Science.gov

Sample records for actual test conditions

  1. Global test of the conductor for Tore Supra under actual working conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, R.; Deck, C.; Genevey, P.; Lefevre, F.; Leloup, C.; Meuris, C.; Palanque, S.; Sagniez, A.; Turck, B.

    1981-09-01

    In a plasma current disruption event, the superconducting winding of the toroidal coils of a Tokomak must suffer severe conditions of magnetic field variations without losing superconductivity. An experimental setup has been built to simulate conditions which would eventually occur in ''Tore Supra'' and study the behavior of the designed conductor. A sample of this conductor is subjected simultaneously to a dc transverse magnetic field up to 9.5 T, a transport current up to 2200 amp and two pulsed field components: one parallel to the conductor length, up to 1 T and one perpendicular, up to 0.35 T. The time constant of these pulsed field components is adjustable from 8 to 150 ms. They can be applied independently or simultaneously. The experimental arrangement is able to provide quantitative limits for safe operations of ''Tore Supra''. 7 refs.

  2. The development of a test system for investigating the performances of personal aerosol samplers under actual workplace conditions.

    PubMed

    Botham, R A; Hughson, G W; Vincent, J H; Mark, D

    1991-10-01

    The performances of new "total" aerosol samplers for use in workplaces are required to match the inhalability criteria as contained in the latest recommendations of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In the past, practical evaluations have been carried out under idealized conditions in wind tunnels, and there is now the need to extend these to more realistic workplace conditions. This paper describes a new test system that was designed and built for this purpose. It consisted of a life-size mannequin mounted on a trolley so that it can be taken to and wheeled around in workplaces. The mannequin itself incorporated a robotic arm so that, under joystick control, it can be made to simulate a range of worker movements, orientations, and attitudes. An electronically controlled, compact breathing machine provided a range of typical breathing parameters for the mannequin. The pump also provided air movement for a number of personal samplers that were mounted on the torso of the mannequin and tested in that position. Sampler performance should be assessed by comparing directly the aerosol collected by the sampler with that inhaled by the mannequin (and collected on filters inside the head).

  3. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  4. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  5. Stability Tests with Actual Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    solutions in two laboratory experiments. The first experiment tested four waste solutions for supersaturation of aluminum by monitoring the aluminum concentration after seeding with gibbsite. The second experiment tested two waste samples for precipitation of aluminosilicates by heating the solutions to accelerate solids formation. The results of the experiments with actual waste solutions are supported in this report.

  6. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  8. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  9. Self Actualization and Modification of Affective Self Disclosures during a Social Conditioning Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid; Theiss, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of the data indicated that the low self actualizing group had the highest rate of conditioning, while the high self actualizing individuals showed a nonsignificant gain in the rate of affective self disclosures during conditioning but were more resistant to extinction as compared to the low and the moderate groups. (Author)

  10. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  11. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  12. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  14. Has the connection between polyploidy and diversification actually been tested?

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Many major clades of angiosperms have several whole genome duplications (polyploidization events) in their distant past, suggesting that polyploidy drives or at least permits diversification. However, data on recently diverged groups are more equivocal, finding little evidence of elevated diversification following polyploidy. The discrepancy may be attributable at least in part to methodology. Many studies use indirect methods, such as chromosome numbers, genome size, and Ks plots, to test polyploidy, although these approaches can be misleading, and often lack sufficient resolution. A direct test of diversification following polyploidy requires a sequence-based approach that traces the history of nuclear genomes rather than species. These methods identify the point of coalescence of ancestral genomes, but may be misleading about the time and thus the extent of diversification. Limitations of existing methods mean that the connection between polyploidy and diversification has not been rigorously tested and remains unknown.

  15. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  16. 29 CFR 801.24 - Rights of examinee-actual testing phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examinee and then analyzes the charts derived from the test. Throughout the actual testing phase, the... nature and characteristics of the examination and the instruments involved, as prescribed in section...

  17. 29 CFR 801.24 - Rights of examinee-actual testing phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... examinee and then analyzes the charts derived from the test. Throughout the actual testing phase, the... nature and characteristics of the examination and the instruments involved, as prescribed in section...

  18. 29 CFR 801.24 - Rights of examinee-actual testing phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... examinee and then analyzes the charts derived from the test. Throughout the actual testing phase, the... nature and characteristics of the examination and the instruments involved, as prescribed in section...

  19. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  20. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  1. [Method for direct generation data for formatted case report forms based on requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Liu, Bao-Yan; He, Li-Yun; Zhang, Run-Shun

    2013-04-01

    Data authenticity is the basic requirement of clinical studies. In actual clinical conditions how to establish formatted case report forms (CRF) in line with the requirement for data authenticity is the key to ensure clinical data quality. On the basis of the characteristics of clinical data in actual clinical conditions, we determined elements for establishing formatted case report forms by comparing differences in data characteristics of CRFs in traditional clinical studies and in actual clinical conditions, and then generated formatted case report forms in line with the requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions. The data of formatted CRFs generated in this study could not only meet the requirement for data authenticity of clinical studies in actual clinical conditions, but also comply with data management practices for clinical studies, thus it is deemed as a progress in technical methods.

  2. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  3. Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles under actual on-road driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J. Wayne; Maldonado, Hector; Chernich, Don

    Emission measurements of five 1996-2005 heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), representing three engine certification levels, were made using a Mobile Emissions Laboratory under actual on-road driving conditions on surface streets and highways. The results show that emissions depend on the emission component, the age/certification of vehicle/engine, as well as driving condition. For NO x emissions, there was a trend of decreasing emissions in going from older to newer model years and certification standards. Some vehicles showed a tendency toward higher NO x emissions per mile for the higher speed events (⩾55 mph) as compared to the 40 mph cruise and the other surface street driving, while others did not show large differences between different types of driving. For particulate matter (PM), the three oldest trucks had the highest emissions for surface street driving, while the two newest trucks had the highest PM emissions for highway driving. For total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions, some vehicles showed a tendency for higher emissions for the surface street segments compared to the steady-state segments, while others showed a tendency for higher emissions for the 40 mph cruise segments compared to the highway cruise segments. CO emissions under steady-state driving conditions were relatively low (1-3 g mile -1).

  4. Testing two temporal upscaling schemes for the estimation of the time variability of the actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.

    2015-10-01

    Temporal availability of grapes actual evapotranspiration is an emerging issue since vineyards farms are more and more converted from rainfed to irrigated agricultural systems. The manuscript aims to verify the accuracy of the actual evapotranspiration retrieval coupling a single source energy balance approach and two different temporal upscaling schemes. The first scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the main input variables, namely the NDVI, albedo and LST; the second scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the energy balance output, the actual evapotranspiration. The temporal upscaling schemes were implemented on: i) airborne remote sensing data acquired monthly during a whole irrigation season over a Sicilian vineyard; ii) low resolution MODIS products released daily or weekly; iii) meteorological data acquired by standard gauge stations. Daily MODIS LST products (MOD11A1) were disaggregated using the DisTrad model, 8-days black and white sky albedo products (MCD43A) allowed modeling the total albedo, and 8-days NDVI products (MOD13Q1) were modeled using the Fisher approach. Results were validated both in time and space. The temporal validation was carried out using the actual evapotranspiration measured in situ using data collected by a flux tower through the eddy covariance technique. The spatial validation involved airborne images acquired at different times from June to September 2008. Results aim to test whether the upscaling of the energy balance input or output data performed better.

  5. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  6. [An investigation into the actual condition of the sports drink intake on children].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Amano, H; Miura, K; Nagasaka, N

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual condition of the sport drink intake on children. We conducted an investigation by means of questionnaires at 3 nursery schools and a day nursery in and around Hiroshima City, and using 505 answers with the comparison between 4 areas. The following results were obtained: 1) Less than 10% of the children often took sport drinks and about 70% of the children sometimes. 2) In response to the question of when taken, 40-50% of answers revealed that the drinks were taken when the children ill and 20-40% of answers were take from home. 3) In response to the question as to why children begin to take the drinks, many parents answered that they were advised by a doctor and a nurse to give their child sport drinks to prevent for dehydration, when their children were ill. This answer accounted for about 60% of the answers to this question. 4) Parents imagined that fruit drinks, carbonated beverages and beverages with lactic acid promoted tooth decay. Also the image of cariogenicity was less than 100% fruit juices, home-made juices, sport drinks, cow milks and water or tea in that order. The results suggest that parents regard sport drinks as beverages which do not promote tooth decay and give their child sport drinks frequency.

  7. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10‑11 ~ 10‑9 molL‑1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  8. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  9. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the (137)Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of (137)Cs (10(-11) ~ 10(-9 )molL(-1) of (137)Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed "weathered biotite" (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed (137)Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of (137)Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed (137)Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  10. Cadmium and zinc interactions and their transfer in soil-crop system under actual field conditions.

    PubMed

    Nan, Zhongren; Li, Jijun; Zhang, Jianming; Cheng, Guodong

    2002-02-21

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from calcareous soils nearby a non-ferrous mining and smelting bases to the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) tissues and the interactions between the two metals concerned were investigated under actual field conditions. Samples of soils and entire crops were randomly collected during harvest time in 1998 in the Baiyin region. The soil metal contents showed that the furrows had been polluted (mean values: 3.16 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 146.78 mg kg(-1) for Zn) and the significant spatial variation of the soil contamination existed here (ranges, Cd: 0.14-19.3 mg kg(-1); Zn: 43.5-565.0 mg kg(-1)). The translocation ratios of the two metals from soil to crop parts in the region studied were relatively lower and the order of the element transfer in different plant tissues was root > stem > grain. The transfer ratio of element Cd was lower than that of element Zn. Cd and Zn uptake by the crop structures could be best described by four models (P < 0.01): linear; exponential; quadratic; and cubic. Apart from a linear relationship between the element Cd in the corn grains and soils, models were generally non-lincar. An analysis of Cd-Zn interaction mechanism led to the conclusion that the effects of the two metals were synergistic to each other under field conditions, in which increasing Cd and Zn contents in soils could increase the accumulations of Zn or Cd in the two crops.

  11. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  12. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  13. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  14. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  15. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  16. Novel in-situ focus monitor technology in attenuated PSM under actual illumination condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuha, Kyoko; Asano, Masafumi; Fujisawa, Tadahito; Inoue, Soichi

    2003-06-01

    A focus monitor technology for attenuated PSM under annular illumination has been developed as an in-line quality control. The focus monitor pattern on a reticle employs a pair of grouped lozenge-shaped opening patterns in attenuated phase shifting region. Since the phase shifting angles of the light passing through the first and second opening patterns are 90 degrees and 180 degrees, respectively, the best focus position for the first pattern shifts to that for the second pattern. The subtraction of the length of the patterns is a linear function of the actual focal position printed on the wafer. Therefore, the effective focal position can be extracted by measuring the subtraction of the measured length. A high resolution of 10-nm defocus could be achieved by this technique.

  17. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  18. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  19. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  20. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  1. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.; Tirado-Corbalá, R.; Zhang, H.; Ayars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in tropical environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using eddy covariance (EC) towers at two irrigated sugarcane fields on the leeward (dry) side of Maui, Hawaii, USA in contrasting climates. We calculated reference ET at the fields using the short (ET0) and tall (ETr) vegetation versions of the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) equation. The ASCE equations were compared to the Priestley-Taylor ET (ETPT) and ETEC. Reference ET from the ASCE approaches exceeded ETEC during the mid-period (when vegetation coefficients suggest ETEC should exceed reference ET). At the windier tower site, cumulative ETr exceeded ETEC by 854 mm over the course of the mid-period (267 days). At the less windy site, mid-period ETr still exceeded ETEC, but the difference was smaller (443 mm). At both sites, ETPT approximated mid-period ETEC more closely than the ASCE equations ((ETPT-ETEC) < 170 mm). Analysis of applied water and precipitation, soil moisture, leaf stomatal resistance, and canopy cover suggest that the lower observed ETEC was not the result of water stress or reduced vegetation cover. Use of a custom-calibrated bulk canopy resistance improved the reference ET estimate and reduced seasonal ET discrepancy relative to ETPT and ETEC in the less windy field and had mixed performance in the windier field. These divergences suggest that modifications to reference ET equations may be warranted in some tropical regions.

  2. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41... PM10 § 53.41 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of all test samplers shall be in strict... shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  3. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  4. New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.

    1988-09-12

    Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

  5. Modeling and testing of fractionation effects with refrigerant blends in an actual residential heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Biancardi, F.R.; Pandy, D.R.; Sienel, T.H.; Michels, H.H.

    1997-12-31

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry is actively evaluating and testing hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant blends as a means of complying with current and impending national and international environmental regulations restricting the use and disposal of conventional chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants that contribute to the global ozone-depletion effects. While analyses and system performance tools have shown that HFC refrigerant blends offer certain performance, capacity, and operational advantages, there are significant possible service and operational issues that are raised by the use of blends. Many of these issues occur due to the fractionation of the blends. Therefore, the objective of this program was to conduct analyses and experimental tests aimed at understanding these issues, develop approaches or techniques to predict these effects, and convey to the industry safe and reliable approaches. As a result, analytical models verified by laboratory data have been developed that predict the fractionation effects of HFC refrigerant blends (1) when exposed to selected POE lubricants, (2) during the system charging process from large liquid containers, and (3) during system start-up, operation, and shutdown within various system components (where two-phase refrigerant exists) and during selected system and component leakage scenarios. Model predictions and experimental results are presented for HFC refrigerant blends containing R-32, R-134a, and R-125 and the data are generalized for various operating conditions and scenarios.

  6. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  7. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...

  8. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 90.311 Section 90.311... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by...

  9. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.41 Section 53.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for Testing Performance Characteristics of Methods for PM10 § 53.41 Test conditions....

  10. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  11. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  12. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test conditions. 53.21 Section 53.21... Methods SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 § 53.21 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of the test analyzer shall... before beginning the tests. If the candidate method does not include an integral strip chart...

  13. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  14. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  15. 16 CFR 1301.6 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test conditions. 1301.6 Section 1301.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.6 Test conditions. (a) The refuse bin shall be empty and have its lids...

  16. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  17. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  18. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  19. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure, and use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b) Engine test conditions. Measure the absolute temperature (designated as T and expressed in Kelvin) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry...

  20. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  1. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  2. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  3. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  4. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  5. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  6. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  7. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  8. Does verbal encouragement actually improve performance in the 6-minute walk test?

    PubMed

    Marinho, Patrícia E M; Raposo, Maria Cristina; Dean, Elizabeth; Guerra, Ricardo O; de Andrade, Arméle Dornelas

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance in the 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by comparing to a group of healthy elderly patients, performed with and without verbal encouragement. This cross-sectional study compared 40 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1%) = 53.7 ± 23.8%; forced vital capacity (FVC%) = 65.5 ± 20.8%; and the FEV1/FVC ratio = 55.4 ± 12.4) and 40 healthy elderly patients (control). The 6 MWT's were performed with and without verbal encouragement according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS), monitoring the distance walked (6 MWD), the duration of walking (TW) and the perceived effort index (PEI) through the Borg scale between the groups. No differences were observed in patients with COPD when the tests were performed with and without verbal encouragement for the 6 MWD, TW and PEI, the same occurring in the control group for the 6 MWD, TW and PEI, respectively. The use of verbal encouragement was not sufficient to promote improvement in the performance of the 6 MWT (6 MWD, TW and PEI) of patients with COPD and healthy elderly patients.

  9. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  10. Reactor coolant seal testing under station blackout conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Marsi, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Failures of reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals that could result in a significant loss-of-coolant inventory are of current concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention is being focused on seal behavior during station blackout conditions, when failure of on-site emergency diesel generators occurs simultaneously with loss of all off-site alternating current power. Under these conditions, both seal injection flow and component cooling water flow are lost, and the RCP seals are exposed to full reactor coolant temperature. Overheating of elastomeric components and flashing of coolant across the sealing faces can cause unacceptably high leakage rates, with potential catastrophic consequences. A test program has been conducted that subjects full-scale seal cartridges to typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant system steady-state and transient operation conditions including associated dynamic shaft motions. A special test segment was developed to evaluate seal operation under station blackout conditions. The test program successfully mirrored the severity of an actual loss-of-seal cooling water event under station blackout conditions, and the Byron Jackson{reg sign} N-9000 seal cartridge maintained its integrity.

  11. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  12. Laboratory testing of dispersants under Arctic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brandvik, P.J.; Knudsen, O.O; Moldestad, M.O.; Daling, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    The effectiveness of relevant dispersants for use under Arctic conditions has been tested with the IFP dilution test. Arctic conditions in this context are defined as low temperature (0 C) and water salinities varying between 0.5% and 3.5%. The study was performed in three steps with a screening activity first, where 14 dispersants were tested on water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions from two weathered oil types. In the next step five dispersants were tested on both weathered water free oils and w/o emulsions from four different oil types. As a third step, dispersant effectiveness as a function of salinity (0.5 to 3.5%) was tested with the most effective dispersants at high and low salinity. The results from this study shows that many of the most used dispersants which previously have shown an excellent effectiveness at high sea water salinity (3.5%) may give a very low effectiveness at low salinity (0.5%). Recently developed products especially designed for low salinity use (e.g. Inipol IPF) are very effective at low salinities, but suffer from a rather poor effectiveness at higher salinities. This is of significant operational importance in Arctic oil spill combat operations since the salinity of the surface water may vary due to ice melting. This study of dispersant`s effectiveness under Arctic conditions shows the need for development of dispersants with high effectiveness both at low temperature (0 C) and over a wide range of salinities (3.5% to 0.5%). Dispersant development has been a limited but important activity at IKU for the last five years and one of the objectives for an ongoing Arctic program at IKU is to develop such new dispersants for use under Arctic conditions.

  13. NIF Power Conditioning System Testing at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S; Newton, M; Hulsey, s; Hammon, J; Moore, W

    2001-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System (PCS) for NIF, when completed will consist of a 192 nearly identical 2 megajoule capacitor storage banks driving 7680 two meter long flashlamps. A fully integrated single-module test facility was completed in August of 2000 at LLNL. The purpose to the Test Facility is to conduct Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) testing of a true ''First Article'' system (built to the final drawing package as opposed to a prototype). The test facility can be fired once every ten minutes with a total peak output current of 580kA with a pulse width of 400us. To date over 4000 full power shots have been conducted at this facility.

  14. Double-blind photo lineups using actual eyewitnesses: an experimental test of a sequential versus simultaneous lineup procedure.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Steblay, Nancy K; Dysart, Jennifer E

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitnesses (494) to actual crimes in 4 police jurisdictions were randomly assigned to view simultaneous or sequential photo lineups using laptop computers and double-blind administration. The sequential procedure used in the field experiment mimicked how it is conducted in actual practice (e.g., using a continuation rule, witness does not know how many photos are to be viewed, witnesses resolve any multiple identifications), which is not how most lab experiments have tested the sequential lineup. No significant differences emerged in rates of identifying lineup suspects (25% overall) but the sequential procedure produced a significantly lower rate (11%) of identifying known-innocent lineup fillers than did the simultaneous procedure (18%). The simultaneous/sequential pattern did not significantly interact with estimator variables and no lineup-position effects were observed for either the simultaneous or sequential procedures. Rates of nonidentification were not significantly different for simultaneous and sequential but nonidentifiers from the sequential procedure were more likely to use the "not sure" response option than were nonidentifiers from the simultaneous procedure. Among witnesses who made an identification, 36% (41% of simultaneous and 32% of sequential) identified a known-innocent filler rather than a suspect, indicating that eyewitness performance overall was very poor. The results suggest that the sequential procedure that is used in the field reduces the identification of known-innocent fillers, but the differences are relatively small. PMID:24933175

  15. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane.

