, transcript amounts of several type I genes, such as glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, increased significantly compared to an intolerant cultivar after 24 h of submergence. This suggests that the mRNA accumulation of type I genes increases in response to anaerobic stress. mRNA accumulation of type II genes, such as aldolase and pyruvate kinase, reached a maximum after 10 h of submergence. Following transfer to aerobic conditions, their transcript levels were not so rapidly decreased as were type I genes. These results suggest that the mRNA levels of genes engaged in glycolysis and alcohol fermentation may be regulated differentially under submergence stress. PMID:12232382

  19. Differential Transcript Levels of Genes Associated with Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M.; Uchimiya, H.

    1994-11-01

    Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in specialized metabolic pathways is assumed to be regulated coordinately to maintain homeostasis in plant cells. We analyzed transcript levels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes associated with glycolysis and alcohol fermentation under submergence stress. When each transcript was quantified at several times, two types (I and II) of mRNA accumulation were observed in response to submergence stress. Transcripts of type I genes reached a maximum after 24 h of submergence and were reduced by transfer to aerobic conditions or by partial exposure of shoot tips to air. In a submergence-tolerant rice cultivar, transcript amounts of several type I genes, such as glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, increased significantly compared to an intolerant cultivar after 24 h of submergence. This suggests that the mRNA accumulation of type I genes increases in response to anaerobic stress. mRNA accumulation of type II genes, such as aldolase and pyruvate kinase, reached a maximum after 10 h of submergence. Following transfer to aerobic conditions, their transcript levels were not so rapidly decreased as were type I genes. These results suggest that the mRNA levels of genes engaged in glycolysis and alcohol fermentation may be regulated differentially under submergence stress.

  20. Neuroglobin in Breast Cancer Cells: Effect of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress on Protein Level, Localization, and Anti-Apoptotic Function

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Cipolletti, Manuela; Leone, Stefano; Naldini, Antonella; Carraro, Fabio; Giordano, Daniela; Verde, Cinzia; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The over-expression of human neuroglobin (NGB), a heme-protein preferentially expressed in the brain, displays anti-apoptotic effects against hypoxic/ischemic and oxidative stresses enhancing neuron survival. As hypoxic and oxidative stress injury frequently occurs in fast proliferating neoplastic tissues, here, the effect of these stressors on the level, localization, and anti-apoptotic function of NGB in wild type and NGB-stable-silenced MCF-7 breast cancer cells has been assessed. The well-known endogenous NGB inducer 17β-estradiol (E2) has been used as positive control. The median pO2 present in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients (i.e., 2% O2) does not affect the NGB level in breast cancer cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide and lead(IV) acetate, which increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhance the NGB levels outside the mitochondria and still activate apoptosis. However, E2-induced NGB up-regulation in mitochondria completely reverse lead(IV) acetate-induced PARP cleavage. These results indicate that the NGB level could represent a marker of oxidative-stress in MCF-7 breast cancer cells; however, the NGB ability to respond to injuring stimuli by preventing apoptosis requires its re-allocation into the mitochondria. As a whole, present data might lead to a new direction in understanding NGB function in cancer opening new avenues for the therapeutic intervention. PMID:27149623

  1. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Keith L; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Pierce, Joseph P; Kelter, David T; Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-08-19

    Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR) are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV) containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR) in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS), males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages) had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  2. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Frank A.; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Methods Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Results Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. Conclusions The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men. PMID:26943785

  3. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels.

  4. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Mörelius, Evalotte; Gustafsson, Per A.; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n = 33) and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP) (n = 14) using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person). Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health. PMID:23878734

  5. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D.; Dongre, Amol R.; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. Methods: A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. Results: The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30–40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity. PMID:28217499

  6. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Results Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. Conclusions The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety. PMID:26484531

  7. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively.

  8. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    PubMed

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis.

  9. Antecedents of intra/intergroup friendships and stress levels among ethnic and religious minority members.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; Mohamed, Abdinasir; Mursi, Gehad; Lay, Siugmin

    2016-12-01

    Two studies tested a model, whereby, identification with the minority group was predicted to impact on acculturation preferences, which in turn were proposed to impact involvement in intragroup friendships with other minority members, intergroup friendships with majority members and stress experienced by minority members. A direct path from minority identification to stress was also included in the model. The model was tested using structural equation modelling on survey data collected from Muslim women (N = 250) and from Somali minority members (N = 198) in Britain. Results supported predictions and revealed that identification was associated with more culture maintenance preference and less culture adoption preference. Culture maintenance preference was associated with involvement in intragroup friendships, and culture adoption preference was associated with involvement in intergroup friendships and increased stress. Practical applications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Laser cutting of triangular geometries in aluminum foam: Effect of cut size on thermal stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Keles, O.

    2013-06-01

    Laser cutting of triangle shaped geometries in aluminum foam is carried out and the influence of triangle size on temperature and stress fields is examined. ABAQUS finite element code is used to simulate temperature and stress fields in the cut sections in line with the experimental conditions. Laser cut sections are examined incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that small size triangle cut results in relatively higher temperatures around the cut edges as compared to large size triangle cut; however, opposite is true for von Mises stress. This is attributed to the slow cooling rate in the case of the small size triangle cuts. Laser cut surfaces are free from large defects and locally scattered small dross attachment are found at the kerf exit.

  11. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  12. Effects of voluntary running on plasma levels of neurotrophins, hippocampal cell proliferation and learning and memory in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Yau, S-Y; Lau, B W-M; Zhang, E-D; Lee, J C-D; Li, A; Lee, T M C; Ching, Y-P; Xu, A-M; So, K-F

    2012-10-11

    Previous studies have shown that a 2-week treatment with 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) in rats suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and decreases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impairs spatial learning, all of which could be counteracted by voluntary wheel running. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) have been suggested to mediate physical exercise-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Here we examined whether such running-elicited benefits were accompanied by corresponding changes of peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a rat model of stress. We examined the effects of acute (5 days) and chronic (4 weeks) treatment with CORT and/or wheel running on (1) hippocampal cell proliferation, (2) spatial learning and memory and (3) plasma levels of BDNF and IGF-1. Acute CORT treatment improved spatial learning without altered cell proliferation compared to vehicle treatment. Acute CORT-treated non-runners showed an increased trend in plasma BDNF levels together with a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Acute running showed no effect on cognition, cell proliferation and peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels. Conversely, chronic CORT treatment in non-runners significantly impaired spatial learning and suppressed cell proliferation in association with a decreased trend in plasma BDNF level and a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Running counteracted cognitive deficit and restored hippocampal cell proliferation following chronic CORT treatment; but without corresponding changes in plasma BDNF and IGF-1 levels. The results suggest that the beneficial effects of acute stress on cognitive improvement may be mediated by BDNF-enhanced synaptic plasticity that is hippocampal cell proliferation-independent, whereas chronic stress may impair cognition by decreasing hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Furthermore, the results indicate a trend in changes of plasma BDNF levels associated with a

  13. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  14. No correlation between Anderson Reservoir stage level and underlying Calaveras fault seismicity despite calculated differential stress increases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns have been raised that stresses from reservoir impoundment may trigger damaging earthquakes because rate changes have been associated with reservoir impoundment or stage-level changes globally. Here, the idea is tested blindly using Anderson Reservoir, which lies atop the seismically active Calaveras fault. The only knowledge held by the author going into the study was the expectation that reservoir levels change cyclically because of seasonal rainfall. Examination of seismicity rates near the reservoir reveals variability, but no correlation with stage-level changes. Three-dimensional fi nite-element modeling shows stress changes suffi cient for earthquake triggering along the Calaveras fault zone. Since many of the reported cases of induced triggering come from low-strain settings, it is speculated that gradual stressing from stage-level changes in high-strain settings may not be signifi cant. From this study, it can be concluded that reservoirs are not necessarily risky in active tectonic settings. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  15. Oxidative stress levels are correlated with P15 and P16 gene promoter methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Cortesão, Emília; Oliveiros, Barbara; Alves, Vera; Espadana, Ana Isabel; Rito, Luís; Magalhães, Emília; Pereira, Sónia; Pereira, Amélia; Costa, José Manuel Nascimento; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and abnormal DNA methylation have been implicated in some types of cancer, namely in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Since both mechanisms are observed in MDS patients, we analyzed the correlation of intracellular levels of peroxides, superoxide anion, and glutathione (GSH), as well as ratios of peroxides/GSH and superoxide/GSH, with the methylation status of P15 and P16 gene promoters in bone marrow leukocytes from MDS patients. Compared to controls, these patients had lower GSH content, higher peroxide levels, peroxides/GSH and superoxide/GSH ratios, as well as higher methylation frequency of P15 and P16 gene promoters. Moreover, patients with methylated P15 gene had higher oxidative stress levels than patients without methylation (peroxides: 460 ± 42 MIF vs 229 ± 25 MIF, p = 0.001; superoxide: 383 ± 48 MIF vs 243 ± 17 MIF, p = 0.022; peroxides/GSH: 2.50 ± 0.08 vs 1.04 ± 0.34, p < 0.001; superoxide/GSH: 1.76 ± 0.21 vs 1.31 ± 0.10, p = 0.007). Patients with methylated P16 and at least one methylated gene had higher peroxide levels as well as peroxides/GSH ratio than patients without methylation. Interestingly, oxidative stress levels allow the discrimination of patients without methylation from ones with methylated P15, methylated P16, or at least one methylated (P15 or P16) promoter. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is correlated with P15 and P16 hypermethylation.

