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Sample records for actual test conditions

  1. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  2. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  3. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  6. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  7. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  8. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Planned and Actual Teacher Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers' perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools. Based on rich administrative data for North Carolina combined with a 2006 statewide survey administered to all teachers in the state, the study documents that working conditions are…

  11. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  12. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  13. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  14. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  15. Testing two temporal upscaling schemes for the estimation of the time variability of the actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.

    2015-10-01

    Temporal availability of grapes actual evapotranspiration is an emerging issue since vineyards farms are more and more converted from rainfed to irrigated agricultural systems. The manuscript aims to verify the accuracy of the actual evapotranspiration retrieval coupling a single source energy balance approach and two different temporal upscaling schemes. The first scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the main input variables, namely the NDVI, albedo and LST; the second scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the energy balance output, the actual evapotranspiration. The temporal upscaling schemes were implemented on: i) airborne remote sensing data acquired monthly during a whole irrigation season over a Sicilian vineyard; ii) low resolution MODIS products released daily or weekly; iii) meteorological data acquired by standard gauge stations. Daily MODIS LST products (MOD11A1) were disaggregated using the DisTrad model, 8-days black and white sky albedo products (MCD43A) allowed modeling the total albedo, and 8-days NDVI products (MOD13Q1) were modeled using the Fisher approach. Results were validated both in time and space. The temporal validation was carried out using the actual evapotranspiration measured in situ using data collected by a flux tower through the eddy covariance technique. The spatial validation involved airborne images acquired at different times from June to September 2008. Results aim to test whether the upscaling of the energy balance input or output data performed better.

  16. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara

    2012-06-01

    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  17. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  18. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  19. Do we know the actual magnetopause position for typical solar wind conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. A.; Gordeev, E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Å afránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Å imůnek, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tóth, G.; Merkin, V. G.; Raeder, J.

    2016-07-01

    We compare predicted magnetopause positions at the subsolar point and four reference points in the terminator plane obtained from several empirical and numerical MHD models. Empirical models using various sets of magnetopause crossings and making different assumptions about the magnetopause shape predict significantly different magnetopause positions (with a scatter >1 RE) even at the subsolar point. Axisymmetric magnetopause models cannot reproduce the cusp indentations or the changes related to the dipole tilt effect, and most of them predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than nonaxisymmetric models for typical solar wind conditions and zero tilt angle. Predictions of two global nonaxisymmetric models do not match each other, and the models need additional verification. MHD models often predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than the nonaxisymmetric empirical models, but the predictions of MHD simulations may need corrections for the ring current effect and decreases of the solar wind pressure that occur in the foreshock. Comparing MHD models in which the ring current magnetic field is taken into account with the empirical Lin et al. model, we find that the differences in the reference point positions predicted by these models are relatively small for Bz=0. Therefore, we assume that these predictions indicate the actual magnetopause position, but future investigations are still needed.

  20. The feasibility of external blind DNA proficiency testing. II. Experience with actual blind tests.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph L; Lin, George; Ho, Monica; Chen, Yingyu; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-01-01

    The background and goals of a national study to determine the feasibility of blind proficiency testing in U.S. forensic DNA laboratories are discussed. Part of the project involved designing and executing a series of fifteen blind proficiency tests. Execution included biological specimen donor recruitment and case evidence manufacturing. Simulated cases were submitted to DNA laboratories by law enforcement agencies and in some cases by other forensic-science laboratories. Replicate-manufactured evidence was submitted to reference laboratories to simulate the workings of a larger-scale program. Ten tests were straightforward, and essentially tested analytical ability. Five tests involved selecting on the basis of case facts appropriate bloodstains for typing from a bloodstain pattern. We describe in detail our experience in designing and conducting these blind proficiency test trials, and relate those experiences to the overall issue of blind proficiency testing as a quality-assurance tool in forensic DNA laboratories. In this feasibility test series, one blind test was detected by a laboratory, a second one was shown to the lab by law enforcement, and a third was never completed because of lapses in communication. Turnaround times were relatively fast in the independent/commercial labs and relatively slow in the larger public laboratories. Two cross-state case-to-case CODIS "hits" were "planted" among the first series of ten blind tests. One pair was detected. One member of the second pair went to a lab that was not CODIS-ready.

  1. Experimental investigation of panel radiator heat output enhancement for efficient thermal use under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisir, Tamer; Baskaya, Senol; Onur Yazar, Hakan; Yucedag, Sinan

    2015-05-01

    In this study the heat output of a panel-convector-convector-panel radiator (PCCP) under controlled laboratory conditions under Turkish household and especially Ankara conditions was investigated experimentally. In this sense, investigations were performed for different heating water mass flow rates, water inlet temperatures and radiator inlet and outlet connection positions, which are most commonly used in Turkey. An experimental setup was built for this purpose in a test room where temperature was controlled and held constant during the experiments. Inlet and outlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were measured and heat output of the radiator was calculated. Infrared thermal camera visualizations of the steel panel radiator front surface were also performed.

  2. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  3. Comparing Perceptions with Actual Reports of Close Friend's HIV Testing Behavior Among Urban Tanzanian Men.

    PubMed

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Men have lower rates of HIV testing and higher rates of AIDS-related mortality compared to women in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess whether there is an opportunity to increase men's uptake of testing by correcting misperceptions about testing norms, we compare men's perceptions of their closest friend's HIV testing behaviors with the friend's actual testing self-report using a unique dataset of men sampled within their social networks (n = 59) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the accuracy and bias of perceptions among men who have tested for HIV (n = 391) and compare them to the perceptions among men who never tested (n = 432). We found that testers and non-testers did not differ in the accuracy of their perceptions, though non-testers were strongly biased towards assuming that their closest friends had not tested. Our results lend support to social norms approaches designed to correct the biased misperceptions of non-testers to promote men's HIV testing.

  4. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  5. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  6. The effect of actual and imaginary handgrip on postural stability during different balance conditions.

    PubMed

    VanderHill, M S; Wolf, E E; Langenderfer, J E; Ustinova, K I

    2014-09-01

    The stabilizing effect of holding an object on upright posture has been demonstrated in a variety of settings. The mechanism of this effect is unknown but could be attributed to either additional sensorimotor activity triggered by a hand contact or cognitive efforts related to performance of a supra-postural task. A potential mechanism was investigated by comparing postural stability in young healthy individuals while gripping a custom instrumented wooden stick with a 5N force and while imagining holding the same stick in the hand. Twenty subjects were tested during three standing balance conditions: on a stationary surface, on a freely moving rockerboard, and with an unexpected perturbation of 10° forward rockerboard tipping. Postural stability was evaluated as velocity of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) compared across all experimental conditions. COM and COP velocities were equally reduced when subjects gripped the stick and imagined gripping while standing stationary and on the rockerboard. When perturbed, subjects failed to show any postural stability improvements regardless of handgrip task. Results indicate a stabilizing effect of focusing attention on motor task performance. This cognitive strategy does not appear to contribute any additional stabilization when subjects are perturbed. This study adds to the current understanding of postural stabilization strategies.

  7. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  8. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  9. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  10. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  11. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  12. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  13. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41... PM10 § 53.41 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of all test samplers shall be in strict... shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  14. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41... PM10 § 53.41 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of all test samplers shall be in strict... shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  15. Impact of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and changing under actual highway conditions.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Donmez, Birsen; Lavallière, Martin; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F; Teasdale, Normand

    2013-03-01

    Previous research suggests that drivers change lanes less frequently during periods of heightened cognitive load. However, lane changing behavior of different age groups under varying levels of cognitive demand is not well understood. The majority of studies which have evaluated lane changing behavior under cognitive workload have been conducted in driving simulators. Consequently, it is unclear if the patterns observed in these simulation studies carry over to actual driving. This paper evaluates data from an on-road study to determine the effects of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and lane changing behavior. Three age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69) were monitored in an instrumented vehicle. The 40's age group had 147% higher odds of exhibiting a lane change than the 60's group. In addition, drivers in their 60's were less likely to drive on the leftmost lane compared to drivers in their 20's and 40's. These results could be interpreted as evidence that older adults adopt a more conservative driving style as reflected in being less likely to choose the leftmost lane than the younger groups and less likely to change lanes than drivers in their 40's. Regardless of demand level, cognitive workload reduced the frequency of lane changes for all age groups. This suggests that in general drivers of all ages attempt to regulate their behavior in a risk reducing direction when under added cognitive demand. The extent to which such self-regulation fully compensates for the impact of added cognitive demand remains an open question.

  16. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  17. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-01-01

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation. PMID:28367963

  18. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 91.311 Section 91.311... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test engine throughout the...

  19. Modeling and testing of fractionation effects with refrigerant blends in an actual residential heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Biancardi, F.R.; Pandy, D.R.; Sienel, T.H.; Michels, H.H.

    1997-12-31

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry is actively evaluating and testing hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant blends as a means of complying with current and impending national and international environmental regulations restricting the use and disposal of conventional chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants that contribute to the global ozone-depletion effects. While analyses and system performance tools have shown that HFC refrigerant blends offer certain performance, capacity, and operational advantages, there are significant possible service and operational issues that are raised by the use of blends. Many of these issues occur due to the fractionation of the blends. Therefore, the objective of this program was to conduct analyses and experimental tests aimed at understanding these issues, develop approaches or techniques to predict these effects, and convey to the industry safe and reliable approaches. As a result, analytical models verified by laboratory data have been developed that predict the fractionation effects of HFC refrigerant blends (1) when exposed to selected POE lubricants, (2) during the system charging process from large liquid containers, and (3) during system start-up, operation, and shutdown within various system components (where two-phase refrigerant exists) and during selected system and component leakage scenarios. Model predictions and experimental results are presented for HFC refrigerant blends containing R-32, R-134a, and R-125 and the data are generalized for various operating conditions and scenarios.

  20. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.61 Section 53.61... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.61 Test conditions. (a) Sampler surface preparation. Internal surfaces of the candidate sampler shall be cleaned and dried prior to performing any Class II sampler test in...

  1. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...

  2. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 90.311 Section 90.311... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by...

  3. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...

  4. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 90.311 Section 90.311... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by...

  5. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.61 Section 53.61... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.61 Test conditions. (a) Sampler surface preparation. Internal surfaces of the candidate sampler shall be cleaned and dried prior to performing any Class II sampler test in...

  6. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  7. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  8. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  9. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  10. Advanced liquid Oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasting, J. H.; Perry, G. L. E.; Mehta, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing was performed on the promising L02 propellant conditioning concept of passive recirculation (no-bleed). Data from the project is being used to further anchor models in L02 conditioning behavior and broaden the data base of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning. Data base expansion includes results from testing the limits of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning with various configuration changes to the test facility and designed test article. Configuration changes include low velocity effects in the recirculation loop above the test article, test article internal constriction impacts, test article out-of-plane effects, impact from an actual Titan L02 pump attachment, feed duct slope effects, and up-leg booster effects. LN2 was used as the test fluid. The testing was conducted between July 1994 and January 1995 at the west test area of Marshall Space Flight Center. Data have shown that in most cases passive recirculation was demonstrated when the aforementioned limits were applied.

  11. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  12. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  13. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  14. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  15. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  16. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  17. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  18. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  19. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41... PM10 § 53.41 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of all test samplers shall be in strict... inlet are collected is a dry surface (i.e., not normally coated with oil or grease), those...

  20. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41... PM 10 § 53.41 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of all test samplers shall be in strict... inlet are collected is a dry surface (i.e., not normally coated with oil or grease), those...

  1. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  2. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  3. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  4. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  5. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  6. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M. ); Gao, Johnway ); Delegard, Calvin H. ); Bagaasen, Larry M. ); Wells, Beric E. )

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  7. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  8. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Nicewander, W Alan

    2017-04-06

    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Vapor-alcohol control tests with compressed ethanol-gas mixtures: scientific basis and actual performance.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1996-10-01

    Commercial compressed vapor-alcohol mixtures ("dry gas") were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for control tests in breath-alcohol analysis. Dry gas control tests were conducted at nominal vapor-alcohol concentrations (VACs) of 0.045, 0.085, and 0.105 g/210 L (n = 50 at each VAC) with Alcotest 7110 MK III and Intoxilyzer 1400 evidential breath-alcohol testers. The measurement results were analyzed by standard statistical methods, and their correlation with certified dry gas VAC target values was examined. Also measured and examined statistically were the VACs of National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable Research Gas mixtures (dry gas) ethanol standards at 97.8 and 198 ppm (n = 30-50 at each VAC). With the Alcotest 7110 MK III programmed to report VACs normalized to standard atmospheric pressure at 760 torr and the intoxilyzer 1400 programmed to report VACs at ambient atmospheric pressure, the predicted effects of ambient atmospheric pressure were confirmed experimentally. We developed and validated the following conversion factor for VAC units at 34 degrees C and 760 torr: ppm/2605 = g/210 L and g/210 L x 2605 = ppm. We found that the dry gas vapor-alcohol control samples conformed to established formal specifications and concluded that they compared favorably with simulator effluents for control tests of breath-alcohol analyzers, which are capable of adjusting VAC results for ambient atmospheric pressure.

  10. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  11. An Actual Design of AC Filter for Static Var Compensator and Verification Results from the Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Yuji; Takasaki, Shinji; Irokawa, Shoichi; Takeda, Hideo; Takagi, Kikuo; Noro, Yasuhiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    AC filter design method for SVC and HVDC is commonly known in the relevant CIGRE technical brochure and IEC technical report. However the conventional method requires many iterative calculations of the harmonic voltages and currents until the calculation results become within the regulation levels by changing filter parameters based on the experience. In this respect, a new improved design method is proposed, which enables efficient evaluation on the complex impedance plane to confirm as to whether the proposed filter impedance is in the permissible range. In an actual project of Okuura SVC of Kyusyu Electric Power Co., Inc., the new method was applied to the AC filter design. This paper describes on the actual procedure of the AC filter design with the new method, the actual references of the harmonic performance calculation, and the field test measurement results on Okuura SVC. The calculation results and the filed measurement results are consistent with each other, thus the validity of the new design method is verified on its accuracy and effectiveness.

  12. Development of an Evaluation System for Vertical Vibration of Railway Vehicles with Field-Portable Actuators (2nd Report, Excitation Tests of an Actual Commuter Vehicle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigami, Tadao; Tomioka, Takahiro

    Bending vibration characteristics of railway vehicles have been investigated in general under excitation tests, in which a carbody was directly excited by a shaker. It is however very difficult with their results to evaluate the ride quality of passengers under conditions that the vehicle runs on a certain track. The authors are therefore developing an evaluation system for vertical vibration of railway vehicles. This system consists of an excitation system equipped with linear actuators, the elastic supporting device installed between wheels and rails, and analytical techniques to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) and the ride quality level (LT) which feature the ride quality. In this paper, we describe the excitation tests performed using an actual commuter car and the estimated PSD and LT are compared with what substantially measured under the running conditions.

  13. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  14. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.; Hay, Michael S.

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  15. Actual or potential neighborhood resources and access to them: testing hypotheses of social capital for the health of female caregivers.

    PubMed

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2008-08-01

    This study considers three commonly overlooked aspects of neighborhood social capital: actual or potential network resources, access to such resources, and their potentially negative implications, as they bear on the health of adult female caregivers of children. Drawing upon Bourdieu's social capital theory and urban and community sociology research, two sets of related hypotheses are formulated and tested. The first set examines specific resources that inhere within neighborhood social relations by testing hypotheses concerning four forms of social capital (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and their respective associations with daily smoking and perceived health. The second set assesses the importance of one's access to the neighborhood networks that possess such resources by testing hypotheses regarding how residents' neighborhood attachment moderates the association between social capital forms and these health outcomes in positive and negative ways. Analyses of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) linked with tract level census data indicate that specific social capital forms were directly associated with positive and negative health outcomes. Neighborhood attachment significantly moderated relationships between several social capital forms and health, indicating that a female caregiver's degree of network integration matters in both health promoting and health damaging ways. In addition to illustrating the utility of a Bourdieusian perspective for formulating explicit, testable hypotheses regarding how social capital may matter for health, these findings suggest that future public health studies of neighborhood social capital need to consider (1) the actual or potential resources that inhere within relationships, and (2) the role of access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  16. Testing for conditional multiple marginal independence.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Christopher R; Loughin, Thomas M

    2002-03-01

    Survey respondents are often prompted to pick any number of responses from a set of possible responses. Categorical variables that summarize this kind of data are called pick any/c variables. Counts from surveys that contain a pick any/c variable along with a group variable (r levels) and stratification variable (q levels) can be marginally summarized into an r x c x q contingency table. A question that may naturally arise from this setup is to determine if the group and pick any/c variable are marginally independent given the stratification variable. A test for conditional multiple marginal independence (CMMI) can be used to answer this question. Since subjects may pick any number out of c possible responses, the Cochran (1954, Biometrics 10, 417-451) and Mantel and Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748) tests cannot be used directly because they assume that units in the contingency table are independent of each other. Therefore, new testing methods are developed. Cochran's test statistic is extended to r x 2 x q tables, and a modified version of this statistic is proposed to test CMMI. Its sampling distribution can be approximated through bootstrapping. Other CMMI testing methods discussed are bootstrap p-value combination methods and Bonferroni adjustments. Simulation findings suggest that the proposed bootstrap procedures and the Bonferroni adjustments consistently hold the correct size and provide power against various alternatives.

  17. Double-blind photo lineups using actual eyewitnesses: an experimental test of a sequential versus simultaneous lineup procedure.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Steblay, Nancy K; Dysart, Jennifer E

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitnesses (494) to actual crimes in 4 police jurisdictions were randomly assigned to view simultaneous or sequential photo lineups using laptop computers and double-blind administration. The sequential procedure used in the field experiment mimicked how it is conducted in actual practice (e.g., using a continuation rule, witness does not know how many photos are to be viewed, witnesses resolve any multiple identifications), which is not how most lab experiments have tested the sequential lineup. No significant differences emerged in rates of identifying lineup suspects (25% overall) but the sequential procedure produced a significantly lower rate (11%) of identifying known-innocent lineup fillers than did the simultaneous procedure (18%). The simultaneous/sequential pattern did not significantly interact with estimator variables and no lineup-position effects were observed for either the simultaneous or sequential procedures. Rates of nonidentification were not significantly different for simultaneous and sequential but nonidentifiers from the sequential procedure were more likely to use the "not sure" response option than were nonidentifiers from the simultaneous procedure. Among witnesses who made an identification, 36% (41% of simultaneous and 32% of sequential) identified a known-innocent filler rather than a suspect, indicating that eyewitness performance overall was very poor. The results suggest that the sequential procedure that is used in the field reduces the identification of known-innocent fillers, but the differences are relatively small.

  18. Conditional statistical inference with multistage testing designs.

    PubMed

    Zwitser, Robert J; Maris, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how statistical inference from multistage test designs can be made based on the conditional likelihood. Special attention is given to parameter estimation, as well as the evaluation of model fit. Two reasons are provided why the fit of simple measurement models is expected to be better in adaptive designs, compared to linear designs: more parameters are available for the same number of observations; and undesirable response behavior, like slipping and guessing, might be avoided owing to a better match between item difficulty and examinee proficiency. The results are illustrated with simulated data, as well as with real data.

  19. The Negated Conditional: A Litmus Test for the Suppositional Conditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Simon J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the suppositional account of conditionals, when people think about a conditional assertion, "if p then q," they engage in a mental simulation in which they imagine p holds and evaluate the probability that q holds under this supposition. One implication of this account is that belief in a conditional equates to conditional probability…

  20. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  1. Which Is More Useful in Predicting Hospital Mortality -Dichotomised Blood Test Results or Actual Test Values? A Retrospective Study in Two Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary; Nangalia, Vishal; Prytherch, David; Holder, Roger; Briggs, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine blood tests are an integral part of clinical medicine and in interpreting blood test results clinicians have two broad options. (1) Dichotomise the blood tests into normal/abnormal or (2) use the actual values and overlook the reference values. We refer to these as the “binary” and the “non-binary” strategy respectively. We investigate which strategy is better at predicting the risk of death in hospital based on seven routinely undertaken blood tests (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, and white blood cell count) using tree models to implement the two strategies. Methodology A retrospective database study of emergency admissions to an acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010, involving 10,050 emergency admissions with routine blood tests undertaken within 24 hours of admission. We compared the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for predicting in-hospital mortality using the binary and non-binary strategy. Results The mortality rate was 6.98% (701/10050). The mean predicted risk of death in those who died was significantly (p-value <0.0001) lower using the binary strategy (risk = 0.181 95%CI: 0.193 to 0.210) versus the non-binary strategy (risk = 0.222 95%CI: 0.194 to 0.251), representing a risk difference of 28.74 deaths in the deceased patients (n = 701). The binary strategy had a significantly (p-value <0.0001) lower area under the ROC curve of 0.832 (95% CI: 0.819 to 0.845) versus the non-binary strategy (0.853 95% CI: 0.840 to 0.867). Similar results were obtained using data from another hospital. Conclusions Dichotomising routine blood test results is less accurate in predicting in-hospital mortality than using actual test values because it underestimates the risk of death in patients who died. Further research into the use of actual blood test values in clinical decision making is required especially as the infrastructure to implement this potentially promising

  2. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and U), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 203}Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, {sup 125}I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by {sup 99}Tc, {sup 75}Se, and finally U, {sup 14}C, and {sup 110m}Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  4. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... presented to the analyzer for measurement (horizontal or x-axis). If applicable, a plot of base analog... before beginning the tests. The test procedures assume that the test analyzer has a conventional analog... percent. If the test analyzer does not have an analog signal output, or if a digital or other type...

  5. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  9. The framing effect with rectangular and trapezoidal surfaces: actual and pictorial surface slant, frame orientation, and viewing condition.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt-Rutland, A H

    1999-01-01

    The perceived slant of a surface relative to the frontal plane can be reduced when the surface is viewed through a frame between the observer and the surface. Aspects of this framing effect were investigated in three experiments in which observers judged the orientations-in-depth of rectangular and trapezoidal surfaces which were matched for pictorial depth. In experiments 1 and 2, viewing was stationary-monocular. In experiment 1, a frontal rectangular frame was present or absent during viewing. The perceived slants of the surfaces were reduced in the presence of the frame; the reduction for the trapezoidal surface was greater, suggesting that conflict in stimulus information contributes to the phenomenon. In experiment 2, the rectangular frame was either frontal or slanted; in a third condition, a frame was trapezoidal and frontal. The conditions all elicited similar results, suggesting that the framing effect is not explained by pictorial perception of the display, or by assimilation of the surface orientation to the frame orientation. In experiment 3, viewing was moving-monocular to introduce motion parallax; the framing effect was reduced, being appreciable only for a trapezoidal surface. The results are related to other phenomena in which depth perception of points in space tends towards a frontal plane; this frontal-plane tendency is attributed to heavy experimental demands, mainly concerning impoverished, conflicting, and distracting information.

  10. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  11. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  12. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  13. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  14. Partial discharge testing under direct voltage conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.; Westrom, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    DC partial discharge (PD) (corona) testing is performed using a multichannel analyzer for pulse storing, and data is collected during increase of voltage and at quiescent voltage levels. Thus high voltage ceramic disk capacitors were evaluated by obtaining PD data interspersed during an accelerated life test. Increased PD activity was found early in samples that later failed catastrophically. By this technique, trends of insulation behavior are revealed sensitively and nondestructively in high voltage dc components.