  16. Discrimination of rapeseed and weeds under actual field conditions based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network by VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The study documented successful discrimination between five weed species and rapeseed plants under actual field conditions using visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy. A hybrid recognition model, BP artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) combined with principal component analysis (PCA), had been established for discrimination of weeds in rapeseed field. Spectra tests were performed on the rapeseed and five-weed species canopy of 180 samples in the field using a spectrophotometer (325-1075 nm). 6 optimal PCs were selected as the input of BP neural networks to build the prediction model. Rapeseed samples were marked as 1, while the five weed species marked as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, which were used as output set of BP-ANN. 120 samples were randomly selected as the training set, and the remainder as prediction set. It showed excellent predictions with the correlation value of 0.9745, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was under 5% thus 100% of prediction accuracy was achieved. The results are promising for further work in real-time identification of weed patches in rapeseed fields for precision weed management.

  17. Quantitative muscle strength testing: a comparison of job strength requirements and actual worker strength among military technicians.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D M; Clark, J A; Johns, R E; White, G L; Hoffman, S

    1989-01-01

    In this study the authors investigate the percentage of mismatch between job demands and worker physical capacity in Utah National Guard mechanics. This population had demonstrated a higher incidence of low back trouble than other job descriptions reviewed. The authors utilized onsite still and videotape photography and a computerized biomechanical strength prediction model to assess loads on the lumbosacral spine due to various job tasks. Job demands were then compared to the actual physical capacity of the individual workers based on static strength testing in job-related positions. A load cell on the testing apparatus entered the force generated into a computer which averaged the force of the last three seconds of a five-second lift. It was determined that as much as a 38% mismatch existed within this population for some job tasks which these workers were exposed to. Suggestions for preventing job-related low back cumulative trauma disorders are presented, including: engineering redesign, worker selection programs, work hardening, and others. PMID:2522169

  18. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  19. An eye-tracking investigation into readers' sensitivity to actual versus expected utility in the comprehension of conditionals.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J; Stewart, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The successful comprehension of a utility conditional (i.e., an "if p, then q" statement where p and/or q is valued by one or more agents) requires the construction of a mental representation of the situation described by that conditional and integration of this representation with prior context. In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the time course of integrating conditional utility information into the broader discourse model. Specifically, the experiment determined whether readers were sensitive, during rapid heuristic processing, to the congruency between the utility of the consequent clause of a conditional (positive or negative) and a reader's subjective expectations based on prior context. On a number of eye-tracking measures we found that readers were sensitive to conditional utility-conditionals for which the consequent utility mismatched the utility that would be anticipated on the basis of prior context resulted in processing disruption. Crucially, this sensitivity emerged on measures that are accepted to indicate early processing within the language comprehension system and suggests that the evaluation of a conditional's utility informs the early stages of conditional processing.

  20. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and U), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 203}Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, {sup 125}I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by {sup 99}Tc, {sup 75}Se, and finally U, {sup 14}C, and {sup 110m}Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  2. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine air at the inlet to the engine and the dry atmospheric pressure (designated as p s and expressed... rates at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Use these conditions consistently throughout all calculations. Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. (b)...

  7. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  8. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inlet are collected is a dry surface (i.e., not normally coated with oil or grease), those surfaces shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  9. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inlet are collected is a dry surface (i.e., not normally coated with oil or grease), those surfaces shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  10. 40 CFR 53.41 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inlet are collected is a dry surface (i.e., not normally coated with oil or grease), those surfaces shall be cleaned prior to conducting wind tunnel tests with solid particles. (c) Once the test...

  11. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  12. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  13. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  14. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... atmospheric pressure (designated as p and expressed in kPa), and determine the parameter f according to the... standard conditions for temperature and pressure (0 °C and 101.3 kPa), and these conditions must be...

  15. Digital signal conditioning for flight test instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn A.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  16. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (b) Sampler setup. Set up and start up of all test samplers shall be....4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L, unless otherwise specified within this subpart. (c) Sampler... section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. The submitted records shall clearly indicate when any...

  17. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (b) Sampler setup. Set up and start up of all test samplers shall be....4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L, unless otherwise specified within this subpart. (c) Sampler... section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. The submitted records shall clearly indicate when any...

  18. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (b) Sampler setup. Set up and start up of all test samplers shall be....4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L, unless otherwise specified within this subpart. (c) Sampler... section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. The submitted records shall clearly indicate when any...

  19. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (b) Sampler setup. Set up and start up of all test samplers shall be....4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L, unless otherwise specified within this subpart. (c) Sampler... section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. The submitted records shall clearly indicate when any...

  20. 40 CFR 53.61 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (b) Sampler setup. Set up and start up of all test samplers shall be....4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L, unless otherwise specified within this subpart. (c) Sampler... section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. The submitted records shall clearly indicate when any...

  1. Arcjet component conditions through a multistart test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Haag, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A low power, dc arcjet thruster was tested for starting reliability using hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. More than 300 starts were accumulated in phases with extended burn-in periods interlaced. A high degree of flow stabilization was built into the arcjet and the power supply incorporated both rapid current regulation and a high voltage, pulsed starting circuit. A nominal current level of 10 A was maintained throughout the test. Photomicrographs of the cathode tip showed a rapid recession to a steady-state operating geometry. A target of 300 starts was selected, as this represents significantly more than anticipated (150 to 240), in missions of 10 yr or less duration. Weighings showed no apparent mass loss. Some anode erosion was observed, particularly at the entrance to the constrictor. This was attributed to the brief period during startup the arc mode attachment point spends in the high pressure region upstream of the nozzle. Based on the results obtained, startup does not appear to be performance or life limiting for the number of starts typical of operational satellite applications.

  2. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  3. Accident Conditions versus Regulatory Test for NRC-Approved UF6 Packages

    SciTech Connect

    MILLS, G. SCOTT; AMMERMAN, DOUGLAS J.; LOPEZ, CARLOS

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves new package designs for shipping fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}. Currently there are three packages approved by the NRC for domestic shipments of fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}: NCI-21PF-1; UX-30; and ESP30X. For approval by the NRC, packages must be subjected to a sequence of physical tests to simulate transportation accident conditions as described in 10 CFR Part 71. The primary objective of this project was to relate the conditions experienced by these packages in the tests described in 10 CFR Part 71 to conditions potentially encountered in actual accidents and to estimate the probabilities of such accidents. Comparison of the effects of actual accident conditions to 10 CFR Part 71 tests was achieved by means of computer modeling of structural effects on the packages due to impacts with actual surfaces, and thermal effects resulting from test and other fire scenarios. In addition, the likelihood of encountering bodies of water or sufficient rainfall to cause complete or partial immersion during transport over representative truck routes was assessed. Modeled effects, and their associated probabilities, were combined with existing event-tree data, plus accident rates and other characteristics gathered from representative routes, to derive generalized probabilities of encountering accident conditions comparable to the 10 CFR Part 71 conditions. This analysis suggests that the regulatory conditions are unlikely to be exceeded in real accidents, i.e. the likelihood of UF{sub 6} being dispersed as a result of accident impact or fire is small. Moreover, given that an accident has occurred, exposure to water by fire-fighting, heavy rain or submersion in a body of water is even less probable by factors ranging from 0.5 to 8E-6.

  4. Appropriate Mechanochemical Conditions for Corrosion-Fatigue Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Singh Raman, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess great potential as bioimplants. A temporary implant employed as support for the repair of a fractured bone must possess sufficient strength to maintain their mechanical integrity for the required duration of healing. However, Mg alloys are susceptible to sudden cracking or fracture under the simultaneous action of cyclic loading and the corrosive physiological environment, i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF). Investigations of such fracture should be performed under appropriate mechanochemical conditions that appropriately simulate the actual human body conditions. This article reviews the existing knowledge on CF of Mg alloys in simulated body fluid and describes a relatively more accurate testing procedure developed in the authors' laboratory.

  5. Actual conditions of work, fatigue and sleep in non-employed, home-based female information technology workers with preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shun

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study on time budget and fatigue feelings over a two-month period of 12 non-employed, home-based female workers using computers (mean age 35.2 yr). All of them had at least one preschool child. The actual amount of work done by these women and the related effects on the fatigue feelings and sleep were investigated. The results showed that the work done was characterized by involving many night hours, irrespective of the day of the week. The degree of subjective fatigue was not dependent on the number of hours worked, but affected by the time at which the work of the day was completed. This tendency was notable after one o'clock in the morning when the work was completed. Those who followed such a work pattern took daytime naps, although a quality of the subsequent nighttime sleep taken might be poor. They took a nap around 14:00 but not around 19:00. The sleep strategies were thus shown to be affected by home-based work. A need is suggested to support these workers in adjusting work time distribution and taking sleep patterns adapted to individual conditions. PMID:15732317

  6. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  7. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1988, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Class 1000 (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (c... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.103... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES...

  8. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... microinches, a length of at least 16 inches, and a width of at least 16 inches. (2) For head impact tests, the... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance test conditions. 572.78 Section...

  9. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  10. Wear testing of total hip replacements under severe conditions.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Fabry, Christian; Reinders, Joern; Dammer, Rebecca; Kretzer, Jan Philippe; Bader, Rainer; Sonntag, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Controlled wear testing of total hip replacements in hip joint simulators is a well-established and powerful method, giving an extensive prediction of the long-term clinical performance. To understand the wear behavior of a bearing and its limits under in vivo conditions, testing scenarios should be designed as physiologically as possible. Currently, the ISO standard protocol 14242 is the most common preclinical testing procedure for total hip replacements, based on a simplified gait cycle for normal walking conditions. However, in recent years, wear patterns have increasingly been observed on retrievals that cannot be replicated by the current standard. The purpose of this study is to review the severe testing conditions that enable the generation of clinically relevant wear rates and phenomena. These conditions include changes in loading and activity, third-body wear, surface topography, edge wear and the role of aging of the bearing materials. PMID:26048088

  11. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  12. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions. (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is... thoracic rib conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75..., shoulder, thorax without arm, and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5)...

  13. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions. (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is... thoracic rib conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75..., shoulder, thorax without arm, and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5)...

  14. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  15. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  16. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  17. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  18. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  19. The B.A.R. Demonstration Project: A Comparative Evaluation Trial of Computer-Based, Multimedia Simulation Testing and "Hands-on," Actual Equipment Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Thomas G.

    A general evaluation design was developed to examine the effectiveness of a computer-based, multimedia simulation test on California smog check mechanics. The simulation test operated on an Apple Macintosh IIci, with a single touchscreen color monitor controlling a videodisc player; it had three parts: introduction-tutorial-help, data, and test.…

  20. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia.

  1. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  2. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  3. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  4. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above...

  6. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above...

  7. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above...

  8. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above...

  9. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55 Section 325.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH...

  10. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (b) The outputs of accelerometers installed in the headform are... Headform User's Manual (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (d) The mountings for...

  11. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (b) The outputs of accelerometers installed in the headform are... Headform User's Manual (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (d) The mountings for...

  12. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (b) The outputs of accelerometers installed in the headform are... Headform User's Manual (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (d) The mountings for...

  13. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (b) The outputs of accelerometers installed in the headform are... Headform User's Manual (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100). (d) The mountings for...

  14. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  15. Multiple fault condition recognition of gearbox with sequential hypothesis test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanxin; Shang, Yunfei; Sun, Kui

    2013-11-01

    A novel method for the fault condition recognition in which the recognition system interrogates a propagation channel adaptively and intelligently by using the available data is proposed based on sequential hypothesis testing. The waveform of the data in the propagation channel for the fault condition recognition is designed with the kurtosis of the measured data in time domain. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is proposed when hard decisions are made with adequate confidence. The distinguished characteristic of the channel recognition is that it operates in a closed loop and makes constant optimization in response to its changing understanding of the channel. The fault condition recognition of the gearbox is to update the multiple target hypothesis/class based on the measured data, customize waveform as the class probabilities changes, and make conclusion when the sufficient understanding of the propagation channel is achieved.

  16. The Impact of Personality and Test Conditions on Mathematical Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heather; Embretson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Online and on-demand tests are increasingly used in assessment. Although the main focus has been cheating and test security (e.g., Selwyn, 2008) the cross-setting equivalence of scores as a function of contrasting test conditions is also an issue that warrants attention. In this study, the impact of environmental and cognitive distractions, as…

  17. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  18. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  19. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  20. Modeling of thermomechanical conditions in Sigmajig weldability test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.; Zacharia, T.; David, S. A.

    A finite element model has been developed to evaluate quantitatively the thermomechanical conditions for weld metal solidification cracking of a nickel based superalloy single-crystal in a laboratory weldability test, namely, the Sigmajig test. The effects of weld pool solidification on the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the specimen were considered. Stress-temperature-location diagrams were constructed to reveal the complex local stress development at the trailing edge of the weld pool. The calculated local stress in the solidification temperature range is used to explain the experimentally observed initiation of solidification cracking of the single-crystal under different welding and loading conditions, based on the material resistance versus the mechanical driving force.

  1. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  2. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  3. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may furnish services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  4. Aeroheating Test of CEV Entry Vehicle at Turbulent Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Data were measured on a approx. 3.5% scale model (0.1778m/7-inch diam.) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples in the Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles of Tunnel 9. Runs were performed at free stream Reynolds numbers of 1 106/ft to 20 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and 8 10(exp 6)/ft to 48 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 8 nozzle. The test gas in Tunnel 9 is pure N2, which at these operating conditions remains un-dissociated and may be treated as a perfect gas. At these conditions, laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow was produced on the model at Mach 10, and transitional and turbulent conditions were produced on the model at Mach 8. The majority of runs were made on a clean, smooth-surface model configuration and a limited number of runs were made in which inserts with varying boundary-layer trips configurations were used to force the occurrence of transition. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins for the computational method. Data from both the wind tunnel test and the computations are presented herein. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the thermocouple locations on the model and figures 2 and 3 show a photo and schematic of the AEDC Hypervelocity Tunnel 9. Figure 4 shows a typical grid used in the computations. From the comparisons shown in figures 5 through 8 it was concluded that for perfect-gas conditions, the computations could predict either fully-laminar or full-turbulent flow to within +/-10% of the experimental data. The experimental data showed that transition began on the leeside of the heatshield at a free stream Reynolds number of 9 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and fully-developed turbulent flow was produced at 20 10(exp 6)/ft. In the Mach 8

  5. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  6. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  7. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  8. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  9. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  10. Laser Doppler vibration testing: Final report. [Under difficult conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Assa, A.S.; Mannara, S.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report summarizes work under EPRI project RP1855-2 conducted toward the objective of developing utility applications for a noncontacting laser Doppler vibration (LDV) measurement instrument. As part of the program, a dual beam laser doppler system was designed and fabricated in-house for the measurement of torsional vibrations of shafts. Laboratory tests were performed with this instrument to evaluate various signal processing approaches, and characterize the LDV performance with different laser powers and on several surface roughnesses. A factory test simulating field conditions was conducted on a full-size large steam turbine-generator rotor. The test was successful with the accuracy and linearity of the laser system within 10% of a reference measurement. Following the work on the dual beam system, work was directed toward field test evaluations of a portable reference beam laser doppler vibrometer. A main objective was to see if the LDV could perform satisfactorily under the rigors of a utility environment. Successful vibration measurements were taken on turbine steam leads at 1000/sup 0/F (without requiring unit shutdown), on heat exchanger tubes inside an operating boiler, from a rotating shaft, and from a black carbon collector brush at 500 volts. In the final test at United Illuminating Co., vibration data were obtained without unit shutdown from the generator neutral isophase bus lines with 13,000 amps of current in the line.

  11. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  12. Testing conditions for viewpoint invariance in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Hayward, W G; Tarr, M J

    1997-10-01

    Based on the geon structural description approach, I. Biederman and P.C. Gerhardstein (1993) proposed 3 conditions under which object recognition is predicted to be viewpoint invariant. Two experiments are reported that satisfied all 3 criteria yet revealed performance that was clearly viewpoint dependent. Experiment 1 demonstrated that for both sequential matching and naming tasks, recognition of qualitatively distinct objects became progressively longer and less accurate as the viewpoint difference between study and test viewpoints increased. Experiment 2 demonstrated that for single-part objects, larger effects of viewpoint occurred when there was a change in the visible structure, indicating sensitivity to qualitative features in the image, not geon structural descriptions. These results suggest that the conditions proposed by I. Biederman and P.C. Gerhardstein are not generally applicable, the recognition of qualitatively distinct objects often relies on viewpoint-dependent mechanisms, and the molar features of view-based mechanisms appear to be image features rather than geons. PMID:9411023

  13. Predicted Turbine Heat Transfer for a Range of Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Lucci, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons are shown between predictions and experimental data for blade and endwall heat transfer. The comparisons of computational domain parisons are given for both vane and rotor geometries over an extensive range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Comparisons are made with experimental data from a variety of sources. A number of turbulence models are available for predicting blade surface heat transfer, as well as aerodynamic performance. The results of an investigation to determine the turbulence model which gives the best agreement with experimental data over a wide range of test conditions are presented.

  14. Flight Tests of an Airplane Showing Dependence of the Maximum Lift Coefficient on the Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A; Hootman, James A

    1937-01-01

    Data are presented to show the extent to which the maximum lift coefficient and consequently the minimum speed of an airplane, determined by flight tests, may vary with test conditions. The data show that cl-max may vary as much as 14 percent, depending on the altitude and wing loading at which the tests were made, the position or motion of the propeller, and the rate at which the angle of attack is changing when the maximum lift coefficient is obtained. The variation of the maximum lift coefficient with these factors, which are under the control of the test engineer, shows the need of standardizing the test procedure. A further variation is shown with wing conditions as affected by weathering and vibration, factors that cannot be completely controlled.

  15. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  16. Arc Jet Facility Test Condition Predictions Using the ADSI Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    The Aerothermal Design Space Interpolation (ADSI) tool is used to interpolate databases of previously computed computational fluid dynamic solutions for test articles in a NASA Ames arc jet facility. The arc jet databases are generated using an Navier-Stokes flow solver using previously determined best practices. The arc jet mass flow rates and arc currents used to discretize the database are chosen to span the operating conditions possible in the arc jet, and are based on previous arc jet experimental conditions where possible. The ADSI code is a database interpolation, manipulation, and examination tool that can be used to estimate the stagnation point pressure and heating rate for user-specified values of arc jet mass flow rate and arc current. The interpolation is performed in the other direction (predicting mass flow and current to achieve a desired stagnation point pressure and heating rate). ADSI is also used to generate 2-D response surfaces of stagnation point pressure and heating rate as a function of mass flow rate and arc current (or vice versa). Arc jet test data is used to assess the predictive capability of the ADSI code.