  16. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts.

  17. Quantitative study of stress levels in AT and BT cut quartz crystal microbalances associated with surface laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, L. H.; Bililign, E. S.; McCann, B. J.; Keller, B. W.; Stevens, K.; Kenny, S. G.; Krim, J.

    The frequency response of an AT cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to laser irradiation has been increasingly studied in recent years, as the combination of photons with materials on a QCM's electrodes enables fundamental studies of topics that span biophysics to photovoltaics. In order for such studies to advance, however, the impact of heating effects associated with laser irradiation of the QCM must be accounted for. Prior studies reached qualitative conclusions that laser irradiation induces stress QCM's arising from non-uniform thermal expansion, but did not quantitatively measure the degree of stress. Secondary effects such as surface film desorption and/or changes in temperature were also reported to be present. We report here a study of the frequency response of AT and BT cut QCM's to laser irradiation. AT and BT cut QCM's have similar response to mass adsorption, but opposite frequency response to stress levels, allowing the stress levels induced by the laser light to be quantitatively measured when the results are compared. Studies were performed in both vacuum and air, to control for the presence of adsorbed films. As expected, system designs that minimize temperature gradients result in less of an effect. Work supported by NSF DMR-1310456.

  18. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2004-12-01

    The cortex of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. has been used extensively in Russia, China, Korea and Japan as an adaptogen whose properties are the ability to increase as non-specific body resistance to stress and fatigue. Although it has been reported that Eleutherococcus senticosus has anti-fatigue and anti-stress actions, their actions are still unclear on the relationship between immune system, especially natural killer (NK) activity and endocrine system (corticosterone level). We compared the effects of the water extracts (A, B, C, D and E) of five Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on the swimming time, NK activity and blood corticosterone level using forced swimming stressed mice. Among five kinds, C, D and E extracts significantly prolonged the swimming time. C and D extracts inhibited the reduction of NK activity and the corticosterone elevation induced by forced swimming. The contents of eleutheroside E, isoflaxidin and eleutherosides B plus E were in the order C > D > E > B > A and C > E > D > A > B extracts, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that eleutheroside E may be contributed to the anti-fatigue action, the recovery of the reduction of NK activity and the inhibition of corticosterone elevation induced by swimming stress.

  19. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  20. Noise Stress-Induced Changes in mRNA Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Family Molecules and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, E; Akyazi, İ; Ergül-Ekiz, E; Matur, E

    2015-01-01

    Noise is a widespread stress resource that may lead to detrimental effects on the health. However, the molecular basis of the stress response caused by noise remains elusive. We have studied the effects of acute and chronic noise stress on stress-related molecules in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and also corticosterone responses. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control, acute and chronic noise stress groups. While the chronic noise stress group animals were exposed to 100 dB white noise for 4 h/a day during 30 days, the acute noise stress group of animals was exposed to the same level of stress once for 4 h. The expression profiles of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), CRH1, CRH2 receptors and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNAs were analysed by RT-PCR. Chronic noise stress upregulated CRH mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. Both acute and chronic noise increased CRH-R1 mRNA in the hypothalamus but decreased it in the hippocampus. GR mRNA levels were decreased by chronic noise stress in the hippocampus. The present results suggest that while corticosterone responses have habituated to continuous noise stress, the involvement of CRH family molecules and glucocorticoid receptors in the noise stress responses are different and structure specific.

  1. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  2. Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

  3. Gender Context of Schooling and Levels of Stress among Early Adolescent Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2004-01-01

    In present analysis, an attempt is made to identify perceived social support mechanisms through which the gender composition of the school may influence pupils' stress responses. Use was made of data from 68 academically oriented secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium. Of these schools, 25 were mixed-sex schools and 43 were single-sex schools (21…

  4. Caregivers' Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Home-Based and Center-Based Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Linting, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined professional caregivers' perceived and physiological stress, and associations with the quality of care they provide. Participants were 55 female caregivers from childcare homes and 46 female caregivers from childcare centers in the Netherlands. In both types of settings, equivalent measures and procedures were used. On…

  5. Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the pro...

  6. The Effects of Stress on Levels of Nicotine in the Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Beckett & Triggs, 1967; Katzung , 1987 cf table 3-2). Stress has been found to stimulate the activity of these enzymes (Stitzel & Furner, ,„ iH 1967...of R-(+)- and S-(-)- nicotine by Guinea-pig Liver preparations. Xenobiotica, a,(9), 563-572. Katzung , B.G. (Ed.). (1987). aa^XC ajld Clinir.al

  7. Stress and Mental Health of Graduate Students and Non-Graduates by Age and Educational Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Franklin R.; Heinen, James R. K.

    A 1959 survey of 11 research studies involving mental health of United States citizenry showed that 9% of practicing teachers were seriously maladjusted, 17% were unusually nervous, and 25% were unhappy, worried and dissatisfied. This study sought to update these findings by examining various stress factors and their relationship to the mental…

  8. Laughter counteracts enhancement of plasma neurotrophin levels and allergic skin wheal responses by mobile phone-mediated stress.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Laughter caused by viewing a comic video (Rowan Atkinson's The Best Bits of Mr. Bean) reduced the plasma nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 levels, and allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic dermatitis, whereas viewing a nonhumorous video (weather information) failed to do so. In contrast, stress induced by writing mail on a mobile phone enhanced the plasma nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 levels, and allergic skin wheal responses. However, previewing the comic video counteracted mobile phone-mediated enhancement of plasma neurotrophins or allergic skin wheal responses, whereas previewing the weather information failed to do so. Taken together, these results suggest that, in patients with atopic dermatitis, writing mail on a mobile phone causes stress and enhances allergic responses with a concomitant increase in plasma neurotrophins that are counteracted by laughter. These results may be useful in the study of pathophysiology and treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  9. Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Newman, A E M; Zanette, L Y; Clinchy, M; Goodenough, N; Soma, K K

    2013-05-01

    The effects of chronic stressors on glucocorticoid levels are well described in laboratory rodents, but far less is known about the effects of chronic stressors on wild animals or on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. DHEA can be produced by the adrenal cortex and has prominent antiglucocorticoid properties. Here, we examined wild songbirds to elucidate the relationship between chronic predator pressure and plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels. We measured circulating steroid levels at baseline and after acute restraint in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. During the breeding season, males in low predator pressure (LPP) environments had higher baseline DHEA levels than males in high predator pressure (HPP) environments. Also, acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in LPP males only but increased corticosterone levels in HPP and LPP males similarly. During the nonbreeding season, DHEA and corticosterone levels were lower than during the breeding season, and acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in both HPP and LPP males. Unlike males, breeding females showed no effect of predator pressure on baseline DHEA or corticosterone levels. These data suggest that naturalistic chronic and acute stressors affect circulating DHEA and corticosterone levels in wild animals and highlight the importance of using multiple endpoints when studying the physiological effects of chronic stress.

  10. Childhood Trauma and Neighborhood-Level Crime Interact in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Stress and Major Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Quinn, James W.; Richards, Catherine A.; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor – neighborhood-level crime – and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N = 3,192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract was collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. PMID:26499372

  11. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime.

  12. Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bost, Charles-André; Le Bouard, Fabrice; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    In seabirds, variations in stress hormone (corticosterone; henceforth CORT) levels have been shown to reflect changing marine conditions and, especially, changes in food availability. However, it remains unclear how CORT levels can be mechanistically affected by these changes at the individual level. Specifically, the influence of food acquisition and foraging success on CORT secretion is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether food acquisition can reduce baseline CORT levels (;the food intake hypothesis') by experimentally reducing foraging success of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Although CORT levels overall decreased during a foraging trip, CORT levels did not differ between experimental birds and controls. These results demonstrate that mass gain at sea is not involved in changes in baseline CORT levels in this species. The overall decrease in CORT levels during a foraging trip could result from CORT-mediated energy regulation (;the energy utilisation hypothesis'). Along with other evidence, we suggest that the influence of foraging success and food intake on CORT levels is complex and that the ecological meaning of baseline CORT levels can definitely vary between species and ecological contexts. Therefore, further studies are needed to better understand (1) how baseline CORT levels are functionally regulated according to energetic status and energetic demands and (2) to what extent CORT can be used to aid in the conservation of seabird populations.