  15. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... complexity testing; testing personnel. 493.1421 Section 493.1421 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1421 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel....

  16. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... complexity testing; testing personnel. 493.1421 Section 493.1421 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1421 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel....

  17. Digital signal conditioning for flight test instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn A.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  18. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance test conditions. 572.78 Section 572.78... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.78 Performance test conditions. (a) Conduct performance tests at any temperature from 66 °F to 78 °F, and at...

  19. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... either of reading measurements at least 5 percent below zero or of offsetting the zero by at least 5..., adjust either the controls of the test analyzer or the chart or data recorder to obtain a +5% offset zero... readings or other measurement output readings (vertical or y-axis) against pollutant...

  20. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... either of reading measurements at least 5 percent below zero or of offsetting the zero by at least 5..., adjust either the controls of the test analyzer or the chart or data recorder to obtain a +5% offset zero... readings or other measurement output readings (vertical or y-axis) against pollutant...

  1. Arcjet component conditions through a multistart test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Haag, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A low power, dc arcjet thruster was tested for starting reliability using hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. More than 300 starts were accumulated in phases with extended burn-in periods interlaced. A high degree of flow stabilization was built into the arcjet and the power supply incorporated both rapid current regulation and a high voltage, pulsed starting circuit. A nominal current level of 10 A was maintained throughout the test. Photomicrographs of the cathode tip showed a rapid recession to a steady-state operating geometry. A target of 300 starts was selected, as this represents significantly more than anticipated (150 to 240), in missions of 10 yr or less duration. Weighings showed no apparent mass loss. Some anode erosion was observed, particularly at the entrance to the constrictor. This was attributed to the brief period during startup the arc mode attachment point spends in the high pressure region upstream of the nozzle. Based on the results obtained, startup does not appear to be performance or life limiting for the number of starts typical of operational satellite applications.

  2. 49 CFR 572.21 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.21 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a)(1) The test probe used for head and... sheeting with a smoothness of 40 microinches and whose length and width dimensions are not less than...

  3. 49 CFR 572.21 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.21 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a)(1) The test probe used for head and... sheeting with a smoothness of 40 microinches and whose length and width dimensions are not less than...

  4. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.116 Instrumentation and test conditions. (a) The test probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  5. Review of actual proficiency-testing performance under CLIA '67 (March 14, 1990) rules: perspective from the first year's data.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, B J; Burmeister, B J; Ehrmeyer, S S; Laessig, R H; Hassemer, D J

    1992-07-01

    Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1967 the Health Care Financing Administration's proficiency-testing requirement applies to approximately 12,000 hospital, reference, and large-clinic laboratories in the United States. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene is approved by the Health Care Financing Administration to provide proficiency testing in all specialties and subspecialties. The focus of the program is to provide highly specialized service and support to a limited number of participants in order to assess intralaboratory performance correctly. We report the findings over the four proficiency-testing events in 1991 for the subspecialty of routine chemistry, which serves approximately 470 participants. Failure rates for individual analytes on single proficiency testing events ranged from 0% to 13%. After four events or one year, if the mandated evaluation criteria and failure rules were strictly applied, as many as 11% of the laboratories could have found themselves involuntarily suspended from offering all routine chemistry testing.

  6. On the Accuracy of Flechettes by Dynamic Wind Tunnel Tests, by Theory and Analysis, and by Actual Firings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The findings in this report are not to be...The accuracy and dispersion of flechettes are investigated 1) by an exploratory firing program, 2) by a supersonic dynamic testing wind tunnel program...Firing Program are summarized in Appendix A. A dynamic wind tunnel testing program was also carried out by the university on various flechette designs

  7. Appropriate Mechanochemical Conditions for Corrosion-Fatigue Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Singh Raman, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess great potential as bioimplants. A temporary implant employed as support for the repair of a fractured bone must possess sufficient strength to maintain their mechanical integrity for the required duration of healing. However, Mg alloys are susceptible to sudden cracking or fracture under the simultaneous action of cyclic loading and the corrosive physiological environment, i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF). Investigations of such fracture should be performed under appropriate mechanochemical conditions that appropriately simulate the actual human body conditions. This article reviews the existing knowledge on CF of Mg alloys in simulated body fluid and describes a relatively more accurate testing procedure developed in the authors' laboratory.

  8. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  9. Liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Gretchen L. E.; Orth, Michael S.; Mehta, Gopal K.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of a simplified LO2 propellant conditioning concept for future expendable launch vehicles is discussed. Four different concepts are being investigated: no-bleed, low-bleed, use of a recirculation line, and He bubbling. A full-scale test article, which is a facsimile of a propellant feed duct with an attached section to simulate heat input from an LO2 turbopump, is to be tested at the Cold Flow Facility of the Marshall Space Flight Center West Test Area. Work to date includes: design and fabrication of the test article, design of the test facility and initial fabrication, development of a test matrix and test procedures, initial predictions of test output, and heat leak calibration and heat exchanger tests on the test articles.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; testing personnel. 493.1487 Section 493.1487 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. The laboratory has...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; testing personnel. 493.1487 Section 493.1487 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. The laboratory has...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; testing personnel. 493.1487 Section 493.1487 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. The laboratory has...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; testing personnel. 493.1487 Section 493.1487 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1487 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. The laboratory has...

  14. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P < 0.001). Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  15. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  16. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  17. Effects of Testing Conditions on Self-Concept Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Theodore A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Many self-concept measures employ several different scales to which the subject responds in a set order at one sitting. This study examined effects of different testing conditions. The Index of Adjustment and Values (IAV) was administered to 191 graduate students under two different sequences and two time delay conditions. Results indicate…

  18. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  19. The first actual record of deep open-ocean conditions in the Ediacaran: Fe speciation in pelagic deep-sea sediments in accretionary complexes in Wales, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Asanuma, H.; Okada, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Shozugawa, K.; Matsuo, M.; Windley, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The first oxidation of a deep ocean in Earth history is considered to have occurred in the Neoproterozoic, coincident with the metazoan diversification; however, the Neoproterozoic geological record has so far been limited to only continental shelves, slopes, or basins at the deepest. Here, we document Neoproterozoic pelagic deep-sea sediments in reconstructed oceanic plate stratigraphy (OPS) in accretionary complexes (ACs) in Anglesey and Lleyn, Wales, UK. The OPS mostly consists of mid-ocean ridge basalts, pelagic red-bedded cherts, hemipelagic siliceous mudstones and turbidite sandstones, in ascending order. Only at Porth Felen in Lleyn Peninsula does the OPS contain black mudstones (ca. 10 m-thick) instead of pelagic red-bedded cherts. Based on the tectonic reconstruction of these ACs, the OPS at Porth Felen has the oldest depositional age. Our new U-Pb date of detrital zircons separated from the turbidite sandstones at Porth Felen has the youngest age of 580±13 Ma. These results suggest that the black mudstones at Porth Felen were deposited no later than the early Ediacaran. We have analyzed these black mudstones by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and found that about a quarter of their iron content is contained in pyrite, while the other components are paramagnetic Fe2+ or occasionally paramagnetic Fe3+ in clay minerals. The red cherts in the younger OPS contain hematite as the main iron mineral, paramagnetic Fe3+, and paramagnetic Fe2+. The occurrence of hematite in a deep-sea chert essentially indicates a primary oxidizing depositional condition, whereas pyrite is indicative of a reducing environment. The present data confirm that a reducing deep-sea existed in the early Ediacaran during the black mudstone deposition, and that an oxidizing deep-sea had been established by the late Ediacaran. In conclusion, our results provide the first direct evidence of an actual deep open-ocean in the Ediacaran to clarify the timing and extent of the Neoproterozoic

  20. Effects of boundary conditions and partial drainage on cyclic simple shear test results - a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Popescu, Radu; Prevost, Jean H.

    2004-08-01

    Owing to imperfect boundary conditions in laboratory soil tests and the possibility of water diffusion inside the soil specimen in undrained tests, the assumption of uniform stress/strain over the sample is not valid. This study presents a qualitative assessment of the effects of non-uniformities in stresses and strains, as well as effects of water diffusion within the soil sample on the global results of undrained cyclic simple shear tests. The possible implications of those phenomena on the results of liquefaction strength assessment are also discussed. A state-of-the-art finite element code for transient analysis of multi-phase systems is used to compare results of the so-called element tests (numerical constitutive experiments assuming uniform stress/strain/pore pressure distribution throughout the sample) with results of actual simulations of undrained cyclic simple shear tests using a finite element mesh and realistic boundary conditions. The finite element simulations are performed under various conditions, covering the entire range of practical situations: (1) perfectly drained soil specimen with constant volume, (2) perfectly undrained specimen, and (3) undrained test with possibility of water diffusion within the sample. The results presented here are restricted to strain-driven tests performed for a loose uniform fine sand with relative density Dr=40%. Effects of system compliance in undrained laboratory simple shear tests are not investigated here. Copyright

  1. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions. (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is... thoracic rib conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75..., shoulder, thorax without arm, and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5)...

  2. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions. (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is... thoracic rib conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75..., shoulder, thorax without arm, and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5)...

  3. Advanced liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Suter, J. D.; Turner, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced methods of liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning were studied as part of an effort for increasing reliability and operability while reducing cost of future heavy lift launch vehicles. The most promising conditioning concept evaluated was no-bleed (passive recirculation) followed by low-bleed, helium injection, and use of a recirculation line. Full-scale cryogenic testing was performed with a sloped feedline test article to validate models of behavior of LO2 in the feedline and to prove no-bleed feasibility. Test data are also intended to help generate design guidelines for the development of a main propulsion system feed duct. A design-of-experiments matrix of over 100 tests was developed to test all four propellant conditioning concepts and the impact of design parameters on the concepts. Liquid nitrogen was used as the test fluid. The work for this project was conducted from October 1992 through January 1994 at the hydrogen cold flow facility of the west test area of MSFC. Test data have shown that satisfactory temperatures are being obtained for the no-bleed conditioning concept.

  4. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  5. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  6. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  7. The B.A.R. Demonstration Project: A Comparative Evaluation Trial of Computer-Based, Multimedia Simulation Testing and "Hands-on," Actual Equipment Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Thomas G.

    A general evaluation design was developed to examine the effectiveness of a computer-based, multimedia simulation test on California smog check mechanics. The simulation test operated on an Apple Macintosh IIci, with a single touchscreen color monitor controlling a videodisc player; it had three parts: introduction-tutorial-help, data, and test.…

  8. Burst test of a vessel under wet sour gas conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarz, K.E.; Bowker, J.; Orr, R.

    1997-09-01

    A sour burst test of a pressure vessel is described and the results given. The vessel was inspected for existing defects, material properties tested, integrity analyzed and artificial defects introduced before the vessel was subjected to a worst-case environment causing hydrogen charging. The vessel had existing hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and some vertical weld defects. Laboratory materials testing in the hydrogen-charging environment showed the vessel was susceptible to HIC damage, showed no yield strength reduction, reduced plastic ductility in rising load but exhibited a brittleness under high plastic strain. No existing or artificial defect initialed the final burst. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) initiated at a weld produced with temper-bead capping passes but no post weld heat treatment. The vessel survived to 1.2 times actual yield or more than four times its license pressure but the vessel did exhibit a decrease in plastic ductility. Monitoring during the burst test showed that the vessel had been significantly charged with hydrogen.

  9. Ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite materials using disturbed coincidence conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bause, F.; Olfert, S.; Schröder, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Henning, B.; Moritzer, E.

    2012-05-01

    In this contribution we present a new method detecting changes in the composite material's acoustic behavior by analyzing disturbed coincidence conditions on plate-like test samples. The coincidence condition for an undamaged GFRP test sample has been experimentally identified using Schlieren measurements. Disturbances of this condition follow from a disturbed acoustic behavior of the test sample which is an indicator for local damages in the region inspected. An experimental probe has been realized consisting of two piezoceramic elements adhered to the nonparallel sides of an isosceles trapezoidal body made of silicone. The base angles of the trapezoidal body have been chosen such that the incident wave meets pre-measured condition of coincidence. The receiving element receives the geometric reflection of the acoustic wave scattered at the test sample's surface which corresponds to the non-coupled part of the incident wave as send by the sending element. Analyzing the transfer function or impulse response of the electro-acoustic system (transmitter, scattering at test sample, receiver), it is possible to detect local disturbances with respect to Cramer's coincidence rule. Thus, it is possible to realize a very simple probe for local ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite materials (as well as non-composite material) which can be integrated in a small practical device and is good for small size inspection areas.

  10. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  11. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  12. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  13. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  14. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  15. Liquid Oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Gretchen L. E.; Orth, Michael S.; Mehta, Gopal K.

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and industry contractors have undertaken activities to develop a simplified liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept for future expendable launch vehicles. The objective of these activities is to reduce operations costs and timelines and to improve safety of these vehicles. The approach followed has been to identify novel concepts through system level studies and demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts through small-scale and full-scale testing. Testing will also provide data for design guidelines and validation of analytical models. Four different concepts are being investigated: no-bleed, low-bleed, use of a recirculation line, and helium (He) bubbling. This investigation is being done under a Joint Institutional Research and Development (JIRAD) program currently in effect between MSFC and General Dynamics Space Systems (GDSS). A full-scale test article, which is a facsimile of a propellant feed duct with an attached section to simulate heat input from a LO2 turbopump, will be tested at the Cold Flow Facility at MSFC's West Test Area. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), which has similar properties to LO2, will be used in place of LO2 for safety and budget reasons. Work to date includes design and fabrication of the test article, design of the test facility and initial fabrication, development of a test matrix and test procedures, initial predictions of test output, and heat leak calibration and heat exchanger tests on the test article. The tests for all propellant conditioning concepts will be conducted in the summer of 1993, with the final report completed by October, 1993.

  16. Test facility for solar-cell reference conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    A test facility, intended primarily for long-term monitoring of the global insolation and its components and the concurrent solar cell performance under a wide variety of measureable atmospheric and weather conditions, is described. Instruments for the measurement of insolation, cell performance, turbidity, water vapor, and cloud cover are described. Preliminary evaluation of the hourly data base generated over a two-month period for a range of sky conditions from clear to overcast is presented.

  17. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  18. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  19. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  20. Solar collector test procedures: Development of a method to refer measured efficiencies to standardized test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. C.

    1984-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for referring collector efficiency measurements, obtained under different test conditions, to a common, or standard set of conditions. The procedure applies to flatplate liquid-type collectors of conventional tube-in-sheet design. The basic Hottel-Whillier-Bliss theory is used with appropriate extensions to account for serpentine flow configurations and glazing materials with high infrared transmittance. The procedure includes a systematic method for deriving two invariant collector parameters directly from ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test results. The two parameters selected are the plate absorptance and back loss coefficient. A set of standard conditions is recommended which corresponds to favorable test conditions.

  1. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.3 Standard test conditions. For purposes of... equipment shall be 60 Hz and 50 Hz for equipment made for foreign sale or use; (c) The amplifier shall be... sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 1,000 Hz; provided, however, that for amplifiers utilized as a component...

  2. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.3 Standard test conditions. For purposes of... equipment shall be 60 Hz and 50 Hz for equipment made for foreign sale or use; (c) The amplifier shall be... sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 1,000 Hz; provided, however, that for amplifiers utilized as a component...

  3. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.3 Standard test conditions. For purposes of... equipment shall be 60 Hz and 50 Hz for equipment made for foreign sale or use; (c) The amplifier shall be... sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 1,000 Hz; provided, however, that for amplifiers utilized as a component...

  4. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.3 Standard test conditions. For purposes of... equipment shall be 60 Hz and 50 Hz for equipment made for foreign sale or use; (c) The amplifier shall be... sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 1,000 Hz; provided, however, that for amplifiers utilized as a component...

  5. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.3 Standard test conditions. For purposes of... equipment shall be 60 Hz and 50 Hz for equipment made for foreign sale or use; (c) The amplifier shall be... sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 1,000 Hz; provided, however, that for amplifiers utilized as a component...

  6. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... physiological effects of alcohol and the major drug groups on the controlled substances list. The program must... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.11 General conditions... sustained a personal injury and is subject to alcohol or drug testing under this part, necessary...

  7. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... physiological effects of alcohol and the major drug groups on the controlled substances list. The program must... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.11 General conditions... sustained a personal injury and is subject to alcohol or drug testing under this part, necessary...

  8. Recommendations on practice of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) testing.

    PubMed

    Yarnitsky, D; Bouhassira, D; Drewes, A M; Fillingim, R B; Granot, M; Hansson, P; Landau, R; Marchand, S; Matre, D; Nilsen, K B; Stubhaug, A; Treede, R D; Wilder-Smith, O H G

    2015-07-01

    Protocols for testing conditioned pain modulation (CPM) vary between different labs/clinics. In order to promote research and clinical application of this tool, we summarize the recommendations of interested researchers consensus meeting regarding the practice of CPM and report of its results.

  9. Conditional Covariance-based Representation of Multidimensional Test Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new nonparametric method for constructing a spatial representation of multidimensional test structure, the Conditional Covariance-based SCALing (CCSCAL) method. Describes an index to measure the accuracy of the representation. Uses simulation and real-life data analyses to show that the method provides a suitable approximation to…

  10. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  11. The Impact of Personality and Test Conditions on Mathematical Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heather; Embretson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Online and on-demand tests are increasingly used in assessment. Although the main focus has been cheating and test security (e.g., Selwyn, 2008) the cross-setting equivalence of scores as a function of contrasting test conditions is also an issue that warrants attention. In this study, the impact of environmental and cognitive distractions, as…

  12. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  13. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  14. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  15. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  16. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  17. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN.

  18. Collaborative Evaluation of Optimal Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Conditions for Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Torres, Belkys; Cabañes, Francisco J.; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J.; Esteban, Alexandre; Inza, Isabel; Abarca, Lourdes; Guarro, Josep

    2002-01-01

    A multicenter study was conducted to define the most suitable testing conditions for antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. Broth microdilution MICs of clotrimazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine were determined in three centers against 60 strains of dermatophytes. The effects of inoculum density (ca. 103 and 104 CFU/ml), incubation time (3, 7, and 14 days), endpoint criteria for MIC determination (complete [MIC-0] and prominent [MIC-2] growth inhibition), and incubation temperature (28 and 37°C) on intra- and interlaboratory agreement were analyzed. The optimal testing conditions identified were an inoculum of 104 CFU/ml, a temperature of incubation of 28°C, an incubation period of 7 days, and MIC-0. PMID:12409365

  19. Modeling of thermomechanical conditions in Sigmajig weldability test

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Z.; Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.

    1995-08-01

    A finite element model has been developed to evaluate quantitatively the thermomechanical conditions for weld metal solidification cracking of a nickel based superalloy single-crystal in a laboratory weldability test, namely, the Sigmajig test. The effects of weld pool solidification on the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the specimen were considered. Stress-temperature-location diagrams were constructed to reveal the complex local stress development at the trailing edge of the weld pool. The calculated local stress in the solidification temperature range is used to explain the experimentally observed initiation of solidification cracking of the single-crystal under different welding and loading conditions, based on the material resistance versus the mechanical driving force.

  20. Crash testing hydrological models in contrasted climate conditions: An experiment on 216 Australian catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, L.; AndréAssian, V.; Perrin, C.; Lerat, J.; Vaze, J.; Bourqui, M.; Hendrickx, F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates the actual extrapolation capacity of three hydrological models in differing climate conditions. We propose a general testing framework, in which we perform series of split-sample tests, testing all possible combinations of calibration-validation periods using a 10 year sliding window. This methodology, which we have called the generalized split-sample test (GSST), provides insights into the model's transposability over time under various climatic conditions. The three conceptual rainfall-runoff models yielded similar results over a set of 216 catchments in southeast Australia. First, we assessed the model's efficiency in validation using a criterion combining the root-mean-square error and bias. A relation was found between this efficiency and the changes in mean rainfall (P) but not with changes in mean potential evapotranspiration (PE) or air temperature (T). Second, we focused on average runoff volumes and found that simulation biases are greatly affected by changes in P. Calibration over a wetter (drier) climate than the validation climate leads to an overestimation (underestimation) of the mean simulated runoff. We observed different magnitudes of these models deficiencies depending on the catchment considered. Results indicate that the transfer of model parameters in time may introduce a significant level of errors in simulations, meaning increased uncertainty in the various practical applications of these models (flow simulation, forecasting, design, reservoir management, climate change impact assessments, etc.). Testing model robustness with respect to this issue should help better quantify these uncertainties.

  1. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  2. Predicted Turbine Heat Transfer for a Range of Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Lucci, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons are shown between predictions and experimental data for blade and endwall heat transfer. The comparisons of computational domain parisons are given for both vane and rotor geometries over an extensive range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Comparisons are made with experimental data from a variety of sources. A number of turbulence models are available for predicting blade surface heat transfer, as well as aerodynamic performance. The results of an investigation to determine the turbulence model which gives the best agreement with experimental data over a wide range of test conditions are presented.

  3. Flight Tests of an Airplane Showing Dependence of the Maximum Lift Coefficient on the Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A; Hootman, James A

    1937-01-01

    Data are presented to show the extent to which the maximum lift coefficient and consequently the minimum speed of an airplane, determined by flight tests, may vary with test conditions. The data show that cl-max may vary as much as 14 percent, depending on the altitude and wing loading at which the tests were made, the position or motion of the propeller, and the rate at which the angle of attack is changing when the maximum lift coefficient is obtained. The variation of the maximum lift coefficient with these factors, which are under the control of the test engineer, shows the need of standardizing the test procedure. A further variation is shown with wing conditions as affected by weathering and vibration, factors that cannot be completely controlled.

  4. Arc Jet Facility Test Condition Predictions Using the ADSI Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    The Aerothermal Design Space Interpolation (ADSI) tool is used to interpolate databases of previously computed computational fluid dynamic solutions for test articles in a NASA Ames arc jet facility. The arc jet databases are generated using an Navier-Stokes flow solver using previously determined best practices. The arc jet mass flow rates and arc currents used to discretize the database are chosen to span the operating conditions possible in the arc jet, and are based on previous arc jet experimental conditions where possible. The ADSI code is a database interpolation, manipulation, and examination tool that can be used to estimate the stagnation point pressure and heating rate for user-specified values of arc jet mass flow rate and arc current. The interpolation is performed in the other direction (predicting mass flow and current to achieve a desired stagnation point pressure and heating rate). ADSI is also used to generate 2-D response surfaces of stagnation point pressure and heating rate as a function of mass flow rate and arc current (or vice versa). Arc jet test data is used to assess the predictive capability of the ADSI code.

  5. Flight test of an erectable spacecraft used for decelerator testing at simulated Mars entry conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, A. B.; Lundstrom, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A 55 foot diameter disk-gap-band parachute was deployed behind an expandable 15 foot diameter, 120 deg blunted-cone simulated spacecraft. The spacecraft was carried to altitude in the folded condition. An automatic control system kept the folded spacecraft pointing in the desired direction after booster separation. The aeroshell was then erected at the desired conditions by ground command. When the desired parachute test conditions were reached, another ground command deployed the test parachute. The test Mach number and dynamic pressure obtained at the parachute peak load were 2.62 and 19.4 pounds per square foot respectively. A large disturbance after aeroshell erection caused a large angle of attack to exist at parachute deployment. Methods of preventing this disturbance are discussed.