  17. Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

  18. Testing and modelling autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity of streamflow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Vrijling, J. K.; Ma, J.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for seasonal streamflow series). However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences are found for the existence of autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (i.e. the ARCH (AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) effect), a nonlinear phenomenon of the variance behaviour, in the residual series from linear models fitted to daily and monthly streamflow processes of the upper Yellow River, China. It is shown that the major cause of the ARCH effect is the seasonal variation in variance of the residual series. However, while the seasonal variation in variance can fully explain the ARCH effect for monthly streamflow, it is only a partial explanation for daily flow. It is also shown that while the periodic autoregressive moving average model is adequate in modelling monthly flows, no model is adequate in modelling daily streamflow processes because none of the conventional time series models takes the seasonal variation in variance, as well as the ARCH effect in the residuals, into account. Therefore, an ARMA-GARCH (Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) error model is proposed to capture the ARCH effect present in daily streamflow series, as well as to preserve seasonal variation in variance in the residuals. The ARMA-GARCH error model combines an ARMA model for modelling the mean behaviour and a GARCH model for modelling the variance behaviour of the residuals from the ARMA model. Since the GARCH model is not followed widely in statistical hydrology, the work can be a useful addition in terms of statistical modelling of daily streamflow processes for the hydrological community.

  19. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  20. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in `like-new` conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the `like-new` condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed.

  1. The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 1: friction mechanisms and definition of test conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, W R; Grönqvist, R; Leclercq, S; Myung, R; Makkonen, L; Strandberg, L; Brungraber, R J; Mattke, U; Thorpe, S C

    2001-10-20

    Friction has been widely used as a measure of slipperiness. However, controversies around friction measurements remain. The purposes of this paper are to summarize understanding about friction measurement related to slipperiness assessment of shoe and floor interface and to define test conditions based on biomechanical observations. In addition, friction mechanisms at shoe and floor interface on dry, liquid and solid contaminated, and on icy surfaces are discussed. It is concluded that static friction measurement, by the traditional use of a drag-type device, is only suitable for dry and clean surfaces, and dynamic and transition friction methods are needed to properly estimate the potential risk on contaminated surfaces. Furthermore, at least some of the conditions at the shoe/floor interface during actual slip accidents should be replicated as test conditions for friction measurements, such as sliding speed, contact pressure and normal force build-up rate.

  2. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  3. Matching Vibration Testing to "Real-World" Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Albert D., Jr.; Keblaitis, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration spectrum of test machine adjusted to that observed in operation. Test specimen placed in test fixture and attached to shaker. Shaker initially operated at one-quarter full level of input spectrum to prevent overloading. Short vibration test run, and specimen response compared to control spectrum. Imput spectrum then adjusted until response resembles control spectrum.

  4. Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a…

  5. Conditioned suppression tests of the context-blocking hypothesis: testing in the absence of the preconditioned context.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J J; Bombace, J C; Shurtleff, D; Vigorito, M

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that use rats in a conditioned suppression situation. The experiments, designed to remove confounds that have complicated interpretations of prior research, tested the context-blocking hypothesis, the proposition that static apparatus cues or conditioning contexts can block conditioning to discrete conditioned stimuli (CSs). Experiment 1, like previous work, tested for conditioning to the target CS in the same context that had been preconditioned and in which target conditioning had occurred; the experiment demonstrated a context-blocking like effect. Experiment 2 tested for conditioning not only in the preconditioned context but also in a nonpreconditioned context. Evidence for context blocking appeared similar in the two test situations. This suggests that conditioned contexts block the acquisition of associative strength by discrete CSs at the time of target conditioning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and not through performance factors at the time of testing (e.g., Gibbon & Balsam, 1981).

  6. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable.

  7. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  8. Corrosion of aluminum and copper thin films under simulated atmospheric conditions in laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Raman, A.; Diwan, R.; Bhattacharya, P.K.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion characteristics of Al and Cu thin films have been studied in cyclic fog tests using tap water fog and fog created with 0.1% NaCl solution in tap water. Likewise, their corrosion features have been analyzed in continuous immersion testing in the laboratory in distilled water, tap water, in 0.1% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl solutions in distilled water. The corrosion potentials and the corrosion currents of these thin films change and reach steady state values after some time. However, steady state is not realized in 3.5% NaCl solutions. The corrosion current density data have been used to calculate lifetime of 1 {mu}m thick thin films of Al and Cu in the various tests, and assuming that the fog test data would hold under normal exposure conditions, life spans for these thin film sensor elements in actual exterior exposure have also been calculated. According to estimates, an Al-TF of about 1 {mu}m would last about 9 months in exterior exposure in chloride containing atmospheres, such as in the coastal regions, but would survive nearly 2 years in normal atmospheres not having acidic or chloride pollutants. On the contrary, 1 {mu}m thick Cu-TF would last only for about 2.5 months in chloride-laden environments, but would last for about 2 years in normal atmospheres. However, Cu-TF would be corroded off faster in slightly alkaline atmospheric condensate under total immersion situation. Lifetime estimates are presented and discussed.

  9. Multigen-2 Pre-Flight Testing: Science Testing Unit (STU) and Stowage Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittang, A.-I.; Kvaloy, B.; Berg, C.; Rakvaag, G.; Iversen, T.-H.

    2008-06-01

    The Multigen-2 experiment Science Testing Unit (STU) proved to be a useful tool in optimizing experiment environment settings for cultivation of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS). By using the EMCS Experiment Reference Model (ERM); light, temperature and air flow regimes for optimal growth could be tested. Healthy seedlings were obtained using the STU#2 and STU#3 in the EMCS ERM. It was concluded that the Experiment Container Development Kit (ECDK) is unsuitable for the Multigen-2 testing due to limitation in the ECDK temperature control. The results from the stowage condition tests showed that the selected growth medium (agar) can be used after 3 months at +4°C. The seeds show a germination rate of ≥80% after sterilisation and stowed for 5 months. The Multigen-2 plant samples will be fixed in RNA later and stored at - 80 °C. Three methods with different RNA isolation kits showed that the Qiagen kit (#74904) gave the highest amount and the best quality of Total RNA from RNA Later and frozen samples. The amount of plant material from one cultivation chamber gives two RNA isolations. Each of the isolations gives Total RNA sufficient for at least two microarray analyses.

  10. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that its impact face diameter is 120.70 ±0.25 mm and it has a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... tests is the same as that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that it has a rectangular flat...

  11. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that its impact face diameter is 120.70 ± 0.25 mm and it has a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... tests is the same as that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that it has a rectangular flat...

  12. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that its impact face diameter is 120.70 ± 0.25 mm and it has a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... tests is the same as that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that it has a rectangular flat...

  13. A Conditional Exposure Control Method for Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelman, Matthew; Nering, Michael L.; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), ensuring the security of test items is a crucial practical consideration. A common approach to reducing item theft is to define maximum item exposure rates, i.e., to limit the proportion of examinees to whom a given item can be administered. Numerous methods for controlling exposure rates have been proposed…

  14. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... pelvis is the same as specified in § 572.44(c). (d) Head accelerometer mounting is the same as specified... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  15. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... pelvis is the same as specified in § 572.44(c). (d) Head accelerometer mounting is the same as specified... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  16. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... pelvis is the same as specified in § 572.44(c). (d) Head accelerometer mounting is the same as specified... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  17. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... pelvis is the same as specified in § 572.44(c). (d) Head accelerometer mounting is the same as specified... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  18. 49 CFR 572.116 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... probe for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests are the same as those specified in § 572.44(a). (b... pelvis is the same as specified in § 572.44(c). (d) Head accelerometer mounting is the same as specified... Impact Tests.” (g) The mountings for the spine, rib and pelvis accelerometers shall have no...

  19. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  20. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  1. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  2. Sensitivity of MRQAP Tests to Collinearity and Autocorrelation Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, David; Krackhardt, David; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures (MRQAP) tests are permutation tests for multiple linear regression model coefficients for data organized in square matrices of relatedness among "n" objects. Such a data structure is typical in social network studies, where variables indicate some type of relation between a given set of actors.…

  3. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  4. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  5. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  6. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... site at the time of testing. (b) Wind. The wind velocity at the test site shall be measured at the... established that the wind velocity is essentially constant. Once this fact has been established, wind velocity... wind velocity is 12 mph (19.3 kph) or less. Gust wind measurements of up to 20 mph (33.2 kph)...

  7. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as shown in Figure 41 (for the thorax); Figure 42 (for the lumbar spine); and Figure 43 (for the knee). (4... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that...

  8. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as shown in Figure 41 (for the thorax); Figure 42 (for the lumbar spine); and Figure 43 (for the knee). (4... midpoint of its anterior-posterior travel. (6) Adjust the dummy for head and knee impact tests so that...

  9. Halogen Cycle Operation Test under Microgravity Conditions Using Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Fumio; Mizutani, Takayuki; Yokota, Takao; Saito, Masatoshi; Kanbayashi, Akio; Nakahata, Yoshihiro; Sawaoka, Akira

    1984-02-01

    Effect of halogen cycle under microgravity conditions was determined by using halogen lamp equipment on board sounding rocket TT-500 A #12 launched by the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Results show that the halogen lamp halogen cycle under microgravity conditions behaves the same as on the ground. From this result, it is foreseeable that there will be no reduction halogen cycle effect in the lamp in the image furnace on board the Space Shuttle Spacelab.

  10. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  11. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories. PMID:25590946

  12. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning idle test procedure... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.165-12 Air conditioning idle test procedure. (a) Applicability. This section describes procedures for determining air conditioning-related CO2 emissions...

  13. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that its impact face diameter is 120.70 ±0.25 mm and it has a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact... impact tests is the same as that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that it has a rectangular...

  14. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that its impact face diameter is 120.70 ±0.25 mm and it has a minimum mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact... impact tests is the same as that specified in 49 CFR 572.137(a) except that it has a rectangular...

  15. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item scores,…

  16. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  17. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  18. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  19. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  20. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Figs. Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig. S1 ER16JY04.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. S, Fig....

  1. 40 CFR 610.34 - Special test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions... starting and driving capability of device-equipped vehicles is affected sufficiently to make them dangerous... the device was installed. (b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved...

  2. Tests and Medical Conditions Associated with Dementia Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana B.; Primeaux-Hart, Sharon; Loveland, Katherine A.; Cleveland, Lynne A.; Lewis, Kay R.; Lesser, Jary; Pearson, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosis of dementia in adults with intellectual disabilities requires documentation of clinically significant declines in memory and other cognitive skills, as well as changes in everyday and emotional functioning. To improve diagnostic accuracy in adults with Down syndrome, the authors examined conditions often associated with dementia, as well…

  3. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  4. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests is a 6 inch diameter cylinder that weighs 51.5 pounds... accelerometer is mounted in the pelvis for measurement of the lateral acceleration with its sensitive axis... instrumentation cavity of the pelvis (SID-087 revision H, dated May 18, 1994, incorporated by reference; see §...

  5. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests is a 6 inch diameter cylinder that weighs 51.5 pounds... accelerometer is mounted in the pelvis for measurement of the lateral acceleration with its sensitive axis... instrumentation cavity of the pelvis (SID-087 revision H, dated May 18, 1994, incorporated by reference; see §...

  6. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests is a 6 inch diameter cylinder that weighs 51.5 pounds... accelerometer is mounted in the pelvis for measurement of the lateral acceleration with its sensitive axis... instrumentation cavity of the pelvis (SID-087 revision H, dated May 18, 1994, incorporated by reference; see §...

  7. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests is a 6 inch diameter cylinder that weighs 51.5 pounds... accelerometer is mounted in the pelvis for measurement of the lateral acceleration with its sensitive axis... instrumentation cavity of the pelvis (SID-087 revision H, dated May 18, 1994, incorporated by reference; see §...

  8. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for lateral thoracic and pelvis impact tests is a 6 inch diameter cylinder that weighs 51.5 pounds... accelerometer is mounted in the pelvis for measurement of the lateral acceleration with its sensitive axis... instrumentation cavity of the pelvis (SID-087 revision H, dated May 18, 1994, incorporated by reference; see §...

  9. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...), § 572.74 (thorax), § 572.75 (lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis), and § 572.76 (limbs), position the... microinches, a length of at least 16 inches, and a width of at least 16 inches. (2) For head impact tests,...

  10. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  11. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  12. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  13. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  14. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  15. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  16. [Determination of trace elements in flowers and tests of conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-xin; Mai, Yong-fu; Kuang, Zu-yan; Wang, Yue-hua

    2004-03-01

    The optimum conditions, such as the ratio of fuel gas to combustion-supporting gas, burnerheight, lamp current and band pass, for the determination of trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, cobalt and potassium in flowers were studied by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experimental results showed that Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0-50 microg x mL(-1) for Ca, 0-80 microg x mL(-1) for Mg, 0-4 microg x mL(-1) for Co, and 0-120 microg x mL(-1) for K. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9975-0.9995 under the seleced conditions. Applied to the determination in rose & Chinese rose the method proved to be simple, rapid and selective with satisfactory recovery of 97%-104% and relative standard devition of 1.2%-2.3%. PMID:15759999

  17. Immunoreactive inhibin concentration in blood tested under variable sampling conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaakaer, J; Micic, S; Høgdall, C K

    1996-06-01

    The stability of immunoreactive (i.r.) inhibin in blood samples drawn and handled under different conditions and at different time intervals were studied. Ten serum and plasma samples drawn in 1994 from healthy volunteers were compared to samples collected in 1986 from 10 healthy women admitted for laparoscopic sterilization and analysed 6 years later. All samples were drawn on the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and handled under identical clinical conditions (22 degrees C). The concentrations in the 1986 samples were similar to the Se-i.r. inhibin levels from 1994. Different clotting temperatures, repetitive freezing and thawing or hemolysis had no effects on the i.r. inhibin values, whereas non-hemolysed samples left at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days were significantly lower, which might be due to a statistical type 2 error. No differences in concentration between serum and plasma i.r. inhibin were demonstrated. In conclusion, i.r. inhibin is a very stable peptide hormone in both serum and plasma if drawn and handled under normal conditions.

  18. Laser damage testing of optical components under cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehla, Jindrich; Pokorný, Pavel; Lazar, Josef

    2012-11-01

    In this contribution we present a technology for deposition and testing of interference coatings for optical components designed to operate in power pulsed lasers. The aim of the technology is to prepare components for high power laser facilities such as ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) or HiLASE. ELI is a part of the European plan to build a new generation of large research facilities selected by the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). These facilities rely on the use of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL). The choice of the material for the lasers' optical components is critical. Some of the most important properties include the ability to be antireflection and high reflection coated to reduce the energy losses and increase the overall efficiency. As large amounts of heat need to be dissipated during laser operation, cryogenic cooling is necessary. The conducted experiments served as preliminary tests of laser damage threshold measurement methodology that we plan to use in the future. We designed a special apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber and a cooling system. The samples were placed into the vacuum chamber which was evacuated and then the samples were cooled down to approximately 120K and illuminated by a pulsed laser. Pulse duration was in the nanosecond region. Multiple test sites on the sample's surface were used for different laser pulse energies. We used optical and electron microscopy and spectrophotometer measurements for coating investigation after the conducted experiments.

  19. Laser damage testing of optical components under cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Pokorný, Pavel; Lazar, Josef

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we present a technology for deposition and testing of interference coatings for optical components designed to operate in power pulsed lasers. The aim of the technology is to prepare components for high power laser facilities such as ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) or HiLASE. ELI is a part of the Eropean plan to build a new generation of large research facilities selected by the the Eropean Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). These facilities rely on the use of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL). The choice of the material or the lasers' optical components is critical. Some of the most important properties include the ability to be antireflection and high reflection coated to reduce the energy losses and increase the overall efficiency. As large amounts of hear need to be dissipated during laser operation, cryogenic cooling is necessary. The conducted experiments served as preliminary tests of laser damage threshold measurement methodology that we plan to use in the future. We designed a special apparatus consistion of a vacuum chamber an a cooling system. The samples were placed into the vacuum chamber which was evacuated and them the samples were cooled down to approximately 120K and illuminated by a pulsed laser. Pulse duration was in the nanosecond region. Multiple test sites on the sample's surface were used for different laser pulse energies. We used optical and electron microscopy and spectrophotometer measurements for coating investigation after the conducted experiments.

  20. Thermal Performance Testing of Glass Microspheres under Cryogenic Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    A key element of space launch vehicles and systems is thermal insulation for cryogenic tanks and piping. Glass microspheres, or glass bubbles, represent an alternative insulation material for a number of applications. Composite materials and engineered thermal insulation systems are also being developed based on the use of glass bubbles as the main constituent material. Commonly used materials, such as spray-on foam insulation, or SOFI, for vehicle tanks and perlite powder for ground storage tanks, are targeted for replacement with the new-technology systems that use glass bubbles. Complete thermal characterization of the glass bubbles is the first step toward producing the engineering solutions required for the energy-efficient, low-maintenance cryogenic systems of the future. Thermal performance testing of the glass microsphere material was successfully completed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test measurements were made at the full temperature difference (typical boundary temperatures of 78 kelvin [K] and 293 K) and included the full cold-vacuum pressure range. The results are reported in apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and mean heat flux.

  1. Definition and evaluation of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under conditions of highly demanding daily activities.

    PubMed

    Schwiesau, Jens; Schilling, Carolin; Kaddick, Christian; Utzschneider, Sandra; Jansson, Volkmar; Fritz, Bernhard; Blömer, Wilhelm; Grupp, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our study was the definition of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under various highly demanding daily activities of patients after total knee arthroplasty. This was mainly based on a review of published data on knee kinematics and kinetics followed by the evaluation of the accuracy and precision of a new experimental setup. We combined tibio-femoral load and kinematic data reported in the literature to develop deep squatting loading profiles for simulator input. A servo-hydraulic knee wear simulator was customised with a capability of a maximum flexion of 120°, a tibio-femoral load of 5000N, an anterior-posterior (AP) shear force of ±1000N and an internal-external (IE) rotational torque of ±50Nm to simulate highly demanding patient activities. During the evaluation of the newly configurated simulator the ability of the test machine to apply the required load and torque profiles and the flexion kinematics in a precise manner was examined by nominal-actual profile comparisons monitored periodically during subsequent knee wear simulation. For the flexion kinematics under displacement control a delayed actuator response of approximately 0.05s was inevitable due to the inertia of masses in movement of the coupled knee wear stations 1-3 during all applied activities. The axial load and IE torque is applied in an effective manner without substantial deviations between nominal and actual load and torque profiles. During the first third of the motion cycle a marked deviation between nominal and actual AP shear load profiles has to be noticed but without any expected measurable effect on the latter wear simulation due to the fact that the load values are well within the peak magnitude of the nominal load amplitude. In conclusion the described testing method will be an important tool to have more realistic knee wear simulations based on load conditions of the knee joint during activities of daily living. PMID:22922096

  2. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01... be expected to influence emissions include, but are not limited to: air conditioning, power steering...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a...