  13. Resveratrol reverses the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behavior, serum corticosterone levels and BDNF expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexiang; Xie, Kai; Yang, Xudong; Gu, Jianhua; Ge, Li; Wang, Xueer; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with the neuroendocrine system and alterations in specific brain proteins. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities, including potent antidepressant-like effects. The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the content of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the CUMS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. Resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg/i.p. 5 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and the elevated serum corticosterone levels observed in stressed rats. Additionally, 5-weeks of CUMS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala, and was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with the established antidepressant, desipramine. In conclusion, our study shows that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, mediated in part by normalizing serum corticosterone levels while up-regulating pERK, pCREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala.

  14. Comparative Sigma Factor-mRNA Levels in Mycobacterium marinum under Stress Conditions and during Host Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B. M. Fredrik; Das, Sarbashis; Behra, Phani Rama Krishna; Jordan, Heather R.; Ramesh, Malavika; Mallick, Amrita; Root, Kate M.; Cheramie, Martin N.; de la Cruz Melara, Irma; Small, Pamela L. C.; Dasgupta, Santanu; Ennis, Don G.; Kirsebom, Leif A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used RNASeq and qRT-PCR to study mRNA levels for all σ-factors in different Mycobacterium marinum strains under various growth and stress conditions. We also studied their levels in M. marinum from infected fish and mosquito larvae. The annotated σ-factors were expressed and transcripts varied in relation to growth and stress conditions. Some were highly abundant such as sigA, sigB, sigC, sigD, sigE and sigH while others were not. The σ-factor mRNA profiles were similar after heat stress, during infection of fish and mosquito larvae. The similarity also applies to some of the known heat shock genes such as the α-crystallin gene. Therefore, it seems probable that the physiological state of M. marinum is similar when exposed to these different conditions. Moreover, the mosquito larvae data suggest that this is the state that the fish encounter when infected, at least with respect to σ-factor mRNA levels. Comparative genomic analysis of σ-factor gene localizations in three M. marinum strains and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv revealed chromosomal rearrangements that changed the localization of especially sigA, sigB, sigD, sigE, sigF and sigJ after the divergence of these two species. This may explain the variation in species-specific expression upon exposure to different growth conditions. PMID:26445268

  15. Changes in circulating leptin levels during acute stress and associations with craving in abstinent smokers: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Potretzke, Sheena; Nakajima, Motohiro; Cragin, Tiffany; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggests a role for the appetite hormone leptin in cigarette smoking. This study examined patterns of change in leptin in response to stress and associations with craving during the initial phase of a quit attempt. Thirty-six smokers (average age±SEM, 33.4±2.4) interested in smoking cessation set a quit day and were required to be abstinent for 24h. After, they completed a laboratory session including public speaking and cognitive challenges, and attended 4 weekly post-cessation assessments. Blood samples and self-report measures were collected throughout the laboratory session. The results indicated that leptin levels significantly increased following exposure to acute stress. We also found positive correlations between leptin and craving for cigarettes. No differences were observed in leptin levels between smokers who maintained abstinence for 4 weeks and those who relapsed during this period. These findings suggest that leptin levels may change in response to stress and that leptin could be a useful marker of craving for smoking.

  16. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response.

  17. Developmental responses to opioids reveals a lack of effect on stress-induced corticosterone levels in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Kitchen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The neonate has an unusual capacity for survival and the possibility exists that mechanisms for controlling stress responses may differ in the developing animal. In adults both endogenous and exogenous opioids can modulate the corticosterone responses to stress. We have studied this effect in neonatal rats and found that opioid modulation is absent in early postnatal development. Neonatal rats of either sex were injected with morphine (5-50 mg kg-1), fentanyl (10-100 micrograms kg-1), buprenorphine (0.1-30 mg kg-1) or naloxone (0.1-10 mg kg-1) and plasma corticosterone measured fluorimetrically 15 or 20 min later. In addition naloxone reversibility studies (1 mg kg-1, co-administered) were carried out for the opioid agonists. In adult rats, elevations in plasma corticosterone caused by injection stress were potentiated by morphine, fentanyl and buprenorphine. In neonates, though injection stress-induced rises in plasma corticosterone were absent at 10 days, elevations were observed at 21 days and later. However, significant potentiation of this corticosterone response by fentanyl was absent at 21 days and at later ages (30 and 40 days) for morphine and buprenorphine. The potentiating effect of all three agonists did not become fully effective until day 45. In addition, in animals acclimatized to injection stress by 7 day injection pretreatment, fentanyl did not significantly alter corticosterone levels in 30 day old neonates. High doses of naloxone (10 mg kg-1) significantly increased the corticosterone response to injection stress in adult rats but this effect was absent in 30 day old animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3594070

  18. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniya; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives.

  19. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353

  20. Immediate Effects of Traditional Thai Massage on Psychological Stress as Indicated by Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels in Healthy Persons.

    PubMed

    Sripongngam, Thanarat; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Chanaboon, Sutin

    2015-10-05

    BACKGROUND Stress can cause psychological and physiological changes. Many studies revealed that massage can decrease stress. However, traditional Thai massage has not been well researched in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on salivary alpha-amylase levels (sAA), heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, and plasma renin activity (PRA). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-nine healthy participants were randomly allocated into either a traditional Thai massage (TTM) group or Control (C) group, after which they were switched to the other group with a 2-week wash-out period. Each of them was given a 10-minute mental arithmetic test to induce psychological stress before a 1-hour session of TTM or rest. RESULTS Within-groups comparison revealed that sAA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the TTM group but not in the C group. HRV and ANS function were significantly increased (p<0.05) and PRA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in both groups. However, low frequency per high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) and ANS balance status were not changed. Only sAA was found to be significantly different between groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS We conclude that both TTM and rest can reduce psychological stress, as indicated by decreased sAA levels, increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic activity, and decreased PRA. However, TTM may have a modest effect on stress reduction as indicated by a reduced sAA.

  1. Impact of iron overload on interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; dos Santos, Talyta Ellen Jesus; de Souza, Geane Félix; de Assis, Lívia Coêlho; Freitas, Max Victor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of iron overload on the profile of interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed of 30 patients with molecular diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Patients were stratified into two groups, according to the presence of iron overload: Iron overload (n = 15) and Non-iron overload (n = 15). Biochemical analyses were performed utilizing the Wiener CM 200 automatic analyzer. The interleukin-10 level was measured by capture ELISA using the BD OptEIAT commercial kit. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0) and statistical significance was established for p-values < 0.05 in all analyses. Results Biochemical analysis revealed significant elevations in the levels of uric acid, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine in the Iron overload Group compared to the Non-iron overload Group and significant decreases in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Ferritin levels correlated positively with uric acid concentrations (p-value < 0.05). The Iron overload Group showed lower interleukin-10 levels and catalase activity and higher nitrite and malondialdehyde levels compared with the Non-iron overload Group. Conclusion The results of this study are important to develop further consistent studies that evaluate the effect of iron overload on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress of patients with sickle cell anemia. PMID:23580881

  2. Effects of logging, hunting, and forest fragment size on physiological stress levels of two sympatric ateline primates in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael; Gómez-Posada, Carolina; Galvis, Nelson; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern to the conservation of endangered species because of their potentially negative impact on animal populations. Both processes can impose physiological stress (i.e. increased glucocorticoid output) on animals, and chronically elevated stress levels can have detrimental effects on the long-term viability of animal populations. Here, we investigated the effect of fragment size and human impact (logging and hunting pressure) on glucocorticoid levels of two sympatric Neotropical primates, the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the critically endangered brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus). These two species have been reported to contrast strongly in their ability to cope with anthropogenic disturbances. We collected faecal samples from eight spider monkey groups and 31 howler monkey groups, living in seven and 10 different forest fragments in Colombia, respectively. We measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels in both species using previously validated methods. Surprisingly, fragment size did not influence FGCM levels in either species. Spider monkeys showed elevated FGCMs in fragments with the highest level of human impact, whereas we did not find this effect in howler monkeys. This suggests that the two species differ in their physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic changes, further emphasizing why brown spider monkeys are at higher extinction risk than red howler monkeys. If these anthropogenic disturbances persist in the long term, elevated FGCM levels can potentially lead to a state of chronic stress, which might limit the future viability of populations. We propose that FGCM measurements should be used as a tool to monitor populations living in disturbed areas and to assess the success of conservation strategies, such as corridors connecting forest fragments. PMID:27293615

  3. Trunk kinematics and the influence on valgus knee stress in persons with high sacral level myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajan T; Vankoski, Stephen; Novak, Robert A; Dias, Luciano S

    2005-01-01

    Historically, trunk movement has been thought to be reactionary to lower body motions. The excessive trunk movement in patients with myelomeningocele may be a primary mechanism during ambulation. The purpose of this study was to quantify three-dimensional trunk movement in patients with myelomeningocele. Patients walked with ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), both with and without crutches. Data were collected in reference to global and pelvic coordinates. Patients who walked with AFOs and crutches showed less trunk dynamic range of motion than patients without crutches. Between the two patient groups, there was a significant difference in trunk obliquity but not in trunk tilt or rotation. There is a good correlation between maximum trunk obliquity and coronal plane valgus knee stress. Overall, coronal plane valgus knee stress is multifactorial and trunk motion and external tibial torsion are major contributors. However, when using trunk kinematics to describe dynamic motion, both global and pelvic coordinate systems are important reference frames.