  6. Testing hot cell shielding in the fuel conditioning facility.

    PubMed

    Courtney, J C; Klann, R T

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive shield test program for a hot cell complex, the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, has been completed with minimum radiation exposure to participants. The recently modified shielding design for two hot cells and their associated transfer paths for irradiated materials was analyzed and tested for attenuating gamma rays from mixed fission product sources. Testing was accomplished using 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) and 518 TBq (14,000 Ci) 60Co sources. Of specific concern were radiation levels around wall penetrations and the interface between transport casks and the cell floor. Detailed measurements were made for surfaces that bound the hot cells, a transfer tunnel between the two cells, and storage pits that extend below the floors of both cells. In addition to surface measurements, dose equivalent rates in adjacent corridors were determined when the larger source was exposed. Results indicate that with some administrative controls, the facility shields are adequate to meet the design criterion that limits annual dose to less than 10 mSv (1 rem) for facility workers.

  7. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  8. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in `like-new` conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the `like-new` condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed.

  9. The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 1: friction mechanisms and definition of test conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, W R; Grönqvist, R; Leclercq, S; Myung, R; Makkonen, L; Strandberg, L; Brungraber, R J; Mattke, U; Thorpe, S C

    2001-10-20

    Friction has been widely used as a measure of slipperiness. However, controversies around friction measurements remain. The purposes of this paper are to summarize understanding about friction measurement related to slipperiness assessment of shoe and floor interface and to define test conditions based on biomechanical observations. In addition, friction mechanisms at shoe and floor interface on dry, liquid and solid contaminated, and on icy surfaces are discussed. It is concluded that static friction measurement, by the traditional use of a drag-type device, is only suitable for dry and clean surfaces, and dynamic and transition friction methods are needed to properly estimate the potential risk on contaminated surfaces. Furthermore, at least some of the conditions at the shoe/floor interface during actual slip accidents should be replicated as test conditions for friction measurements, such as sliding speed, contact pressure and normal force build-up rate.

  10. Dynamic Testing of an Inflatable Structure Under Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert; Lassiter, John

    1999-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Transportation Programs Office is responsible for the development and demonstration of advanced launch vehicle and propulsion technologies. One of these advanced propulsion concepts being pursued is solar thermal propulsion. This concept employs a concentrated beam of sunlight to heat a working fluid within a solar thermal engine. Expansion of the fluid would provide thrust at an increased specific impulse. One way to concentrate the sun's light to a specific point in the engine cavity is to use a fresnel lens that is supported by an inflatable structure. Such propulsion systems could provide an inexpensive way of transferring and maintaining satellites to upper stage orbit trajectories. This paper describes the test hardware, procedures, and non-contacting measurement methodologies used to determine the modal characteristics of an inflatable concentrator under the thermal-vacuum conditions of space. These characteristics were necessary to identify for validation of a finite element model to be used for developing the spacecraft's pointing and control system.

  11. Matching Vibration Testing to "Real-World" Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Albert D., Jr.; Keblaitis, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration spectrum of test machine adjusted to that observed in operation. Test specimen placed in test fixture and attached to shaker. Shaker initially operated at one-quarter full level of input spectrum to prevent overloading. Short vibration test run, and specimen response compared to control spectrum. Imput spectrum then adjusted until response resembles control spectrum.

  12. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  13. 42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytotechnologist. 493.1481 Section 493.1481 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1481 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist. For the subspecialty...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytotechnologist. 493.1481 Section 493.1481 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1481 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist. For the subspecialty...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant....

  16. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... complexity testing; technical consultant. 493.1409 Section 493.1409 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1409 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant....

  17. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... complexity testing; technical consultant. 493.1409 Section 493.1409 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1409 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant....

  18. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant....

  19. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  20. Corrosion of aluminum and copper thin films under simulated atmospheric conditions in laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Raman, A.; Diwan, R.; Bhattacharya, P.K.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion characteristics of Al and Cu thin films have been studied in cyclic fog tests using tap water fog and fog created with 0.1% NaCl solution in tap water. Likewise, their corrosion features have been analyzed in continuous immersion testing in the laboratory in distilled water, tap water, in 0.1% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl solutions in distilled water. The corrosion potentials and the corrosion currents of these thin films change and reach steady state values after some time. However, steady state is not realized in 3.5% NaCl solutions. The corrosion current density data have been used to calculate lifetime of 1 {mu}m thick thin films of Al and Cu in the various tests, and assuming that the fog test data would hold under normal exposure conditions, life spans for these thin film sensor elements in actual exterior exposure have also been calculated. According to estimates, an Al-TF of about 1 {mu}m would last about 9 months in exterior exposure in chloride containing atmospheres, such as in the coastal regions, but would survive nearly 2 years in normal atmospheres not having acidic or chloride pollutants. On the contrary, 1 {mu}m thick Cu-TF would last only for about 2.5 months in chloride-laden environments, but would last for about 2 years in normal atmospheres. However, Cu-TF would be corroded off faster in slightly alkaline atmospheric condensate under total immersion situation. Lifetime estimates are presented and discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  2. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  3. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  4. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  5. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... moments—digitally filtered at CFC 600; (5) Pelvis, shoulder, thorax and abdomen impactor accelerations...) Shoulder, thorax, and abdomen deflection—digitally filtered CFC 600. (h) Mountings for the head,...

  6. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  7. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... moments—digitally filtered at CFC 600; (5) Pelvis, shoulder, thorax and abdomen impactor accelerations...) Shoulder, thorax, and abdomen deflection—digitally filtered CFC 600. (h) Mountings for the head,...

  8. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as shown in Figure 41 (for the thorax); Figure 42 (for the lumbar spine); and Figure 43 (for the knee). (4... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that...

  9. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as shown in Figure 41 (for the thorax); Figure 42 (for the lumbar spine); and Figure 43 (for the knee). (4... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that...

  10. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as shown in Figure 41 (for the thorax); Figure 42 (for the lumbar spine); and Figure 43 (for the knee). (4... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that...

  11. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the test dummy shall be set at the force between 1 to 2 g's, which just supports the limb's weight when the limbs are extended horizontally forward. The force required to move a limb segment does not exceed 2 g's throughout the range of the limb motion. (i) Performance tests must be conducted at...

  12. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... joints of the test dummy are set at the force between 1-2 g's, which just supports the limbs' weight when the limbs are extended horizontally forward. The force required to move a limb segment does not exceed 2 g's throughout the range of limb motion. (g) Performance tests are conducted at any...

  13. A Conditional Exposure Control Method for Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelman, Matthew; Nering, Michael L.; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), ensuring the security of test items is a crucial practical consideration. A common approach to reducing item theft is to define maximum item exposure rates, i.e., to limit the proportion of examinees to whom a given item can be administered. Numerous methods for controlling exposure rates have been proposed…

  14. Sensitivity of MRQAP Tests to Collinearity and Autocorrelation Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, David; Krackhardt, David; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures (MRQAP) tests are permutation tests for multiple linear regression model coefficients for data organized in square matrices of relatedness among "n" objects. Such a data structure is typical in social network studies, where variables indicate some type of relation between a given set of actors.…

  15. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  16. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above 4000 feet. For other devices, testing at high altitude may be necessary for determining whether a...

  17. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above 4000 feet. For other devices, testing at high altitude may be necessary for determining whether a...

  18. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above 4000 feet. For other devices, testing at high altitude may be necessary for determining whether a...

  19. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above 4000 feet. For other devices, testing at high altitude may be necessary for determining whether a...

  20. Digital signal conditioning for flight test, volume 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Flight test instrumentation engineers are provided with an introduction to digital processes on aircraft. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. Topics include: measurements that are digital in origin, sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing of data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Some example data extractions are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  1. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-S4 and be mounted in the torso assembly in triaxial configuration in the pelvis bone as shown in... Recommended Practice J211, Rev. Mar95 “Instrumentation for lmpact Tests,” except that the lumbar...

  2. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-S4 and be mounted in the torso assembly in triaxial configuration in the pelvis bone as shown in... Recommended Practice J211, Rev. Mar95 “Instrumentation for lmpact Tests,” except that the lumbar...

  3. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-S4 and be mounted in the torso assembly in triaxial configuration in the pelvis bone as shown in... Recommended Practice J211, Rev. Mar95 “Instrumentation for lmpact Tests,” except that the lumbar...

  4. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-S4 and be mounted in the torso assembly in triaxial configuration in the pelvis bone as shown in... Recommended Practice J211, Rev. Mar95 “Instrumentation for lmpact Tests,” except that the lumbar...

  5. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  6. Testing the Injection of the LISA Pathfinder Test Mass into Geodesic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoni, C.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Conklin, J. W.; Koker, I.; Marirrodriga, C. G.; Nellen, P. M.; Vitale, S.

    2013-09-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission aimed at testing the free-fall purity level of a reference mass (or test mass, TM). Such an object can be used as a geodesic tracker for the detection of gravitational waves and is the core of the Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS). The low acceleration noise level pursued for the tracker sets tight design constraints on the GRS. Any non-gravitational force has to be reduced to the level of 10 fN in the measurement bandwidth (1-30 mHz).The TM is firmly constrained by the Caging and Venting Mechanism (CVM) during the spacecraft launch and is then handed over to the Grabbing Positioning and Release Mechanism (GPRM). This mechanism is designed to handle the TM during in-orbit operations and inject it into the geodesic trajectory (or free-fall condition) by means of a quick retraction of two release tips on two opposed sides of the TM. After these operations, the TM residual velocity must be below 5 μm/s, otherwise the GRS capacitive position control is not able to capture and centre the TM in its electrode housing. Due to this criticality, the requirement on the maximum release velocity is verified on-ground both by means of an experimental apparatus (the Transferred Momentum Measurement Facility, TMMF) and by means of simulations. The TMMF is specifically designed to assess the contribution of adhesion between TM and release tips to the total TM momentum. On top of this contribution, any deviation from a symmetrical action of the two opposed release mechanisms determines an extra transferred momentum. Great care must be taken to correlate the experimental results with the in-flight conditions, where a different actuator is used to perform the TM injection. The extrapolation of the experimental results to in-flight conditions and the Montecarlo simulation of the GPRM-TM combined dynamics show the presence of a 2.4 margin factor with respect to the 5 μm/s requirement.The on-ground measured and simulated

  7. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item…

  8. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  9. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  10. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  11. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  12. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  13. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  14. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact... moments—digitally filtered at CFC 600; (5) Pelvis, shoulder, thorax and abdomen impactor accelerations...) Shoulder, thorax, and abdomen deflection—digitally filtered CFC 600. (h) Mountings for the head,...

  15. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact... moments—digitally filtered at CFC 600; (5) Pelvis, shoulder, thorax and abdomen impactor accelerations...) Shoulder, thorax, and abdomen deflection—digitally filtered CFC 600. (h) Mountings for the head,...

  16. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis force... test dummy are set at the force between 1 to 2 G's, which just supports the limb's weight when the limbs are extended horizontally forward. The force required to move a limb segment does not exceed 2...

  17. 49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... force-sensing device is mounted axially in each femur shaft so that the transverse centerline of the... force-sensing devices installed in the dummy and in the test apparatus specified by this part are...—Class 60. (3) Thorax acceleration—Class 180. (4) Thorax compression—Class 180. (5) Femur force—Class...

  18. 49 CFR 572.21 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... channel class. (f) Limb joints are set at the force between 1-2g, which just supports the limbs' weight when the limbs are extended horizontally forward. The force required to move a limb segment does not exceed 2g throughout the range of limb motion. (g) Performance tests are conducted at any...

  19. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... starting and driving capability of device-equipped vehicles is affected sufficiently to make them dangerous... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above...

  20. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  1. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  2. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  3. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  4. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  5. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  7. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  8. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  9. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  10. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  15. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  16. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.A.; Smith, M.E.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, D.R.; Cook, E.G.; Copp, R.L.; Lee, F.D.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D.; Speckert, G.C.

    1982-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector.

  17. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  18. Large-scale numerical simulations of star formation put to the test. Comparing synthetic images and actual observations for statistical samples of protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimann, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Haugbølle, T.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Both observations and simulations of embedded protostars have progressed rapidly in recent years. Bringing them together is an important step in advancing our knowledge about the earliest phases of star formation. Aims: To compare synthetic continuum images and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), calculated from large-scale numerical simulations, to observational studies, thereby aiding in both the interpretation of the observations and in testing the fidelity of the simulations. Methods: The adaptive mesh refinement code, RAMSES, is used to simulate the evolution of a 5 pc × 5 pc × 5 pc molecular cloud. The simulation has a maximum resolution of 8 AU, resolving simultaneously the molecular cloud on parsec scales and individual protostellar systems on AU scales. The simulation is post-processed with the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D, which is used to create synthetic continuum images and SEDs of the protostellar systems. In this way, more than 13 000 unique radiative transfer models, of a variety of different protostellar systems, are produced. Results: Over the course of 0.76 Myr the simulation forms more than 500 protostars, primarily within two sub-clusters. The synthetic SEDs are used to calculate evolutionary tracers Tbol and Lsmm/Lbol. It is shown that, while the observed distributions of the tracers are well matched by the simulation, they generally do a poor job of tracking the protostellar ages. Disks form early in the simulation, with 40% of the Class 0 protostars being encircled by one. The flux emission from the simulated disks is found to be, on average, a factor ~6 too low relative to real observations; an issue that can be traced back to numerical effects on the smallest scales in the simulation. The simulated distribution of protostellar luminosities spans more than three order of magnitudes, similar to the observed distribution. Cores and protostars are found to be closely associated with one another, with the distance distribution

  19. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  20. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; technical supervisor. 493.1447 Section 493.1447 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1447 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor. The laboratory must have...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; technical supervisor. 493.1447 Section 493.1447 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1447 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor. The laboratory must have...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1441 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. The laboratory must have...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  6. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  7. TESTS FOR THE EXTENT OF GENERALIZATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING UNDER IDENTICAL TRAINING SCHEDULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The possibility that equal rates of reinforcement may produce generalization between two dissimilar conditioned stimuli is important both for...understanding generalization itself and for interpreting null outcomes resulting from within-S comparisons of two conditioning methods. Conventional...procedures for testing the extent of generalization are not applicable, but suitable trial arrangements do allow tests of this question, the number and

  8. Experimental testing of total knee replacements with UHMW-PE inserts: impact of severe wear test conditions.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Reinders, Joern; Schwiesau, Jens; Paulus, Alexander; Kretzer, Jan Philippe; Grupp, Thomas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Bader, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    Aseptic implant loosening due to inflammatory reactions to wear debris is the main reason for the revision of total knee replacements (TKR). Hence, the decrease in polyethylene wear particle generation from the articulating surfaces is aimed at improving implant design and material. For preclinical testing of new TKR systems standardized wear tests are required. However, these wear tests do not reproduce the entire in vivo situation, since the pattern and amount of wear and subsequent implant failure are underestimated. Therefore, daily activity, kinematics, implant aging and position, third-body-wear and surface properties have to be considered to estimate the wear of implant components in vivo. Hence, severe test conditions are in demand for a better reproduction of the in vivo situation of TKR. In the present article an overview of different experimental wear test scenarios considering clinically relevant polyethylene wear situations using severe test conditions is presented.

  9. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  10. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  11. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  12. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  13. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  14. Tensile testing of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials under Federal specified temperature and relative humidity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Botner, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A small 10-ft x 12-ft temperature and relative humidity controlled room for tensile testing of parachute materials is presented. Tensile tests of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials indicate there is a negligible change in break strength of test samples soaked in the controlled environment vs samples soaked in ambient conditions.

  15. 42 CFR 493.1361 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; testing personnel. 493.1361 Section 493.1361 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1361 Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel. The laboratory must have...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1361 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; testing personnel. 493.1361 Section 493.1361 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1361 Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel. The laboratory must have...

  17. Tests for the determination of the stress condition in tension fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahde, R; Wagner, H

    1936-01-01

    The present experiments treat the stress of actual tension fields within the elastic range. They give the magnitude of the flexural stresses due to wrinkling. They also disclose, particularly by slightly exceeded buckling load, the marked unloading - as compared with the tension-field theory - of the uprights as a result of the flexural stiffness of the web plate. The test sheets were clamped at the edges and brought to buckling through shearing and compressive stresses applied in the direction of the long sides.

  18. A Tailored Testing Model Employing the Beta Distribution and Conditional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalisch, Stanley J.

    1974-01-01

    A tailored testing model employing the beta distribution, whose mean equals the difficulty of an item and whose variance is approximately equal to the sampling variance of the item difficulty, and employing conditional item difficulties, is proposed. (Author)

  19. Effect of test conditions on relative toxicity rankings of fifteen materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of pyrolysis effluents, using different test conditions in the USF methodology. Wool fabrics were consistently among the most toxic materials, and polystyrene and polychloroprene flexible foam were consistently among the least toxic materials.

  20. A standardized way to select, evaluate, and test an analog-to-digital converter for ultrawide bandwidth radiofrequency signals based on user's needs, ideal, published,and actual specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    The most important adverse impact on the Electronic Warfare (EW) simulation is that the number of signal sources that can be tested simultaneously is relatively small. When the number of signal sources increases, the analog hardware, complexity and costs grow by the order of N2, since the number of connections among N components is O(N*N) and the signal communication is bi-directional. To solve this problem, digitization of the signal is suggested. In digitizing a radiofrequency signal, an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is widely used. Most research studies on ADCs are conducted from designer/test engineers' perspective. Some research studies are conducted from market's perspective. This paper presents a generic way to select, evaluate and test ultra high bandwidth COTS ADCs and generate requirements for digitizing continuous time signals from the perspective of user's needs. Based on user's needs, as well as vendor's published, ideal and actual specifications, a decision can be made in selecting a proper ADC for an application. To support our arguments and illustrate the methodology, we evaluate a Tektronix TADC-1000, an 8-bit and 12 gigasamples per second ADC. This project is funded by JEWEL lab, NAWCWD at Point Mugu, CA.

  1. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit.

  2. Differential participation in cognitive tests is driven by personality, sex, body condition and experience.

    PubMed

    van Horik, Jayden O; Langley, Ellis J G; Whiteside, Mark A; Madden, Joah R

    2017-01-01

    Failure to participate in a cognitive test may result in sampling biases when measuring inter-individual variation in cognitive performances in both captive and wild populations. This would be problematic if particular classes of individuals consistently fail to participate, skewing data and making generalisations or comparisons difficult. We presented 144 pheasant chicks, raised under standardised conditions, with a battery of cognitive tests to investigate whether sex, body condition or personality traits, measured by differences in latencies to explore a novel object, novel environment or unknown conspecific, predicted individual variation in voluntary participation across 37 test sessions. In general, participation increased across testing sessions, yet patterns of participation differed with sex and body condition. Males with a high body condition were more likely to participate in early test sessions compared to males with a low body condition or females. While participation among males in high body condition was consistent across sessions, males with a low body condition and females, regardless of body condition, were more likely to participate in later, rather than earlier sessions. Individuals also showed repeatable behaviours across time and different contexts, revealing not only that the exploration of novelty, but also that the order that subjects entered the testing arena and their latencies to acquire a freely available meal-worm reward may be considered valid proxies for different personality traits. During each test session, those individuals that were among the first to voluntarily enter the testing arena were more likely to participate in subsequent trials. Moreover, when isolated in the testing arena, individuals that rapidly acquired a freely available meal-worm, positioned on the testing apparatus, were also more likely to participate in a cognitive test. Our findings therefore reveal that sex, body condition and personality traits, along with

  3. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  4. 40 CFR 86.167-17 - AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.167-17 AC17 Air Conditioning...-conditioning cycle, a 30-minute soak period under simulated solar heat, followed by measurement of emissions over an SC03 drive cycle and a Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET) drive cycle. The vehicle...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  10. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  11. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  12. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  13. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the requirements of § 493.1455 of this subpart and provides...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of...

  15. A Tailored Testing Model Employing the Beta Distribution and Conditional Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalisch, Stanley J.

    A tailored testing model employing the beta distribution, whose mean equals the difficulty of an item and whose variance is approximately equal to the sampling variance of the item difficulty, and employing conditional item difficulties, is proposed. The model provides a procedure by which a minimum number of items of a test, consisting of a set…

  16. Hyper-X Mach 10 Engine Flowpath Development: Fifth Entry Test Conditions and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    A series of Hyper-X Mach 10 flowpath ground tests are underway to obtain engine performance and operation data and to confirm and refine the flowpath design methods. The model used is a full-scale height, partial-width replica of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle propulsive flowpath with truncated forebody and aftbody. This is the fifth test entry for this model in the NASA-HYPULSE facility at GASL. For this entry the facility nozzle and model forebody were modified to better simulate the engine inflow conditions at the target flight conditions. The forebody was modified to be a wide flat plate with no flow fences, the facility nozzle Mach number was increased, and the model was positioned to be tested in a semi-direct-connect arrangement. This paper presents a review of the test conditions, model calibrations, and a description of steady flow confirmation. The test series included runs using hydrogen fuel, and a silane-in-hydrogen fuel mixture. Other test parameters included the model mounting angle (relative to the tunnel flow), and the test gas oxygen fraction to account for the presence of [NO] in the test gas at the M10 conditions.

  17. Robust testing for normality of error terms with presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Střelec, Luboš; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Normality of the error terms in regression models is one of the basic assumptions in the applied regression analysis. Therefore, testing for normality of the error terms constitutes one of the most important steps of regression model verification and validation. Failure to assess non-normality of the error terms may lead to incorrect results of usual statistical inference techniques such as t-test or F-test. Within the applied regression analysis there is a frequent problem of the presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity of the error terms. Under both autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, the usual OLS estimators are still unbiased, linear and asymptotically normally distributed, however, no longer have the minimum variance property among all linear unbiased estimators. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and discuss normality testing of the error terms with presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity. To explore the power of selected classical tests and robust tests for normality, we perform simulation study.

  18. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis gases from materials - Effects of chemical composition and test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Relative toxicity test data on 270 materials are presented, based on test procedures developed at the University of San Francisco. The effects of chemical composition, using data on 13 types of synthetic polymers and eight types of fabrics, are discussed. Selected materials were evaluated using nine test conditions with the USF method, and using methods developed at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute, Douglas Aircraft Company and San Jose State University.

  19. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Second Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    On August 31, 2010, a five-segment demonstration motor (DM) for the Ares program was successfully tested. A series of demonstration motors (DMs) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet their design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was the first cold motor. The motor needed to be subjected to sub-freezing temperatures for two months so that its internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was approximately 40 F. Several challenges had to be overcome to make this a successful test. One challenge was to condition four field joints to get the O-rings approximately 32 F. This would be done by applying conditioning shrouds to externally cool each field joint after the test bay was pulled off. The purpose of this conditioning was to validate the new O-ring design and allow joint heaters to be eliminated. Another challenge was maintaining temperature requirements for components in the nozzle vectoring system. A separate heating system was used to warm these components during cold conditioning. There were 53 test objectives that required 764 channels of data to be recorded; 460 were specific to DM-2. This instrumentation had to be installed prior to conditioning, which meant the baseline process and timeline had to be modified to meet this time critical schedule.

  20. [The investigation of nickel dissolution from nitinol under different extraction conditions in biological tests].