  4. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  5. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  6. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  7. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  8. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  9. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  10. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  12. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  16. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  17. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.A.; Smith, M.E.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, D.R.; Cook, E.G.; Copp, R.L.; Lee, F.D.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D.; Speckert, G.C.

    1982-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector.

  18. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  19. Large-scale numerical simulations of star formation put to the test. Comparing synthetic images and actual observations for statistical samples of protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimann, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Haugbølle, T.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Both observations and simulations of embedded protostars have progressed rapidly in recent years. Bringing them together is an important step in advancing our knowledge about the earliest phases of star formation. Aims: To compare synthetic continuum images and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), calculated from large-scale numerical simulations, to observational studies, thereby aiding in both the interpretation of the observations and in testing the fidelity of the simulations. Methods: The adaptive mesh refinement code, RAMSES, is used to simulate the evolution of a 5 pc × 5 pc × 5 pc molecular cloud. The simulation has a maximum resolution of 8 AU, resolving simultaneously the molecular cloud on parsec scales and individual protostellar systems on AU scales. The simulation is post-processed with the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D, which is used to create synthetic continuum images and SEDs of the protostellar systems. In this way, more than 13 000 unique radiative transfer models, of a variety of different protostellar systems, are produced. Results: Over the course of 0.76 Myr the simulation forms more than 500 protostars, primarily within two sub-clusters. The synthetic SEDs are used to calculate evolutionary tracers Tbol and Lsmm/Lbol. It is shown that, while the observed distributions of the tracers are well matched by the simulation, they generally do a poor job of tracking the protostellar ages. Disks form early in the simulation, with 40% of the Class 0 protostars being encircled by one. The flux emission from the simulated disks is found to be, on average, a factor ~6 too low relative to real observations; an issue that can be traced back to numerical effects on the smallest scales in the simulation. The simulated distribution of protostellar luminosities spans more than three order of magnitudes, similar to the observed distribution. Cores and protostars are found to be closely associated with one another, with the distance distribution

  20. Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Liblik, Raino

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's actual and perceived motor competence. 280 children between the ages of 10 and 13 years individually completed the Children's Physical Self-perception Profile which assesses perceptions of sport competence, physical conditioning, strength, body attractiveness, and general physical self-worth. The internal reliabilities (a) of the subscales ranged from .75 to .82. After completing the profile, the subject's actual motor competence was measured using tests of aerobic fitness and functional strength. Body fatness (sum of five skinfolds) was measured as an objective measure of perceived body attractiveness. Analysis of variance showed that boys and girls differed in perceived competence and actual motor competence. The boys showed higher perceived competence on four scores, but there was no sex difference in perception of body attractiveness. Correlations and regression analysis showed that actual and perceived motor competence were significantly but only moderately (r =.25-.56) correlated. In addition, items of perceived physical competence and age accounted for 17% (sit-ups) to 25% (endurance shuttle run) of the variance in actual motor competence of the children. These findings showed that 10- to 13-yr-old children can only moderately assess personal motor competence. PMID:12186225

  1. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  2. 42 CFR 493.801 - Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 493 published on March 14, 1990 (55 FR 9538) prior to September 1, 1992, the rules of this... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.801 Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples. Each laboratory must enroll in a proficiency testing (PT) program that meets the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition... suspended because it fails to participate successfully in proficiency testing for one or more specialties... consecutive proficiency testing events, one of which may be on site, before CMS will consider it...

  4. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition... suspended because it fails to participate successfully in proficiency testing for one or more specialties... consecutive proficiency testing events, one of which may be on site, before CMS will consider it...

  5. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition... suspended because it fails to participate successfully in proficiency testing for one or more specialties... consecutive proficiency testing events, one of which may be on site, before CMS will consider it...

  6. 42 CFR 493.801 - Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 493 published on March 14, 1990 (55 FR 9538) prior to September 1, 1992, the rules of this... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.801 Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples. Each laboratory must enroll in a proficiency testing (PT) program that meets the...

  7. 42 CFR 493.801 - Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 493 published on March 14, 1990 (55 FR 9538) prior to September 1, 1992, the rules of this... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.801 Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples. Each laboratory must enroll in a proficiency testing (PT) program that meets the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition... suspended because it fails to participate successfully in proficiency testing for one or more specialties... consecutive proficiency testing events, one of which may be on site, before CMS will consider it...

  9. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition... suspended because it fails to participate successfully in proficiency testing for one or more specialties... consecutive proficiency testing events, one of which may be on site, before CMS will consider it...

  10. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  11. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning test simulations. 86.162-03 Section 86.162-03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's...

  12. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  13. Experimental testing of total knee replacements with UHMW-PE inserts: impact of severe wear test conditions.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Reinders, Joern; Schwiesau, Jens; Paulus, Alexander; Kretzer, Jan Philippe; Grupp, Thomas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Bader, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    Aseptic implant loosening due to inflammatory reactions to wear debris is the main reason for the revision of total knee replacements (TKR). Hence, the decrease in polyethylene wear particle generation from the articulating surfaces is aimed at improving implant design and material. For preclinical testing of new TKR systems standardized wear tests are required. However, these wear tests do not reproduce the entire in vivo situation, since the pattern and amount of wear and subsequent implant failure are underestimated. Therefore, daily activity, kinematics, implant aging and position, third-body-wear and surface properties have to be considered to estimate the wear of implant components in vivo. Hence, severe test conditions are in demand for a better reproduction of the in vivo situation of TKR. In the present article an overview of different experimental wear test scenarios considering clinically relevant polyethylene wear situations using severe test conditions is presented. PMID:25716024

  14. A condition on the spatial resolution of IR collimators for testing of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Lee, Hee Chul; Wrona, Wieslaw

    2000-05-01

    A precise condition on the spatial resolution of the IR collimator for testing thermal imaging systems is presented. The condition can be used even if only the spatial resolution of the IR collimator and that of the system under test, measured using popular definitions, are known. It is shown that when the condition is fulfilled, the thermal image degradation caused by the IR collimator is negligible.

  15. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  16. Multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) approach to update mathematical models of large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.; Kuo, C.-P.; Glaser, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A major challenge to the structural dynamicist is to validate mathematical models of large space structures which cannot be ground tested because of its size and/or flexibility. The paper presents a Multiple Boundary Condition Test (MBCT) approach which allows a systematic validation of the mathematical model by performing a number of ground tests on a large structure with variable boundary conditions. A numerical simulation is presented which illustrates the validity of the MBCT including some of the potential limitations.

  17. Anxiolytic activity of tenoten and diazepam depends on conditions in Vogel conflict test.

    PubMed

    Kheyfets, I A; Voronina, T A; Dugina, J L; Molodavkin, G M; Sergeeva, S A

    2011-07-01

    We compared two modifications of Vogel conflict test and assessed anxyolitic activity of two drugs: diazepam (benzodiazepine anxiolitic) and tenoten (ultra-low doses of antibodies to S-100 protein) in both modifications of the test. It was found that the intensity of anxiolitic effect of the drugs depends on the conditions of Vogel test.

  18. Tensile testing of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials under Federal specified temperature and relative humidity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Botner, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A small 10-ft x 12-ft temperature and relative humidity controlled room for tensile testing of parachute materials is presented. Tensile tests of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials indicate there is a negligible change in break strength of test samples soaked in the controlled environment vs samples soaked in ambient conditions.

  19. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test... B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test day... Temperatures shall be controlled to ± 1 °C....

  20. Tests for the determination of the stress condition in tension fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahde, R; Wagner, H

    1936-01-01

    The present experiments treat the stress of actual tension fields within the elastic range. They give the magnitude of the flexural stresses due to wrinkling. They also disclose, particularly by slightly exceeded buckling load, the marked unloading - as compared with the tension-field theory - of the uprights as a result of the flexural stiffness of the web plate. The test sheets were clamped at the edges and brought to buckling through shearing and compressive stresses applied in the direction of the long sides.

  1. The Analysis of Exhaust Gas Thermal Energy Recovery Through a TEG Generator in City Traffic Conditions Reproduced on a Dynamic Engine Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2015-06-01

    We present an analysis of thermal energy recovery through a proprietary thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an actual vehicle driving cycle reproduced on a dynamic engine test bed. The tests were performed on a 1.3-L 66-kW diesel engine. The TEG was fitted in the vehicle exhaust system. In order to assess the thermal energy losses in the exhaust system, advanced portable emission measurement system research tools were used, such as Semtech DS by Sensors. Aside from the exhaust emissions, the said analyzer measures the exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature, vehicle driving parameters and reads and records the engine parameters. The difficulty related to the energy recovery measurements under actual traffic conditions, particularly when passenger vehicles and TEGs are used, spurred the authors to develop a proprietary method of transposing the actual driving cycle as a function V = f( t) onto the engine test bed, opn which the driving profile, previously recorded in the city traffic, was reproduced. The length of the cycle was 12.6 km. Along with the motion parameters, the authors reproduced the parameters of the vehicle and its transmission. The adopted methodology enabled high repeatability of the research trials while still ensuring engine dynamic states occurring in the city traffic.

  2. 40 CFR 86.167-17 - AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.167-17 AC17 Air Conditioning...-conditioning cycle, a 30-minute soak period under simulated solar heat, followed by measurement of emissions over an SC03 drive cycle and a Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET) drive cycle. The vehicle...

  3. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  4. An Approach of Vulnerability Testing for Third-Party Component Based on Condition and Parameter Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weihe

    2013-01-01

    The research on component vulnerability testing is critical. In this paper, an approach of vulnerability testing is proposed based on condition mutation and parameter mutation in order to effectively detect the explicit vulnerabilities of third-party components. To start with, the Pre-condition Mutation Algorithm (PCMA) is presented to generate mutants set of the pre-condition and test cases are generated based on these mutants. Then, the Single Parameter Mutated Values (SPMV) procedure is addressed to generate parameter values based on mutation operators of parameter specification. These values are then taken as the input of the Test Case Generation Algorithm based on the Parameter Constraint (TCGPC), which is addressed to generate test case set violating the parameter constraint. The explicit vulnerabilities can be detected by the vulnerability detecting algorithm based on the test cases of condition and parameter mutation. The experiments show that our approach can detect explicit vulnerability faults of third-party components. Furthermore, the proposed approach can detect more vulnerability faults than other related approaches such as condition coverage methods, fuzzy testing method and boundary value method. PMID:24194686

  5. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light...-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test group, will...

  6. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  7. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  13. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  14. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  15. Tracking MOV operability under degraded voltage condition by periodic test measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, B.; Behera, A.K.; Alsammarae, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for evaluating the operability of Alternating Current (AC) Motor Operated Valve (MOV) under degraded voltage condition, based on the seating parameter measured during surveillance/testing. This approach will help resolve Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) concern on verifying the AC MOV`s design basis capability through periodic testing.

  16. Hyper-X Mach 10 Engine Flowpath Development: Fifth Entry Test Conditions and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    A series of Hyper-X Mach 10 flowpath ground tests are underway to obtain engine performance and operation data and to confirm and refine the flowpath design methods. The model used is a full-scale height, partial-width replica of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle propulsive flowpath with truncated forebody and aftbody. This is the fifth test entry for this model in the NASA-HYPULSE facility at GASL. For this entry the facility nozzle and model forebody were modified to better simulate the engine inflow conditions at the target flight conditions. The forebody was modified to be a wide flat plate with no flow fences, the facility nozzle Mach number was increased, and the model was positioned to be tested in a semi-direct-connect arrangement. This paper presents a review of the test conditions, model calibrations, and a description of steady flow confirmation. The test series included runs using hydrogen fuel, and a silane-in-hydrogen fuel mixture. Other test parameters included the model mounting angle (relative to the tunnel flow), and the test gas oxygen fraction to account for the presence of [NO] in the test gas at the M10 conditions.

  17. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  18. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  19. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis gases from materials - Effects of chemical composition and test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Relative toxicity test data on 270 materials are presented, based on test procedures developed at the University of San Francisco. The effects of chemical composition, using data on 13 types of synthetic polymers and eight types of fabrics, are discussed. Selected materials were evaluated using nine test conditions with the USF method, and using methods developed at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute, Douglas Aircraft Company and San Jose State University.

  20. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Second Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    On August 31, 2010, a five-segment demonstration motor (DM) for the Ares program was successfully tested. A series of demonstration motors (DMs) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet their design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was the first cold motor. The motor needed to be subjected to sub-freezing temperatures for two months so that its internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was approximately 40 F. Several challenges had to be overcome to make this a successful test. One challenge was to condition four field joints to get the O-rings approximately 32 F. This would be done by applying conditioning shrouds to externally cool each field joint after the test bay was pulled off. The purpose of this conditioning was to validate the new O-ring design and allow joint heaters to be eliminated. Another challenge was maintaining temperature requirements for components in the nozzle vectoring system. A separate heating system was used to warm these components during cold conditioning. There were 53 test objectives that required 764 channels of data to be recorded; 460 were specific to DM-2. This instrumentation had to be installed prior to conditioning, which meant the baseline process and timeline had to be modified to meet this time critical schedule.

  1. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  2. Optimal conditions for three brood chronic toxicity test method using a freshwater macroinvertebrate Moina macrocopa.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-06-01

    Freshwater cladocera such as Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia have been used extensively for freshwater toxicity test worldwide. However, these species may not be indigenous in certain geographical regions, which restrict the utility of these organisms as test species. In the present study, we investigated optimal culture and test conditions for an indigenous freshwater macroinvertebrate of Korea, Moina macrocopa. The culture conditions that were evaluated included water temperature (20°C and 25°C), rearing media (moderately hard water or MHW, with or without selenium supplementation, or Elendt M4), and food density (2.5 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of Selenastrum capricornutum), and their effects on the life history characteristics of M. macrocopa were determined. Population growth rate of M. macrocopa was maximized at 25°C with 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of algal food density in MHW. A series of chronic three brood reference toxicant tests were conducted under the ideal culture conditions that were identified here, and the results of the tests indicated reliable reproducibility of the test protocol. Optimal culture and test conditions that were identified for M. macrocopa in the present study are suggested for evaluation of chronic toxicity of chemicals and industrial or municipal discharge. PMID:21769559

  3. [Conditional discrimination using 3-dimensional objects by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): tests for derived stimulus relations].

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Fushimi, Takao

    2002-06-01

    A female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained on the conditional-discrimination task using 3-dimensional objects under a face-to-face experimental setting. In Experiment 1, the subject was required to pick up the correct comparison object, take it to the sample object, and construct a new paired-object with a specific action. After acquisition of the task, derived stimulus relations (associative symmetry) were tested. The subject showed a significant emergence of symmetry only when the spatial arrangements of stimuli were changed between the baseline and test trials. In Experiment 2, the subject was tested under the condition where the action to constructed paired-object was common to all stimuli. The subject showed significant above-chance performance in the transitivity test, but not in the symmetry tests. The present results are generally consistent with previous studies in chimpanzees that show weak evidence for the emergence of symmetry.

  4. Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.; Alstine, M.N. Van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two Type B drum package fire test results. The model 9973 package was fire tested after a 30 ft. top down drop and puncture, and an undamaged model 9975 package containing a heater (21W) was fire tested to determine content heat source effects. Analysis results using a refined version of a previously developed HAC fiberboard model compared well against the test data from both the 9973 and 9975 packages.

  5. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  6. Long- and short-term trends in vessel conditioning of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.; Groebuer, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.

    1986-10-01

    We have investigated trends in the conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel during the May 1984 to April 1985 run period. The initial conditioning of the vessel, consisting of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and pulse discharge cleaning (PDC) in concert with a 150/sup 0/C vessel bakeout, is necessary to assure plasma operation after atmospheric venting. A long-term conditioning process, ascribed to limiter conditioning, effectively improves operational conditions during the course of the run. Over several thousand high power plasma discharges, the improvement was documented by using standard parameter (fiducial) plasma discharges. Several techniques demonstrated short-term improvements in vessel conditioning during this time period, including: Cr gettering and programming the plasma position relative to the limiter contact area.

  7. Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Sakanakura, Hirofumi Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko

    2009-05-15

    Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests.

  8. Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds.

    PubMed

    Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko

    2009-05-01

    Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests.

  9. Modal analysis of low-level-light aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Ding, Huan; Xue, Xiao; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2010-10-01

    Low-level-light ( LLL ) aiming sight-glass measurement technologies based on multiple circumstances testing conditions are always concerned by military equipments manufacturers. The article puts forward the concrete steps and method of shock circumstances testing measurement according to military optical equipments circumstances testing standard. Using shock theory and mathematical modeling analysis, shock model of LLL aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions is constructed and analyzed. Without considering resistances and under instantaneous half-sine shock pulse, the ratio of system response amplitude and half-sine pulse peak value is related to system inherent characteristic (inherent frequency, cycle T, etc.) and shock pulse duration D. The results indicate that given D/T>~ 10.5, / 1 max / A = , half-sine shock pulse is transmitted by 1:1. Testing device response acceleration is equal to shock pulse peak acceleration. Testing device response is more intense under this condition. LLL aiming sight-glass structural performance and reticle zero point moving are influenced. Optical lens offset of LLL aiming sight-glass testing parts is impacted. Optical path parameters change and light transmission is influenced. What is more serious is that objective lens will be broken due to shock pulse transmission.

  10. Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Structural Component Successfully Tested Under Pseudo-Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    A fabrication feasibility demonstration component for the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program was evaluated under prototypical engine loading conditions at the Structural Benchmark Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose for this test was to verify EPM casting, joining, coating, and life-prediction methods. Electron beam welding techniques developed in the EPM program were used to join two large superalloy cast sections of an exhaust nozzle flap to fabricate the demonstration component. After the joints were inspected, the component was coated with an oxidation-resistant barrier coating and was sent to Lewis for testing. The special test fixture shown in the photo (the Structural Benchmark Test Facility) was designed and built at Lewis to produce a biaxial bending condition similar to the loading condition this part would encounter during engine operation. Several finite element analyses were conducted to validate the mechanical test method. A floating furnace was then designed to provide prototypical thermal profiles in the component. An isothermal low-cycle fatigue test was used to evaluate the component at a cyclic load of 13 kN (maximum) to 1 kN (minimum) at a frequency of 1 Hz. Component failure was defined as a 30-percent increase in the component's compliance. On the basis of this definition, the low-cycle fatigue life of this component would be 35,000 cycles.

  11. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  12. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  13. Impact resistance of current design composite fan blades tested under short-haul operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Salemme, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite blades were impacted in a rotating whirligig facility with conditions closely simulating those which might be experienced by a STOL engine impacted with various foreign objects. The tip speed of the rotating blades was 800 feet per second. The blades were impacted with simulated birds, real birds, ice balls, and gravel. The results of composite blade impact tests were compared with a titanium blade tested under similar conditions. Neither composite material indicated a clear superiority over the other. Blades made from both composite materials showed more damage than the titanium blades.