  4. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  5. A Descriptive Study of Stress Levels of Air Force Academy Cadets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    F., & McCoy, G. F. (1970). Bahavior Disorders in School-Aged Children. Scranton: Chandler. Crain, WU. C. (1980). Theories of Development: Concepts...also indebted to Ms Carol A. Schochenmaier RN, BSN, Disoharge Planning Coordinator with the Penrose Hospital in Colorado Springs for the assistance she...adolescents towards recovery from stress related issues. Additional theoretical support came from the social learning theory of Erikson (1968) and Piaget

  6. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2015-09-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress.

  7. Stress response of Pseudomonas species to silver nanoparticles at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Soni, Deepika; Bafana, Amit; Gandhi, Deepa; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Pandey, Ram Avatar

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to possess broad antibacterial activity. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of AgNPs to a common soil bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. The molecular mechanism involved in its stress response to AgNPs was also studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs was found to be 0.2 mg/L. At a sublethal concentration of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs, the protein expression profile of Pseudomonas showed overexpression of stress proteins such as ribosomal proteins S2 and L9, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase/thiol-specific antioxidant (AhpC/TSA) family protein, and keto-hydroxyglutarate aldolase (KHGA). The upregulation of these proteins was further confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed increased expression of ribosomal protein S2, KHGA, AhpC/TSA, and ribosomal protein L9 by 1.09-, 3.41-, 1.52-, and 1.56-fold, respectively (p < 0.05), after AgNP exposure compared with control. The present study clearly demonstrates that AgNPs are toxic to soil bacteria and induce oxidative and metabolic stress.

  8. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  9. Parasites, stress and reindeer: infection with abomasal nematodes is not associated with elevated glucocorticoid levels in hair or faeces

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, A. M.; Mastromonaco, G.; Vandervalk, E.; Kutz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Stress hormones (glucocorticoids), incorporated into hair/fur and faeces, have been proposed as biomarkers of overall health in wildlife. Although such biomarkers may be helpful for wildlife conservation and management, their use has rarely been validated. There is a paucity of studies examining the variation of stress hormones in mammals and how they relate to other health measures, such as parasitism. Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife and can influence the fitness of individual animals and populations. Through a longitudinal experiment using captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), we tested whether animals infected with Ostertagia gruehneri, a gastrointestinal nematode with negative impacts on fitness of the host, had higher stress levels compared with those that had been treated to remove infection. Faecal samples were collected weekly for 12 weeks (June–September) and hair was collected at the start and end of the study; glucocorticoids were quantified using enzyme immunoassays. Contrary to what was expected, infected reindeer had similar levels of cortisol in hair and slightly lower glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces compared with uninfected reindeer. Faecal corticosterone levels were higher than faecal cortisol levels, and only corticosterone increased significantly after a handling event. These results suggest that reindeer may use a tolerance strategy to cope with gastrointestinal nematodes and raise the question as to whether moderate infection intensities with nematodes are beneficial to the host. By removing nematodes we may have altered the gut microbiota, leading to the observed elevated faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in the treated reindeer. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both cortisol and corticosterone in physiological studies, as there is mounting evidence that they may have different functionalities. PMID:27957334

  10. Association of yoga practice and serum cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients with stress-related anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu; Kurapati, Sruthi; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Dhulipalla, Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Reducing the psychosocial stress by various methods can improve overall health, and yoga is now considered as an easily available alternative method. The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted mainly to find the association of yoga practice with periodontal disease by measuring serum cortisol levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with age range of 35–60 years suffering with chronic periodontitis were divided into group I (with stress), group II (without stress), and group III (practicing yoga). Psychological evaluation was carried out using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were recorded. Blood samples were collected and serum cortisol levels were measured. Results: Mean age, plaque scores, and number of teeth with PPD and CAL at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were similar in all the groups, except between group I and group III where a multiple comparison with Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in plaque index (P < 0.038) and the number of teeth with CAL 5–8 mm (P < 0.016). Serum cortisol levels and HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores showed highly significant value (P < 0.001) in group I subjects when compared with group II and group III subjects. Conclusion: Cross-sectional observation done among three groups showed that individuals practicing yoga regularly had low serum cortisol levels, HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores, and better periodontal health. PMID:27011926

  11. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  12. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  13. Regulation of nucleus accumbens transcript levels in mice by early-life social stress and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Luisa; Valzania, Alessandro; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Felsani, Armando; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Carola, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Much interest has been piqued regarding the quality of one's environment at early ages in modulating the susceptibility to drug addiction in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms that are engaged during early trauma and mediate the risk for drug addiction are poorly understood. In rodents, exposure to early-life stress alters the rewarding effects of cocaine, amphetamine, and morphine in adulthood. Recently, we demonstrated that the exposure of juvenile mice to social threat (Social Stress, S-S) promoted cocaine-seeking behavior and relapse of cocaine-seeking after periods of withdrawal, compared with unhandled controls (UN) and with juvenile mice that experienced only daily isolation in a novel environment (no social stress, NS-S). Interestingly, while the exposure to NS-S slightly increased cocaine-seeking behavior compared with UN, the same was not sufficient to promote cocaine reinstatement. In this study, we examined the long-term transcriptional changes that are induced by S-S compared to NS-S and linked the increased susceptibility of S-S mice to cocaine reinstatement. To this end, we performed genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), which revealed that 89 transcripts were differentially expressed between S-S and NS-S mice. By Gene Ontology classification, these hits were enriched in genes that mediate cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuron/forebrain development. Eleven of these genes have been reported to be involved in substance use disorders, and the remaining genes are novel candidates in this area. We characterized 4 candidates with regard to their significant neurobiological relevance (ZIC1, ZIC2, FABP7, and PRDM12) and measured their expression in the NAC by immunohistochemistry. These findings provide insights into novel molecular mechanisms in NAC that might be associated with the risk of relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals.

  14. The Levels of Cortisol and Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse with or without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Aktaş, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol and oxidative stress levels and DNA damage differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. Methods The study included 61 children aged between 5 and 17 years who sustained sexual abuse (M/F: 18/43). The patients were divided into two groups: patients with PTSD and patients without PTSD based, based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Cortisol, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q, 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were all evaluated by the ELISA method. Results Our evaluation revealed a diagnosis of PTSD in 51% (n=31) of victims. There was no significant difference between the groups with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, GPx, SOD, coenzyme Q, and 8-OHdG levels. There was no correlation between CAPS scores and GPx, SOD, coenzyme Q, and 8-OHdG levels between patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, both cortisol and 8-OHdG levels decreased with increasing time after trauma, and there was no significant correlation with cortisol and 8-OHdG levels in patients without PTSD. Conclusion Although the present study did not find any difference between the groups in terms of 8-OHdG concentrations, the decreases in both cortisol and 8-OHdG levels with increasing time after trauma is considered to indicate a relationship between cortisol and DNA damage. PMID:27909452

  15. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  16. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Xu, Yunyuan; Huan, Qing; Chong, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species. PMID:19772667

  17. Effects of selenium-enriched probiotics on heat shock protein mRNA levels in piglet under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Ren, Fei; Chen, Xingxiang; Lv, Chenhui; Pan, Cuiling; Ye, Gengping; Shi, Jun; Shi, Xiuli; Zhou, Hong; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Huang, Kehe

    2013-03-13

    The effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on tissue selenium (Se) deposition, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) activity and mRNA level, and heat shock protein (Hsp) mRNA levels of piglets under heat stress conditions were investigated. A total of 48 crossbred ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) piglets were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed a basal diet (Con, 0.16 mg Se/kg) or basal diets with added probiotics (P, 0.16 mg Se/kg), sodium selenite (SS, 0.46 mg Se/kg), or SP (0.46 mg Se/kg), respectively, for 42 days. Three piglets were randomly selected from each group for blood sample collection at days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and for liver, kidney, and spleen sample collection at day 42. The results showed that P, SS, and SP could significantly down-regulate the average mRNA levels of Hsp70 (17.3, 23.7, and 40.1%) and Hsp27 (22.4, 24.4, and 44.7%) of the tissues, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas SS and SP could significantly elevate Se concentration, GPx1 activity and mRNA level (P < 0.05). The maximal effects of these parameters were observed in SP. It was concluded that SP is a feasible dietary supplementation of piglets under heat stress conditions during the summer season.