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiantao; He, Xueying; Li, Jian; Tang, Juli; Huang, Yongfu

    2013-03-01

    The dissolution of nickel from nitinol alloy under different extraction conditions was investigated when biological tests of nitinol medical devices were carried out. It discussed the equivalence of these extraction conditions and found the best extraction conditions. In the experiment, two brands of nitinol were chosen and extracted under different extraction conditions according to GB/T 16886-12. Plasma emission spectrometer was used to analyse the concentration of nickel in extract liquid. The results show that there is no equivalence among these extraction conditions for nitinol materials. And it is suggested that (37 +/- 1) degree C, (72 +/- 2) h could be used as normal extraction condition and (70 +/- 2) degrees C, (24 +/- 2) h as accelerated extraction condition.

  1. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  2. Optimal conditions for three brood chronic toxicity test method using a freshwater macroinvertebrate Moina macrocopa.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-06-01

    Freshwater cladocera such as Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia have been used extensively for freshwater toxicity test worldwide. However, these species may not be indigenous in certain geographical regions, which restrict the utility of these organisms as test species. In the present study, we investigated optimal culture and test conditions for an indigenous freshwater macroinvertebrate of Korea, Moina macrocopa. The culture conditions that were evaluated included water temperature (20°C and 25°C), rearing media (moderately hard water or MHW, with or without selenium supplementation, or Elendt M4), and food density (2.5 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of Selenastrum capricornutum), and their effects on the life history characteristics of M. macrocopa were determined. Population growth rate of M. macrocopa was maximized at 25°C with 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of algal food density in MHW. A series of chronic three brood reference toxicant tests were conducted under the ideal culture conditions that were identified here, and the results of the tests indicated reliable reproducibility of the test protocol. Optimal culture and test conditions that were identified for M. macrocopa in the present study are suggested for evaluation of chronic toxicity of chemicals and industrial or municipal discharge.

  3. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  4. Vacuum state squeezing versus squeezed classical noise: a test using conditional homodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Howard J.

    2003-05-01

    Measurement of the squeezed fluctuations of an optical field by the method of conditional homodyne detection is discussed. It is shown that conditional homodyne detection is able to distinguish qualitatively between vacuum-state squeezing and squeezed classical noise. Whereas for conventional squeezed-light detection, only a quantitative distinction can be made, based on the setting of the shot-noise level, under conditional detection, the presence of classical noise changes the actual shape of the measured correlation function. The correlations show a positive peak due to the unsqeezed classical noise frequencies, set inside the negative dip associated with the squeezed fluctuations. The width in time of the positive peak is the larger of the detector response time and the inverse of the classical noise bandwidth. The fundamental distinction between vacuum-state squeezing and squeezed classical noise is that there is no positive peak, even in the limiting form of a delta-function, when the unsqueezed frequencies correspond to vacuum state modes. Implications for the literal interpretation of vacuum fluctuations, such as is adopted in stochastic electrodynamics, are discussed. The ideas are presented in general terms and illustrated by an example which treats the generation and detection of broadband squeezed light, including finite-bandwidth classical noise, within the framework of the quantum trajectory theory of cascaded open systems.

  5. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  7. Toxicity testing strategies for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explores the use of short-term, EPA-approved laboratory toxicity tests for assessing water-quality conditions in streams and rivers. Strategies for the cost-effective application of such tests for long-term monitoring objectives are considered in the context of logistic constraints and statistical design. A subtle but important difference in objectives for effluent versus ambient testing is this: in effluent testing for regulatory purposes, a key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Recommendations derived as `` lessons learned`` from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective, in terms of information gained per dollar spent, than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Various laboratory and in situ methods for environmental assessment are now under development, but these methods probably will not gain acceptance for use in regulatory situations for many years. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Thus, laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  8. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  9. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  10. Double torsion fracture mechanics testing of shales under chemically reactive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Callahan, O. A.; Holder, J. T.; Olson, J. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture properties of shales is vital for applications such as shale and tight gas development, and seal performance of carbon storage reservoirs. We analyze the fracture behavior from samples of Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales using double-torsion (DT) load relaxation fracture tests. The DT test allows the determination of mode-I fracture toughness (KIC), subcritical crack growth index (SCI), and the stress-intensity factor vs crack velocity (K-V) curves. Samples are tested at ambient air and aqueous conditions with variable ionic concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2, and temperatures up to 70 to determine the effects of chemical/environmental conditions on fracture. Under ambient air condition, KIC determined from DT tests is 1.51±0.32, 0.85±0.25, 1.08±0.17 MPam1/2 for Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales, respectively. Tests under water showed considerable change of KIC compared to ambient condition, with 10.6% increase for Marcellus, 36.5% decrease for Woodford, and 6.7% decrease for Mancos shales. SCI under ambient air condition is between 56 and 80 for the shales tested. The presence of water results in a significant reduction of the SCI from 70% to 85% compared to air condition. Tests under chemically reactive solutions are currently being performed with temperature control. K-V curves under ambient air conditions are linear with stable SCI throughout the load-relaxation period. However, tests conducted under water result in an initial cracking period with SCI values comparable to ambient air tests, which then gradually transition into stable but significantly lower SCI values of 10-20. The non-linear K-V curves reveal that crack propagation in shales is initially limited by the transport of chemical agents due to their low permeability. Only after the initial cracking do interactions at the crack tip lead to cracking controlled by faster stress corrosion reactions. The decrease of SCI in water indicates higher crack propagation velocity due to

  11. Steady Heat Removal Test by BWR Drywell Cooler under Accident Management Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Seiichi; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Akinaga, Makoto; Fukasawa, Masanori; Nagasaka, Hideo

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the heat removal performance of the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) applied as a Japanese phase-II accident management. Separated effect tests were conducted using a single DWC unit of a typical BWR plant under severe accident (SA) condition. It was demonstrated that noncondensable gas mixture with nitrogen and helium was constantly vented from the DWC casing and the favorable steam condensation rate was maintained even under the highest assumed gas condition. The DWC was found to be promising even under wide range of SA conditions. (authors)

  12. Scramjet Tests in a Shock Tunnel at Flight Mach 7, 10, and 15 Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Foelsche, R. O.

    2001-01-01

    Tests of the Hyper-X scramjet engine flowpath have been conducted in the HYPULSE shock tunnel at conditions duplicating the stagnation enthalpy at flight Mach 7, 10, and 15. For the tests at Mach 7 and 10 HYPULSE was operated as a reflected-shock tunnel; at the Mach 15 condition, HYPULSE was operated as a shock-expansion tunnel. The test conditions matched the stagnation enthalpy of a scramjet engine on an aerospace vehicle accelerating through the atmosphere along a 1000 psf dynamic pressure trajectory. Test parameter variation included fuel equivalence ratios from lean (0.8) to rich (1.5+); fuel composition from pure hydrogen to mixtures of 2% and 5% silane in hydrogen by volume; and inflow pressure and Mach number made by changing the scramjet model mounting angle in the HYPULSE test chamber. Data sources were wall pressures and heat flux distributions and schlieren and fuel plume imaging in the combustor/nozzle sections. Data are presented for calibration of the facility nozzles and the scramjet engine model. Comparisons of pressure distributions and flowpath streamtube performance estimates are made for the three Mach numbers tested.

  13. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions.

  14. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  15. A ground test program to support condition monitoring of a spacecraft attitude control propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lester, Robert W.; Baroth, Edmund C.; Coleman, Arthur L.

    1991-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission involves seven years of flight from 0.6 to 4.57 Astronomical Units (AU), followed by about 915 days of maneuvering around a comet. Ground testing will characterize the very critical attitude control system thrusters' fuel consumption and performance for all anticipated fuel temperatures over thruster life. The ground test program characterization will support flight condition monitoring. A commercial software application hosted on a commercial microcomputer will control ground test operations and data acquisition using a newly designed thrust stand. The data acquisition and control system uses a graphics-based language and features a visual interface to integrate data acquisition and control.

  16. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  17. Long life testing of spare Mariner Venus '67 hardware. [power conditioning electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The faultless performance of the Mariner Venus '67 Power Conditioning Electronics (PCE) throughout six years of continuous operation in a simulated space environment is reported. Weekly functional tests supplemented by daily monitoring verified that the PCE equipment can perform to its intended functions for at least six years without apparent performance degradation. Performance throughout the test period was very stable, there are no circuit or redundancy improvements to be considered. When the equipment was examined after the test was completed, there was no evidence of any physical damage nor any difficulty in disconnecting the wiring connectors.

  18. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  3. 76 FR 69545 - Conditions and Requirements for Relying on Component Part Testing or Certification, or Another...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC,'' ``Commission,'' or ``we'') is issuing a final rule regarding the conditions and requirements for relying on testing or certification of either component parts of consumer products, or another party's finished product, or both, to demonstrate, in whole or in part, compliance of a consumer product with all applicable rules, bans, standards, and......

  4. Conditions Affecting the Usefulness of Pre- and Post-Tests for Assessment Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyas, Elise; Bryan, Lois D.; Lee, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Interest in measuring and evaluating student learning in higher education is growing. There are many tools available to assess student learning. However, the use of such tools may be more or less appropriate under various conditions. This study provides some evidence related to the appropriate use of pre/post-tests. The question of whether graded…

  5. A Review of DIMPACK Version 1.0: Conditional Covariance-Based Test Dimensionality Analysis Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Nina; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2013-01-01

    DIMPACK Version 1.0 for assessing test dimensionality based on a nonparametric conditional covariance approach is reviewed. This software was originally distributed by Assessment Systems Corporation and now can be freely accessed online. The software consists of Windows-based interfaces of three components: DIMTEST, DETECT, and CCPROX/HAC, which…

  6. Instrumentation for Ground-Based Testing in Simulated Space and Planetary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Horodetsky, Sergey; Issoupov, Vitali

    This paper is an overview of instrumentation developed and created by ITL Inc. for simulated testing and performance evaluation of spacecraft materials, structures, mechanisms, assemblies and components in different space and planetary environments. The LEO Space Environment Simulator allows simulation of the synergistic effect of ultra-high vacuum conditions, 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beams, Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) radiation, and temperature conditions. The simulated space environmental conditions can be controlled in-situ using a quadruple mass-spectrometer, Time-of-Flight technique, as well as Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensors. The new NUV System is capable of delivering an NUV power intensity of up to 10 Equivalent Suns. The design of the system uses horizontal orientation of the 5 kW Mercury lamp, focusing of NUV radiation is achieved due to a parabolic reflector. To address the Lunar/Martian surface environments, the Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility has been developed and built to allow for physical evaluation of the effects of the Lunar/Martian dust environments in conjunction with other factors (ultra-high vacuum or planetary atmospheric conditions, VUV/NUV radiation, thermal cycling, and darkness). The ASTM E 595/ASTM E 1559 Outgassing Test Facility provides the means for the outgassing test of materials with the objective to select materials with low outgassing properties for spacecraft use and allows to determine the following outgassing parameters: Total Mass Loss, Collected Volatile Condensable Materials, and Water Vapor Regained.

  7. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  8. A hypersonic shock tunnel test of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at high altitude test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittliff, C. E.; O'Connor, A. C.; Sweet, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is a 4.26 m-diameter raked and blunted elliptic cone that is intended to obtain aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic data on blunt bodies at velocities near 10 km/s and altitudes above 75 km. Previous wind tunnel tests of this configuration have been at Mach numbers of 10 or lower. The present test program consisted of five test conditions at Mach numbers between 15 and 20 and simulated altitudes from 75 km to 97 km. Static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients, the lift-to-drag ratio, and the trim angle-of-attack were obtained for angles-of-attack between 7 deg and 27 deg. The effects of angle-of-attack and shock Reynolds number, Re2, have been studied. These results indicate the AFE configuration is longitudinally stable. The variation of normal force slope, CNalpha and lift-to-drag slope, (L/D)alpha as well as the trim angle-of-attack with Re2 are documented. The trim angle-of-attack increases with decreasing values of shock Reynolds number (increasing altitude) while the lift-to-drag ratio at the trimmed conditions is relatively constant.

  9. Design of a Test Loop for Performance Testing of Steam Turbines Under a Variety of Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrette, Jonathan

    The steam turbine is one of the most widely used energy conversion devices in the world, providing shaft power for electricity production, chemical processing, and HVAC systems. There are new opportunities in growing renewable and combined cycle applications. End-users are asking for energy efficiency improvements that require manufacturers to renew their experimentally verified design methods. A structured design approach was carried out along three integrated research thrusts. The first two thrusts, Turbine Performance Prediction and Measurement Planning, were carried out with the aim of supporting the theoretical modeling required for the third thrust, System Modeling. The primary use of the steam turbine test loop will be to improve performance prediction techniques. Thus the primary focus of the first thrust was to describe empirical loss correlations found in the literature. For the second thrust, a preliminary review of measurement codes and standards was carried out to determine their impact on overall test loop design. For the third thrust, quasi-steady theoretical models were derived from first principles for the turbine, condenser, pump, boiler, and pipe components using control volume analyses. The theoretical models were implemented in a new open source simulation environment that carries out the calculation process over a range of up-to three turbine model inputs. A parametric study was undertaken with the goal of defining preliminary design specifications for the test loop components. The test loop was simulated across a wide range of steady states for three different turbine blade configurations, each at three different values of the blade row enthalpy-loss coefficient. The parametric study demonstrates full coverage of possible turbine operating conditions. The results of the simulations were analyzed to narrow the required operating range of the test loop to a series of turbine test paths. The final operational envelope yielded a set of test loop

  10. Clinical audit of genetic testing and referral patterns for fragile X and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Megan; Archibald, Alison D; McClaren, Belinda J; Burgess, Trent; Francis, David; Hills, Louise; Martyn, Melissa; Oertel, Ralph; Slater, Howard; Cohen, Jonathan; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2016-06-01

    An audit was conducted of laboratory/clinical databases of genetic tests performed between January 2003 and December 2009, and for 2014, as well as referrals to the clinical service and a specialist multidisciplinary clinic, to determine genetic testing request patterns for fragile X syndrome and associated conditions and referrals for genetic counseling/multidisciplinary management in Victoria, Australia. An expanded allele (full mutation, premutation or intermediate) was found in 3.7% of tests. Pediatricians requested ∼70% of test samples, although fewer general practitioners and more obstetricians/gynecologists ordered tests in 2014. Median age at testing for individuals with a full mutation seeking a diagnosis without a fragile X family history was 4.3 years (males) and 9.4 years (females); these ages were lower when pediatricians ordered the tests (2.1 years and 6.1 years, respectively). Individuals with a premutation were generally tested at a later age (median age: males, 33.2 years; females, 36.4 years). Logistic regression showed that a family history of ID (OR 3.28 P = 0.005, CI 1.77-5.98) was the only indication to independently increase the likelihood of a test-positive (FM or PM) result. Following testing, ∼25% of full mutation or premutation individuals may not have attended clinical services providing genetic counseling or multidisciplinary management for these families. The apparent delay in fragile X syndrome diagnosis and lack of appropriate referrals for some may result in less than optimal management for these families. These findings suggest continued need for awareness and education of health professionals around diagnosis and familial implications of fragile X syndrome and associated conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ∼ 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ∼ 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests.

  12. Containment testing of laboratory hoods in the as-used condition.

    PubMed

    Greenley, P L; Billings, C E; DiBerardinis, L J; Edwards, R W; Barkley, W E

    2000-02-01

    Airborne contaminants generated inside laboratory fume hoods during use leak into the breathing zone of the user. Concentration of the leakage is unknown and variable depending on laboratory design, work practices, arrangement of internal apparatus, face velocity, and sash height. Surrogate tracer gas tests have been developed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a manikin to estimate leakage. This study presents results of hood leakage tests using SF6 with a manikin and then a live operator performing a phenol:chloroform (P:C) extraction. Four hoods were tested in each of three institutions during normal work hours with the lab occupied. The purpose of the study was to determine leakage concentrations for the SF6-manikin with effects of sash height, hood contents as found and after being cleaned out, face velocity, and the actual P:C and SF6 exposure concentrations of the user during work. Results indicate P:C was not detectable in the breathing zone of the 12 operators (< 0.1 ppm) at their selected operating sash heights (7 to 15 inches). Simultaneous SF6 concentrations were also minimal (average 0.06 ppm). Average leakage was 0.02 percent for SF6 and less than 2 percent based on chloroform concentrations measured in the breathing zone of the operator and inside the hood. SF6 percent leakage was greater when sash height was above the breathing zone of the manikin (average 2.09 percent) and lower leakage (average 0.02 percent) when below the breathing zone (26 inches or less). Average face velocity did not appear to be a predictor of average hood leakage. Cleaning out the hoods did not reduce leakage in most tests. The data from this study shows that when providing training on proper work practices for lab hood use, lowering the sash should be stressed as being the major factor in reducing hood leakage.

  13. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  14. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Treberg, Jason R; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state.

  15. Evaluation of Human and Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Models under Spaceflight Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Jacob P.; Untaroiu, Costin; Somers. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop occupant protection standards for future multipurpose crew vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has looked to evaluate the test device for human occupant restraint with the modification kit (THOR-K) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in relevant impact test scenarios. With the allowance and support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NASA has performed a series of sled impact tests on the latest developed THOR-K ATD. These tests were performed to match test conditions from human volunteer data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the THOR-K finite element (FE) model and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) FE model with respect to the tests performed. These models were evaluated in spinal and frontal impacts against kinematic and kinetic data recorded in ATD and human testing. Methods: The FE simulations were developed based on recorded pretest ATD/human position and sled acceleration pulses measured during testing. Predicted responses by both human and ATD models were compared to test data recorded under the same impact conditions. The kinematic responses of the models were quantitatively evaluated using the ISO-metric curve rating system. In addition, ATD injury criteria and human stress/strain data were calculated to evaluate the risk of injury predicted by the ATD and human model, respectively. Results: Preliminary results show well-correlated response between both FE models and their physical counterparts. In addition, predicted ATD injury criteria and human model stress/strain values are shown to positively relate. Kinematic comparison between human and ATD models indicates promising biofidelic response, although a slightly stiffer response is observed within the ATD. Conclusion: As a compliment to ATD testing, numerical simulation provides efficient means to assess vehicle safety throughout the design process and further improve the

  16. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. Performance of an in vitro mucoadhesion testing method for vaginal semisolids: influence of different testing conditions and instrumental parameters.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Amaral, Maria Helena; Bahia, Maria Fernanda

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro mucoadhesion testing method for vaginal semisolid formulations. The proposed method was based on the measurement of the force (detachment force, Fdt) and the work (work of adhesion, Wad) needed to detach a sample of cow vaginal mucosa from a semisolid formulation, using a commercially available texture analyzer. Several testing conditions and instrumental parameters were tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive potential of a model vaginal semisolid formulation (1% Carbopol 974P gel). Also, mucoadhesive potential of several commercially available vaginal semisolid products was evaluated. Obtained results showed that the method is reproducible even when the same cow mucosa sample is used up to six times. The similarity of the fluid used to bathe the vaginal mucosa to the one naturally occurring in the vagina influenced considerably the performance of the test, advising that simulation of vaginal fluid properties is important when measuring mucoadhesive properties. Also, temperature of experiment was an important fact to be considered, as results showed slight but significant differences between body (37 degrees C) and room (20 degrees C) temperature. Fdt and Wad increased with increasing instrumental parameters while a plateau region was observable at higher values of probe speed, probe force, and mucosa/sample contact time. Comparison between results for Fdt and Wad demonstrated that although both parameters are generally in agreement, Wad seems to be more reliable and reproducible when evaluating mucoadhesion. Evaluation of commercially available formulations confirmed that experimental conditions are important features that can influence significantly the determination of mucoadhesive potential, being the proposed method an interesting and useful tool in the in vitro evaluation of vaginal semisolids.

  18. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be

  20. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  1. Multistage gearbox condition monitoring using motor current signature analysis and Kolmogorov Smirnov test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Chinmaya; Mohanty, A. R.

    2006-02-01

    Even though there are a number of condition monitoring and analysis techniques, researchers are in search of a simple and easy way to monitor vibration of a gearbox, which is an omnipresent and an important power transmission component in any machinery. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been the most recent addition as a non-intrusive and easy to measure condition monitoring technique. The objective of this paper is to detect artificially introduced defects in gears of a multistage automotive transmission gearbox at different gear operations using MCSA as a condition monitoring technique and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test as an analysis technique assuming that any defect or load has a specific probability distribution. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) are used to differentiate these probability distributions. Steady as well as fluctuating load conditions on the gearbox are tested for both vibration and current signatures during different gear operations. It is concluded that combined MCSA and KS test can be an effective way to monitor and detect faults in gears.

  2. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Virtual Turbine Engine Test Bench Using MGET Test Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Seonghee; Kong, Changduk; Ki, Jayoung

    2015-05-01

    Test device using virtual engine simulator can help reduce the number of engine tests through tests similar to the actual engine tests and repeat the test under the same condition, and thus reduce the engine maintenance and operating costs [1]. Also, as it is possible to easily implement extreme conditions in which it is hard to conduct actual tests, it can prevent engine damages that may happen during the actual engine test under such conditions. In this study, an upgraded MGET test device was developed that can conduct both real and virtual engine test by applying real-time engine model to the existing MGET test device that was developed and has been sold by the Company. This newly developed multi-purpose MGET test device is expected to be used for various educational and research purposes.

  4. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  5. Parents' Attitudes toward Genetic Testing of Children for Health Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Qishan; McGill, Brittany C; Quinn, Veronica F; Tucker, Katherine M; Mizrahi, David; Farkas Patenaude, Andrea; Warby, Meera; Cohn, Richard J; Wakefield, Claire E

    2017-02-07

    This review assessed parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing for health conditions, with a focus on perceived advantages and disadvantages. We also evaluated the factors that influence parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing. We searched Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts and CINAHL. We screened 945 abstracts and identified 21 studies representing the views of 3934 parents. Parents reported largely positive attitudes toward childhood genetic testing across different genetic tests with varying medical utility. Parents perceived a range of advantages and disadvantages of childhood genetic testing. Childhood genetic testing was viewed by most as beneficial. Parents' education level, genetic status, sex and socio-demographic status were associated with reported attitudes. This yielded some conflicting findings, indicating the need for further research. Genetic counseling remains essential to support this population in making well-informed decisions. Targeted interventions tailored to specific families with different socio-demographic characteristics may be useful. Further research on the long-term impact of childhood genetic testing on families is warranted.

  6. Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation seems to be a promising approach to dampen the expression of fear memory. Recently, we demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by a pharmacological manipulation specifically targeted the emotional expression of memory (i.e., startle response). Here we test in a human differential fear-conditioning paradigm with fear-relevant stimuli whether the spacing of a single unreinforced retrieval trial relative to extinction learning allows for "rewriting" the original fear association, thereby preventing the return of fear. In contrast to previous findings reported by Schiller et al. (2010), who used a single-method for indexing fear (skin conductance response) and fear-irrelevant stimuli, we found that extinction learning within the reconsolidation window did not prevent the recovery of fear on multiple indices of conditioned responding (startle response, skin conductance response and US-expectancy). These conflicting results ask for further critical testing given the potential impact on the field of emotional memory and its application to clinical practice.

  7. Timing conditions and the magnitude of gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Rodgers, Marguerite A; McCormick, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of timing conditions on the magnitude of gender differences in performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). In Experiment 1, each of 196 females and 119 males was administered the MRT via a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in one of five timing conditions (15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 sec). The participants were exposed to each MRT item for the period specified in the assigned timing condition. Experiment 2 was conducted to address flaws found in Experiment 1. Accordingly, each of 105 females and 105 males was individually administered the task in one of three timing conditions (15 sec, 25 sec, or unlimited duration). The results of both experiments showed that the magnitude of gender differences was similar across timing conditions when a conventional scoring method was used. An analysis of guessing behavior generally indicated that men tend to show little effect of timing conditions, whereas women's propensity to guess increases when they are given more time to respond. In general, the results supported an interpretation of gender differences on the MRT that relies on the joint operation of performance factors and level of spatial ability.