  14. Toxicity testing strategies for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explores the use of short-term, EPA-approved laboratory toxicity tests for assessing water-quality conditions in streams and rivers. Strategies for the cost-effective application of such tests for long-term monitoring objectives are considered in the context of logistic constraints and statistical design. A subtle but important difference in objectives for effluent versus ambient testing is this: in effluent testing for regulatory purposes, a key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Recommendations derived as `` lessons learned`` from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective, in terms of information gained per dollar spent, than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Various laboratory and in situ methods for environmental assessment are now under development, but these methods probably will not gain acceptance for use in regulatory situations for many years. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Thus, laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  15. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  16. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  17. Double torsion fracture mechanics testing of shales under chemically reactive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Callahan, O. A.; Holder, J. T.; Olson, J. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture properties of shales is vital for applications such as shale and tight gas development, and seal performance of carbon storage reservoirs. We analyze the fracture behavior from samples of Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales using double-torsion (DT) load relaxation fracture tests. The DT test allows the determination of mode-I fracture toughness (KIC), subcritical crack growth index (SCI), and the stress-intensity factor vs crack velocity (K-V) curves. Samples are tested at ambient air and aqueous conditions with variable ionic concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2, and temperatures up to 70 to determine the effects of chemical/environmental conditions on fracture. Under ambient air condition, KIC determined from DT tests is 1.51±0.32, 0.85±0.25, 1.08±0.17 MPam1/2 for Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales, respectively. Tests under water showed considerable change of KIC compared to ambient condition, with 10.6% increase for Marcellus, 36.5% decrease for Woodford, and 6.7% decrease for Mancos shales. SCI under ambient air condition is between 56 and 80 for the shales tested. The presence of water results in a significant reduction of the SCI from 70% to 85% compared to air condition. Tests under chemically reactive solutions are currently being performed with temperature control. K-V curves under ambient air conditions are linear with stable SCI throughout the load-relaxation period. However, tests conducted under water result in an initial cracking period with SCI values comparable to ambient air tests, which then gradually transition into stable but significantly lower SCI values of 10-20. The non-linear K-V curves reveal that crack propagation in shales is initially limited by the transport of chemical agents due to their low permeability. Only after the initial cracking do interactions at the crack tip lead to cracking controlled by faster stress corrosion reactions. The decrease of SCI in water indicates higher crack propagation velocity due to

  18. Steering and positioning targets for HWIL IR testing at cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkes, D. W.; Jensen, G. L.; Higham, D. L.; Lowry, H. S.; Simpson, W. R.

    2006-05-01

    In order to increase the fidelity of hardware-in-the-loop ground-truth testing, it is desirable to create a dynamic scene of multiple, independently controlled IR point sources. ATK-Mission Research has developed and supplied the steering mirror systems for the 7V and 10V Space Simulation Test Chambers at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC). A portion of the 10V system incorporates multiple target sources beam-combined at the focal point of a 20K cryogenic collimator. Each IR source consists of a precision blackbody with cryogenic aperture and filter wheels mounted on a cryogenic two-axis translation stage. This point source target scene is steered by a high-speed steering mirror to produce further complex motion. The scene changes dynamically in order to simulate an actual operational scene as viewed by the System Under Test (SUT) as it executes various dynamic look-direction changes during its flight to a target. Synchronization and real-time hardware-in-the-loop control is accomplished using reflective memory for each subsystem control and feedback loop. This paper focuses on the steering mirror system and the required tradeoffs of optical performance, precision, repeatability and high-speed motion as well as the complications of encoder feedback calibration and operation at 20K.

  19. Scramjet Tests in a Shock Tunnel at Flight Mach 7, 10, and 15 Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Foelsche, R. O.

    2001-01-01

    Tests of the Hyper-X scramjet engine flowpath have been conducted in the HYPULSE shock tunnel at conditions duplicating the stagnation enthalpy at flight Mach 7, 10, and 15. For the tests at Mach 7 and 10 HYPULSE was operated as a reflected-shock tunnel; at the Mach 15 condition, HYPULSE was operated as a shock-expansion tunnel. The test conditions matched the stagnation enthalpy of a scramjet engine on an aerospace vehicle accelerating through the atmosphere along a 1000 psf dynamic pressure trajectory. Test parameter variation included fuel equivalence ratios from lean (0.8) to rich (1.5+); fuel composition from pure hydrogen to mixtures of 2% and 5% silane in hydrogen by volume; and inflow pressure and Mach number made by changing the scramjet model mounting angle in the HYPULSE test chamber. Data sources were wall pressures and heat flux distributions and schlieren and fuel plume imaging in the combustor/nozzle sections. Data are presented for calibration of the facility nozzles and the scramjet engine model. Comparisons of pressure distributions and flowpath streamtube performance estimates are made for the three Mach numbers tested.

  20. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions.

  1. Contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation.

  2. Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation. PMID:24637495

  3. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions. PMID:17523004

  4. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  5. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  6. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  7. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  8. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  12. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This test is designed to determine the air conditioning-related CO2 emission value, in grams per minute... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  13. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  14. A Review of DIMPACK Version 1.0: Conditional Covariance-Based Test Dimensionality Analysis Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Nina; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2013-01-01

    DIMPACK Version 1.0 for assessing test dimensionality based on a nonparametric conditional covariance approach is reviewed. This software was originally distributed by Assessment Systems Corporation and now can be freely accessed online. The software consists of Windows-based interfaces of three components: DIMTEST, DETECT, and CCPROX/HAC, which…

  15. A Comparison of Chained Linear and Poststratification Linear Equating under Different Testing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    In this study I compared results of chained linear, Tucker, and Levine-observed score equatings under conditions where the new and old forms samples were similar in ability and also when they were different in ability. The length of the anchor test was also varied to examine its effect on the three different equating methods. The three equating…

  16. Contribution of Motivational Beliefs and Metacognition to Students' Performance under Consequential and Nonconsequential Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the contribution of motivational beliefs and metacognition to students' performance under consequential and nonconsequential test conditions was investigated. Fifty-eight college students participated in the study. A modified version of the Approaches to Learning Instrument, the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Metacognitive Awareness…

  17. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  2. Instrumentation for Ground-Based Testing in Simulated Space and Planetary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Horodetsky, Sergey; Issoupov, Vitali

    This paper is an overview of instrumentation developed and created by ITL Inc. for simulated testing and performance evaluation of spacecraft materials, structures, mechanisms, assemblies and components in different space and planetary environments. The LEO Space Environment Simulator allows simulation of the synergistic effect of ultra-high vacuum conditions, 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beams, Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) radiation, and temperature conditions. The simulated space environmental conditions can be controlled in-situ using a quadruple mass-spectrometer, Time-of-Flight technique, as well as Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensors. The new NUV System is capable of delivering an NUV power intensity of up to 10 Equivalent Suns. The design of the system uses horizontal orientation of the 5 kW Mercury lamp, focusing of NUV radiation is achieved due to a parabolic reflector. To address the Lunar/Martian surface environments, the Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility has been developed and built to allow for physical evaluation of the effects of the Lunar/Martian dust environments in conjunction with other factors (ultra-high vacuum or planetary atmospheric conditions, VUV/NUV radiation, thermal cycling, and darkness). The ASTM E 595/ASTM E 1559 Outgassing Test Facility provides the means for the outgassing test of materials with the objective to select materials with low outgassing properties for spacecraft use and allows to determine the following outgassing parameters: Total Mass Loss, Collected Volatile Condensable Materials, and Water Vapor Regained.

  3. The Effect of Testing Condition on Word Guessing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannamaa, Mairi; Kikas, Eve; Raidvee, Aire

    2008-01-01

    Elementary school children's word guessing is studied, and the results from individual and collective testing conditions are compared. The participants are 764 students from the second, third, and fourth grades (ages 8-11, 541 students from mainstream regular classes and 223 students with learning disabilities). About half of these students are…

  4. Agreement between Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Behavior under Naturalistic Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Gertz, Lynne E.; Werder, Candace Susan de Lacy; Rymanowski, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the results of a contingency space analysis (CSA) of behavior-consequence recordings to the results of functional analysis (FA) test conditions involving antecedent stimuli and verbal statements that both differed from and mimicked those in the natural environment. Three preschool children with autism spectrum disorder participated.…

  5. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  6. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  7. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests

    PubMed Central

    Choko, Augustine T.; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S.; Kumwenda, Moses K.; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D.; Webb, Emily L.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. Design A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Methods Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Results Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6–99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Conclusion Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes. PMID:27336161

  8. A hypersonic shock tunnel test of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at high altitude test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittliff, C. E.; O'Connor, A. C.; Sweet, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is a 4.26 m-diameter raked and blunted elliptic cone that is intended to obtain aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic data on blunt bodies at velocities near 10 km/s and altitudes above 75 km. Previous wind tunnel tests of this configuration have been at Mach numbers of 10 or lower. The present test program consisted of five test conditions at Mach numbers between 15 and 20 and simulated altitudes from 75 km to 97 km. Static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients, the lift-to-drag ratio, and the trim angle-of-attack were obtained for angles-of-attack between 7 deg and 27 deg. The effects of angle-of-attack and shock Reynolds number, Re2, have been studied. These results indicate the AFE configuration is longitudinally stable. The variation of normal force slope, CNalpha and lift-to-drag slope, (L/D)alpha as well as the trim angle-of-attack with Re2 are documented. The trim angle-of-attack increases with decreasing values of shock Reynolds number (increasing altitude) while the lift-to-drag ratio at the trimmed conditions is relatively constant.

  9. Multiple boundary condition testing error analysis. [for large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. J.; Kuo, C. P.; Wada, B. K.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for interpreting data from multiple-boundary-condition (MBC) ground tests of large space structures are developed analytically and demonstrated. The use of MBC testing to validate structures too large to stand alone on the ground is explained; the generalized least-squares mass and stiffness curve-fitting methods typically applied to MBC test data are reviewed; and a detailed error analysis is performed. Consideration is given to sensitivity coefficients, covariance-matrix theory, the correspondence between test and analysis modes, constraints and step sizes, convergence criteria, and factor-analysis theory. Numerical results for a simple beam problem are presented in tables and briefly characterized. The improved error-updating capabilities of MBC testing are confirmed, and it is concluded that reasonably accurate results can be obtained using a diagonal covariance matrix.

  10. Neural bases of falsification in conditional proposition testing: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jimei; Zhang, Meng; Jou, Jerwen; Wu, Xin; Li, Wei; Qiu, Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The ability of testing the validity of a conditional statement is important in our everyday life. However, the brain mechanisms underlying this process, especially falsification process which is important in daily life, but especially crucial to scientific reasoning and research is not as yet completely clear. Therefore, in the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural bases of the falsification process in testing the validity of a conditional statement as used in Wason's (1966) selection task. Our fMRI results showed that: (1) compared with the baseline condition, both Falsification (by using Modus Ponens, and Modus Tollens) and Non-Falsification conditions (affirming the consequent, and denying the antecedent) activated the left frontal areas (BA44/45, or BA6), and basal ganglia, the areas previously found in the rule-guided conditional reasoning operations; the parietal area (BA40, BA7) for recruiting cognitive resources to represent and maintain the different evidential information in working memory. (2) The left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and cerebellum were shown to be activated in the contrast of Falsification condition versus Non-Falsification condition and in the contrast of MT versus Non-Falsification condition. These results indicated that the left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) might be the key brain region involved in the falsification process of conditional statement for which abstracting and integrating logical relationships, and inhibiting the distraction of the irrelevant information were the essential processes. Moreover, the cerebellum was found to be responsible for constructing an internal working model. In addition, our brain imaging results might support the dual-process theory of reasoning.

  11. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Treberg, Jason R; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state.

  12. Hypothetical accident conditions, free drop and thermal tests: Specification 6M

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The 30 gallon Specification 6M shipping container with rolled-top food pack cans as inner containers is evaluated under conditions required by 10 CFR 71.42. One kilogram of depleted uranium as UO/sub 2/ was packaged in each of the inner containers. After completion of a free drop test and a simulated thermal test, the maximum observed leakage of UO/sub 2/ for the following week was 3.2 ..mu..g. This leakage is well below the allowable leakage per week for most plutonium isotopic mixtures. Using the examples provided, any plutonium isotopic mixture can be easily compared with the allowable leakage per week. Test conditions and results are reported.

  13. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ∼ 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ∼ 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests.

  14. Evaluation of Human and Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Models under Spaceflight Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Jacob P.; Untaroiu, Costin; Somers. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop occupant protection standards for future multipurpose crew vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has looked to evaluate the test device for human occupant restraint with the modification kit (THOR-K) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in relevant impact test scenarios. With the allowance and support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NASA has performed a series of sled impact tests on the latest developed THOR-K ATD. These tests were performed to match test conditions from human volunteer data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the THOR-K finite element (FE) model and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) FE model with respect to the tests performed. These models were evaluated in spinal and frontal impacts against kinematic and kinetic data recorded in ATD and human testing. Methods: The FE simulations were developed based on recorded pretest ATD/human position and sled acceleration pulses measured during testing. Predicted responses by both human and ATD models were compared to test data recorded under the same impact conditions. The kinematic responses of the models were quantitatively evaluated using the ISO-metric curve rating system. In addition, ATD injury criteria and human stress/strain data were calculated to evaluate the risk of injury predicted by the ATD and human model, respectively. Results: Preliminary results show well-correlated response between both FE models and their physical counterparts. In addition, predicted ATD injury criteria and human model stress/strain values are shown to positively relate. Kinematic comparison between human and ATD models indicates promising biofidelic response, although a slightly stiffer response is observed within the ATD. Conclusion: As a compliment to ATD testing, numerical simulation provides efficient means to assess vehicle safety throughout the design process and further improve the

  15. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  16. Functional equivalence for response programming of actually performing versus imagining movements.

    PubMed

    Ito, M

    1999-06-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that response programming occurs when movements are only imagined. 12 subjects were required to react and produce the sequence of same or different force by squeezing a handle as quickly and accurately as possible after the two reaction signals which were separated by the interstimulus interval of 1 sec. The reaction time to initiate the second response was examined when the first response is covertly performed, but the second response is actually performed. The reaction times to initiate the second responses were significantly shorter for imagining and actually performing different movements or the control condition. There was no significant difference in reaction time between the conditions with the same movements. These findings were interpreted as evidence for functional equivalence for response programming of actually performing versus imagining movements. PMID:10407903

  17. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  18. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study. PMID:21901147

  19. An Experimental Test of Condition-Dependent Male and Female Mate Choice in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study. PMID:21901147

  20. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  1. The wear of oriented UHMWPE under isotropically rough and scratched counterface test conditions.

    PubMed

    Dharmastiti, R; Barton, D C; Fisher, J; Edidin, A; Kurtz, S

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional wear tests of UHMWPE against smooth counterfaces show that molecular chains at the surface of virgin material become oriented parallel to the sliding direction giving low wear rate. It is postulated that under more abrasive conditions and predominantly unidirectional motion as in knee prostheses, it may proof beneficial to provide molecular orientation of the bulk material. Therefore strips of UHMWPE were oriented by die drawing at elevated temperature and the resulting anisotropic material subjected to tensile tests, small punch tests and also unidirectional wear tests both parallel and perpendicular to the draw direction. The tensile tests showed that, in the parallel direction, the oriented UHMWPE became stiffer and less ductile compared to the virgin UHMWPE. In the perpendicular direction, there were reductions in yield stress, 5% proof stress and energy to failure compared to the virgin material. The small punch test showed that the oriented UHMWPE exhibited apparent hardening when tested in both parallel and perpendicular directions but the mechanical behaviour in the perpendicular direction was comparable to the virgin UHMWPE. The wear tests demonstrated that the oriented UHMWPE did not show any significant improvement of wear resistance for sliding against either isotropically rough or scratched counterfaces. There was no clear dependency between the mechanical properties and wear factors of the oriented UHMWPE. PMID:11564907

  2. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  3. Free-jet Testing of a REST Scramjet at Off-Design Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Ruf, Edward G.

    2006-01-01

    Scramjet flowpaths employing elliptical combustors have the potential to improve structural efficiency and performance relative to those using planar geometries. NASA Langley has developed a scramjet flowpath integrated into a lifting body vehicle, while transitioning from a rectangular capture area to both an elliptical throat and combustor. This Rectangular-to-Elliptical Shape Transition (REST) scramjet, has a design point of Mach 7.1, and is intended to operate with fixed-geometry between Mach 4.5 and 8.0. This paper describes initial free-jet testing of the heat-sink REST scramjet engine model at conditions simulating Mach 5.3 flight. Combustion of gaseous hydrogen fuel at equivalence ratios between 0.5 and 1.5 generated robust performance after ignition with a silane-hydrogen pilot. Facility model interactions were experienced for fuel equivalence ratios above 1.1, yet despite this, the flowpath was not unstarted by fuel addition at the Mach 5.3 test condition. Combustion tests at reduced stagnation enthalpy indicated that the engine self-started following termination of the fuel injection. Engine data is presented for the largest fuel equivalence ratio tested without facility interaction. These results indicate that this class of three-dimensional scramjet engine operates successfully at off-design conditions.

  4. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern.

  5. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Effect of test conditions on the toxicity of copper to juvenile unionid mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.E.; Ruessler, D.S.; Kernaghan, N.J.

    1999-07-01

    During the past twenty years, unionid mussels have declined in both abundance and diversity throughout the eastern United States. As a result, there has been an increased call to evaluate the toxicity of various pollutants to unionids in an attempt to separate habitat-caused losses from those precipitated by aquatic contaminants. Few toxicity data for unionids were available until recently because unionids are not easily cultured and no test method had been developed for these animals. Therefore, water quality criteria developed by the USEPA in the 1970s and 1980s were derived from data lacking any information on unionid mussel sensitivities. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has advocated the use of a 9-day toxicity test method its scientists developed in the late 1980s. This method, which requires the use of silt, an algal mixture for food and daily changes of water, is not only more labor intensive, it also introduces sources of variation with the use of silt and algae, as well as being substantially different from the standard 96-h fathead minnow or zooplankton tests. The evaluation of TVA's suggested test conditions indicate that the use of a 16L:8D light regime, with or without silt or algae did not result in a change in the toxicity of dissolved copper to juvenile Utterbackia imbecillis mussels compared to that recorded using TVA's test conditions.

  7. Virtual Turbine Engine Test Bench Using MGET Test Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Seonghee; Kong, Changduk; Ki, Jayoung

    2015-05-01

    Test device using virtual engine simulator can help reduce the number of engine tests through tests similar to the actual engine tests and repeat the test under the same condition, and thus reduce the engine maintenance and operating costs [1]. Also, as it is possible to easily implement extreme conditions in which it is hard to conduct actual tests, it can prevent engine damages that may happen during the actual engine test under such conditions. In this study, an upgraded MGET test device was developed that can conduct both real and virtual engine test by applying real-time engine model to the existing MGET test device that was developed and has been sold by the Company. This newly developed multi-purpose MGET test device is expected to be used for various educational and research purposes.