  18. Career Aspirations versus Career Actualizations of African American Executive Level Administrators in Higher Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a State in the Southeast: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Kristen LeToria

    2013-01-01

    Despite affirmative action, gender inequities persist at institutions of higher learning in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of African American women serving in executive-level leadership positions at historically black colleges and universities in a state the Southeast. Participants…

  19. Identification of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis plantlets: effect of cold stress on cysteine nitrosylation level.

    PubMed

    Puyaubert, Juliette; Fares, Abasse; Rézé, Nathalie; Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    S-nitrosylation is a nitric oxide (NO)-based post-translational modification regulating protein function and signalling. We used a combination between the biotin switch method and labelling with isotope-coded affinity tag to identify endogenously S-nitrosylated peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins extracted from plantlets. The relative level of S-nitrosylation in the identified peptides was compared between unstressed and cold-stress seedlings. We thereby detected 62 endogenously nitrosylated peptides out of which 20 are over-nitrosylated following cold exposure. Taken together these data provide a new repertoire of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis with cysteine S-nitrosylation site. Furthermore they highlight the quantitative modification of the S-nitrosylation status of specific cysteine following cold stress.

  20. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    PubMed

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  1. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans battling starvation stress: low levels of ethanol prolong lifespan in L1 larvae.

    PubMed

    Castro, Paola V; Khare, Shilpi; Young, Brian D; Clarke, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrests development at the first larval stage if food is not present upon hatching. Larvae in this stage provide an excellent model for studying stress responses during development. We found that supplementing starved larvae with ethanol markedly extends their lifespan within this L1 diapause. The effects of ethanol-induced lifespan extension can be observed when the ethanol is added to the medium at any time between 0 and 10 days after hatching. The lowest ethanol concentration that extended lifespan was 1 mM (0.005%); higher concentrations to 68 mM (0.4%) did not result in increased survival. In spite of their extended survival, larvae did not progress to the L2 stage. Supplementing starved cultures with n-propanol and n-butanol also extended lifespan, but methanol and isopropanol had no measurable effect. Mass spectrometry analysis of nematode fatty acids and amino acids revealed that L1 larvae can incorporate atoms from ethanol into both types of molecules. Based on these data, we suggest that ethanol supplementation may extend the lifespan of L1 larvae by either serving as a carbon and energy source and/or by inducing a stress response.

  3. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, D.E.; Bidder, M.; Gavish, M. ); Weizman, A.; Karp, L.; Tyano, S. ); Grinshpoon, A.; Bleich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  4. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress.

    PubMed

    Dar, D E; Weizman, A; Karp, L; Grinshpoon, A; Bidder, M; Kotler, M; Tyano, S; Bleich, A; Gavish, M

    1991-01-01

    [3H]PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced (26%; P less than 0.05) density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  5. Changes in anxiety levels are followed by changes in behavioral strategy in mice subjected to stress and in the extent of stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Kenunen, O G; Prakh'e, I V; Kozlovskii, V L

    2006-02-01

    The experiments reported here demonstrated that corasol increased the extent of analgesia induced by stress and decreased the duration of immobility in mice in a forced swimming test in cold water. Administration of diazepam led to the opposite changes and counteracted the actions of the anxiogen. The effects of the anxiolytic were more apparent in NMRI than mongrel mice, while in mongrel mice the effects of the anxiogen were more marked. Changes in measures following administration of agents were reciprocal in nature. These results lead to the conclusion that that these changes are determined by the level of anxiety, and that the strain differences between mongrel and NMRI mice are also linked with this factor.

  6. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. The Relationship of Daily Stress and Health-Related Behaviors to Adolescents' Cholesterol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris A.; Friedman, Alice G.; Burright, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between daily life events and total cholesterol levels among high school students (N=104) and examines contributions of health-related behaviors. Analyses showed that scores on a scale of daily life events explained a significant portion of variance in cholesterol levels. Females reported a greater degree of negative…

  8. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (p<0.01) and for shift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional

  9. Exploration of the perceived and actual benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and the impact of FADS1 and FADS2 genetic information on dietary intake and blood levels of EPA and DHA.

    PubMed

    Roke, Kaitlin

    2017-03-01

    From a global health perspective, increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health. However, the consumption of EPA- and DHA-rich foods such as fatty fish is low in the Western diet. Therefore, finding new ways to motivate people to increase their consumption of omega-3 FAs is essential. To find effective ways to motivate individuals, understanding people's awareness of omega-3 FAs and how they obtain their knowledge about nutrition and health is critical. Consequently, we developed an online survey to assess awareness and self-reported intake of omega-3 FAs and supplements in young adults. EPA and DHA are also produced endogenously to a limited extent through a pathway regulated by fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) genes. Of relevance, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FADS genes influence levels of omega-3 FAs, where minor allele carriers have lower levels compared with major allele carriers. Accordingly, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate FA levels in response to dietary EPA and DHA supplementation in young adults stratified by SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2. The level of reported awareness of omega-3 terminology varied depending on an individual's field of study and thus providing all participants with the same set of nutrition information could be an effective tool to increase knowledge and motivate behaviour change. Additionally, the variation in FA levels in accordance to SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2 could be used to create tailored nutritional recommendations which may improve lifestyle habits. The results discovered in the first 2 studies regarding awareness of omega-3 FAs and genetic variation were subsequently used to design a nutrigenetics intervention in young adults. Individuals who received their FADS1 genetic information were more aware of different omega-3 FAs and reported fewer barriers to their consumption by the end of

  10. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers

    PubMed Central

    HIROKAWA, Kumi; MIWA, Machiko; TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; TSUCHIYA, Masao; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers. PMID:26632120

  11. Study of grain-level deformation and residual stresses in Ti-7Al under combined bending and tension using high energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Garbaciak, T.; Rotella, J.; Sangid, M. D.; Beaudoin, A. J.; Kenesei, P.; Park, J-S.; Pilchak, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    In-situ high energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM) experiments are carried out to analyze the state of combined bending and tension in a Ti-7Al alloy under room temperature creep. Grain-level elastic strain tensors are evaluated from HEDM data. Atomistic calculations are used to predict elastic constants of Ti-7Al, to be used in determination of stress from strain. The stress gradient and residual stresses are successfully determined, which allows the demarcation between macro-/micro-level residual stresses. A cluster of three neighboring grains are identified that highlight the variation of mean and effective stress between grains. Crystallographic orientations and slip characteristics are analyzed for the selected grains. It is inferred that the interfaces between loaded grains with markedly different stress triaxiality and slip tendency are potential spots for material damage.

  12. Quantifying Grain Level Stress-Strain Behavior for AM40 via Instrumented Microindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Guang; Barker, Erin I.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin

    ABSTRACT

    Microindentation is performed on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) Mg-Al (AM40) alloy samples produced by high-pressure die cast (HPDC) process for the purpose of quantifying the mechanical properties of the α-Mg grains. The process of obtaining elastic modulus and hardness from indentation load-depth curves is well established in the literature. A new inverse method is developed to extract plastic properties in this study. The method utilizes empirical yield strength-hardness relationship reported in the literature together with finite element modeling of the individual indentation. Due to the shallow depth of the indentation, indentation size effect (ISE) is taken into account when determining plastic properties. The stress versus strain behavior is determined for a series of indents. The resulting average values and standard deviations are obtained for future use as input distributions for microstructure-based property prediction of AM40.

  13. Quantifying Grain Level Stress-Strain Behavior for AM40 via Instrumented Microindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Guang; Barker, Erin I.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Microindentation is performed on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) Mg-Al (AM40) alloy samples produced by high-pressure die cast (HPDC) process for the purpose of quantifying the mechanical properties of the α-Mg grains. The process of obtaining elastic modulus and hardness from indentation load-depth curves is well established in the literature. A new inverse method is developed to extract plastic properties in this study. The method utilizes empirical yield strength-hardness relationship reported in the literature together with finite element modeling of the individual indentation. Due to the shallow depth of the indentation, indentation size effect (ISE) is taken into account when determining plastic properties. The stress versus strain behavior is determined for a series of indents. The resulting average values and standard deviations are obtained for future use as input distributions for microstructure-based property prediction of AM40.