  8. Heterogeneity in a Low-Permeability Formation or Non-Ideal Testing Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Deeds, N. E.; Pickens, J. F.; Distinguin, M.; Delay, J.

    2005-12-01

    Hydraulic testing in packer-isolated wellbore intervals in low-permeability formations is often complicated by non-ideal conditions such as thermal expansion of fluid in the test interval, packer squeeze and borehole closure. Such processes lead to fluid accumulation and pressurization within the wellbore during shut-in, and can exert significant effects on the measured borehole pressure response. Unless these conditions are taken into account during test interpretation, it is possible to make inappropriate conclusions regarding formation heterogeneity (e.g., lateral permeability variations) and/or static pressure levels. We have developed a lumped parameter modeling approach by treating the combined effect of these processes as the equivalent of an additional volume of fluid accumulating within the test interval (in addition to the nominal test-interval volume at the time of shut-in). We postulate that the rate of fluid accumulation can be treated in a simple manner as a constant value for the duration of the test. Thus, the fluid accumulation problem can be recast as the equivalent of a constant injection rate into the packed-off volume within the borehole. We show how this surrogate injection rate can be estimated from the measured pressure data by exploiting the analogy between the pressure response during borehole storage dominated conditions and that of a line-source well with an exponentially varying flow rate. Shut-in test sequences (i.e., shut-in period prior to initiation of a pressure pulse test and shut-in period(s) during pulse test(s)) can then be analyzed as effective constant-rate injection periods. The methodology is demonstrated using data from a recent series of hydraulic tests conducted in support of site characterization activities by ANDRA, the French radioactive waste management agency. In many of these tests, the measured pressure response was fitted to a 2-zone radially composite system model. Although the fit was visually excellent, static

  9. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  10. A Novel Approach for Dynamic Testing of Total Hip Dislocation under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Sven; Kluess, Daniel; Kaehler, Michael; Grawe, Robert; Rachholz, Roman; Souffrant, Robert; Zierath, János; Bader, Rainer; Woernle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Constant high rates of dislocation-related complications of total hip replacements (THRs) show that contributing factors like implant position and design, soft tissue condition and dynamics of physiological motions have not yet been fully understood. As in vivo measurements of excessive motions are not possible due to ethical objections, a comprehensive approach is proposed which is capable of testing THR stability under dynamic, reproducible and physiological conditions. The approach is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation where a robotic physical setup interacts with a computational musculoskeletal model based on inverse dynamics. A major objective of this work was the validation of the HiL test system against in vivo data derived from patients with instrumented THRs. Moreover, the impact of certain test conditions, such as joint lubrication, implant position, load level in terms of body mass and removal of muscle structures, was evaluated within several HiL simulations. The outcomes for a normal sitting down and standing up maneuver revealed good agreement in trend and magnitude compared with in vivo measured hip joint forces. For a deep maneuver with femoral adduction, lubrication was shown to cause less friction torques than under dry conditions. Similarly, it could be demonstrated that less cup anteversion and inclination lead to earlier impingement in flexion motion including pelvic tilt for selected combinations of cup and stem positions. Reducing body mass did not influence impingement-free range of motion and dislocation behavior; however, higher resisting torques were observed under higher loads. Muscle removal emulating a posterior surgical approach indicated alterations in THR loading and the instability process in contrast to a reference case with intact musculature. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the HiL test system is able to reproduce comparable joint dynamics as present in THR patients. PMID:26717236

  11. Adapting and Testing the COAMPS/COBEL Low Cloud Nowcasting System for Winter Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    Adapting and Testing the COAMPS/ COBEL Low Cloud Nowcasting System for Winter Conditions Professor Peter Zwack, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences...514-987-7749 email: zwack.peter@uqam.ca Award Number: N00014-01-1-0377 http://people.sca.uqam.ca/~ cobel /COTE_EST/ http://people.sca.uqam.ca...tardif/ COBEL /cobel_enter.htm LONG-TERM GOALS An improved an automated, globally applicable, integrated ceiling forecast product in DAMPS that

  12. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  13. A field test for differences in condition among trapped and shot mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Shaiffer, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    We tested predictions from the condition bias hypothesis (Weatherland and Greenwood 1981) regarding the effects of sampling methods of body weights of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR), Arkansas, during 24 November-8 December 1985. Body weights of 84 mallards caught with unbaited rocket nets in a natural wetland were used as experimental controls and compared to the body weights of 70 mallards captured with baited rocket nets, 86 mallards captured with baited swim-in traps, and 130 mallards killed by hunters. We found no differences (P > 0.27) in body weight among sampling methods, but body condition (wt/wing length) of the birds killed by hunters was less (P 0.75 for differences > 50 g. The condition bias hypothesis probably applies to ducks killed by hunters but not to trapping operations when substantial (> 20 at 1 time) numbers of birds are captured.

  14. Accuracy of user-friendly blood typing kits tested under simulated military field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Charlton, David G

    2011-04-01

    Rapid user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits (Eldon Home Kit 2511, ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit) were evaluated to determine their accuracy when used under simulated military field conditions and after long-term storage at various temperatures and humidities. Rates of positive tests between control groups, experimental groups, and industry standards were measured and analyzed using the Fisher's exact chi-square method to identify significant differences (p < or = 0.05). When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were used in various operational conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and with the industry standard. The performance of the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit was adversely affected by prolonged storage in temperatures above 37 degrees C. The diagnostic performance of commercial blood typing kits varies according to product and environmental storage conditions.

  15. Does It Matter How Data Are Collected? A Comparison of Testing Conditions and the Implications for Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Carol L.; Finney, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of gathering test scores under low-stakes conditions has been a prominent domain of research in the assessment and testing literature. One important area within this larger domain concerns the implications of a test being low-stakes on test evaluation and development. The current study examined one variable, the testing context, that…

  16. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  17. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Conditioned flavor aversions: a toxicity test of the anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine.

    PubMed

    Parker, L A; Hutchison, S; Riley, A L

    1982-01-01

    The viability of the conditioned flavor aversion test as a behavioral index of the toxicity of physostigmine, an anticholinesterase agent, was evaluated in a series of three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 used the flavor aversion paradigm and Experiment 3 used a more traditional behavioral testing paradigm in which the effect of physostigmine on a specified set of behaviors was measured. In the flavor aversion paradigm, the rats were allowed to consume 0.5% saccharin solution before being injected with one of various doses of physostigmine (0.025--0.50 mg/kg) or saline. They were subsequently tested for a learned flavor aversion by means of a one-bottle test in Experiment 1 and a two-bottle test in Experiment 2. In the behavioral testing paradigm used in Experiment 3, each rat was injected with one of various doses of physostigmine within the range of those used in the prior experiments, and thirty minutes later was placed in a chamber for observation for 15 minutes. The procedures of Experiment 3 were much more time consuming than those of Experiments 1 and 2. By the two-bottle aversion test of Experiment 2, a dose as low as 0.05 mg/kg of physostigmine produced a reliable flavor aversion which persisted for three extinction test trials. On the other hand, robust and reliable behavioral differences of decreased rearing and consumption of water in Experiment 3 were only evident in rats given 0.25 mg/kg of physostigmine. We conclude that the flavor aversion test is a simple and sensitive behavioral measure of toxicity.

  19. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  20. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  1. Test of Spanish sentences to measure speech intelligibility in noise conditions.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Teresa; González-Alvarez, Julio

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the development of a test for measuring the intelligibility of speech in noise for the Spanish language, similar to the test developed by Kalikow, Stevens, and Elliot (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 5, 1337-1360, 1977) for the English language. The test consists of six forms, each comprising 25 high-predictability (HP) sentences and 25 low-predictability (LP) sentences. The sentences were used in a perceptual task to assess their intelligibility in babble noise across three different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions in a sample of 474 normal-hearing listeners. The results showed that the listeners obtained higher scores of intelligibility for HP sentences than for LP sentences, and the scores were lower for the higher SNRs, as was expected. The final six forms were equivalent in intelligibility and phonetic content.

  2. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  3. Optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for Trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J D; Yang, Q

    2015-03-13

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. This is the first study to develop biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum transformants TS1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. Agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. Spore production was observed, and the method was optimized using single-factor tests with 4 factors at 3 levels in an orthogonal experimental design to determine the optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1. In this step, we determined the best conditions for fermenting the biocontrol fungi. The optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1 were cultivated for 8 days, a ratio of straw to wheat bran of 1:3, ammonium persulfate as the nitrogen source, and a water content of 30 mL. Under optimal culture conditions, the sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 reached 1.49 x 10(10) CFU/g, which was 1.46-fold higher than that achieved before optimization. Increased sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 results in better utilization of space and nutrients to achieve control of plant pathogens. This method allows for the recycling of agricultural waste straw.

  4. 3D shoulder kinematics for static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-09-18

    Shoulder motion analysis provides clinicians with references of normal joint rotations. Shoulder joints orientations assessment is often based on series of static positions, while clinicians perform either passive or active tests and exercises mostly in dynamic. These conditions of motion could modify joint coordination and lead to discrepancies with the established references. Hence, the objective was to evaluate the influence of static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions on shoulder joints orientations. Twenty asymptomatic subjects setup with 45 markers on the upper limb and trunk were tracked by an optoelectronic system. Static positions (30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of thoracohumeral elevation) and dynamic motion both in active condition and passively mobilised by an examiner were executed. Three-dimensional sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint angles (12 in total) representing the distal segment orientation relative to the proximal segment orientation were estimated using a shoulder kinematical chain model. Separate four-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied on the 12 joint angles with factors of static vs dynamic, passive vs active, thoracohumeral elevation angle (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and plane of elevation (frontal and sagittal). Scapulothoracic lateral rotation progressed more during arm elevation in static than in dynamic gaining 4.2° more, and also in passive than in active by 6.6°. Glenohumeral elevation increased more during arm elevation in active than in passive by 4.4°. Shoulder joints orientations are affected by the testing conditions, which should be taken into consideration for data acquisition, inter-study comparison or clinical applications.

  5. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  6. SOFI/Substrate integrity testing for cryogenic propellant tanks at extreme thermal gradient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, M.; Fabian, P.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid propellant tank insulation for space flight requires low weight as well as high insulation factors. Use of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI) is an accepted, cost effective technique for insulating a single wall cryogenic propellant tank and has been used extensively throughout the aerospace industry. Determining the bond integrity of the SOFI to the metallic substrate as well as its ability to withstand the in-service strains, both mechanical and thermal, is critical to the longevity of the insulation. This determination has previously been performed using highly volatile, explosive cryogens, which increases the test costs enormously, as well as greatly increasing the risk to both equipment and personnel. CTD has developed a new test system, based on a previous NASA test that simulates the mechanical and thermal strains associated with filling a large fuel tank with a cryogen. The test enables a relatively small SOFI/substrate sample to be monitored for any deformations, delaminations, or disjunctures during the cooling and mechanical straining process of the substrate, and enables the concurrent application of thermal and physical strains to two specimens at the same time. The thermal strains are applied by cooling the substrate to the desired cryogen temperature (from 4 K to 250 K) while maintaining the outside surface of the SOFI foam at ambient conditions. Multiple temperature monitoring points are exercised to ensure even cooling across the substrate, while at the same time, surface temperatures of the SOFI can be monitored to determine the heat flow. The system also allows for direct measurement of the strains in the substrate during the test. The test system as well as test data from testing at 20 K, for liquid Hydrogen simulation, will be discussed.

  7. Boundary conditions for convergent radial tracer tests and effect of well bore mixing volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; David Logan, J.

    Convergent radial flow tracer tests have a complex spatial nonaxial transport structure caused by the flow in the vicinity of the injection well and its finite mixing volume. The formulation of the boundary value problem, and especially the treatment of the boundary conditions at the injection well, is nontrivial. Hodgkinson and Lever [1983], Moench [1989, 1991], and Welty and Gelhar [1994] have developed different models and methods for the analysis of breakthrough curves in the extraction well. To extend interpretation techniques to breakthrough curves in the zone between injection and extraction wells, an analysis of conventional transport models is given, and improved boundary conditions are formulated for a convergent radial tracer test problem. The formulation of the boundary conditions is based upon a more detailed analysis of the kinematic flow structure and tracer mass balance in the neighborhood of the injection well. Two practical applications of revised boundary conditions for field data analysis are given. First, the note explains anomalous high well bore mixing volumes of injection wells found by Cady et al. [1993] and allows one to establish the role of mixing versus other processes (retardation, matrix diffusion, etc.). Second, it is shown that the improper use of Moench's [1989] model can produce bias in the characteristics of breakthrough curves in the extraction well under conditions that involve a significant mixing factor in the injection well. A numerical example indicates an error in peak concentrations on a breakthrough curve by as much as 70% and in peak arrival time by 10% for Peclet numbers Pe=102. The effect becomes slightly less significant for Pe=1.

  8. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge

  9. Recommendations concerning the role of workplace testing of respirators as a condition of certification

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for certification of respiratory protective devices published on August 27, 1987, as it related to workplace performance testing as a condition of certification was reviewed. After considering all available literature on the topic, the author concludes that to introduce workplace or simulated workplace testing to determine workplace protection factors into the requirements for certification of industrial respirators would be premature. The primary reason for this conclusion is the great variability seen in protection demonstrated currently in workplace test programs and in fit testing. Effort is currently needed to determine the exposure of workers while using respirators. Several approaches toward this end are reviewed taking into account work recently reported. Little progress is reported in the area of performance of negative pressure high efficiency filter respirators since 1962. Further development is needed in the anthropometric description of human faces which is still restricted to two dimensional models. Emphasis should be placed on positive pressure systems which meet further certification requirements to ensure that positive pressure is maintained in the breathing zone at all times. The cost effectiveness of any proposed research program should be critically examined and compared with the high cost of field testing for certification purposes.

  10. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps.

    PubMed

    Hoedjes, K M; Steidle, J L M; Werren, J H; Vet, L E M; Smid, H M

    2012-10-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory dynamics and can be instrumental to understanding both the adaptive benefit of and mechanisms underlying this variation. Parasitic wasps of the genus Nasonia offer excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research on this topic. Genetic and genomic resources available for Nasonia are unrivaled among parasitic wasps, providing tools for genetic dissection of mechanisms that cause differences in learning. This study presents a robust, high-throughput method for olfactory conditioning of Nasonia using a host encounter as reward. A T-maze olfactometer facilitates high-throughput memory retention testing and employs standardized odors of equal detectability, as quantified by electroantennogram recordings. Using this setup, differences in memory retention between Nasonia species were shown. In both Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis, memory was observed up to at least 5 days after a single conditioning trial, whereas Nasonia giraulti lost its memory after 2 days. This difference in learning may be an adaptation to species-specific differences in ecological factors, for example, host preference. The high-throughput methods for conditioning and memory retention testing are essential tools to study both ultimate and proximate factors that cause variation in learning and memory formation in Nasonia and other parasitic wasp species.

  11. Viable Mononuclear Cell Stability Study for Implementation in a Proficiency Testing Program: Impact of Shipment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

  12. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  13. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  14. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates.

  15. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates. PMID:26834666

  16. Uniaxial and triaxial compression tests of silicon carbide ceramics under quasi-static loading condition.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2005-02-01

    To establish mechanical properties and failure criteria of silicon carbide (SiC-N) ceramics, a series of quasi-static compression tests has been completed using a high-pressure vessel and a unique sample alignment jig. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established the failure threshold for the SiC-N ceramics in terms of stress invariants (I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}) over the range 1246 < I{sub 1} < 2405. In this range, results are fitted to the following limit function (Fossum and Brannon, 2004) {radical}J{sub 2}(MPa) = a{sub 1} - a{sub 3}e -a{sub 2}(I{sub 1}/3) + a{sub 4} I{sub 1}/3, where a{sub 1} = 10181 MPa, a{sub 2} = 4.2 x 10{sup -4}, a{sub 3} = 11372 MPa, and a{sub 4} = 1.046. Combining these quasistatic triaxial compression strength measurements with existing data at higher pressures naturally results in different values for the least-squares fit to this function, appropriate over a broader pressure range. These triaxial compression tests are significant because they constitute the first successful measurements of SiC-N compressive strength under quasistatic conditions. Having an unconfined compressive strength of {approx}3800 MPa, SiC-N has been heretofore tested only under dynamic conditions to achieve a sufficiently large load to induce failure. Obtaining reliable quasi-static strength measurements has required design of a special alignment jig and load-spreader assembly, as well as redundant gages to ensure alignment. When considered in combination with existing dynamic strength measurements, these data significantly advance the characterization of pressure-dependence of strength, which is important for penetration simulations where failed regions are often at lower pressures than intact regions.

  17. A Fully Automated Drosophila Olfactory Classical Conditioning and Testing System for Behavioral Learning and Memory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L.; Page, Terry L.; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    Background Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. New Method The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. Results The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24 hours) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. Comparison with Existing Methods The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ~$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. Conclusions This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays

  18. Test Outline for Flutter Analysis of Rectangular Panels in Rarefied Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akl, Fred A.

    1996-01-01

    Jet plume impingement forces acting on large flexible space structures may precipitate dynamically unstable behavior during space flights. Typical operating conditions in space involve rarefied gas flow regimes which are intrinsically distinct from continuum gas flow and are normally modeled using the kinetic theory of gas flow. Docking and undocking operations of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir space laboratory represent a scenario in which the stability boundaries of solar panels may be of interest. Extensive literature review of research work on the dynamic stability of rectangular panels in rarefied gas flow conditions indicated the lack of published reports dealing with this phenomenon. A recently completed preliminary study for NASA JSC dealing with the mathematical analysis of the stability of two-degree-of-freedom elastically supported rigid panels under the effect of rarefied gas flow was reviewed. A test plan outline is prepared for the purpose of conducting a series of experiments on four rectangular rigid test articles in a vacuum chamber under the effect of continuous and pulsating Nitrogen jet plumes. The purpose of the test plan is to gather enough data related to a number of key parameters to allow the validation of the two-degree-of-freedom mathematical model. The hardware required careful design to select a very lightweight material while satisfying rigidity and frequency requirements within the constraints of the test environment. The data to be obtained from the vacuum chamber tests can be compared with the predicted behavior of the theoretical two-degree-of-freedom model. Using the data obtained in this study, further research can identify the limitations of the mathematical model. In addition modifications to the mathematical model can be made, if warranted, to accurately predict the behavior of rigid panels under rarefied gas flow regimes.

  19. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  20. Effectiveness of emergency procedures under BDBA-conditions -- Experimental investigations in an integral test facility (PKL)

    SciTech Connect

    Umminger, K.; Kastner, W.; Weber, P.

    1996-07-01

    As part of the German reactor safety program, experimental investigations into the thermal hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) under accident conditions have been performed in the PKL test facility by Siemens/KWU. PKL is a mockup of a typical 4-loop 1,300 MWe KWU-PWR, based on a volumetric scale of 1:145 and full-scale component heights. The topic of beyond-design-basis accidents (BDBAs), such as total loss of feedwater, including experimental verification of relevant accident management procedures, was the main subject of interest in the test program PKL III C, which was completed in June 1995. The test results demonstrated that even under extreme boundary conditions, core damage can be prevented by performing accident management procedures. Especially the high efficiency of the secondary side bleed-and-feed, which is the preferred measure according to the accident management concept of German PWR plants, was clearly shown. This paper summarizes the fundamental findings of the PKL III C program, focusing on experimental results concerning the efficiency of secondary side bleed-and-feed procedures during loss of feedwater transients. For completeness additional results regarding this topic from the preceding program 3 B and the first results from the current program III D will be included.

  1. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  2. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements show in general that the edge electron density n{sub e} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature T{sub e} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C 2 decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the D{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low-density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements shown in general that the edge electron density {ital n}{sub {ital e}} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature {ital T}{sub {ital e}} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C II decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the {ital D}{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement.

  4. Hypnosis enhances recall memory: a test of forced and non-forced conditions.

    PubMed

    Fligstein, D; Barabasz, A; Barabasz, M; Trevisan, M S; Warner, D

    1998-04-01

    Visual memory recall in hypnosis was investigated. To address criterion shift problems in previous studies, both forced and non-forced recall procedures were used. Previous methodological weaknesses with regard to hypnotizability and hypnotic depth were also addressed. Over 300 volunteers were screened for hypnotizability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (Shor & Orne, 1962). Final high and low hypnotizability groups were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Participants in each hypnotizability group were randomly assigned to either forced or non-forced recall conditions and to hypnosis or waking conditions. Participants were shown 60 slides of line drawings and then tested immediately in 3 recall periods. Analysis of variance results showed that those exposed to hypnosis and to a forced recall procedure were significantly more confident of their responses to correct items than those exposed to a non-forced recall procedure or a waking condition. Participants exposed to hypnosis and forced recall procedures recalled more correct items than those exposed to a waking condition. The findings support the hypermnesic effects of hypnosis when participants are required to provide a fixed number of responses.

  5. Technical assessment of the rock support condition at the Near-Surface Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, J.H.

    1985-03-28

    Inspections were made at the Near-Surface Test Facility to determine the current condition and overall integrity of the rock support, comprised in general of rock bolts and shotcrete. The rock support behavior was identified as being passive. Preliminary findings show that differences in the rock support are confined to thin, weak and debonded shotcrete. The estimated, areal extent of these deficiencies is 2077 sq. ft. representing 3.8% of the total area of the high-back. The principal cause of concern associated with these deficiencies is the potential for small pieces of shotcrete to fall from the high-back. Construction records show that current conditions largely coincide with deficiencies identified and dispositioned at the time of construction.

  6. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  7. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares first stage rocket is a "human-rated" motor capable of producing and sustaining 3.5 million pounds of thrust throughout it s two-minute burn period. A series of demonstration motors (DM) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet all design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was designated to be a "cold motor", this means the internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 40 +5\\-3 F. The motor was subjected to subfreezing temperatures for two months.

  8. The reduction of airplane flight test data to standard atmosphere conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply the need of practical methods of reducing observed performance to standard conditions with a minimum of labor. The first part gives a very simple approximate method of reducing performance in climb, and is particularly adapted to work not requiring extreme accuracy. The second part gives a somewhat more elaborate and more accurate method which is well suited to general flight test reduction. The third part gives the conventional method of calibrating air-speed indicators and reducing the indicated speeds to true air speeds. An appendix gives working tables and charts for the standard atmosphere. (author)

  9. Test Temperature Dependence of Transesterification of Triolein under Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Irradiation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Dong, Nguyen The; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Rokuro

    2007-07-01

    The test temperature dependence of the transesterification of triolein with methanol and a base catalyst (NaOH and KOH) was investigated using a molar ratio of methanol to triolein of 6:1, a catalyst concentration of 1% and a temperature range of 3-50 °C under a low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation condition (40 kHz). It was found that the methyl ester concentration at an irradiation time of 5 min increased with increasing temperature, where it tended to level off at temperatures higher than 20 °C. Furthermore, apparent activation energy was estimated from the relationship between the rate and the reciprocal of temperature.