  8. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  9. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  10. Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation seems to be a promising approach to dampen the expression of fear memory. Recently, we demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by a pharmacological manipulation specifically targeted the emotional expression of memory (i.e., startle response). Here we test in a human differential fear-conditioning paradigm with fear-relevant stimuli whether the spacing of a single unreinforced retrieval trial relative to extinction learning allows for "rewriting" the original fear association, thereby preventing the return of fear. In contrast to previous findings reported by Schiller et al. (2010), who used a single-method for indexing fear (skin conductance response) and fear-irrelevant stimuli, we found that extinction learning within the reconsolidation window did not prevent the recovery of fear on multiple indices of conditioned responding (startle response, skin conductance response and US-expectancy). These conflicting results ask for further critical testing given the potential impact on the field of emotional memory and its application to clinical practice.

  11. Influence of a test preservative on sponge cakes under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Pilar; Cordoba, Guía; Martín, A; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2005-11-01

    A study was performed on 240 samples, divided into four batches, of sponge cakes baked following their industrial recipe to which different concentrations of a test preservative, mainly lactic acid and propylene glycol, were added. Each batch was submitted to three different temperature and relative humidity conditions. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, enterobacteria, enterococci, staphylococci, clostridia, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts were less than 1 log CFU/g in all the batches studied and throughout the 120 days of study. Depending on batches and conditions, the mold counts were between less than 1 and 6.40 log CFU/g. Aspergillus, Eurotium, Penicillium, and Wallemia were detected and were potentially toxigenic in two cases. The test preservative added at 18 g/kg produced the greatest preserving effect, prolonging the product's shelf life by more than 4 months and showing itself to be effective at the other concentrations, especially at 15 degrees C and at 80 and 51% relative humidity.

  12. Heterogeneity in a Low-Permeability Formation or Non-Ideal Testing Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Deeds, N. E.; Pickens, J. F.; Distinguin, M.; Delay, J.

    2005-12-01

    Hydraulic testing in packer-isolated wellbore intervals in low-permeability formations is often complicated by non-ideal conditions such as thermal expansion of fluid in the test interval, packer squeeze and borehole closure. Such processes lead to fluid accumulation and pressurization within the wellbore during shut-in, and can exert significant effects on the measured borehole pressure response. Unless these conditions are taken into account during test interpretation, it is possible to make inappropriate conclusions regarding formation heterogeneity (e.g., lateral permeability variations) and/or static pressure levels. We have developed a lumped parameter modeling approach by treating the combined effect of these processes as the equivalent of an additional volume of fluid accumulating within the test interval (in addition to the nominal test-interval volume at the time of shut-in). We postulate that the rate of fluid accumulation can be treated in a simple manner as a constant value for the duration of the test. Thus, the fluid accumulation problem can be recast as the equivalent of a constant injection rate into the packed-off volume within the borehole. We show how this surrogate injection rate can be estimated from the measured pressure data by exploiting the analogy between the pressure response during borehole storage dominated conditions and that of a line-source well with an exponentially varying flow rate. Shut-in test sequences (i.e., shut-in period prior to initiation of a pressure pulse test and shut-in period(s) during pulse test(s)) can then be analyzed as effective constant-rate injection periods. The methodology is demonstrated using data from a recent series of hydraulic tests conducted in support of site characterization activities by ANDRA, the French radioactive waste management agency. In many of these tests, the measured pressure response was fitted to a 2-zone radially composite system model. Although the fit was visually excellent, static

  13. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  14. Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, M; Tailby, W

    1982-01-01

    A subject's performance under a conditional-discrimination procedure defines conditional relations between stimuli: "If Al, then Bl; if A2, then B2." The procedure may also generate matching to sample. If so, the stimuli will be related not only by conditionality, but by equivalence: Al and Bl will become equivalent members of one stimulus class, A2 and B2 of another. One paradigm for testing whether a conditional-discrimination procedure has generated equivalence relations uses three sets of stimuli, A, B, and C, three stimuli per set. Subjects learn to select Set-B and Set-C comparisons conditionally upon Set-A samples. Having been explicitly taught six sample-comparison relations, A1B1, A1C1, A2B2, A2C2, A3B3,and A3C3, subjects prove immediately capable of matching the B- and C-stimuli; six new relations emerge (B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, C1B1, C2B2, C3B3). The 12 stimulus relations, six taught and six emergent, define the existence of three three-member stimulus classes, A1B1C1, A2B2C2 and A3B3C3. This paradigm was expanded by introducing three more stimuli (Set D), and teaching eight children not only the AB and AC relations but DC relations also-selecting Set-C comparisons conditionally upon Set-D samples. Six of the children proved immediately capable of matching the B- and D-stimuli to each other. By selecting appropriate Set-B comparisons conditionally upon Set-D samples, and Set-D comparisons conditionally upon Set-B samples, they demonstrated the existence of three four-member stimulus classes, A1B1C1D1, A2B2C2D2, and A3B3C3D3. These larger classes were confirmed by the subjects' success with the prerequisite lower-level conditional relations; they were also able to select Set-D comparisons conditionally upon samples from Sets A and C, and to do the BC and CB matching that defined the original three-member classes. Adding the three DC relations therefore generated 12 more, three each in BD, DB, AD, and CD. Enlarging each class by one member brought about a

  15. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  16. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  17. A Novel Approach for Dynamic Testing of Total Hip Dislocation under Physiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sven; Kluess, Daniel; Kaehler, Michael; Grawe, Robert; Rachholz, Roman; Souffrant, Robert; Zierath, János; Bader, Rainer; Woernle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Constant high rates of dislocation-related complications of total hip replacements (THRs) show that contributing factors like implant position and design, soft tissue condition and dynamics of physiological motions have not yet been fully understood. As in vivo measurements of excessive motions are not possible due to ethical objections, a comprehensive approach is proposed which is capable of testing THR stability under dynamic, reproducible and physiological conditions. The approach is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation where a robotic physical setup interacts with a computational musculoskeletal model based on inverse dynamics. A major objective of this work was the validation of the HiL test system against in vivo data derived from patients with instrumented THRs. Moreover, the impact of certain test conditions, such as joint lubrication, implant position, load level in terms of body mass and removal of muscle structures, was evaluated within several HiL simulations. The outcomes for a normal sitting down and standing up maneuver revealed good agreement in trend and magnitude compared with in vivo measured hip joint forces. For a deep maneuver with femoral adduction, lubrication was shown to cause less friction torques than under dry conditions. Similarly, it could be demonstrated that less cup anteversion and inclination lead to earlier impingement in flexion motion including pelvic tilt for selected combinations of cup and stem positions. Reducing body mass did not influence impingement-free range of motion and dislocation behavior; however, higher resisting torques were observed under higher loads. Muscle removal emulating a posterior surgical approach indicated alterations in THR loading and the instability process in contrast to a reference case with intact musculature. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the HiL test system is able to reproduce comparable joint dynamics as present in THR patients. PMID:26717236

  18. A Novel Approach for Dynamic Testing of Total Hip Dislocation under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Sven; Kluess, Daniel; Kaehler, Michael; Grawe, Robert; Rachholz, Roman; Souffrant, Robert; Zierath, János; Bader, Rainer; Woernle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Constant high rates of dislocation-related complications of total hip replacements (THRs) show that contributing factors like implant position and design, soft tissue condition and dynamics of physiological motions have not yet been fully understood. As in vivo measurements of excessive motions are not possible due to ethical objections, a comprehensive approach is proposed which is capable of testing THR stability under dynamic, reproducible and physiological conditions. The approach is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation where a robotic physical setup interacts with a computational musculoskeletal model based on inverse dynamics. A major objective of this work was the validation of the HiL test system against in vivo data derived from patients with instrumented THRs. Moreover, the impact of certain test conditions, such as joint lubrication, implant position, load level in terms of body mass and removal of muscle structures, was evaluated within several HiL simulations. The outcomes for a normal sitting down and standing up maneuver revealed good agreement in trend and magnitude compared with in vivo measured hip joint forces. For a deep maneuver with femoral adduction, lubrication was shown to cause less friction torques than under dry conditions. Similarly, it could be demonstrated that less cup anteversion and inclination lead to earlier impingement in flexion motion including pelvic tilt for selected combinations of cup and stem positions. Reducing body mass did not influence impingement-free range of motion and dislocation behavior; however, higher resisting torques were observed under higher loads. Muscle removal emulating a posterior surgical approach indicated alterations in THR loading and the instability process in contrast to a reference case with intact musculature. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the HiL test system is able to reproduce comparable joint dynamics as present in THR patients. PMID:26717236

  19. A field test for differences in condition among trapped and shot mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Shaiffer, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    We tested predictions from the condition bias hypothesis (Weatherland and Greenwood 1981) regarding the effects of sampling methods of body weights of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR), Arkansas, during 24 November-8 December 1985. Body weights of 84 mallards caught with unbaited rocket nets in a natural wetland were used as experimental controls and compared to the body weights of 70 mallards captured with baited rocket nets, 86 mallards captured with baited swim-in traps, and 130 mallards killed by hunters. We found no differences (P > 0.27) in body weight among sampling methods, but body condition (wt/wing length) of the birds killed by hunters was less (P 0.75 for differences > 50 g. The condition bias hypothesis probably applies to ducks killed by hunters but not to trapping operations when substantial (> 20 at 1 time) numbers of birds are captured.

  20. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  1. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  3. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  4. Optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for Trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J D; Yang, Q

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. This is the first study to develop biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum transformants TS1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. Agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. Spore production was observed, and the method was optimized using single-factor tests with 4 factors at 3 levels in an orthogonal experimental design to determine the optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1. In this step, we determined the best conditions for fermenting the biocontrol fungi. The optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1 were cultivated for 8 days, a ratio of straw to wheat bran of 1:3, ammonium persulfate as the nitrogen source, and a water content of 30 mL. Under optimal culture conditions, the sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 reached 1.49 x 10(10) CFU/g, which was 1.46-fold higher than that achieved before optimization. Increased sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 results in better utilization of space and nutrients to achieve control of plant pathogens. This method allows for the recycling of agricultural waste straw. PMID:25867321

  5. 3D shoulder kinematics for static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-09-18

    Shoulder motion analysis provides clinicians with references of normal joint rotations. Shoulder joints orientations assessment is often based on series of static positions, while clinicians perform either passive or active tests and exercises mostly in dynamic. These conditions of motion could modify joint coordination and lead to discrepancies with the established references. Hence, the objective was to evaluate the influence of static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions on shoulder joints orientations. Twenty asymptomatic subjects setup with 45 markers on the upper limb and trunk were tracked by an optoelectronic system. Static positions (30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of thoracohumeral elevation) and dynamic motion both in active condition and passively mobilised by an examiner were executed. Three-dimensional sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint angles (12 in total) representing the distal segment orientation relative to the proximal segment orientation were estimated using a shoulder kinematical chain model. Separate four-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied on the 12 joint angles with factors of static vs dynamic, passive vs active, thoracohumeral elevation angle (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and plane of elevation (frontal and sagittal). Scapulothoracic lateral rotation progressed more during arm elevation in static than in dynamic gaining 4.2° more, and also in passive than in active by 6.6°. Glenohumeral elevation increased more during arm elevation in active than in passive by 4.4°. Shoulder joints orientations are affected by the testing conditions, which should be taken into consideration for data acquisition, inter-study comparison or clinical applications.

  6. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  7. Unconditioned and conditioned anxiogenic effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 in the social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Genn, Rachel F; Tucci, Sonia; Marco, Eva M; Viveros, M Paz; File, Sandra E

    2004-03-01

    In spite of the addictive properties of cannabinoids, under certain circumstances, they can evoke strong anxiogenic and aversive responses in humans and in animal tests of anxiety. Effects of different doses of CP 55,940 (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg) were tested in the low-light, familiar (LF) apparatus test condition of the social interaction test. The 40-microg/kg dose of CP 55,940 significantly decreased the time spent in social interaction, indicating an anxiogenic effect. This dose also had an independent effect of reducing locomotor activity. In rats tested undrugged 24 h after testing with 40 microg/kg, there was a significant anxiogenic effect, indicating conditioned anxiety. The group of rats injected with 40 microg/kg immediately after the social interaction test showed an unexpected significant anxiolytic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. In an additional experiment, rats were tested in the high-light, familiar (HF) apparatus test condition after 10 or 40 microg/kg, and only those that were tested after 40 microg/kg showed an anxiogenic effect on the test day and a conditioned anxiogenic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. Once again, those injected with 40 microg/kg after the social interaction test displayed an anxiolytic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. We provide the first evidence for unconditioned and conditioned anxiogenic-like responses to a cannabinoid agonist in the social interaction test.

  8. SOFI/Substrate integrity testing for cryogenic propellant tanks at extreme thermal gradient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, M.; Fabian, P.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid propellant tank insulation for space flight requires low weight as well as high insulation factors. Use of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI) is an accepted, cost effective technique for insulating a single wall cryogenic propellant tank and has been used extensively throughout the aerospace industry. Determining the bond integrity of the SOFI to the metallic substrate as well as its ability to withstand the in-service strains, both mechanical and thermal, is critical to the longevity of the insulation. This determination has previously been performed using highly volatile, explosive cryogens, which increases the test costs enormously, as well as greatly increasing the risk to both equipment and personnel. CTD has developed a new test system, based on a previous NASA test that simulates the mechanical and thermal strains associated with filling a large fuel tank with a cryogen. The test enables a relatively small SOFI/substrate sample to be monitored for any deformations, delaminations, or disjunctures during the cooling and mechanical straining process of the substrate, and enables the concurrent application of thermal and physical strains to two specimens at the same time. The thermal strains are applied by cooling the substrate to the desired cryogen temperature (from 4 K to 250 K) while maintaining the outside surface of the SOFI foam at ambient conditions. Multiple temperature monitoring points are exercised to ensure even cooling across the substrate, while at the same time, surface temperatures of the SOFI can be monitored to determine the heat flow. The system also allows for direct measurement of the strains in the substrate during the test. The test system as well as test data from testing at 20 K, for liquid Hydrogen simulation, will be discussed.

  9. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  10. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge

  11. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Methods: Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results: Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and

  12. Recommendations concerning the role of workplace testing of respirators as a condition of certification

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for certification of respiratory protective devices published on August 27, 1987, as it related to workplace performance testing as a condition of certification was reviewed. After considering all available literature on the topic, the author concludes that to introduce workplace or simulated workplace testing to determine workplace protection factors into the requirements for certification of industrial respirators would be premature. The primary reason for this conclusion is the great variability seen in protection demonstrated currently in workplace test programs and in fit testing. Effort is currently needed to determine the exposure of workers while using respirators. Several approaches toward this end are reviewed taking into account work recently reported. Little progress is reported in the area of performance of negative pressure high efficiency filter respirators since 1962. Further development is needed in the anthropometric description of human faces which is still restricted to two dimensional models. Emphasis should be placed on positive pressure systems which meet further certification requirements to ensure that positive pressure is maintained in the breathing zone at all times. The cost effectiveness of any proposed research program should be critically examined and compared with the high cost of field testing for certification purposes.

  13. Viable mononuclear cell stability study for implementation in a proficiency testing program: impact of shipment conditions.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga A; Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-06-01

    The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

  14. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  15. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Hoedjes, K M; Steidle, J L M; Werren, J H; Vet, L E M; Smid, H M

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory dynamics and can be instrumental to understanding both the adaptive benefit of and mechanisms underlying this variation. Parasitic wasps of the genus Nasonia offer excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research on this topic. Genetic and genomic resources available for Nasonia are unrivaled among parasitic wasps, providing tools for genetic dissection of mechanisms that cause differences in learning. This study presents a robust, high-throughput method for olfactory conditioning of Nasonia using a host encounter as reward. A T-maze olfactometer facilitates high-throughput memory retention testing and employs standardized odors of equal detectability, as quantified by electroantennogram recordings. Using this setup, differences in memory retention between Nasonia species were shown. In both Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis, memory was observed up to at least 5 days after a single conditioning trial, whereas Nasonia giraulti lost its memory after 2 days. This difference in learning may be an adaptation to species-specific differences in ecological factors, for example, host preference. The high-throughput methods for conditioning and memory retention testing are essential tools to study both ultimate and proximate factors that cause variation in learning and memory formation in Nasonia and other parasitic wasp species. PMID:22804968

  16. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  17. Test Outline for Flutter Analysis of Rectangular Panels in Rarefied Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akl, Fred A.

    1996-01-01

    Jet plume impingement forces acting on large flexible space structures may precipitate dynamically unstable behavior during space flights. Typical operating conditions in space involve rarefied gas flow regimes which are intrinsically distinct from continuum gas flow and are normally modeled using the kinetic theory of gas flow. Docking and undocking operations of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir space laboratory represent a scenario in which the stability boundaries of solar panels may be of interest. Extensive literature review of research work on the dynamic stability of rectangular panels in rarefied gas flow conditions indicated the lack of published reports dealing with this phenomenon. A recently completed preliminary study for NASA JSC dealing with the mathematical analysis of the stability of two-degree-of-freedom elastically supported rigid panels under the effect of rarefied gas flow was reviewed. A test plan outline is prepared for the purpose of conducting a series of experiments on four rectangular rigid test articles in a vacuum chamber under the effect of continuous and pulsating Nitrogen jet plumes. The purpose of the test plan is to gather enough data related to a number of key parameters to allow the validation of the two-degree-of-freedom mathematical model. The hardware required careful design to select a very lightweight material while satisfying rigidity and frequency requirements within the constraints of the test environment. The data to be obtained from the vacuum chamber tests can be compared with the predicted behavior of the theoretical two-degree-of-freedom model. Using the data obtained in this study, further research can identify the limitations of the mathematical model. In addition modifications to the mathematical model can be made, if warranted, to accurately predict the behavior of rigid panels under rarefied gas flow regimes.

  18. Uniaxial and triaxial compression tests of silicon carbide ceramics under quasi-static loading condition.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2005-02-01

    To establish mechanical properties and failure criteria of silicon carbide (SiC-N) ceramics, a series of quasi-static compression tests has been completed using a high-pressure vessel and a unique sample alignment jig. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established the failure threshold for the SiC-N ceramics in terms of stress invariants (I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}) over the range 1246 < I{sub 1} < 2405. In this range, results are fitted to the following limit function (Fossum and Brannon, 2004) {radical}J{sub 2}(MPa) = a{sub 1} - a{sub 3}e -a{sub 2}(I{sub 1}/3) + a{sub 4} I{sub 1}/3, where a{sub 1} = 10181 MPa, a{sub 2} = 4.2 x 10{sup -4}, a{sub 3} = 11372 MPa, and a{sub 4} = 1.046. Combining these quasistatic triaxial compression strength measurements with existing data at higher pressures naturally results in different values for the least-squares fit to this function, appropriate over a broader pressure range. These triaxial compression tests are significant because they constitute the first successful measurements of SiC-N compressive strength under quasistatic conditions. Having an unconfined compressive strength of {approx}3800 MPa, SiC-N has been heretofore tested only under dynamic conditions to achieve a sufficiently large load to induce failure. Obtaining reliable quasi-static strength measurements has required design of a special alignment jig and load-spreader assembly, as well as redundant gages to ensure alignment. When considered in combination with existing dynamic strength measurements, these data significantly advance the characterization of pressure-dependence of strength, which is important for penetration simulations where failed regions are often at lower pressures than intact regions.