  14. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  15. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature.

  16. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    KASUYA, NORIAKI; OHTA, SHOICHIRO; TAKANAMI, YOSHIKAZU; KAWAI, YUKARI; INOUE, YUTAKA; MURATA, ISAMU; KANAMOTO, IKUO

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25780409

  17. Effects of UV-B radiation and water stress on gas exchange of soybeans under two different nitrogen levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, L.M.; Forseth, I.N. )

    1993-06-01

    Due to anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone, UV-B radiation is projected to increase in the near future. Other potential global climate changes in temperature and precipitation patterns raise the need for research into plant responses to multiple environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to document UV-B and water stress effects on gas exchange of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under two nitrogen levels. Two soybean cultivars differing in sensitivity to UV-B were tested at fluence rates of 19.1 or 8.5 kJ m[sub [minus]2]day[sub [minus]1] (enhance and natural levels of UV-B, respectively). Measurements of photosaturated CO[sub 2] uptake at ambient CO[sub 2] (A). stomatal conductance. photosaturated O[sub 2] evolution at saturating CO[sub 2] (A[sub max]), long term water use efficiency (using [delta][sup 13]C), and nitrogen fixation (using [sup 15]N) were performed. No significant treatment effects on A could be detected. However A[sub max] was significantly increased, and stomatal conductance reduced (p<0.01) by increased UV-B at all levels of water and nitrogen for both cultivars, suggesting a stronger stomal limitation of photosynthesis under UV-B. Water and nitrogen use efficiency also decreased under increased UV-B in both cultivars (p<0.01).

  18. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  19. ER stress is associated with reduced ABCA-1 protein levels in macrophages treated with advanced glycated albumin - reversal by a chemical chaperone.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Gabriela; Okuda, Ligia S; Pinto, Raphael S; Iborra, Rodgiro T; Nakandakare, Edna R; Santos, Celio X; Laurindo, Francisco R; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mediates the export of excess cholesterol from macrophages, contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Independently of changes in ABCA-1 mRNA levels, AGE-alb induces oxidative stress and reduces ABCA-1 protein levels, which leads to macrophage lipid accumulation. These metabolic conditions are known to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We sought to determine if AGE-alb induces ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages and how disturbances to the ER could affect ABCA-1 content and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. AGE-alb induced a time-dependent increase in ER stress and UPR markers. ABCA-1 content and cellular cholesterol efflux were reduced by 33% and 47%, respectively, in macrophages treated with AGE-alb, and both were restored by treatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress), but not MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor). Tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inductor, also impaired ABCA-1 expression and cholesterol efflux (showing a decrease of 61% and 82%, respectively), confirming the deleterious effect of ER stress in macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Glycoxidation induces macrophage ER stress, which relates to the reduction in ABCA-1 and in reverse cholesterol transport, endorsing the adverse effect of macrophage ER stress in atherosclerosis. Thus, chemical chaperones that alleviate ER stress may represent a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes.

  20. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

  1. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  2. Effect of immobilization stress on the level of macroergic phosphates in the blood of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudov, V. I.; Sosenkov, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of immobilization for 1, 2, and 24 hours, and of daily (for 2 hours for 7 days) immobilization on the blood nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP) level was studied on 79 male rats. A progressive reduction of the ATP content was most pronounced in immobilization for 24 hours. This was accompanied by an increase of lymphopenia and eosinopenia. A fall of the relative weight of the thymus and a weight gain of the adrenal glands was observed along with a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration in both of them. In case of daily immobilization for 2 hours, the ATP and ADP content on the 1st and 2nd day was below the normal level, and then showed a gradual increase, with complete normalization in 6-7 days, except for inorganic phosphorus the level of which remained lower than normal.

  3. Correlation between Plasma Fibronectin Level and Mortality Following Experimental Rate Heat Stress,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-07

    NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( m ) D. A. DuBose; J. McCreary; L. Sowders 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM...which exceeded the value determined’-- D -I * M 147 EOITIO0, 1 tOV 6SIS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED84 -)7 16 016 SECURITY CLASSIFICATIOR OF THIS PAGE (When...compared to rats with levels below this value. It was concluded that elevated PF levels correlated with tolerance to ERHS. Sz . m ... INTRODUCTION Since the

  4. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  5. p53/CEP-1 Increases or Decreases Lifespan, Depending on Level of Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Natascia; Rea, Shane L.; Schiavi, Alfonso; Torgovnick, Alessandro; Testi, Roberto; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial pathologies underlie a number of life-shortening diseases in humans. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, severely reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport chain-mediated energy production also leads to pathological phenotypes, including arrested development and/or shorter life; in sharp contrast, mild suppression of these same proteins extends lifespan. Here we show that the C. elegans p53 ortholog cep-1 mediates these opposite effects. We find that cep-1 is required to extend longevity in response to mild suppression of several bioenergetically relevant mitochondrial proteins, including frataxin - the protein defective in patients with Friedreich’s Ataxia. Importantly we show that cep-1 also mediates both the developmental arrest and life shortening induced by severe mitochondrial stress. Our findings support an evolutionarily conserved function for p53 in modulating organismal responses to mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that metabolic checkpoint responses may play a role in longevity control and in human mitochondrial-associated diseases. PMID:19416129

  6. Biological costs of economic transition: Stress levels during the transition from communism to capitalism in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lipowicz, Anna; Szklarska, Alicja; Mitas, Andrzej W

    2016-05-01

    At the end of the 1980s, Poland began the transformation from an essentially one-party communist system to a politically pluralistic democratic system. These political and economic changes had major social consequences, among others unemployment and a sharp decrease in real personal income. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship between stress in adult men, measured by the Allostatic Load, and the socio-economic deterioration during the first part of the economic transition. The Allostatic Load included eleven markers assessing adverse nutritional intake, cardiovascular activity, inflammatory processes, and lung, hepatic and renal functions. The results indicate a significantly higher risk of metabolic dysregulation in men examined after 1990, compared to men from previous years. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables and lifestyle variables, men examined in 1991 had a 31% greater risk of higher Allostatic Load compared with men examined in 1985 (OR=1.31; p=0.0541), in 1992, this risk was 50% greater (OR=1.50; p<0.01), and in 1993, the risk was 66% greater (OR=1.66; p<0.05). The conclusion is drawn that significantly more stressogenic factors for men were those directly connected with the financial situation of their families, than a sudden but short increase of prices for goods and services.

  7. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  8. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  9. Relationship between Burnout Syndrome Symptoms and Self-Actualization Scores in Critical-Care Nurses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    opportunities, satisfactory supervision, and self-actualization. One study indicated that nursing education promotes self-actualization at least to... nursing education achieved in burnout syndrome symptoms? 8. Is there a difference by level of nursing education achieved in self-actualization...level of nursing education achieved in the burnout scores or the self-actualization scores. The exception was that the associate degree nurses scored

  10. Methylglyoxal increases dopamine level and leads to oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bingjie; Lin, Fankai; Peng, Lei; Ullah, Kaleem; Wu, Hanyan; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2014-11-01

    More and more studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO) induced by type-2 diabetes is related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanism. In this study, we explored the MGO toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neurotoxicity of MGO was measured by mitochondrial membrane potential, malondialdehyde, and methylthiazoletetrazolium assays. The levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results showed that MGO induced an increase in TH and DAT expressions in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, while the levels of dopamine, DOPAC, and endogenous neurotoxin salsolinol also increased. Aminoguanidine (AG) is an inhibitor of MGO. It was found that AG could decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level induced by MGO, but could not inhibit an increase of TH, DAT and dopamine. The increase of dopamine, DOPAC and salsolinol levels could lead to high ROS and mitochondrial damage. This study suggests that ROS caused by dopamine could contribute to the damage of dopaminergic neurons when MGO is increased during the course of diabetes.