  10. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Serianni, G. Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2016-02-15

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  11. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  12. RF Conditioning and testing of fundamental power couplers for the RIA project

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stirbet; J. Popielarski; T. L. Grimm; M. Johnson

    2003-09-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) is the highest priority of the nuclear physics community in the United States for a major new accelerator facility. A principal element of RIA will be a superconducting 1.4 GeV superconducting ion linac accelerating ions of isotopes from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets or for further acceleration by a second superconducting linac. The superconducting linac technology is closely related to that used at existing accelerators and the Spallation Neutron Source. Taking advantage of JLAB's SRF Institute facilities and expertise for the SNS project, preparation of couplers, RF conditioning and high power tests have been performed on fundamental power couplers for RIA project.

  13. Bypass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon Under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon whose purpose was to determine margin available for bypass diodes integrated with new, large multi-junction solar cells that are manufactured from a 4-inch wafer. The tests were performed under high vacuum with coupon back side thermal conditions of both cold and ambient. The bypass diodes were subjected to a sequence of increasing discrete current steps from 0 Amp to 2.0 Amp in steps of 0.25 Amp. At each current step, a temperature measurement was obtained via remote viewing by an infrared camera. This paper discusses the experimental methodology, experiment results, and the thermal model.

  14. Effect of Susceptibility Testing Conditions on the In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of ETX0914.

    PubMed

    Giacobbe, Robert A; Huband, Michael D; deJonge, Boudewijn L M; Bradford, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    The effect of various conditions including pH, inoculum, temperature, atmosphere, divalent cations, and several body fluids on the in vitro activity of the novel antibacterial spiropyrimidinetrione ETX0914 in standard susceptibility tests was investigated against several species. None of the parameters investigated affected the activity of ETX0914, with the exception of pH. Whereas the MIC values for ETX0914 with S. aureus, E. faecalis, and E. coli did not change when the pH of the growth medium was varied from 5 to 8, they did increase at least 8-fold at pH values above 8. This loss of activity can be attributed to the deprotonation of the molecule at elevated pH. The data suggest that routine susceptibility testing with ETX0914 should result in reproducible MIC values.

  15. Clutter sensitivity test under controlled field conditions Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-27

    Theoretical research, controlled laboratory tests, and these field test results show that nonmetallic (and metallic) shallowly buried objects can be detected and imaged with the Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor. The sensor can be modeled as a high Q cavity which capitalizes on its resonant condition sensitivity to scattered waves from buried objects. When the RMPA sensor is swept over a shallowly buried object, the RMPA fed-point impedance (resistance), measured with a Maxwell bridge, changes by tens of percent. The significant change in unprocessed impedance data can be presented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical displays over the survey area. This forms silhouette images of the objects without the application of computationally intensive data processing algorithms. Because RMPA employed electromagnetic waves to illuminate the shallowly buried object, a number of questions and issues arise in the decision to fund or deny funding of the reconfiguration of the RMPA technology into a nonmetallic (metallic) land mine detector.

  16. Microstructure and fracture behavior of F82H steel under different irradiation and tensile test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of martensitic steel F82H were irradiated to doses ranging from 10.7 dpa/850 appm He to 19.6 dpa/1740 appm He at temperatures between 165 and 305 °C in the second experiment of SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP-II). Tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures and various fracture modes were observed. Microstructural changes including irradiation-induced defect clusters, dislocation loops and helium bubbles under different irradiation conditions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deformation microstructures of tensile tested specimens were carefully examined to understand the underlying deformation mechanisms. Deformation twinning was for the first time observed in irradiated martensitic steels. A change of deformation mechanism from dislocation channeling to deformation twinning was observed when the fracture mode changed from rather ductile (quasi-cleavage) to brittle (intergranular or cleavage and intergranular mixed).

  17. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  18. Selective Automated Perimetry Under Photopic, Mesopic, and Scotopic Conditions: Detection Mechanisms and Testing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Simunovic, Matthew P.; Moore, Anthony T.; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Automated scotopic, mesopic, and photopic perimetry are likely to be important paradigms in the assessment of emerging treatments of retinal diseases, yet our knowledge of the photoreceptor mechanisms detecting targets under these conditions remains largely dependent on simian data. We therefore aimed to establish the photoreceptor/postreceptoral mechanisms detecting perimetric targets in humans under photopic, mesopic, and scotopic conditions and to make recommendations for suitable clinical testing strategies for selective perimetry. Methods Perimetric sensitivities within 30° of fixation were determined for eight wavelengths (410, 440, 480, 520, 560, 600, 640, and 680 nm) under scotopic, mesopic (1.3 cd.m−2) and photopic (10 cd.m−2) conditions. Data were fitted with vector combinations of rod, S-cone, nonopponent M+L-cone mechanism, and opponent M- versus L-cone mechanism templates. Results Scotopicperimetric sensitivity was determined by rods peripherally and by a combination of rods and cones at, and immediately around, fixation. Mesopic perimetric sensitivity was mediated by M+L-cones and S-cones centrally and by M+L-cones and rods more peripherally. Photopic perimetric sensitivity was determined by an opponent M- versus L-cone, a nonopponent M+L-cone, and an S-cone mechanism centrally and by a combination of an S-cone and an M+L-cone mechanism peripherally. Conclusions Under scotopic conditions, a 480-nm stimulus provides adequate isolation (≥28 dB) of the rod mechanism. Several mechanisms contribute to mesopic sensitivity: this redundancy in detection may cause both insensitivity to broadband white targets and ambiguity in determining which mechanism is being probed with short-wavelength stimuli. M- and L-cone–derived mechanisms are well isolated at 10 cd.m−2: these may be selectively probed by a stimulus at 640 nm (≥ 20 dB isolation). Translation Relevance In human observers, multiple mechanisms contribute to the detection of Goldmann

  19. Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

  20. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test

    PubMed Central

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J.; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test – a simple pencil and paper test – has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject’s performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice. PMID:27057085

  1. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test.

    PubMed

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    The Clock Drawing Test - a simple pencil and paper test - has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject's performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice.

  2. A calibration loop to test hot-wire response under supercritical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Ivana; Vukoslavčević, P. V.; Wallace, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    A calibration facility to test the response of hot-wires in CO2 flow under supercritical conditions has been designed and constructed. It is capable of inducing variable speeds at different temperatures and pressures in the ranges of 0.15 - 2 m/s, 15 - 70 deg. C and 1 - 100 bar. The facility is designed as a closed loop with a test section, pump, electrical heater, DC motor and different regulating and measuring devices. The test section is a small tunnel, with a diffuser, honeycomb, screens and a nozzle to provide a uniform flow with a low turbulence level. The speed variation is created by a sealed, magnetic driven gear pump, with a variable rpm DC motor. Using the electrical heater and regulating the amount of CO2 in the facility, the desired temperature and pressure can be reached. The dimensions of the instalation are minimized to reduce the heat, pump power required, and CO2 consumption and to optimize safety. Preliminary testing of a single hot-wire velocity sensor at constant pressure (80 bar) and variable speed and temperature will be briefly described. The hot-wire probes calibrated in this loop will be used to measure turbulence properties in supercritical CO2 in support of improved designs of nuclear reactors to be cooled by supercritical fluids.

  3. Testing the influence of various conditions on the migration of epoxidised soybean oil from polyvinylchloride gaskets.

    PubMed

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Rajchl, Aleš; Votavová, Lenka; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Steiner, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticiser and stabiliser mainly in food contact materials on the base of polyvinylchloride (PVC), especially in the gaskets of jar lids. PVC gaskets containing 10-37% of ESBO were prepared by the baking of PVC plastisols at various process temperatures (180-240°C) in the laboratory. ESBO migration into olive oil and 3% acetic acid was studied at various temperatures (4°C, 25°C, 40°C and 60°C) during a storage time up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of food processing, i.e. pasteurisation (80°C and 100°C) and sterilisation (125°C) on ESBO migration was also evaluated. The results were critically assessed with respect to the test conditions of specific migration in accordance with the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). The levels of ESBO migration found confirmed that the test conditions (i.e. 40°C or 60°C, 10 days) representing contact in the worst foreseeable use scenario seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage and thus do not provide satisfactory objective results.

  4. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = −66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  5. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  6. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  7. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P < .001) effects with a session-time interaction (P < .001), but no main effect of sex (P ≥ .053, effect size ≥ .166). The session-time interaction showed that the PPTs in the painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P < .001). No other QST parameters were significantly modulated by the CS. Sex differences were not detected in this study; a larger sample size may be needed to further explore this possibility. However, the findings indicate that when extensive QST protocols are applied, PPT may be the most sensitive measure to detect endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  8. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  9. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  10. Conditional and Unconditional Tests (and Sample Size) Based on Multiple Comparisons for Stratified 2 × 2 Tables.

    PubMed

    Martín Andrés, A; Herranz Tejedor, I; Álvarez Hernández, M

    2015-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel test is the most frequent asymptotic test used for analyzing stratified 2 × 2 tables. Its exact alternative is the test of Birch, which has recently been reconsidered by Jung. Both tests have a conditional origin: Pearson's chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. But both tests have the same drawback that the result of global test (the stratified test) may not be compatible with the result of individual tests (the test for each stratum). In this paper, we propose to carry out the global test using a multiple comparisons method (MC method) which does not have this disadvantage. By refining the method (MCB method) an alternative to the Mantel-Haenszel and Birch tests may be obtained. The new MC and MCB methods have the advantage that they may be applied from an unconditional view, a methodology which until now has not been applied to this problem. We also propose some sample size calculation methods.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  12. [A modification of the Aulhorn flicker test with results of physiological and pathological conditions].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Iijima, H; Miwa, M; Shimamoto, R

    1993-01-01

    The Aulhorn flicker test measures the subjective brightness of various frequencies of flickering light. We modified an Aulhorn flicker test with light emitting diode (LED) and the results of 21 normal eyes and 18 affected eyes (7 eyes with idiopathic optic neuritis, one eye with rhinogenous optic neuropathy (ethmoid sinus mucocele), two eyes with preoperative pituitary tumor, one eye with empty sella, one eye with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, one eye with syphilitic optic neuritis, five eyes with primary open angle glaucoma) were presented. All normal eyes showed the Brücke-Bartley effect which refers to an enhanced subjective brightness at lower frequencies. Six eyes with idiopathic optic neuritis and one eye with rhinogenous optic neuropathy in the acute stage demonstrated the Aulhorn effect which refers to a reduced subjective brightness at lower frequencies. Four eyes with the Aulhorn effect that were followed up showed less prominent Aulhorn effect. One eye with idiopathic optic neuritis and 10 eyes with other conditions did not show the Aulhorn effect. It was suggested that the modified Aulhorn flicker test with LED is a useful method for diagnosis of optic neuritis in the acute stage.

  13. Testing shields in the Argonne National Laboratory fuel conditioning facility support areas.

    PubMed

    Courtney, J C; Klann, R T

    1997-01-01

    Testing has been completed for two lightly shielded areas that support operations in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Operational requirements dictated the use of a radiography source containing 0.44 TBq (12 Ci) of 192Ir to challenge reinforced concrete and steel shields that surround a decontamination, maintenance, and repair area for contaminated equipment used in hot cell operations. A more intense source containing 0.89 TBq (24 Ci) of 192Ir was used to test lead shot and steel shields around tanks in a radioactive liquid waste system and the boundaries of the room that contained it. Measurement procedures were developed to find design flaws and construction deficiencies while minimizing radiation exposure to test participants. While the shields are adequate to limit gamma ray deep dose equivalents to 10 mSv y(-1) (1 rem y(-1)) or less to facility personnel, several modifications were necessary to assure that the attenuation is adequate to keep dose rates less than 5 microSv h(-1) (0.5 mrem h(-1)) in normally occupied areas.

  14. An assessment of Hyalella azteca burrowing activity under laboratory sediment toxicity testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Doig, Lorne E; Liber, Karsten

    2010-09-01

    Burrowing of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca was evaluated under laboratory conditions similar to those recommended for standard sediment toxicity testing in Canada (EPS 1/RM/33; Environment Canada, 1997) and the United States (EPA/600/R-99/064; US EPA, 2000). Sediment type, time of day (light versus dark), size of animal, and the presence or absence of food were varied to assess their effects on burrowing activity. Hyalella azteca were found to burrow rapidly in fine, organic-rich sediments, but were slower to burrow in a sandy sediment. There was no increase in the number of animals occupying the sediment surface of a fine, organic-rich sediment after 4h of darkness compared to the previous 4h of light. Over a 9- to 10-d duration, a higher percentage of animals occupied the surface of the sandy sediment. The addition of food promoted burrowing in sandy sediment, as did using smaller animals. Overall, longer-duration tests involving older animals and coarse sediments may require formal observation to confirm burrowing and ensure adequate sediment exposure. The addition of food during a test may promote the burrowing of larger animals in coarse sediments, but may not be necessary in field-collected sediments that are not excessively sandy.

  15. Durability testing of an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite designed for the conditioning of 129I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulon, Antoine; Grandjean, Agnes; Laurencin, Danielle; Jollivet, Patrick; Rossignol, Sylvie; Campayo, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    The safe management of iodine coming from spent nuclear fuels by storage in deep geological repositories requires durable materials. For this purpose, we have recently developed an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA-CaI). In the present article, the chemical durability of this material is assessed as a function of leaching media and apatite stoichiometry. First, the maximum rate for iodine release was determined in unsaturated conditions leading to a congruent dissolution of HA-CaI. In these conditions, the forward rate was equal to 2 × 10-2 g m-2 d-1 at 50 °C independently of apatite stoichiometry. During this regime, dissolution was controlled by surface reaction and diffusion phenomena. When concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in solution increased, the system became saturated towards non-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and the rate of iodine release consecutively decreased. Consequently, tests were carried out to determine the behaviour of HA-CaI in such experimental conditions (saturated conditions), which were thought to be time-prevalent given the half-life of 129I (15.7 million years). During this regime, also called residual regime, iodine was released in the solution at a constant rate without being trapped in a secondary phase. The residual rate at 50 °C on the basis of iodine release was of 10-4 g m-2 d-1 in an initially deionized water, and it fell by one order of magnitude (r = 10-5 g m-2 d-1) in a clay-equilibrated groundwater (hereafter called Callovo-oxfordian (COx) groundwater). This singular behaviour was ascribed to the presence of calcium in COx water. These preliminary results on the chemical durability of HA-CaI suggest that this material is a viable candidate as repository iodine waste form.

  16. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Paul E.; Koenig, Greg John; Uncapher, William Leonard; Grey, Carissa; Engelhardt, Charles; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  17. Analytical Methodology Used To Assess/Refine Observatory Thermal Vacuum Test Conditions For the Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantano, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15 The Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission, which is part of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), launched February 11, 2013. A Landsat environmental test requirement mandated that test conditions bound worst-case flight thermal environments. This paper describes a rigorous analytical methodology applied to assess refine proposed thermal vacuum test conditions and the issues encountered attempting to satisfy this requirement.

  18. Development of a test method for protective gloves against nanoparticles in conditions simulating occupational use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolez, Patricia; Vinches, Ludwig; Wilkinson, Kevin; Plamondon, Philippe; Vu-Khanh, Toan

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticle manufacture and use are in full expansion. The associated risks of occupational exposure raise large concerns due to their potential toxicity. Even if they stand as a last resort in the traditional occupational Health & Safety (H&S) risk management strategy, personal protective equipment (PPE) against nanoparticles are an absolute need in the context of precautionary principle advocated by H&S organizations worldwide. However no standard test method is currently available for evaluating the efficiency of PPE against nanoparticles, in particular in the case of gloves. A project is thus underway to develop a test method for measuring nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves in conditions simulating glove-nanoparticle occupational interaction. The test setup includes an exposure and a sampling chamber separated by a circular glove sample. A system of cylinders is used to deform the sample while it is exposed to nanoparticles. The whole system is enclosed in a glove box to ensure the operator safety during assembly, dismounting and clean-up operations as well as during the tests. Appropriate nanoparticle detection techniques were also identified. Results are reported here for commercial 15nm TiO2 nanoparticles - powder and colloidal solutions in 1,2-propanediol, ethylene glycol and water - and four types of protective gloves: disposable nitrile and latex as well as unsupported neoprene and butyl rubber gloves. They show that mechanical deformations and contact with colloidal solution liquid carriers may affect glove materials. Preliminary results obtained with TiO2 powder indicate a possible penetration of nanoparticles through gloves following mechanical deformations.

  19. Natural laminar flow wing for supersonic conditions: Wind tunnel experiments, flight test and stability computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Olivier; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueda, Yoshine; Arnal, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of next supersonic transport airplane generation, the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new natural laminar flow highly swept wing. The design has been experimentally validated firstly in a supersonic wind tunnel and secondly accomplishing flight test. These experimental data were then analyzed and completed by numerical stability analyses in a joint research program between Onera and JAXA. At the design condition, for a Mach number M=2 at an altitude of h=18 km, results have confirmed the laminar design of the wing due to a strong attenuation of cross-flow instabilities ensuring an extended laminar zone. As the amplification of disturbances inside the boundary layer and transition process is very sensitive to external parameters, the impact of wall roughness of the models and the influence of Reynolds number on transition process have been carefully analyzed.

  20. Testing the relation between dispositional optimism and conditioned pain modulation: Does ethnicity matter?

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D.; Glover, Toni L.; Sibille, Kimberly; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Greater dispositional optimism has been related to less severe pain; however, whether optimism is associated with endogenous pain modulation has not yet been examined. The beneficial effects of dispositional optimism often vary according to cultural dynamics. Thus, assessing optimism-pain relationships across different ethnic groups is warranted. This study sought to examine the association between optimism and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and test whether this association differs according to ethnicity. Optimism and CPM were assessed in a sample of healthy, ethnically diverse young adults. CPM was determined by comparing pressure pain thresholds obtained before and during exposure to a cold pressor task. All participants completed a validated measure of dispositional optimism. Greater reported optimism was significantly associated with enhanced CPM, and the strength of this association did not vary according to individuals’ ethnic background. These findings suggest that an optimistic disposition may potentiate endogenous pain inhibition. PMID:22367226

  1. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  2. Wave-particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.; Marsch, E.; Perschke, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Comişel, H.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions for the Landau and cyclotron resonances are tested for 543 waves (identified as local peaks in the energy spectra) in the magnetic field fluctuations of the solar wind measured by the Cluster spacecraft on a tetrahedral scale of 100 km. The resonance parameters are evaluated using the frequencies in the plasma rest frame, the parallel components of the wavevectors, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the ion thermal speed. The observed waves show a character of the sideband waves associated with the ion Bernstein mode, and are in a weak agreement with the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance in spite of the ion-kinetic scales. The electron cyclotron resonance is likely taking place in solar wind turbulence near 1 AU (astronomical unit).

  3. Actual and perceived sleep: associations with daytime functioning among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Stacom, Elizabeth E; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2011-02-01

    Sleep and wake have a homeostatic relation that influences most aspects of physiology and waking behavior. Sleep disturbance has a detrimental effect on sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance. The purpose of this study was to identify which actual or perceived sleep characteristics accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning among postpartum mothers. Seventy first-time postpartum mothers' actual sleep (actigraphically estimated: total sleep time, number of wake bouts, length of nocturnal wake, and sleep efficiency) and perceived sleep (self-reported: number of awakenings, wake time, and sleep quality) were measured along with their daytime functioning (Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS], Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Visual Analogue of Fatigue Scale [VAFS], and morning Psychomotor Vigilance Test [PVT]). Data were repeatedly collected from the same sample during postpartum weeks 2, 7, and 13. Four stepwise linear regressions were calculated for each postpartum week to examine which objective and/or subjective variable(s) accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning. The SSS and VAFS were both most consistently associated with perceived sleep quality. The ESS was most consistently associated with actual total sleep time. PVT performance was most consistently associated with estimates of actual and perceived sleep efficiency. Actual and perceived sleep profiles were differentially associated with specific daytime functions. These results from postpartum mothers may indicate that populations who experience specific forms of sleep disturbance (e.g. fragmentation and/or deprivation) may also experience specific daytime conditions.

  4. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  5. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  6. Analysis of residuals in contingency tables: another nail in the coffin of conditional approaches to significance testing.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-03-01

    Omnibus tests of significance in contingency tables use statistics of the chi-square type. When the null is rejected, residual analyses are conducted to identify cells in which observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies. Residual analyses are thus conditioned on a significant omnibus test. Conditional approaches have been shown to substantially alter type I error rates in cases involving t tests conditional on the results of a test of equality of variances, or tests of regression coefficients conditional on the results of tests of heteroscedasticity. We show that residual analyses conditional on a significant omnibus test are also affected by this problem, yielding type I error rates that can be up to 6 times larger than nominal rates, depending on the size of the table and the form of the marginal distributions. We explored several unconditional approaches in search for a method that maintains the nominal type I error rate and found out that a bootstrap correction for multiple testing achieved this goal. The validity of this approach is documented for two-way contingency tables in the contexts of tests of independence, tests of homogeneity, and fitting psychometric functions. Computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these analyses is provided as Supplementary Material.

  7. MER ARA pyroshock test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the shock test results achieved in the MER ARA/brush motor pyroshock qualification. The results of MER flight system pyrofiring tests in comparison with the ARA shock test requirements are discussed herein. Alternate test methods were developed in an effort to qualify the critical MER equipment for adequate performance in the actual flight pyroshock condition.

  8. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  9. Testing ZigBee motes for monitoring refrigerated vegetable transportation under real conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio; Lunadei, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous 'cold chain' from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France) which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  10. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio; Lunadei, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France) which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments. PMID:22399917

  11. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, ANDREA D.; YIH, ERIKA T.; MCCOY, DANIEL F.; LOPRESTI, EDMUND F.; MCCUE, MICHAEL P.; PARMANTO, BAMBANG; DICIANNO, BRAD E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18–40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  12. Conditions necessary for capillary hysteresis in porous media: Tests of grain size and surface tension influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Olson, Keith R.; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-05-01

    Hysteresis in the relation between water saturation and matric potential is generally regarded as a basic aspect of unsaturated porous media. However, the nature of an upper length scale limit for saturation hysteresis has not been previously addressed. Since hysteresis depends on whether or not capillary rise occurs at the grain scale, this criterion was used to predict required combinations of grain size, surface tension, fluid-fluid density differences, and acceleration in monodisperse systems. The Haines number (Ha), composed of the aforementioned variables, is proposed as a dimensionless number useful for separating hysteretic (Ha < 15) versus nonhysteretic (Ha > 15) behavior. Vanishing of hysteresis was predicted to occur for grain sizes greater than 10.4 ± 0.5 mm, for water-air systems under the acceleration of ordinary gravity, based on Miller-Miller scaling and Haines' original model for hysteresis. Disappearance of hysteresis was tested through measurements of drainage and wetting curves of sands and gravels and occurs between grain sizes of 10 and 14 mm (standard conditions). The influence of surface tension was tested through measurements of moisture retention in 7 mm gravel, without and with a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS)). The ordinary water system (Ha = 7) exhibited hysteresis, while the SDBS system (Ha = 18) did not. The experiments completed in this study indicate that hysteresis in moisture retention relations has an upper limit at Ha = 16 ± 2 and show that hysteresis is not a fundamental feature of unsaturated porous media.