  19. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates.

  20. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates. PMID:26834666

  1. Prior extended daily access to cocaine elevates the reward threshold in a conditioned place preference test.

    PubMed

    Su, Zu-In; Wenzel, Jennifer; Ettenberg, Aaron; Ben-Shahar, Osnat

    2014-09-01

    We have previously shown that extended-access subjects exhibit heightened motivation for cocaine in the runway model, as reflected by reduced number of retreats. This heightened motivation could reflect either an increase in cocaine-induced reward or a decrease in cocaine-induced aversion. The current experiment was therefore devised to assess the cocaine-induced reward and aversion in extended-access rats using a place conditioning test. Rats trained to lever press for intravenous (IV) cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) were provided 6-hour daily access to the drug over 10 days. Lever pressing in control subjects produced IV infusions of saline. Following drug self-administration, subjects underwent place conditioning for the immediate or delayed effects of cocaine (1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, IV). In control subjects, the immediate effects of the low dose of cocaine produced conditioned places preferences (CPPs), while the delayed effects produced conditioned place aversions (CPAs). In contrast, the animals receiving low cocaine dose for 6 hours, exhibited place aversions but not preferences; an effect that was reversed when the dose of cocaine was increased. Additionally, in the 6-hour group, delayed conditioning was associated with a reduction in zif268 immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell while immediate conditioning was associated with an increase in zif268-positive cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Collectively, these data suggest that extended daily access to cocaine produces a shift in the subject's perceived reward threshold that is paralleled by alterations in the activity of both the reward and stress pathways.

  2. Prior extended daily access to cocaine elevates the reward threshold in a conditioned place preference test.

    PubMed

    Su, Zu-In; Wenzel, Jennifer; Ettenberg, Aaron; Ben-Shahar, Osnat

    2014-09-01

    We have previously shown that extended-access subjects exhibit heightened motivation for cocaine in the runway model, as reflected by reduced number of retreats. This heightened motivation could reflect either an increase in cocaine-induced reward or a decrease in cocaine-induced aversion. The current experiment was therefore devised to assess the cocaine-induced reward and aversion in extended-access rats using a place conditioning test. Rats trained to lever press for intravenous (IV) cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) were provided 6-hour daily access to the drug over 10 days. Lever pressing in control subjects produced IV infusions of saline. Following drug self-administration, subjects underwent place conditioning for the immediate or delayed effects of cocaine (1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, IV). In control subjects, the immediate effects of the low dose of cocaine produced conditioned places preferences (CPPs), while the delayed effects produced conditioned place aversions (CPAs). In contrast, the animals receiving low cocaine dose for 6 hours, exhibited place aversions but not preferences; an effect that was reversed when the dose of cocaine was increased. Additionally, in the 6-hour group, delayed conditioning was associated with a reduction in zif268 immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell while immediate conditioning was associated with an increase in zif268-positive cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Collectively, these data suggest that extended daily access to cocaine produces a shift in the subject's perceived reward threshold that is paralleled by alterations in the activity of both the reward and stress pathways. PMID:23634951

  3. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  4. RF Conditioning and testing of fundamental power couplers for the RIA project

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stirbet; J. Popielarski; T. L. Grimm; M. Johnson

    2003-09-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) is the highest priority of the nuclear physics community in the United States for a major new accelerator facility. A principal element of RIA will be a superconducting 1.4 GeV superconducting ion linac accelerating ions of isotopes from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets or for further acceleration by a second superconducting linac. The superconducting linac technology is closely related to that used at existing accelerators and the Spallation Neutron Source. Taking advantage of JLAB's SRF Institute facilities and expertise for the SNS project, preparation of couplers, RF conditioning and high power tests have been performed on fundamental power couplers for RIA project.

  5. Unusual visual stimulation in dynamic balance conditions: proposal for a space motion sickness test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séverac, Alexandra; Bessou, Paul; Pagès, Bernard

    1994-08-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficiency of normal vision/unusual vestibular cues conflict to induce motion sickness. In the present study, we investigate whether, inversely, unusual visual information/normal vestibular function conflict also elicited motion sickness. The experiments were again carried out in dynamic balance conditions to increase proprioceptive input. Circular translation of the visual field with diplopia were produced by rotating Fresnel prismatic glasses. The stimulation triggered SMS-like symptoms and dynamic balance disturbance. A positive relationship was found between discomfort and balance disturbance. Unusual visual information should therefore be included in Space Motion Sickness susceptibility testing.

  6. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  7. Residual stress analysis on tensile MMC specimens after loading/unloading tests in several conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Albertini, Gianni; Manescu, Adrian

    2004-07-01

    Residual stresses have been investigated in samples made of AA6061+22% Al2O3 in order to correlate microstructural characteristics with mechanical performances. In particular, the possible occurrence of a brittle fracture induced by an excessive load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement was investigated. To this end, macrostresses and microstresses were analysed. A neutron diffraction test on 12 specimens submitted to several loading/unloading conditions at different temperatures was performed. These measurements aimed to establish the optimal temperature for the initial extruded billet in pre-heating stage, before forging the final wheel hub.

  8. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  9. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  10. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares first stage rocket is a "human-rated" motor capable of producing and sustaining 3.5 million pounds of thrust throughout it s two-minute burn period. A series of demonstration motors (DM) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet all design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was designated to be a "cold motor", this means the internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 40 +5\\-3 F. The motor was subjected to subfreezing temperatures for two months.

  11. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER.

    PubMed

    Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Antoni, V; Baltador, C; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Sartori, E; Toigo, V; Veltri, P

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained. PMID:26932099

  12. Bypass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon Under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon whose purpose was to determine margin available for bypass diodes integrated with new, large multi-junction solar cells that are manufactured from a 4-inch wafer. The tests were performed under high vacuum with coupon back side thermal conditions of both cold and ambient. The bypass diodes were subjected to a sequence of increasing discrete current steps from 0 Amp to 2.0 Amp in steps of 0.25 Amp. At each current step, a temperature measurement was obtained via remote viewing by an infrared camera. This paper discusses the experimental methodology, experiment results, and the thermal model.

  13. Microstructure and fracture behavior of F82H steel under different irradiation and tensile test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of martensitic steel F82H were irradiated to doses ranging from 10.7 dpa/850 appm He to 19.6 dpa/1740 appm He at temperatures between 165 and 305 °C in the second experiment of SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP-II). Tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures and various fracture modes were observed. Microstructural changes including irradiation-induced defect clusters, dislocation loops and helium bubbles under different irradiation conditions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deformation microstructures of tensile tested specimens were carefully examined to understand the underlying deformation mechanisms. Deformation twinning was for the first time observed in irradiated martensitic steels. A change of deformation mechanism from dislocation channeling to deformation twinning was observed when the fracture mode changed from rather ductile (quasi-cleavage) to brittle (intergranular or cleavage and intergranular mixed).

  14. Clutter sensitivity test under controlled field conditions Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-27

    Theoretical research, controlled laboratory tests, and these field test results show that nonmetallic (and metallic) shallowly buried objects can be detected and imaged with the Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor. The sensor can be modeled as a high Q cavity which capitalizes on its resonant condition sensitivity to scattered waves from buried objects. When the RMPA sensor is swept over a shallowly buried object, the RMPA fed-point impedance (resistance), measured with a Maxwell bridge, changes by tens of percent. The significant change in unprocessed impedance data can be presented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical displays over the survey area. This forms silhouette images of the objects without the application of computationally intensive data processing algorithms. Because RMPA employed electromagnetic waves to illuminate the shallowly buried object, a number of questions and issues arise in the decision to fund or deny funding of the reconfiguration of the RMPA technology into a nonmetallic (metallic) land mine detector.

  15. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  16. Determination of Constant Parameters of Copper as Power-Law Hardening Material at Different Test Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowser, Md. A.; Mahiuddin, Md.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a technique has been developed to determine constant parameters of copper as a power-law hardening material by tensile test approach. A work-hardening process is used to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation. A computer program is used to show the variation of the stress-strain relation for different values of stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α . Due to its close tolerances, excellent corrosion resistance and high material strength, in this analysis copper (Cu) has been selected as the material. As a power-law hardening material, Cu has been used to compute stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α from tensile test experiment without heat treatment and after heat treatment. A wealth of information about mechanical behavior of a material can be determined by conducting a simple tensile test in which a cylindrical specimen of a uniform cross-section is pulled until it ruptures or fractures into separate pieces. The original cross sectional area and gauge length are measured prior to conducting the test and the applied load and gauge deformation are continuously measured throughout the test. Based on the initial geometry of the sample, the engineering stress-strain behavior (stress-strain curve) can be easily generated from which numerous mechanical properties, such as the yield strength and elastic modulus, can be determined. A universal testing machine is utilized to apply the load in a continuously increasing (ramp) manner according to ASTM specifications. Finally, theoretical results are compared with these obtained from experiments where the nature of curves is found similar to each other. It is observed that there is a significant change of the value of n obtained with and without heat treatment it means the value of n should be determined for the heat treated condition of copper material for their applications in engineering fields.

  17. Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

  18. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test

    PubMed Central

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J.; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test – a simple pencil and paper test – has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject’s performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice. PMID:27057085

  19. Selective Automated Perimetry Under Photopic, Mesopic, and Scotopic Conditions: Detection Mechanisms and Testing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Simunovic, Matthew P.; Moore, Anthony T.; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Automated scotopic, mesopic, and photopic perimetry are likely to be important paradigms in the assessment of emerging treatments of retinal diseases, yet our knowledge of the photoreceptor mechanisms detecting targets under these conditions remains largely dependent on simian data. We therefore aimed to establish the photoreceptor/postreceptoral mechanisms detecting perimetric targets in humans under photopic, mesopic, and scotopic conditions and to make recommendations for suitable clinical testing strategies for selective perimetry. Methods Perimetric sensitivities within 30° of fixation were determined for eight wavelengths (410, 440, 480, 520, 560, 600, 640, and 680 nm) under scotopic, mesopic (1.3 cd.m−2) and photopic (10 cd.m−2) conditions. Data were fitted with vector combinations of rod, S-cone, nonopponent M+L-cone mechanism, and opponent M- versus L-cone mechanism templates. Results Scotopicperimetric sensitivity was determined by rods peripherally and by a combination of rods and cones at, and immediately around, fixation. Mesopic perimetric sensitivity was mediated by M+L-cones and S-cones centrally and by M+L-cones and rods more peripherally. Photopic perimetric sensitivity was determined by an opponent M- versus L-cone, a nonopponent M+L-cone, and an S-cone mechanism centrally and by a combination of an S-cone and an M+L-cone mechanism peripherally. Conclusions Under scotopic conditions, a 480-nm stimulus provides adequate isolation (≥28 dB) of the rod mechanism. Several mechanisms contribute to mesopic sensitivity: this redundancy in detection may cause both insensitivity to broadband white targets and ambiguity in determining which mechanism is being probed with short-wavelength stimuli. M- and L-cone–derived mechanisms are well isolated at 10 cd.m−2: these may be selectively probed by a stimulus at 640 nm (≥ 20 dB isolation). Translation Relevance In human observers, multiple mechanisms contribute to the detection of Goldmann

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  1. Devilish Tasmanian Streams: Testing a Referential Approach for the Rapid Assessment of Stream Physical Form Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, J.; Dyer, F.; Rutherfurd, I.; Household, I.; Spink, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Natural Resource Management (NRM) organisations in Tasmania commissioned the development of a Tasmanian River Condition Index (TRCI) to enable a statewide assessment of the condition of its streams, incorporating the assessment of physical form. The initial approach that was tested was to use an existing Environmental Domain Analysis (EDA) based on a total of 30 separate inputs which included various measures of topography, litho-structure, climate, the mapped extent of relict geomorphic systems and, specific process provinces (eg Pleistocene glacial limits and karst landscapes) The outputs of the EDA allowed regions of similar fluvial system drivers to be produced (Fluvial Landscape Mosaics) that were independent of anthropogenic disturbance. Within the FLMs pre-European styles of stream were predicted (TasWide Styles), and due to the abundance of pristine streams in Tasmania, it was hoped that reference sites could be found for the dominant Style in each FLM. A comparison of field and desktop-based stream characterisation (based on the RiverStyles method) was used to test the validity of using the FLMs to predict the distribution of TasWide Styles. Detailed field measurements at the site scale were also undertaken in 3 catchments to define the character of reference and test reaches, given the context provided by FLMs and TasWide Styles. These types were also assessed across a disturbance gradient. Whilst a good correlation was found between FLMs and TasWide Styles at a regional scale, the results of the field testing did not give sufficient confidence for this technique to be used for condition assessment at this stage for two reasons: 1. there was a high degree of heterogeneity (using detailed field measures) in sampled reference sites which precluded clear definition of reference character; 2. the scale, and type, of data used to define Fluvial Mosaics and TasWide Styles do not appear to define the character of the river as described by the field measures

  2. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = −66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  3. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  4. A test of Hebb's postulate at identified synapses which mediate classical conditioning in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Carew, T J; Hawkins, R D; Abrams, T W; Kandel, E R

    1984-05-01

    In 1949, D. O. Hebb proposed a novel mechanism for producing changes in the strength of synapses that could account for associative learning. According to Hebb , the strength of a synapse might increase when the use of that synapse contributes to the generation of action potentials in a postsynaptic neuron. Thus, an essential feature of this postulate is that action potentials must occur in both a postsynaptic cell and a presynaptic cell for associative synaptic changes to occur. We have directly tested Hebb 's postulate in Aplysia at identified synapses which are known to exhibit a temporally specific increase in efficacy during a cellular analogue of differential conditioning. We find that the mechanism postulated by Hebb is neither necessary nor sufficient to produce the associative change in synaptic strength that underlies conditioning in Aplysia. In contrast, impulse activity in the presynaptic cell must be paired with facilitatory input, supporting the hypothesis that the temporal specificity of classical conditioning in Aplysia can be accounted for by activity-dependent amplification of presynaptic facilitation.

  5. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills.

  6. Effects of boundary conditions on thermomechanical calculations: Spent fuel test - climax

    SciTech Connect

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1982-10-01

    The effects of varying certain boundary conditions on the results of finite-element calculations were studied in relation to the Spent Fuel Test - Climax. The study employed a thermomechanical model with the ADINA structural analysis. Nodal temperature histories were generated with the compatible ADINAT heat flow codes. The boundary conditions studied included: (1) The effect of boundary loading on three progressively larger meshes. (2) Plane strain vs plane stress conditions. (3) The effect of isothermal boundaries on a small mesh and on a significantly larger mesh. The results showed that different mesh sizes had an insignificant effect on isothermal boundaries up to 5 y, while on the smallest and largest mesh, the maximum temperature difference in the mesh was <1{sup 0}C. In the corresponding ADINA calculation, these different mesh sizes produce insignificant changes in the stress field and displacements in the region of interest near the heat sources and excavations. On the other hand, plane stress produces horizontal and vertical stress differences approx. 9% higher than does plane strain.

  7. A test of Hebb's postulate at identified synapses which mediate classical conditioning in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Carew, T J; Hawkins, R D; Abrams, T W; Kandel, E R

    1984-05-01

    In 1949, D. O. Hebb proposed a novel mechanism for producing changes in the strength of synapses that could account for associative learning. According to Hebb , the strength of a synapse might increase when the use of that synapse contributes to the generation of action potentials in a postsynaptic neuron. Thus, an essential feature of this postulate is that action potentials must occur in both a postsynaptic cell and a presynaptic cell for associative synaptic changes to occur. We have directly tested Hebb 's postulate in Aplysia at identified synapses which are known to exhibit a temporally specific increase in efficacy during a cellular analogue of differential conditioning. We find that the mechanism postulated by Hebb is neither necessary nor sufficient to produce the associative change in synaptic strength that underlies conditioning in Aplysia. In contrast, impulse activity in the presynaptic cell must be paired with facilitatory input, supporting the hypothesis that the temporal specificity of classical conditioning in Aplysia can be accounted for by activity-dependent amplification of presynaptic facilitation. PMID:6726327

  8. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P < .001) effects with a session-time interaction (P < .001), but no main effect of sex (P ≥ .053, effect size ≥ .166). The session-time interaction showed that the PPTs in the painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P < .001). No other QST parameters were significantly modulated by the CS. Sex differences were not detected in this study; a larger sample size may be needed to further explore this possibility. However, the findings indicate that when extensive QST protocols are applied, PPT may be the most sensitive measure to detect endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  9. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  11. Indoor pollution by organic emissions from textile floor coverings: Climate test chamber studies under static conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollinger, S.; Levsen, K.; Wünsch, G.

    The emission of organic compounds from textile floor coverings was studied in a climate test chamber under static conditions (zero air exchange) in order to test the parameters which influence such chamber experiments, i.e. the temperature, the humidity and the adsorption on the walls. While depending on the volatility and the polarity of the compound, the equilibrium concentrations increase in part substantially with increasing temperature, the humidity has little impact on the observed concentrations. The chamber walls represent an important sink for polar and less volatile compounds, although this sink does not influence the equilibrium concentrations. Ten textile floor coverings have been tested (7 of which had a polyamide pile and a styrene-butadiene rubber backing). Ninety-nine compounds have been identified. The equilibrium concentrations of 20 compounds have been determined. These equilibrium concentrations do not depend on the sample size, the sample loading nor on wall effects, in contrast to the dynamic method, where these parameters play an important role.

  12. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    PubMed

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  13. Micro push-pull tests under unsaturated conditions: A new technique to investigate rhizosphere processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knecht, Kajsa; Nowack, Bernd; Schroth, Martin Herbert; Schulin, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    The rhizosphere differs in many aspects from the bulk soil. The growth of roots or uptake of water by plants alters directly the physical properties of the rhizosphere. Root activities such as absorption, respiration or exudation can change many chemical properties in the rhizosphere. The aim of this study is to develop a new micro technique that allows studying rhizosphere processes at microscopic scale in-situ. Our goal is to combine the technique of micro-suction cups with that of push-pull tests, creating a miniaturized system that is applicable to study not only concentrations but also reactions and exudation rates in the rhizosphere under conditions as undisturbed as possible. Push-pull tests have been used extensively on a larger scale for the investigation of chemical, physical and biological pollutant transport and transformation processes in aquifers. In a push-pull test, a solution containing reactive and non-reactive tracers is injected into a porous medium. After a defined time the test-solution/soilwater mixture is then extracted back from the same location. At first, we developed and validated a micro push-pull test procedure that works under saturated conditions in sand-filled boxes. It was possible to inject about 250 µl solution and extract 850 µl solution at a low and constant injection/extraction rate. The data were analyzed and successfully modeled considering advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion. Tracer concentrations of the extracted solution could be very well predicted without using any adjustable parameters. Molecular diffusion was found to play a significant role in determining the shape of the extraction curve. In a subsequent experiment using this technique, it was possible to quantify the degradation rate of citrate injected into a water-saturated, sand-filled box inoculated with denitrifying bacteria. The new technique thus proved to be an adequate tool to observe local biodegradation processes in situ. Now, we are

  14. Analytical Methodology Used To Assess/Refine Observatory Thermal Vacuum Test Conditions For the Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantano, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15 The Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission, which is part of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), launched February 11, 2013. A Landsat environmental test requirement mandated that test conditions bound worst-case flight thermal environments. This paper describes a rigorous analytical methodology applied to assess refine proposed thermal vacuum test conditions and the issues encountered attempting to satisfy this requirement.