  11. Dietary copper level affects copper metabolism during lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Koh, T S; Peng, R K; Klasing, K C

    1996-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary Cu level on Cu metabolism during the acute phase response in broiler chicks with adequate (Experiment 1) or deficient (Experiment 2) Cu. Diets based on cornstarch and isolated soybean protein were used to formulate a basal diet, and basal diet plus either 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg additional Cu as either CuO or CuSO4. Each diet was fed to six pens of five chicks per pen (Experiment 1) or eight pens of five chicks (Experiment 2). Half of the chicks on each diet were injected with Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on alternate days. In Experiment 1, LPS significantly decreased daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) and increased the concentration of Cu in blood plasma (P < 0.01). In the uninjected birds, adding 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuO or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4 increased the rate of gain over that of chicks fed the basal diet. In the birds challenged with LPS, 10 mg/kg Cu as CuO increased the rate of gain and efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Addition of CuSO4 to the diet of chicks challenged with LPS did not affect gain, intake, or feed efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Ceruloplasmin levels were higher in chicks challenged with LPS than in control chicks (P = 0.03), and this difference tended to be greater in chickens fed CuO than in chickens fed CuSO4 (P = 0.07). In chicks challenged with LPS, feeding CuO at all levels and feeding CuSO4 to give 10 or 15 mg/kg Cu increased ceruloplasmin levels above that of chicks fed the basal diet. Hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD were not influenced by dietary Cu level or source or LPS. Results of Experiment 2 were similar to those of Experiment 1 except that supplemental CuSO4 and CuO gave similar increases in gain and CuSO4 was more effective at increasing ceruloplasmin levels. Chicks given supplemental Cu had higher ceruloplasmin levels following challenge with LPS than

  12. Chronic psychosocial stress in mice leads to changes in brain functional connectivity and metabolite levels comparable to human depression.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Joanes; Azzinnari, Damiano; Seuwen, Aline; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Rudin, Markus

    2016-11-15

    Human depression, for which chronic psychosocial stress is a major risk factor, is characterized by consistent alterations in neurocircuitry. For example, there is increased functional connectivity (FC) within and between regions comprising the default mode network (DMN) including prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Alterations in network FC are associated with specific aspects of psychopathology. In mice, chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) leads to depression-relevant behavior, including increased fear learning, learned helplessness, fatigue and decreased motivation for reward. Using multimodal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), we investigated CPS effects on function and structure in the mouse brain under light anesthesia. Mice underwent a baseline MRI/MRS session, followed by 15-day CPS (n=26) or control handling (n=27), and a post-treatment MRI/MRS session. In BOLD fMRI, relative to controls, CPS mice exhibited robust, reproducible increases in FC within 8 of 9 identified cortical networks, including the prefrontal and cingulate cortices that contribute to the "mouse DMN". CPS mice exhibited increases in between-network FC, including amygdala - prefrontal cortex and amygdala - cingulate cortex. MRS identified metabolic alterations in CPS mice as increased inositol levels in amygdala and increased glycerophosphorylcholine levels in prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI detected increased fractional anisotropic values in the cingulum. This study demonstrates that chronic psychosocial stress induces FC states in the mouse brain analogous to those observed in depression, as well as cerebral metabolism and white matter pathway alterations that contribute to understanding of pathological processes. It also demonstrates the importance of brain imaging to the establishment of valid animal models in translational psychiatry.

  13. Effects of freely accessible computerized test systems on the spontaneous behaviors and stress level of Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Gullstrand, Julie; Kemp, Caralyn; Defilles, Céline; Mekaouche, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Fagot and Paleressompoulle [Fagot and Paleressompoulle (2009) Behav Res Methods 41: 396-404] described a new automated learning device for monkeys (ALDM) to test the cognitive functions of nonhuman primates within their social groups. However, the impact of the ALDM procedure on animal well-being needs to be investigated. The present study assessed the consequences of ALDM testing on the behavioral repertoire of Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and their stress levels as inferred from measurements of saliva cortisol. Accessibility to ALDM test computers reduced the number of resting periods as well as the number of stereotypies. Lower cortisol levels were also found during ALDM testing. These findings and others demonstrate that ALDM testing has a positive impact on animal well-being and can be considered as a means for behavioral enrichment in captive primates.

  14. Sex and litter effects on anxiety and DNA methylation levels of stress and neurotrophin genes in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Therese A; Huang, Wen; Nielsen, David A

    2014-04-01

    Maternal care variations associate with DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, in hippocampus at a nerve-growth factor-inducible protein 1 binding site. Epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophin factor is affected by early stress. These systems contribute to anxiety and fear. Early stress has sex-dependent effects perhaps reflecting sex differences in maternal care. Altering litter gender composition affects maternal behavior and DNA methylation levels of another gene in hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We now test if DNA methylation levels of Nr3c1, Egr1, and Bdnf differ by litter composition or sex. Rats from mixed- or single-sex litters were tested for anxiety and fear on postnatal day 35. Brain tissues were collected and analyzed using direct sequencing methods. Females showed hypermethylation of Nr3c1 of hippocampal DNA and litter composition modified sex effects on methylation of Egr1 in NAc. Few differences were seen for Bdnf. LGC modified some sex differences in behavior.

  15. The influence of a multisensory intervention for preterm infants provided by parents, on developmental abilities and on parental stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Hacham-Pilosof, Keren; Yosef, Omer Bar; Rabinovitz, Gila; Leshem, Gili; Shilon-Hadass, Aya; Biran, Yael; Reichman, Brian; Kuint, Jacob; Bart, Orit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of a multisensory intervention based on the developmental approach provided by parents, during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization of their preterm infants. After guidance of parents and implementation of intervention program, children were followed up to 2 to 3 years using scales for evaluation of parental stress levels and child's development. Our 2 to 3 years' follow-up study included 41 infants (20 controls and 21 who received parental-guided intervention) as part of a group of 95 preterm infants who participated in a short-term study. The intervention group showed significantly higher scores in receptive language and fine-motor domains of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd Edition. Boys showed superior improvements in language skills. No differences were found in the cognitive and adaptive domains. There were no differences in parental stress levels. A multisensory intervention program for preterm infants provided by trained and supervised parents may improve language and motor outcomes at 2 to 3 years.

  16. Elevated Oxygen Consumption Rate in Response to Acute Low- Glucose Stress: Metformin Restores Rate to Normal Level

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emmanuel D.; Rogers, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Azhar, Gohar; Wei, Jeanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of mortality among all age demographics in the United States, with the highest occurrence in populations aged 65 and older. Glucose levels, particularly hyperglycemia, are associated with the premature onset of age-related diseases including CVD. A major challenge in the treatment of elderly patients with chronically elevated blood glucose is the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemia remain unclear, but are associated with premature onset of age-related-diseases. Here we report a mitochondrial metabolic profile assessing short-term (up to six hours) and longer-term (12–24 hours) durations of low-glucose stress. We observed that the antidiabetic biguanide and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, metformin, can lower and restore the elevated oxygen consumption rate during shorter-term glucose stress to levels similar to that of cells cultured in normal glucose. This effect appears, in part, to involve activation of the 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:26256471

  17. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  18. [A low-level stress test, in the early phase of myocardial infarction and its correlation with coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Kuri, J; Martínez-Sánchez, C; Moreno, M; Clemente, A; Virgós, A; Fernández de la Vega, P; Fajardo, P; Salazar, E

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective 24-month trial at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, 56 patients were studied. All patients had acute myocardial infarction (AMI), diagnosed by clinical, electrocardiographic and enzymatic means. They were studied in two groups: Group A with single localized AMI (n = 30) and Group B with AMI at two locations (n = 26); a resting electrocardiogram (EKG) was analyzed in each case and a low level stress test was performed within the 2nd and 3rd postinfarction weeks; coronary angiography was done between the 8th and 9th postinfarction weeks. In Group A the low level stress test (LLST) was positive for ischemia at a distance from the infarction site in 21, and eighteen of them had multi-vessel injuries (MVI); in 9 the LLST was negative; of these 7 had single-vessel injury; only the remaining 2 had MVI (p less than 0.001) with 90% sensitivity and 78% specificity. In Group B there was no significant relationship between LLST and coronary angiography (64% sensitivity, and 62% specificity). Relating the ischemic change at a distance in the resting EKG with coronary angiography, we found 75% sensitivity and 55% specificity in Group A. In Group B, sensitivity and specificity were even lower. We conclude that LLST in the early postinfarction phase in Group A is a safe and reliable method to suspect MVI, allowing the early identification of patients with lesions that could be treated by surgical means.

  19. The effects of heat stress on a number of hematological parameters and levels of thyroid hormones in foundry workers.

    PubMed

    Norloei, Sahar; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Omidi, Leila; Khodakarim, Soheila; Bashash, Davood; Abdollahi, Mohammad Bagher; Jafari, Mina

    2016-11-24

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of heat stress on some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones among foundry workers. This study was performed on 25 heat-acclimated subjects while 10 office workers were selected as the control group. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was determined to estimate the heat stress. Blood sampling was conducted before and after the daily work shift. The mean value of the WBGT index was 35 °C. The levels of plasma osmolality (p = 0.04) and white blood cells (p = 0.03) in the case group (before exposure to heat) were significantly higher than those in control group. No significant differences were observed between the average levels of T3 (p = 0.79) and T4 (p = 0.17) hormones between two groups. A positive relationship was found between the variation of some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones with WBGT index and air temperature.