  13. RF Conditioning and Testing of Fundamental Power Couplers for SNS Superconducting Cavity Production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stirbet; G.K. Davis; M. A. Drury; C. Grenoble; J. Henry; G. Myneni; T. Powers; K. Wilson; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; Y.W. Kang; D. Stout

    2005-05-16

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) makes use of 33 medium beta (0.61) and 48 high beta (0.81) superconducting cavities. Each cavity is equipped with a fundamental power coupler, which should withstand the full klystron power of 550 kW in full reflection for the duration of an RF pulse of 1.3 msec at 60 Hz repetition rate. Before assembly to a superconducting cavity, the vacuum components of the coupler are submitted to acceptance procedures consisting of preliminary quality assessments, cleaning and clean room assembly, vacuum leak checks and baking under vacuum, followed by conditioning and RF high power testing. Similar acceptance procedures (except clean room assembly and baking) were applied for the airside components of the coupler. All 81 fundamental power couplers for SNS superconducting cavity production have been RF power tested at JLAB Newport News and, beginning in April 2004 at SNS Oak Ridge. This paper gives details of coupler processing and RF high power-assessed performances.

  14. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  15. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  16. Analytic and experimental evaluation of flowing air test conditions for selected metallics in a shuttle TPS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Tong, H.; Clark, K. J.; Suchsland, K. E.; Neuner, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions important to the response of these thermal protection system (TPS) materials were calculated, and test conditions appropriate to simulation of these flight conditions in flowing air ground test facilities were defined. The response characteristics of these metallics were then evaluated for the flight and representative ground test conditions by analytical techniques employing appropriate thermochemical and thermal response computer codes and by experimental techniques employing an arc heater flowing air test facility and flat face stagnation point and wedge test models. These results were analyzed to define the ground test requirements to obtain valid TPS response characteristics for application to flight. For both material types in the range of conditions appropriate to the shuttle application, the surface thermochemical response resulted in a small rate of change of mass and a negligible energy contribution. The thermal response in terms of surface temperature was controlled by the net heat flux to the surface; this net flux was influenced significantly by the surface catalycity and surface emissivity. The surface catalycity must be accounted for in defining simulation test conditions so that proper heat flux levels to, and therefore surface temperatures of, the test samples are achieved.

  17. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  18. Multispecies reactive tracer test in an aquifer with spatially variable chemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Kent, D.B.; Coston, J.A.; Hess, K.M.; Joye, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    A field investigation of multispecies reactive transport was conducted in a well-characterized, sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The aquifer is characterized by regions of differing chemical conditions caused by the disposal of secondary sewage effluent. Ten thousand liters of groundwater with added tracers (Br, Cr(VI), and BDTA complexed with Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni) were injected into the aquifer and distributions of the tracers were monitored for 15 months. Most of the tracers were transported more than 200 m; transport was quantified using spatial moments computed from the results of a series of synoptic samplings. Cr(VI) transport was retarded relative to Br; the retardation factor varied from 1.1 to 2.4 and was dependent on chemical conditions. At 314 days after the injection, dissolved Cr(VI) mass in the tracer cloud had decreased 85%, with the likely cause being reduction to Cr(III) in a suboxic region of the aquifer. Transport of the metal-EDTA complexes was affected by aqueous complexation, adsorption, and dissolution-precipitation reactions of Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the aquifer sediments. Dissolved Pb-EDTA complexes disappeared from the tracer cloud within 85 days, probably due to metal exchange reactions with Fe and adsorbed Zn (present prior to the injection from contamination by the sewage effluent). About 30% of the Cu-EDTA complexes remained within the tracer cloud 314 days after injection, even though the thermodynamic stability of the Pb-EDTA complex is greater than Cu-EDTA. It is hypothesized that stronger adsorption of Pb2+ to the aquifer sediments causes the Pb-EDTA complex to disassociate to a greater degree than the Cu-EDTA complex. The mass of dissolved Zn-EDTA increased during the first 175 days of the tracer test to 140% of the mass injected, with the increase due to desorption of sewage-derived Zn. Dissolved Ni-EDTA mass remained nearly constant throughout the tracer test, apparently only participating in reversible

  19. Aeroheating Testing and Predictions for Project Orion CEV at Turbulent Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9 Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles and in the NASA Langley Research Center 20 - Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Heating data were obtained using a thermocouple-instrumented approx.0.035-scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the flight vehicle. Runs were performed in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 20x10(exp 6)/ft, in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 48x10(exp 6)/ft, and in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft. In both facilities, enthalpy levels were low and the test gas (N2 in Tunnel 9 and air in the 20-Inch Mach 6) behaved as a perfect-gas. These test conditions produced laminar, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle, and laminar and transitional data in the 20- Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the experimental data to help define the accuracy of computational method. In general, it was found that both laminar data and predictions, and turbulent data and predictions, agreed to within less than the estimated 12% experimental uncertainty estimate. Laminar heating distributions from all three data sets were shown to correlate well and demonstrated Reynolds numbers independence when expressed in terms of the Stanton number based on adiabatic wall-recovery enthalpy. Transition onset locations on the leeside centerline were determined from the data and correlated in terms of boundary-layer parameters. Finally turbulent heating augmentation ratios were determined for several body-point locations and correlated in terms of the

  20. The use of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess relationships between bioaccessible metals in urban soil and neurodevelopmental conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Yinding; McDermott, Suzanne; Cai, Bo; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lead, Jamie

    2016-05-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and cerebral palsy (CP) are serious neurodevelopment conditions and low birth weight (LBW) is correlated with both ID and CP. The actual causes and mechanisms for each of these child outcomes are not well understood. In this study, the relationship between bioaccessible metal concentrations in urban soil and these child conditions were investigated. A physiologically based extraction test (PBET) mimicking gastric and intestinal processes was applied to measure the bio-accessibility of four metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) in urban soil, and a Bayesian Kriging method was used to estimate metal concentrations in geocoded maternal residential sites. The results showed that bioaccessible metal concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase were statistically significantly associated with the child outcomes. Lead and nickel were associated with ID, lead and cadmium was associated with LBW, and cadmium was associated with CP. The total concentrations and stomach concentrations were not correlated to significant effects in any of the analyses. For lead, an estimated threshold value was found that was statistically significant in predicting low birth weight. The change point test was statistically significant (p value = 0.045) at an intestine threshold level of 9.2 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 8.9-9.4, p value = 0.0016), which corresponds to 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil. This is a narrow confidence interval for an important relationship.

  1. Impact of typical steady-state conditions and transient conditions on flow ripple and its test accuracy for axial piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junhui

    2015-09-01

    The current research about the flow ripple of axial piston pump mainly focuses on the effect of the structure of parts on the flow ripple. Therein, the structure of parts are usually designed and optimized at rated working conditions. However, the pump usually has to work in large-scale and time-variant working conditions. Therefore, the flow ripple characteristics of pump and analysis for its test accuracy with respect to variant steady-state conditions and transient conditions in a wide range of operating parameters are focused in this paper. First, a simulation model has been constructed, which takes the kinematics of oil film within friction pairs into account for higher accuracy. Afterwards, a test bed which adopts Secondary Source Method is built to verify the model. The simulation and tests results show that the angular position of the piston, corresponding to the position where the peak flow ripple is produced, varies with the different pressure. The pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase with the rise of pressure and the variation rate of pressure. For the pump working at a constant speed, the flow pulsation rate decreases dramatically with the increasing speed when the speed is less than 27.78% of the maximum speed, subsequently presents a small decrease tendency with the speed further increasing. With the rise of the variation rate of speed, the pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase. As the swash plate angle augments, the pulsating amplitude of flow ripple increases, nevertheless the flow pulsation rate decreases. In contrast with the effect of the variation of pressure, the test accuracy of flow ripple is more sensitive to the variation of speed. It makes the test accuracy above 96.20% available for the pulsating amplitude of pressure deviating within a range of ±6% from the mean pressure. However, with a variation of speed deviating within a range of ±2% from the mean speed, the attainable test

  2. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: The sample comprised 160 individuals with MS. One group of participants (n = 82) completed a 6MW while wearing a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) in a square hallway with four corridors and performing 90° turns. Another group (n = 78) completed a 6MW while wearing the same metabolic unit in a single corridor and performing 180° turns. Main outcome measures included total distance walked (in feet) and oxygen consumption (in milliliters per minute) expressed as 30-second averages for 1 minute before the 6MW and over the entire 6MW. Disability status was assessed using the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale. Results: Participants undertaking the 6MW in a single corridor (1412 ft) walked 37 ft (2.7%) farther than those undertaking the test in a square hallway (1375 ft), but this difference was not statistically significant (F = 0.45, P = .51). Those completing the 6MW in a single corridor expended more energy than those completing the 6MW in the square hallway with four corridors (F = 3.41, P < .01). Conclusions: Either protocol is acceptable, but researchers should be aware of the additional physiological demands when administering the 6MW in a single corridor with 180° turns. PMID:24688354

  3. Maturity of judgement in decision making for predictive testing for nontreatable adult-onset neurogenetic conditions: a case against predictive testing of minors.

    PubMed

    Richards, F H

    2006-11-01

    International guidelines developed to minimize harm from predictive testing for adult-onset, nontreatable neurogenetic conditions such as Huntington disease (HD) state that such testing should not be available to minors. Some authors have proposed that predictive testing for these conditions should be available to minors at the request of parents and/or of younger adolescents themselves. They highlight the lack of empirical evidence that predictive testing of minors causes harm and suggest that refusing to test minors may be detrimental. The current study focuses on the context of predictive test requests by adolescents younger than 18 years, and presents arguments and evidence that the risk of potential harm from testing such young people is sufficiently high to justify continued caution in this area. A study based on a model of psychosocial maturity found that the 3 factors involved in maturity of judgement in decision making - responsibility, temperance and perspective - continue to develop into late adolescence. There is also evidence that the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are involved in executive functions such as decision making, are not fully developed until early adulthood. Combined with evidence of adverse long-term effects, from research with adults who have undergone predictive testing, these findings constitute grounds for retaining a minimum age of 18 years for predictive testing for nontreatable conditions. Further research on assessment of maturity will assist with reaching a consensus on this issue.

  4. Testing conditional independence in sets of I × J tables by means of moment and correlation score tests with application to HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Iannario, Maria; Lang, Joseph B

    2016-11-10

    A new testing approach is described for improving statistical tests of independence in sets of tables stratified on one or more relevant factors in case of categorical (nominal or ordinal) variables. Common tests of independence that exploit the ordinality of one of the variables use a restricted-alternative approach. A different, relaxed-null method is presented. Specifically, the M-moment score tests and the correlation tests are introduced. Using multinomial-Poisson homogeneous modeling theory, it is shown that these tests are computationally and conceptually simple, and simulation results suggest that they can perform better than other common tests of conditional independence. To illustrate, the proposed tests are used to better understand the human papillomavirus type-specific infection by exploring the intention to vaccinate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Parapatric genetic introgression and phenotypic assimilation: testing conditions for introgression between Hercules beetles (Dynastes, Dynastinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Pan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and consequences of genetic introgression between species have been intensively debated. I used Hercules beetles as examples to test for conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of introgression. RADseq data were used to reconstruct the species tree and history of introgression between Hercules beetles. Image data from museum specimens were used to investigate the phenotypic similarity of two adaptive traits between species from two distinct climatic realms (Nearctic vs. Neotropical). Genetic introgression was identified between Hercules beetles living in geographic proximity (parapatric). Phylogenetic relatedness and phenotypic similarity did not predict nor preclude genetic introgression between species. Phenotypic assimilation in body coloration was evident between distantly related Hercules beetles codistributed in Central America, where directional introgression was also statistically supported from the putative donor to receiver lineages. The number of introgressed loci was significantly higher between species with than without phenotypic similarity. I discuss the implications of recent studies on adaptive genetic introgression by providing supporting evidence from the Hercules beetle system.

  6. Testing of the hydromechanical prediction model of soil erosion under the conditions of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogichaishvili, G. P.; Kirvalidze, D. R.; Gorjomeladze, O. L.

    2014-09-01

    A hydromechanical model for predicting water (rain-induced) soil erosion was tested on the experimental plots of the Research Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops in Zendidi village (the Ajara Autonomous Republic) and the Sabashvili Institute of Soil Science, Agrochemistry, and Melioration in Khevi and Kitskhi villages (Upper Imeretia, Western Georgia). A comparison of factual and predicted values of rain-induced erosion for the plots with permanent black fallow showed that the model overestimated the average annual soil loss for the yellow-brown strongly eroded soil in Zendidi village by 23.22 t/ha (133%). This value ranged in different years from 18 to 1052%. For the plots with corn, the predicted value of annual erosion was by 16.94 t/ha higher than the factual value (overestimation of 488%). A comparison of factual and predicted values of rainfall erosion for the plots under sprinkling irrigation also showed that the predicted soil loss was higher than the factual one by 4.14-30.40 t/ha for corn, 6.76-11.14 t/ha for winter wheat, and 15.75-24.12 t/ha for the plots with stubble of winter wheat and barley. Thus, the hydromechanical model for predicting water erosion inadequately describes it under the conditions of Western Georgia and has to be refined.

  7. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  8. Local Flow Conditions for Propulsion Experiments on the NASA F-15B Propulsion Flight Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Corda, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Local flow conditions were measured underneath the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-15B airplane to support development of future experiments on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF). The local Mach number and flow angles were measured using a conventional air data boom on a cone-cylinder mounted under the PFTF and compared with the airplane air data nose boom measurements. At subsonic flight speeds, the airplane and PFTF Mach numbers were approximately equal. Transonic Mach number values were up to 0.1 greater at the PFTF than the airplane, which is a counterintuitive result. The PFTF local supersonic Mach numbers were as much as 0.46 less than the airplane values. The maximum local Mach number at the PFTF was approximately 1.6 at an airplane Mach number near 2.0. The PFTF local angle of attack was negative at all Mach numbers, ranging from -3 to -8 degrees. When the airplane angle of sideslip was zero, the PFTF local value was zero between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.1, -2 degrees between Mach 1.1 and Mach 1.5, and increased from zero to 1 degree from Mach 1.5 to Mach 2.0. Airplane inlet shock waves crossed the aerodynamic interface plane between Mach 1.85 and Mach 1.90.

  9. A hybrid mock circulatory system: testing a prototype under physiologic and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; De Lazzari, Claudio; Kozarski, Maciej; Clemente, Fabrizio; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Mimmo, Rita; Monnanni, Eliana; Tosti, Giancarlo; Guaragno, Marco

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic models of circulation are used to test mechanical heart assist devices and for research and training purposes. However, when compared with numerical models, they are rather expensive and often not sufficiently flexible or accurate. Flexibility and accuracy can be improved by merging numerical models with physical models, thus obtaining a hybrid model where numerical and physical sections are connected by an electrohydraulic interface. This concept is applied here to represent left ventricular function. The resulting hybrid model is inserted into the existing closed loop model of circulation. The hybrid model reproduces ventricular function by a variable elastance numerical model. Its interaction with the hydraulic sections is governed by measuring left atrial and systemic arterial pressures and computing the left ventricular output flow by the resolution of the corresponding equations. This signal is used to control a flow generator reproduced by a gear pump driven by a DC motor. Results obtained under different circulatory conditions demonstrate the behavior of the ventricular model on the pressure-volume plane and report the trend of the main hemodynamic variables.

  10. Positive reinforcing effect of neurotensin microinjection into the ventral pallidum in conditioned place preference test.

    PubMed

    Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Berente, Eszter; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2015-02-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and it has a key role in motivation, reward, and memory processes. Neurotensin (NT) is an important neuromodulator which has been shown to modulate reinforcement in the ventral tegmental area, in the ventral mesencephalic region and in the central nucleus of amygdala. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) has already been detected in the VP in abundance, but its role in rewarding and reinforcing processes is not fully understood yet. In our present experiments, the effects of NT on positive reinforcement were investigated in the VP. In conditioned place preference (CPP) test, male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 ng or 250 ng NT in the volume of 0.4 μl. In other groups of animals, 35 ng NTR1 antagonist SR 48692 was applied by itself, or microinjected 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. One hundred ng dose of NT induced CPP, whereas animals injected with 250 ng NT did not exhibit significant differences from the vehicle group. Antagonist pretreatment inhibited the effect of NT, while the antagonist applied by itself had no effect. Our results show that NT injected into the VP is involved in positive reinforcement. This effect is specific to NTR1 receptors because the development of CPP can be prevented by specific antagonist.

  11. Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Implicit measures such as the Implicit Association Test (OAT) have recently become popular as tools in research on evaluative conditioning. The reason is that these measures are thought to be impervious to changes in valence that are due to conscious propositional knowledge about the relation between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the…

  12. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test…

  13. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  14. Note on Unconditional and Conditional Hypothesis Testing: A Discussion of an Issue Raised by van der Linden and Sotaridona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In the context of reviewing an article for this journal (van der Linden & Sotaridona, this issue, pp. 283-304) the topic of unconditional and conditional hypothesis testing came under consideration. While this is hardly a new issue (consider, for example, arguments regarding the chi square vs. Fisher exact test of independence for a 2 x 2…

  15. A Method for Calculating the Heat Required for Windshield Thermal Ice Prevention Based on Extensive Flight Tests in Natural Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Holdaway, George H; Steinmetz, Charles P

    1947-01-01

    An equation is presented for calculating the heat flow required from the surface of an internally heated windshield in order to prevent the formation of ice accretions during flight in specified icing conditions. To ascertain the validity of the equation, comparison is made between calculated values of the heat required and measured values obtained for test windshields in actual flights in icing conditions. The test windshields were internally heated and provided data applicable to two common types of windshield configurations; namely the V-type and the type installed flush with the fuselage contours. These windshields were installed on a twin-engine cargo airplane and the icing flights were conducted over a large area of the United States during the winters of 1945-46 and 1946-47. In addition to the internally heated windshield investigation, some test data were obtained for a windshield ice-prevention system in which heated air was discharged into the windshield boundary layer. The general conclusions resulting from this investigation are as follows: 1) The amount of heat required for the prevention of ice accretions on both flush- and V-type windshields during flight in specified icing conditions can be calculated with a degree of accuracy suitable for design purposes. 2) A heat flow of 2000 to 2500 Btu per hour per square foot is required for complete and continuous protection of a V-type windshield in fight at speeds up to 300 miles per hour in a moderate cumulus icing condition. For the same degree of protection and the same speed range, a value of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot suffices in a moderate stratus icing condition. 3) A heat supply of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot is adequate for a flush windshield located well aft of the fuselage stagnation region, at speeds up to 300 miles per hour, for flight in both stratus and moderate cumulus icing conditions. 4) The external air discharge system of windshield thermal ice prevention is thermally

  16. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew; Stecher, Dave

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  17. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  18. Boehmite Actual Waste Dissolutions Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2008-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite, sodium aluminate and boehmite. Gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic. Boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Samples were taken from four Hanford tanks and homogenized in order to give a sample that is representative of REDOX (Reduction Oxidation process for Pu recovery) sludge solids. Bench scale testing was performed on the homogenized waste to study the dissolution of boehmite. Dissolution was studied at three different hydroxide concentrations, with each concentration being run at three different temperatures. Samples were taken periodically over the 170 hour runs in order to determine leaching kinetics. Results of the dissolution studies and implications for the proposed processing of these wastes will be discussed.

  19. Analysis of a PEMFC durability test under low humidity conditions and stack behaviour modelling using experimental design techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahdame, Bouchra; Candusso, Denis; Harel, Fabien; François, Xavier; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Hissel, Daniel; Kauffmann, Jean-Marie

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack has been operated under low humidity conditions during 1000 h. The fuel cell characterisation is based both on polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectra recorded for various stoichiometry rates, performed regularly throughout the ageing process. Some design of experiment (DoE) techniques, and in particular the response surface methodology (RSM), are employed to analyse the results of the ageing test and to propose some numerical/statistical laws for the modelling of the stack performance degradation. These mathematical relations are used to optimise the fuel cell operating conditions versus ageing time and to get a deeper understanding of the ageing mechanisms. The test results are compared with those obtained from another stack operated in stationary regime at roughly nominal conditions during 1000 h (reference test). The final objective is to ensure for the next fuel cell systems proper operating conditions leading to extended lifetimes.

  20. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  1. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  2. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  3. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

  4. Use of estuarine water column tests for detecting toxic conditions in ambient areas of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D. Jr. )

    1995-02-01

    Various estuarine water column toxicity tests were conducted twice in nine different ambient stations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over a 2-year period (1991 to 1993) to determine if toxic conditions existed. The following 8-d toxicity tests were conducted: larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) survival and growth test; larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) survival and growth test; and a copepod (Eurytemora affinis) life-cycle test. During the second year of testing, two 48-h coot clam (Mulinia lateralis) tests were conducted at each station during each testing period. In 1991, the toxicity tests were conducted twice at stations in the Potomac River at Morgantown and Dahlgren, and in the Patapsco River and the Wye River at the Manor House. All of the above tests were conducted during the fall of 1992 and spring of 1993 at two stations in the Wye River, Nanticoke River, and Middle River. Inorganic contaminants, organic contaminants, and water-quality conditions were measured concurrently during the toxicity testing of ambient water. In 1991, reduced growth of sheepshead minnow larvae was reported at both Potomac River stations during the first test. Significant mortality of either the copepod or sheepshead minnow larvae was also reported at the Wye River during both tests. Results from the 1992/93 testing generally showed minimal effects for three of the test species at all stations. Reduced normal shell development was reported for the coot clam at both Middle River stations during the fall and spring tests concurrently with concentrations of various trace metals that exceeded chronic marine water-quality criteria.

  5. Moving from the laboratory to the field: Adding natural environmental conditions to toxicology testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive. To ...

  6. 42 CFR 493.801 - Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... would normally require reflex, distributive, or confirmatory testing at another laboratory, the... another laboratory for analysis, but the requested testing was limited to reflex, distributive, or... referral was made for reflex or confirmatory testing, or any other reason. (5) The laboratory must...

  7. Conditional and Unconditional Tests (and Sample Size) Based on Multiple Comparisons for Stratified 2 × 2 Tables

    PubMed Central

    Martín Andrés, A.; Herranz Tejedor, I.; Álvarez Hernández, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel test is the most frequent asymptotic test used for analyzing stratified 2 × 2 tables. Its exact alternative is the test of Birch, which has recently been reconsidered by Jung. Both tests have a conditional origin: Pearson's chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. But both tests have the same drawback that the result of global test (the stratified test) may not be compatible with the result of individual tests (the test for each stratum). In this paper, we propose to carry out the global test using a multiple comparisons method (MC method) which does not have this disadvantage. By refining the method (MCB method) an alternative to the Mantel-Haenszel and Birch tests may be obtained. The new MC and MCB methods have the advantage that they may be applied from an unconditional view, a methodology which until now has not been applied to this problem. We also propose some sample size calculation methods. PMID:26075012

  8. Drinking water test methods in crisis-afflicted areas: comparison of methods under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Bleul, Ingo; Schulenburg, Jörg; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Klein, Günter

    2011-11-01

    To simplify the testing of drinking water in crisis-afflicted areas (as in Kosovo in 2007), rapid test methods were compared with the standard test. For Escherichia coli and coliform pathogens, rapid tests were made available: Colilert(®)-18, P/A test with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucoronid, and m-Endo Broth. Biochemical differentiation was carried out by Enterotube™ II. Enterococci were determined following the standard ISO test and by means of Enterolert™. Four hundred ninety-nine water samples were tested for E. coli and coliforms using four methods. Following the standard method, 20.8% (n=104) of the samples contained E. coli, whereas the rapid tests detected between 19.6% (m-Endo Broth, 92.0% concordance) and 20.0% (concordance: 93.6% Colilert-18 and 94.8% P/A-test) positive samples. Regarding coliforms, the percentage of concordant results ranged from 98.4% (P/A-test) to 99.0% (Colilert-18). Colilert-18 and m-Endo Broth detected even more positive samples than the standard method did. Enterococci were detected in 93 of 573 samples by the standard method, but in 92 samples by Enterolert (concordance: 99.5%). Considering the high-quality equipment and time requirements of the standard method, the use of rapid tests in crisis-afflicted areas is sufficiently reliable.

  9. Testing a dynamic global vegetation model for pre-industrial and Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handiani, Dian N.; Rachmayani, Rima; Paul, André; Dupont, Lydie M.

    2010-05-01

    Achieving better comparison between dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) with pollen or plant data is important for the climate-vegetation modeling community. Our study tried to find a scheme that can be applied consistently to compare DGVMs with pollen data sets. We tested two models, the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics (TRIFFID) and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM), which we both ran for pre-industrial boundary conditions. In addition, we ran the TRIFFID model using boundary conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~19,000- 23,000 years before present). For comparisons, we used the modern vegetation of the BIOME4 model and the reconstruction for the year 18000 after pollen data from the BIOME6000 (Version 4.2) project. Differences in the number of PFTs in each DGVMs lead to different results of the biome distribution even if models and data qualitatively agree. In the CLM-DGVM pre-industrial run, northern South America is covered by savanna or desert biome, which is associated with more growing degree days and lower rates of precipitation. Meanwhile, the TRIFFID model simulated a tropical forest in northern South America and a desert biome in Australia, probably because of higher values of growing degree days and different precipitation rates, which is lower in South America and higher in Australia. The climate parameters from both models show a similar pattern as in the BIOME4 model, but the values are higher in the DGVMs. Biome distributions of the pre-industrial simulation show similarities and differences between dynamic vegetation modeling and data reconstructions. Both models reveal a fair agreement simulating savanna and desert biomes around the Sahel, tropical forest in western Africa, boreal forest in eastern North America and in Siberia, and tundra in northern Canada. Some discrepancies appear in South America and Africa, where pollen data indicate a combination of

  10. Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…

  11. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G250 airplane. This...

  12. 78 FR 43963 - Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions... public of the Sixty-Second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  14. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  15. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, Dave; Poerschke, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  16. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  17. Hot-Fire Testing of 100 LB(sub F) LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LO2/LCH4 ) has recently been viewed as a potential green propulsion system for both the Altair ascent main engine (AME) and reaction control system (RCS). The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development Project (PCAD) has been tasked by NASA to develop these green propellant systems to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. However, experience with LO2/LCH4 as a propellant combination is limited, so testing of these systems is critical to demonstrating reliable ignition and performance. A test program of a 100 lb f reaction control engine (RCE) is underway at the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) of the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a focus on conducting tests at altitude conditions. These tests include a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows for the inlet conditions of the propellant to be varied to test warm to subcooled liquid propellant temperatures. Engine performance, including thrust, c* and vacuum specific impulse (I(sub sp,vac)) will be presented as a function of propellant temperature conditions. In general, the engine performed as expected, with higher performance at warmer propellant temperatures but better efficiency at lower propellant temperatures. Mixture ratio effects were inconclusive within the uncertainty bands of data, but qualitatively showed higher performance at lower ratios.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditioner will be included in the equivalent test weight calculations for emission testing. ... estimated weight of that item must be included in the curb weight computation for each vehicle available... equipment or an option), no weight for that item will be added in computing the curb weight for any...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test... with that item in that car line, within that test group. (2) Where it is expected that 33 percent...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light...-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test group, will be... that car line, within that test group. (2) Where it is expected that 33 percent or less of the car...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test... with that item in that car line, within that test group. (2) Where it is expected that 33 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test... with that item in that car line, within that test group. (2) Where it is expected that 33 percent...

  3. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  4. Measurements of VOC emissions from three building materials using small environmental chamber under defined standard test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Lusztyk, E.; Magee, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    VOC emission profile is an important parameter to describe the building materials and consumer products for their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). Emission profiles are dependent on the test conditions. It is therefore very important to standardize testing conditions in order to compare emission factors and decay constants reported by various testing laboratories. Standard chamber test conditions (Chamber temperature of 23 C, relative humidity of 50 %, air change rate of 1 ACH, and specimen loading ratio of 0.4 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) have been proposed for using small environment chamber (0.05 m{sup 3}) by an international consortium research program led by the Institute for Research in Construction, NRCC. VOC emissions (excluding formaldehyde) from three building materials, a particleboard, a carpet with rubber backing and a vinyl floor tile were measured under above defined test conditions. Samples of the chamber air were collected using multi-sorbent tubes during the chamber tests, and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) GC/FID. GC peaks were identified using TD/GC/MS. Major VOCs emitted were solvents, aldehydes, C10-and C15-terpenes for the particleboard, alkanes, alkenes and 4-phenyl cyclohexene for the carpet. VOC emissions from vinyl floor tile were dominated by a mixture of two alkyl propanoates, which eluted late (at about 230 C) on GC column. Total VOCs in the chamber air reached at 1100, 210 and 2400 m g/m3 for the particleboard, carpet and vinyl floor tile respectively. The analytical variation was around 5 to 10 % judged by a number of duplicates analyzed during the tests. First order exponential decay model and power law decay model were used to describe the emission factor decay from 12 h after the start of dynamic chamber tests. The power law model was found to better fit the experimental data than the first order decay model.

  5. Reasoning with conditionals: a test of formal models of four theories.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. Psychological Review, 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). If. Oxford: Oxford University Press), a dual-process variant of the model theory (Verschueren, N., Schaeken, W., & d'Ydewalle, G. (2005). A dual-process specification of causal conditional reasoning. Thinking &Reasoning, 11, 278-293), and the probabilistic theory (Oaksford, M., Chater, N., & Larkin, J. (2000). Probabilities and polarity biases in conditional inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 883-899). The first three theories are formalized as multinomial models. The models are applied to the frequencies of patterns of acceptance or rejection across the four basic inferences modus ponens, acceptance of the consequent, denial of the antecedent, and modus tollens. Model fits are assessed for two large data sets, one representing reasoning with abstract, basic conditionals, the other reflecting reasoning with pseudo-realistic causal and non-causal conditionals. The best account of the data was provided by a modified version of the mental-model theory, augmented by directionality, and by the dual-process model.

  6. Mechanical characterization of pharmaceutical solids: a comparison between rheological tests performed under static and dynamic porosity conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Cespi, Marco; Misici-Falzi, Monica; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to verify how and to what extent rheological tests, carried out under dynamic (Heckel) and static (creep, stress/strain) porosity conditions, may serve as a valuable complement to the classic Heckel tests in the characterization of viscoelastic and densification properties of solid materials for pharmaceutical use. Six different modified (pregelatinized) starches were compressed in a rotary tablet machine equipped to measure force and punch displacement. Tablets were obtained using flat-faced 6mm diameter punches at different compression pressures. Compression cycles performed at the maximal pressure of 200MPa were used to build the Heckel plots. Ejected tablets at the 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% porosity levels were used for the stress/strain and creep tests. Parameters obtained with both types of tests were consistent with each other. In particular, among the six starches, lower viscosity values corresponded to lower P(Y) values, and lower elastic modulus values corresponded to lower elastic recovery of the tablet. Mechanical properties of materials can be better characterized if viscoelastic tests performed under dynamic porosity conditions (Heckel analysis) are supported by classical viscoelastic tests carried out under conditions of static porosity.

  7. Comparison of exercise tests in French trotters under training track, racetrack and treadmill conditions.

    PubMed

    Couroucé, A; Geffroy, O; Barrey, E; Auvinet, B; Rose, R J

    1999-07-01

    Standardised exercise tests were performed at 2 different tracks and on an uninclined treadmill during the same week to determine the influence of exercise surface on different measured variables such as heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume, stride frequency, stride length, gait symmetry and regularity and on different derived physiological variables such as the speed at a HR of 200 beats/min (V200), the speed at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (V4), the speed at a maximal HR (VHRmax). Five French Trotters, age 3 years, in training for 3 months prior to the test, performed 3 exercise tests on a training track (Test 1), a racetrack (Test 2) and an uninclined treadmill (Test 3). Test 1 utilised 3 steps each of 3 min at speeds of 490, 560 and 630 m/min. Tests 2 and 3 utilised the same speeds and a fourth step in which the horse was accelerated for 30 s to speed approaching maximal. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for the physiological and locomotor variables between the 2 tracks. In contrast, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for these variables between the tracks and the treadmill, horses showing lower heart rate and blood lactate response, reduced stride frequency and increased stride length and regularity on the uninclined treadmill. We concluded that this standardised exercise test was repeatable on various tracks even when the surface and geometry vary. In contrast, both physiological and locomotor variables were different when comparing the tracks with the uninclined treadmill.

  8. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx_equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx_equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx_equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  9. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  10. Simulation of ballistic impact tests under various conditions for a nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. N.; Klingbeil, D.; Sievert, R.

    2006-08-01

    Smooth and round notched tensile specimens with three different notch radii as well as single-edge bending specimens were tested in two high strain-rate testing machines at various strain-rates and temperatures. The experimental data were used to identify the parameters of the Johnson-Cook deformation and failure model using the evolution strategy and LS-DYNA calculations respectively. Ballistic tests with both, the projectiles and target plates made from the same material were performed at different projectile velocities and with two different projectile tip shapes (blunt and conical) as well as with three different target thicknesses, target angles and at two different target temperatures. The calibrated Johnson-Cook models were successfully applied in LS-DYNA in an uncoupled manner to simulate these tests. In all FE simulations the integrative nonlocal Pijaudier-Cabot & Bazant method was applied for reducing the mesh dependency of the failure time.

  11. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  12. The dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process and its boundary conditions: Evidence based on human tests.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2016-04-01

    The reconsolidation process is the mechanism by which the strength and/or content of consolidated memories are updated. This process is triggered by the presentation of a reminder (training cues). It is not always possible to trigger the reconsolidation process. For example, memory age and strength are boundary conditions for the reconsolidation process. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes in these conditions. We propose that the boundary conditions of the reconsolidation process are not fixed and vary as a consequence of the interaction between memory features and reminder characteristics. To modify memory properties, participants received a threatening social protocol that improves memory acquisition or a control condition (fake, without social interaction) prior to learning pairs of meaningless syllables. To determine whether a strong young or old declarative memory undergoes the reconsolidation process, we used an interference task (a second list of pairs of meaningless syllables) to disrupt memory re-stabilization. To assess whether the older memory could be strengthened, we repeated the triggering of reconsolidation. Strong young or old memories modulated by a threatening experience could be interfered during reconsolidation and updated (strengthened) by reconsolidation. Rather than being fixed, boundary conditions vary according to the memory features (strong memory), which indicates the dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to modify these limits by recruiting the reconsolidation process and making it functionally operative again. This novel scenario opens the possibility to new therapeutically approaches that take into account the reconsolidation process.

  13. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  14. Methodology for measuring exhaust aerosol size distributions using an engine test under transient operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Desantes, José; Bermúdez, Vicente; Molina, Santiago; Linares, Waldemar G.

    2011-11-01

    A study on the sources of variability in the measurement of particle size distribution using a two-stage dilution system and an engine exhaust particle sizer was conducted to obtain a comprehensive and repeatable methodology that can be used to measure the particle size distribution of aerosols emitted by a light-duty diesel engine under transient operating conditions. The paper includes three experimental phases: an experimental validation of the measurement method; an evaluation of the influence of sampling factors, such as dilution system pre-conditioning; and a study of the effects of the dilution conditions, such as the dilution ratio and the dilution air temperature. An examination of the type and degree of influence of each studied factor is presented, recommendations for reducing variability are given and critical parameter values are identified to develop a highly reliable measurement methodology that could be applied to further studies on the effect of engine operating parameters on exhaust particle size distributions.

  15. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  16. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  17. Assessment of Environmental Qualification Practices and Condition Monitoring Techniques for Low-Voltage Electric Cables: LOCA Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Grove, E.; Villaran, M.; Soo, P.; Hsu, F.

    2001-02-01

    This report documents the results of a research program addressing issues related to the qualification process for low-voltage instrumentation and control (I&C) electric cables used in commercial nuclear power plants. Three commonly used types of I&C cable were tested: Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) insulation with a Neoprene® jacket, Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) insulation with an unbonded Hypalon® jacket, and EPR with a bonded Hypalon® jacket. Each cable type received accelerated aging to simulate 20, 40, and 60 years of qualified life. In addition, naturally aged cables of the same types were obtained from decommissioned nuclear power plants and tested. The cables were subjected to simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions, which included the sequential application of LOCA radiation followed by exposure to steam at high temperature and pressure, as well as to chemical spray. Periodic condition monitoring (CM) was performed using nine different techniques to obtain data on the condition of the cable, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of those CM techniques for in situ monitoring of cables. Volume 1 of this report presents the results of the LOCA tests, and Volume 2 discusses the results of the condition monitoring tests.

  18. Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, S. D.; Kittredge, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal interface material is one of the many tools often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. Historically, at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, numerous alternatives have come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and do not take into consideration other design issues, such as off-gassing, electrical conduction, isolation, etc. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to detail the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests. The results show that there are a number of better performing alternatives now available.

  19. 78 FR 7850 - Sixty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...-691) Review open proposals for Users Guides Review Working Group Drafts Section 4 Section 5 Section 8... Federal Aviation Administration Sixty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 135,...

  20. 77 FR 56253 - 60th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Working Group activities Section 4 Section 5 Section 8 Section 16 Section 20 Section 21 RTCA Workspace... Federal Aviation Administration 60th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and... of Transportation (DOT) ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 135,...

  1. Randomized Experiments for Planning and Testing Projects in Developing Countries: Threshold Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; Boruch, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Determining which program evaluations in developing countries are appropriate/feasible for randomized experiments to plan and evaluate social programs is discussed. Five threshold conditions are defined. Reviews of experiments from Barbados, China, Colombia, Kenya, Israel, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Taiwan, and the United States illustrate the issues…

  2. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  3. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  4. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  5. Braking reaching movements: a test of the constant tau-dot strategy under different viewing conditions.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brian; Churchill, Andrew; Vogt, Stefan; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2004-03-01

    Following F. Zaal and R. J. Bootsma (1995), the authors studied whether the decelerative phase of a reaching movement could be modeled as a constant tau-dot strategy resulting in a soft collision with the object. Specifically, they investigated whether that strategy is sustained over different viewing conditions. Participants (N = 11) were required to reach for 15- and 50-mm objects at 2 different distances under 3 conditions in which visual availability of the immediate environment and of the reaching hand were varied. Tau-dot estimates and goodness-of-fit were highly similar across the 3 conditions. Only within-participant variability of tau-dot estimates was increased when environmental cues were removed. That finding suggests that the motor system uses a tau-dot strategy involving the intermodal (i.e., visual, proprioceptive, or both) specification of information to regulate the decelerative phase of reaching under restricted viewing conditions. The authors provide recommendations for improving the derivation of tau;(x) estimates and stress the need for further research on how time-to-contact information is used in the regulation of the dynamics of actions such as reaching.

  6. Testing and modeling of diffusion bonded prototype optical windows under ITER conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.; Van Oost, G.; Degrieck, J.; De Baere, I.; Gusarov, A.; Gubbels, F.; Massaut, V.

    2011-07-01

    Glass-metal joints are a part of ITER optical diagnostics windows. These joints must be leak tight for the safety (presence of tritium in ITER) and to preserve the vacuum. They must also withstand the ITER environment: temperatures up to 220 deg.C and fast neutron fluxes of {approx}3.10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s. At the moment, little information is available about glass-metal joints suitable for ITER. Therefore, we performed mechanical and thermal tests on some prototypes of an aluminium diffusion bonded optical window. Finite element modeling with Abaqus code was used to understand the experimental results. The prototypes were helium leaking probably due to very tiny cracks in the interaction layer between the steel and the aluminium. However, they were all able to withstand a thermal cycling test up to 200 deg. C; no damage could be seen after the tests by visual inspection. The prototypes successfully passed push-out test with a 500 N load. During the destructive push-out tests the prototypes broke at a 6-12 kN load between the aluminium layer and the steel or the glass, depending on the surface quality of the glass. The microanalysis of the joints has also been performed. The finite element modeling of the push-out tests is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments. According to the model, the highest thermal stress is created in the aluminium layer. Thus, the aluminium joint seems to be the weakest part of the prototypes. If this layer is improved, it will probably make the prototype helium leak tight and as such, a good ITER window candidate. (authors)

  7. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    SciTech Connect

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.

  8. 40 CFR 1066.845 - AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... solar heating is disabled for certain test intervals as described in this section. (d) Interior air... vehicle's windows and operate the vehicle over a preconditioning UDDS with no solar heating and with the... cooling fans. (3) Turn on solar heating within one minute after turning off the engine. Once the...

  9. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  10. The Role of Gender in Test-Taking Motivation under Low-Stakes Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Bashkov, Bozhidar M.; Socha, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Examinee effort can impact the validity of scores on higher education assessments. Many studies of examinee effort have briefly noted gender differences, but gender differences in test-taking effort have not been a primary focus of research. This review of the literature brings together gender-related findings regarding three measures of examinee…

  11. Advances in Thin Film Thermocouple Durability Under High Temperature and Pressure Testing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Taylor, Keith F.

    1999-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples for measuring material surface temperature have been previously demonstrated on several material systems and in various hostile test environments. A well-developed thin film fabrication procedure utilizing shadow masking for patterning the sensors elements had produced thin films with sufficient durability for applications in high temperature and pressure environments that exist in air-breathing and hydrogen-fueled burner rig and engine test facilities. However, while shadow masking had been a reliable method for specimens with flat and gently curved surfaces, it had not been consistently reliable for use on test components with sharp contours. This work reports on the feasibility of utilizing photolithography processing for patterning thin film thermocouples. Because this patterning process required changes in the thin film deposition process from that developed for shadow masking, the effect of these changes on thin film adherence during burner rig testing was evaluated. In addition to the results of changing the patterning method, the effects on thin film adherence of other processes used in the thin film fabrication procedure is also presented.

  12. Problem-Solving Test: Conditional Gene Targeting Using the Cre/loxP Recombination System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: gene targeting, knock-out mutation, bacteriophage, complementary base-pairing, homologous recombination, deletion, transgenic organisms, promoter, polyadenylation element, transgene, DNA replication, RNA polymerase, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, restriction endonuclease, polymerase chain…

  13. Battlefield Dust and Atmospheric Characterization Measurements during West German Summertime Conditions in Support of Grafenwoehr Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    reflectance spectroscopy showed the imaginary index of each sample to be less than 0.0005 (the lower, limit of the measurement). A size distribution count...Filter samples for eac& test were analyzed for imaginary refractive index in the 0.3pm to 1.71,m spectral region; all values measured by diffuse

  14. The Development and Testing of a New Measure of Early Childhood Education Organizational Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Pacchiano, Debra M.; Luppescu, Stuart; Stein, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The current study sought to scientifically adapt the existing five essentials teacher survey and develop a new parent survey, and pilot test them for use in early childhood education settings. The adaptation and development of these "Early Education Surveys" occurred in 2014-15, was based strongly on Bryk et al.'s (2010) existing…

  15. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation Via AC-29-2C Using Damage Progression Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the results of spiral bevel gear rig tests performed under a NASA Space Act Agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to support validation and demonstration of rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for maintenance credits via FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 29-2C, Section MG-15, Airworthiness Approval of Rotorcraft (HUMS) (Ref. 1). The overarching goal of this work was to determine a method to validate condition indicators in the lab that better represent their response to faults in the field. Using existing in-service helicopter HUMS flight data from faulted spiral bevel gears as a "Case Study," to better understand the differences between both systems, and the availability of the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig, a plan was put in place to design, fabricate and test comparable gear sets with comparable failure modes within the constraints of the test rig. The research objectives of the rig tests were to evaluate the capability of detecting gear surface pitting fatigue and other generated failure modes on spiral bevel gear teeth using gear condition indicators currently used in fielded HUMS. Nineteen final design gear sets were tested. Tables were generated for each test, summarizing the failure modes observed on the gear teeth for each test during each inspection interval and color coded based on damage mode per inspection photos. Gear condition indicators (CI) Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS), +/- 1 Sideband Index (SI1) and +/- 3 Sideband Index (SI3) were plotted along with rig operational parameters. Statistical tables of the means and standard deviations were calculated within inspection intervals for each CI. As testing progressed, it became clear that certain condition indicators were more sensitive to a specific component and failure mode. These tests were clustered together for further analysis. Maintenance actions during testing were also documented. Correlation coefficients were

  16. Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

    Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses

  17. Demonstration & Testing of ClimaStat for Improved DX Air-Conditioning Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    46 Figure 6.4-2 a(CCAFS) and b(MCASB) ASHRAE Standard 55 Comfort Zone data. comparison...Space Command ASHRAE – American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning CCAFS- Cape Canaveral Air Force Station COP – Coefficient of...humidity, carbon-dioxide, and comfort. Ventilation was acceptable according to ASHRAE Standard 62 defined CO2 level 100% of the time at both sites

  18. The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory.

    PubMed

    Girotto, V; Mazzocco, A; Tasso, A

    1997-04-01

    The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus ponens because people do not represent the case not-q in their initial model of the conditional. On the basis of this theory, we predicted that conditions in which reasoners are forced to represent the not-q case should improve correct performance on modus tollens. In particular, we predicted that the presentation of the minor premise (not-q) as the initial premise should produce facilitation. Experiment 1 showed that this is the case: whereas the inversion of the premise order did not affect modus ponens, it produced a significant increase of valid conclusions for modus tollens. Experiment 2 showed that this facilitation does not depend on the negative form (contrary vs. contradictory) of the minor premise. Experiments 3 and 4 (and/or some of their replications) demonstrated that facilitation also occurs when participants are asked to find the cases compatible with not-q or to evaluate a p conclusion. No premise order effect was found for sentences which make explicit the not-q case right from the start, i.e. p only if q conditionals and biconditionals (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, Experiments 7 and 8 showed that the conditional fallacies are not significantly affected by the premise order.

  19. High Temperature Expansion Due to Compression Test for the Determination of a Cladding Material Failure Criterion under RIA Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saux, M.; Poussard, C.; Averty, X.; Sainte Catherine, C.; Carassou, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper is mainly dedicated to the development of an out-of-pile test reproducing the thermo-mechanical loading conditions encountered during the first stage of a Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) transient, dominated by Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI). In particular, the strain-controlled clad loading under high strain rate associated with temperatures up to 600 deg. C expected during the PCMI phase is simulated by an Expansion Due to Compression (EDC) test achievable at high temperature. The use of appropriate materials for the inner pellet made it possible to achieve the tests from 20 deg. C up to 900 deg. C. The interpretation of the test data is supported by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) including parameters tuned using an inverse method coupling FEA and tests results. A deformation model, identified upon the PROMETRA (Transient Mechanical Properties) experimental database and describing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding alloys under typical RIA loading conditions, is exploited. The combined analysis of experimental results and finite element simulations provides a deeper understanding of the deformation mode (near pure hoop tension) that arises during the tests. The failure mode appears to be representative of that obtained on tubes during the PCMI stage of RIA experiments. An appropriate device is currently developed in order to reach a bi-axiality of the loading path closer to that expected during the PCMI stage (between plane-strain and equal-biaxial tension). (authors)

  20. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.