  20. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  1. Circulating Levels of IL-1B+IL-6 Cause ER Stress and Dysfunction in Islets From Prediabetic Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christina M.; Lu, Christine; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Sharma, Poonam R.; Dula, Stacey B.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Ramadan, James W.; Xin, Wenjun; Lee, Jae K.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with obesity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B+IL-6 at low picogram per milliliter concentrations (consistent with serum levels) could directly trigger pancreatic islet dysfunction. Overnight exposure to IL-1B+IL-6 in islets isolated from normal mice and humans disrupted glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium responses; cytokine-induced effects were more severe among islets from prediabetic db/db mice that otherwise showed no signs of dysfunction. IL-1B+IL-6 exposure reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage, activated ER stress responses (Nos2, Bip, Atf4, and Ddit3 [CHOP]), impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased cell death only in islets from prediabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, we found increased serum levels of IL-1B and IL-6 in diabetes-prone mice at an age before hyperglycemia was exhibited, suggesting that low-grade systemic inflammation develops early in the disease process. In addition, we implanted normal outbred and inbred mice with subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps containing IL-1B+IL-6 to mimic the serum increases found in prediabetic db/db mice. Both IL-1B and IL-6 were elevated in serum from cytokine-pump mice, but glucose tolerance and blood glucose levels did not differ from controls. However, when compared with controls, isolated islets from cytokine-pump mice showed deficiencies in calcium handling and insulin secretion that were similar to observations with islets exposed to cytokines in vitro. These findings provide proof of principle that low-grade systemic inflammation is present early in the development of type 2 diabetes and can trigger ER stress-mediated islet dysfunction that can lead to islet failure. PMID:23836031

  2. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the behaviour, physiology and stress protein levels of desert locusts.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Shepherd, Sebastian; Sharkh, Suleiman; Jackson, Christopher W; Newland, Philip L

    2016-11-03

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology. Here we utilise the accessible nervous system of the locust to ask how exposure to high levels of ELF EMF impact at multiple levels. We show that exposure to ELF EMFs above 4 mT leads to reduced walking. Moreover, intracellular recordings from an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron, show increased spike latency and a broadening of its spike in exposed animals. In addition, hind leg kick force, produced by stimulating the extensor tibiae muscle, was reduced following exposure, while stress-protein levels (Hsp70) increased. Together these results suggest that ELF EMF exposure has the capacity to cause dramatic effects from behaviour to physiology and protein expression, and this study lays the foundation to explore the ecological significance of these effects in other flying insects.

  3. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the behaviour, physiology and stress protein levels of desert locusts

    PubMed Central

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Shepherd, Sebastian; Sharkh, Suleiman; Jackson, Christopher W.; Newland, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology. Here we utilise the accessible nervous system of the locust to ask how exposure to high levels of ELF EMF impact at multiple levels. We show that exposure to ELF EMFs above 4 mT leads to reduced walking. Moreover, intracellular recordings from an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron, show increased spike latency and a broadening of its spike in exposed animals. In addition, hind leg kick force, produced by stimulating the extensor tibiae muscle, was reduced following exposure, while stress-protein levels (Hsp70) increased. Together these results suggest that ELF EMF exposure has the capacity to cause dramatic effects from behaviour to physiology and protein expression, and this study lays the foundation to explore the ecological significance of these effects in other flying insects. PMID:27808167

  4. [The level of beta-endorphin, chronic stress, and depression associated with vestibular pathology].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaia, N L; Guseva, A L; Chistov, S D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence and the severity of manifestations of anxiety and depression in the patients presenting with vestibular dysfunction making use of the psychometric scales and taking into consideration variations in the plasma beta-endorphin level as a biochemical marker before and after medicamental and physical rehabilitative treatment. A total of 8 patients presenting with stage I-III Meniere's disease and 8 patients suffering from dyscirculatory encephalopathy concomitant with vestibular ataxic syndrome were available for the observation. We separately analysed the results of examination of two patients with vestibular neuronitis and two others presenting with vestibular migraine. It was shown that the degree of anxiety and depression correlated with the plasma beta-endorphin level whereas its correlation with the severity of vestibular oculomotor and vestibular motor disorders during the inter-bout periods was not documented. It was demonstrated that the plasma beta-endorphin level was many times higher than the normal value of 20 ng/l in the patients with the well apparent vegetative symptoms accompanied by dizziness and the patients suffering from vegetative migraine.

  5. Dependence of the atomic level Green-Kubo stress correlation function on wavevector and frequency: molecular dynamics results from a model liquid.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A

    2014-09-28

    We report on a further investigation of a new method that can be used to address vibrational dynamics and propagation of stress waves in liquids. The method is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the atomic level stress correlation functions. This decomposition, as was demonstrated previously for a model liquid studied in molecular dynamics simulations, reveals the presence of stress waves propagating over large distances and a structure that resembles the pair density function. In this paper, by performing the Fourier transforms of the atomic level stress correlation functions, we elucidate how the lifetimes of the stress waves and the ranges of their propagation depend on their frequency, wavevector, and temperature. These results relate frequency and wavevector dependence of the generalized viscosity to the character of propagation of the shear stress waves. In particular, the results suggest that an increase in the value of the frequency dependent viscosity at low frequencies with decrease of temperature is related to the increase in the ranges of propagation of the stress waves of the corresponding low frequencies. We found that the ranges of propagation of the shear stress waves of frequencies less than half of the Einstein frequency extend well beyond the nearest neighbor shell even above the melting temperature. The results also show that the crossover from quasilocalized to propagating behavior occurs at frequencies usually associated with the Boson peak.

  6. Determining the relationship of acute stress, anxiety, and salivary alpha-amylase level with performance of student nurse anesthetists during human-based anesthesia simulator training.

    PubMed

    McKay, Kelly A Chiffer; Buen, John E; Bohan, Kevin J; Maye, John P

    2010-08-01

    Managing stress for student nurse anesthetists represents a multifaceted educational concern for anesthesia educators. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between physiologic measures of stress and performance of student nurse anesthetists during anesthesia simulator training. Following institutional review board approval, 78 students were enrolled from a nurse anesthesia program. A prospective descriptive design was used to compare baseline, acute, and recovery measurements of stress with performance scores of students during an induction and intubation sequence in a patient simulator. Performance scores were stratified into low-, moderate-, and high-performing groups based on scores received from trained observers. A statistically significant difference in physiologic measures of stress was detected between baseline and acute levels of salivary a-amylase (P = .017), heart rate (P = .003), and anxiety levels (P = .001). No significant differences were found when measures of stress were compared with performance of low, moderate, or high performers. This investigation revealed remarkable findings regarding the relationship between stress and student performance. Analysis of the descriptive statistics and means of each group suggests that low performers have increased stress and perform poorly, whereas high performers have increased stress and perform superbly, and moderate performers have modest stress and perform moderately.

  7. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  8. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L.; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress. PMID:23533999

  9. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  10. Mind your thoughts: associations between self-generated thoughts and stress-induced and baseline levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Engert, Veronika; Smallwood, Jonathan; Singer, Tania

    2014-12-01

    Stress is a major health burden in today's society. Research shows that negative cognitive styles are associated with increased stress reactivity, low mood and accelerated cellular aging. Our study sought to unravel the relationship between the content of self-generated thoughts and psychosocial stress measured in terms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic activity. Features of self-generated thoughts were assessed using thought sampling while participants performed cognitive tasks following a stress induction or in a baseline condition. More negatively toned emotional thoughts and more social temporal thoughts with a past focus were associated with increased cortisol and alpha-amylase levels, both after stress and at baseline. More social temporal thoughts with a future focus, on the other hand, had an overall attenuating effect on the levels of both stress markers. Our results indicate a fundamental link between the thoughts and stress levels we experience. Understanding the mechanisms governing this mind-body association may have important implications for understanding and counteracting the high incidence of stress-related disorders in today's society.

  11. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Zhang, B. X.; Yao, K. Y.; Yoon, I.; Chung, Y. H.; Wang, J. K.; Liu, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  12. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Zhang, B X; Yao, K Y; Yoon, I; Chung, Y H; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  13. Chronic Stress Decreases Basal Levels of Memory-Related Signaling Molecules in Area CA1 of At-Risk (Subclinical) Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2015-08-01

    An important factor that may affect the severity and time of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is chronic stress. Epidemiological studies report that chronically stressed individuals are at an increased risk for developing AD. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether chronic psychosocial stress could hasten the appearance of AD symptoms including changes in basal levels of cognition-related signaling molecules in subjects who are at risk for the disease. We investigated the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of subclinical rat model of AD. The subclinical symptomless rat model of AD was induced by osmotic pump continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of 160 pmol/day Aβ1-42 for 14 days. Rats were chronically stressed using the psychosocial stress intruder model. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of important signaling molecules in hippo