  15. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  16. Wave-particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.; Marsch, E.; Perschke, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Comişel, H.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions for the Landau and cyclotron resonances are tested for 543 waves (identified as local peaks in the energy spectra) in the magnetic field fluctuations of the solar wind measured by the Cluster spacecraft on a tetrahedral scale of 100 km. The resonance parameters are evaluated using the frequencies in the plasma rest frame, the parallel components of the wavevectors, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the ion thermal speed. The observed waves show a character of the sideband waves associated with the ion Bernstein mode, and are in a weak agreement with the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance in spite of the ion-kinetic scales. The electron cyclotron resonance is likely taking place in solar wind turbulence near 1 AU (astronomical unit).

  17. Body condition, migration, and timing of reproduction in snow geese: a test of the condition-dependent model of optimal clutch size.

    PubMed

    Bêty, Joël; Gauthier, Gilles; Jean-François, Giroux

    2003-07-01

    The seasonal decline of avian clutch size may result from the conflict between the advantage of early breeding (greater offspring value) and the advantage of a delay in lay date (improved body condition and hence clutch size). We tested predictions of a condition-dependent individual optimization model based on this trade-off (Rowe et al. 1994) in a long-distance migrant, the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica), using data on condition, migration, and reproductive decisions of individuals. We closely tracked radio-marked females at their main spring staging area and on their breeding grounds. Our results were consistent with predictions of the model. Early-arriving females had a longer prelaying period and initiated their nests earlier than late arrivals. After controlling statistically for arrival date, we determined that females with high premigration condition had an earlier lay date than those in low condition. After controlling for the seasonal decline (i.e., lay date), we observed that clutch size was not related to premigration condition. Moreover, we took advantage of an unplanned manipulation of the prebreeding condition that occurred during our long-term study. We found that a reduction in condition caused a delay in lay date. However, after controlling for the seasonal decline, it did not affect clutch size. Our study indicates that geese simultaneously adjust their lay date and clutch size according to their premigration condition and migratory behavior as predicted by the condition-dependent optimization model. PMID:12856240

  18. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  19. Modelling decisions to undergo genetic testing for susceptibility to common health conditions: an ancillary study of the Multiplex Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christopher H; Shiloh, Shoshana; Woolford, Samuel W; Roberts, J Scott; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Marteau, Theresa M; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2012-01-01

    New genetic tests reveal risks for multiple conditions simultaneously, although little is understood about the psychological factors that affect testing uptake. We assessed a conceptual model called the multiplex genetic testing model (MGTM) using structural equation modelling. The MGTM delineates worry, perceived severity, perceived risk, response efficacy and attitudes towards testing as predictors of intentions and behaviour. Participants were 270 healthy insured adults aged 25-40 from the Multiplex Initiative conducted within a health care system in Detroit, MI, USA. Participants were offered a genetic test that assessed risk for eight common health conditions. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that worry, perceived risk and severity clustered into two disease domains: cancer or metabolic conditions. Only perceived severity of metabolic conditions was correlated with general response efficacy (β = 0.13, p<0.05), which predicted general attitudes towards testing (β = 0.24, p<0.01). Consistent with our hypothesised model, attitudes towards testing were the strongest predictors of intentions to undergo testing (β = 0.49, p<0.01), which in turn predicted testing uptake (OR 17.7, β = 0.97, p<0.01). The MGTM explained a striking 48% of the variance in intentions and 94% of the variation in uptake. These findings support use of the MGTM to explain psychological predictors of testing for multiple health conditions. PMID:21660870

  20. Conditioning polymers in today's shampoo formulations - efficacy, mechanism and test methods.

    PubMed

    Hössel, P; Dieing, R; Nörenberg, R; Pfau, A; Sander, R

    2000-02-01

    Today's shampoo formulations are beyond the stage of pure cleansing of the hair. Additional benefits are expected, e.g. conditioning, smoothing of the hair surface, improvement of combability and lather creaminess. Cationic polymers play an important role in providing many of those features. Therefore, within the last few years their use in shampoos has increased greatly. In the only last two decades, shampoo designation has gradually changed from '2-in-1' to '3-in-1' and then to 'multifunctional', as at present. The consumer demands products which live up to their promises. Modern shampoos contain a wide variety of ingredients such as co-surfactants, vitamins and pro-vitamins, protein derivatives, silicones, natural-based plant extracts and other 'active ingredients', but there is still a need for conditioning polymers. The specific objective of this study is to assess the conditioning efficacy of cationic polymers and to investigate their mechanisms in a shampoo system. The investigations were carried out on formulations that contained sodium lauryl ether sulphate and different cationic polymers, e.g. Polyquaternium 7, 10, 11, cationic guar gum and Luviquat Care (Polyquaternium 44), a new branched copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and quaternized vinylimidazolium salts (QVI). We used test methods relevant to the applications in question, such as combing force measurements, the feel of the hair and the creaminess of the lather, to assess the efficacy. Atomic force microscopy and electrokinetics (streaming potential) were used to detect polymer residues on treated hair. All the polymers under investigation improved the overall performance of the shampoo formulations. This was demonstrated by means of combing force measurements, sensorial tests and analytical methods, namely zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy. Polyquaternium 44 exhibited the best conditioning properties on wet hair without sacrificing removability or absence of build-up. The

  1. Conditioning polymers in today's shampoo formulations - efficacy, mechanism and test methods.

    PubMed

    Hössel, P; Dieing, R; Nörenberg, R; Pfau, A; Sander, R

    2000-02-01

    Today's shampoo formulations are beyond the stage of pure cleansing of the hair. Additional benefits are expected, e.g. conditioning, smoothing of the hair surface, improvement of combability and lather creaminess. Cationic polymers play an important role in providing many of those features. Therefore, within the last few years their use in shampoos has increased greatly. In the only last two decades, shampoo designation has gradually changed from '2-in-1' to '3-in-1' and then to 'multifunctional', as at present. The consumer demands products which live up to their promises. Modern shampoos contain a wide variety of ingredients such as co-surfactants, vitamins and pro-vitamins, protein derivatives, silicones, natural-based plant extracts and other 'active ingredients', but there is still a need for conditioning polymers. The specific objective of this study is to assess the conditioning efficacy of cationic polymers and to investigate their mechanisms in a shampoo system. The investigations were carried out on formulations that contained sodium lauryl ether sulphate and different cationic polymers, e.g. Polyquaternium 7, 10, 11, cationic guar gum and Luviquat Care (Polyquaternium 44), a new branched copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and quaternized vinylimidazolium salts (QVI). We used test methods relevant to the applications in question, such as combing force measurements, the feel of the hair and the creaminess of the lather, to assess the efficacy. Atomic force microscopy and electrokinetics (streaming potential) were used to detect polymer residues on treated hair. All the polymers under investigation improved the overall performance of the shampoo formulations. This was demonstrated by means of combing force measurements, sensorial tests and analytical methods, namely zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy. Polyquaternium 44 exhibited the best conditioning properties on wet hair without sacrificing removability or absence of build-up. The

  2. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  3. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio; Lunadei, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France) which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments. PMID:22399917

  4. Active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: tests in laboratory conditions and in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Clairand, I; Bordy, J-M; Daures, J; Debroas, J; Denozière, M; Donadille, L; Ginjaume, M; Itié, C; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Lebacq, A-L; Martin, P; Struelens, L; Sans-Mercé, M; Tosic, M; Vanhavere, F

    2011-03-01

    The work package 3 of the ORAMED project, Collaborative Project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the optimisation of the use of active personal dosemeters (APDs) in interventional radiology and cardiology (IR/IC). Indeed, a lack of appropriate APD devices is identified for these specific fields. Few devices can detect low-energy X rays (20-100 keV), and none of them are specifically designed for working in pulsed radiation fields. The work presented in this paper consists in studying the behaviour of some selected APDs deemed suitable for application in IR/IC. For this purpose, measurements under laboratory conditions, both with continuous and pulsed X-ray beams, and tests in real conditions on site in different European hospitals were performed. This study highlights the limitations of APDs for this application and the need of improving the APD technology so as to fulfil all needs in the IR/IC field.

  5. Centrifuge model tests of rainfall-induced slope failures for the investigation of the initiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matziaris, Vasileios; Marshall, Alec; Yu, Hai-Sui

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are very common natural disasters which cause damage to properties and infrastructure and may result in the loss of human lives. These phenomena often take place in unsaturated soil slopes and are triggered by the saturation of the soil profile, due to rain infiltration, which leads to a loss of shear strength. The aim of this study is to determine rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides under different initial conditions. Model tests of rainfall-induced landslides are conducted in the Nottingham Centre for Geomechanics 50g-T geotechnical centrifuge. Initially unsaturated plane-strain slope models made with fine silica sand are prepared at varying densities at 1g and accommodated within a climatic chamber which provides controlled environmental conditions. During the centrifuge flight at 60g, rainfall events of varying intensity and duration are applied to the slope models causing the initiation of slope failure. The impact of soil state properties and rainfall characteristics on the landslide initiation process are discussed. The variation of pore water pressures within the slope before, during and after simulated rainfall events is recorded using miniature pore pressure transducers buried in the soil model. Slope deformation is determined by using a high-speed camera and digital image analysis techniques.

  6. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, ANDREA D.; YIH, ERIKA T.; MCCOY, DANIEL F.; LOPRESTI, EDMUND F.; MCCUE, MICHAEL P.; PARMANTO, BAMBANG; DICIANNO, BRAD E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18–40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  7. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  8. Experimental results and modeling tests of an adsorptive air-conditioning unit

    SciTech Connect

    Guilleminot, J.J.; Poyelle, F.; Meunier, F.

    1998-10-01

    Experimental tests have been performed on a zeolite-water adsorptive system suitable for air conditioning and consisting of two adsorbers filled with a consolidated composite made of zeolite mixed with a highly conductive matrix. This paper describes the experimental results of such a heat pump unit operating with a heat and mass recovery cycle. An important enhancement of the specific cooling power (SCP) has been achieved. At evaporating temperature T = 4 C, mass transfer resistance controls the process and limits the expected COP. Tests carried out at higher evaporating pressure make it possible to achieve the predicted COP and SCP. A predictive model developed and validated elsewhere in order to describe the temperature evolution of components and the heat and mass transfer in the adsorbers explains the mass transfer resistance in the adsorbent. Last, a new highly conductive adsorbent composite with good mass transfer properties is developed. The model is used to predict the performances of this new material. Very good SCP and COP can be achieved.

  9. RF Conditioning and Testing of Fundamental Power Couplers for SNS Superconducting Cavity Production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stirbet; G.K. Davis; M. A. Drury; C. Grenoble; J. Henry; G. Myneni; T. Powers; K. Wilson; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; Y.W. Kang; D. Stout

    2005-05-16

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) makes use of 33 medium beta (0.61) and 48 high beta (0.81) superconducting cavities. Each cavity is equipped with a fundamental power coupler, which should withstand the full klystron power of 550 kW in full reflection for the duration of an RF pulse of 1.3 msec at 60 Hz repetition rate. Before assembly to a superconducting cavity, the vacuum components of the coupler are submitted to acceptance procedures consisting of preliminary quality assessments, cleaning and clean room assembly, vacuum leak checks and baking under vacuum, followed by conditioning and RF high power testing. Similar acceptance procedures (except clean room assembly and baking) were applied for the airside components of the coupler. All 81 fundamental power couplers for SNS superconducting cavity production have been RF power tested at JLAB Newport News and, beginning in April 2004 at SNS Oak Ridge. This paper gives details of coupler processing and RF high power-assessed performances.

  10. FANTM: The First Article NIF Test Module for the Laser Power Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Hammon, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

    1999-06-24

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2. 1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS) that powers the flashlamps for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL), is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM. It was built at SNL and has operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final till NIF system will require 192 of them (48 in each of four capacitor bays). This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20%/cm with 24 capacitors.

  11. Experimental Testing of Water Disinfection Models under Varying Hydraulic and Kinetic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Edmilson C; Rauen, William B; Fonseca, Ismênia; Figueiredo, Iene

    2016-06-01

    The concomitant effects of hydraulics and reaction kinetics on the disinfection efficiency (DE) of Chlorine Contact Tank (CCT) setups were experimentally assessed, to test the predictive-ability of first order kinetics models: Chick-Watson (C-W), C-t rule and Wehner-Wilhelm (W-W). Prototype tests were conducted using river water characterised for quality parameters, chlorine demand and inactivation rates of total and thermotolerant coliform. Poor, average and superior CCT baffling conditions were assessed by tracer experimentation and for their DE under three chlorine dosages. The models' DE predictive-ability was comparable and high for superior baffling, but decreased differently with the hydraulic efficiency (maximum errors of +15.3% with W-W, +26.0% with C-W and -36.6% with C-t). The positive bias shown by W-W renders it unsafe for CCT design, so the results favoured the C-t rule as the preferred analytical tool of comparable complexity. Potential refinements to these models that could lead to operational savings are identified. PMID:26773311

  12. Simulation of flight test conditions in the Langley pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.; Ray, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel concept are briefly reviewed. The unique ability to vary temperature independently of pressure and Mach number allows, in addition to large reductions in model loads and tunnel power, the independent determination of Reynolds number, Mach number, and aeroelastic effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. Various combinations of Reynolds number and dynamic pressure are established to represent accurately flight variations of aeroelastic deformation with altitude changes. The consequences of the thermal and caloric imperfections of the test gas under cryogenic conditions were examined and found to be insignificant for operating pressures up to 5 atm. The characteristics of the Langley pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel are described and the results of initial tunnel operation are presented. Tests of a two-dimensional airfoil at a Mach number of 0.85 show identical pressure distributions for a chord Reynolds number of 8,600,000 obtained first at a stagnation pressure of 4.91 atm at a stagnation temperature of 322.0 K and then at a stagnation pressure of 1.19 atm at a stagnation temperature of 116.5 K.

  13. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, R J

    2015-04-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5-alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than from increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  14. Analytic and experimental evaluation of flowing air test conditions for selected metallics in a shuttle TPS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Tong, H.; Clark, K. J.; Suchsland, K. E.; Neuner, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions important to the response of these thermal protection system (TPS) materials were calculated, and test conditions appropriate to simulation of these flight conditions in flowing air ground test facilities were defined. The response characteristics of these metallics were then evaluated for the flight and representative ground test conditions by analytical techniques employing appropriate thermochemical and thermal response computer codes and by experimental techniques employing an arc heater flowing air test facility and flat face stagnation point and wedge test models. These results were analyzed to define the ground test requirements to obtain valid TPS response characteristics for application to flight. For both material types in the range of conditions appropriate to the shuttle application, the surface thermochemical response resulted in a small rate of change of mass and a negligible energy contribution. The thermal response in terms of surface temperature was controlled by the net heat flux to the surface; this net flux was influenced significantly by the surface catalycity and surface emissivity. The surface catalycity must be accounted for in defining simulation test conditions so that proper heat flux levels to, and therefore surface temperatures of, the test samples are achieved.

  15. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  16. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  17. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  18. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  19. Using Speech Recall in Hearing Aid Fitting and Outcome Evaluation Under Ecological Test Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rosenbom, Tove; Ågren, Jessica; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning

    2016-01-01

    In adaptive Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) tests used in the audiological clinic, speech is presented at signal to noise ratios (SNRs) that are lower than those generally encountered in real-life communication situations. At higher, ecologically valid SNRs, however, SRTs are insensitive to changes in hearing aid signal processing that may be of benefit to listeners who are hard of hearing. Previous studies conducted in Swedish using the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall test (SWIR) have indicated that at such SNRs, the ability to recall spoken words may be a more informative measure. In the present study, a Danish version of SWIR, known as the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall Test in a New Language (SWIRL) was introduced and evaluated in two experiments. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the Swedish results demonstrating benefit from noise reduction signal processing for hearing aid wearers could be replicated in 25 Danish participants with mild to moderate symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The objective of experiment 2 was to compare direct-drive and skin-drive transmission in 16 Danish users of bone-anchored hearing aids with conductive hearing loss or mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. In experiment 1, performance on SWIRL improved when hearing aid noise reduction was used, replicating the Swedish results and generalizing them across languages. In experiment 2, performance on SWIRL was better for direct-drive compared with skin-drive transmission conditions. These findings indicate that spoken word recall can be used to identify benefits from hearing aid signal processing at ecologically valid, positive SNRs where SRTs are insensitive.

  20. Using Speech Recall in Hearing Aid Fitting and Outcome Evaluation Under Ecological Test Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rosenbom, Tove; Ågren, Jessica; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning

    2016-01-01

    In adaptive Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) tests used in the audiological clinic, speech is presented at signal to noise ratios (SNRs) that are lower than those generally encountered in real-life communication situations. At higher, ecologically valid SNRs, however, SRTs are insensitive to changes in hearing aid signal processing that may be of benefit to listeners who are hard of hearing. Previous studies conducted in Swedish using the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall test (SWIR) have indicated that at such SNRs, the ability to recall spoken words may be a more informative measure. In the present study, a Danish version of SWIR, known as the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall Test in a New Language (SWIRL) was introduced and evaluated in two experiments. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the Swedish results demonstrating benefit from noise reduction signal processing for hearing aid wearers could be replicated in 25 Danish participants with mild to moderate symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The objective of experiment 2 was to compare direct-drive and skin-drive transmission in 16 Danish users of bone-anchored hearing aids with conductive hearing loss or mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. In experiment 1, performance on SWIRL improved when hearing aid noise reduction was used, replicating the Swedish results and generalizing them across languages. In experiment 2, performance on SWIRL was better for direct-drive compared with skin-drive transmission conditions. These findings indicate that spoken word recall can be used to identify benefits from hearing aid signal processing at ecologically valid, positive SNRs where SRTs are insensitive. PMID:27355764

  1. Multispecies reactive tracer test in an aquifer with spatially variable chemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Kent, D.B.; Coston, J.A.; Hess, K.M.; Joye, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    A field investigation of multispecies reactive transport was conducted in a well-characterized, sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The aquifer is characterized by regions of differing chemical conditions caused by the disposal of secondary sewage effluent. Ten thousand liters of groundwater with added tracers (Br, Cr(VI), and BDTA complexed with Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni) were injected into the aquifer and distributions of the tracers were monitored for 15 months. Most of the tracers were transported more than 200 m; transport was quantified using spatial moments computed from the results of a series of synoptic samplings. Cr(VI) transport was retarded relative to Br; the retardation factor varied from 1.1 to 2.4 and was dependent on chemical conditions. At 314 days after the injection, dissolved Cr(VI) mass in the tracer cloud had decreased 85%, with the likely cause being reduction to Cr(III) in a suboxic region of the aquifer. Transport of the metal-EDTA complexes was affected by aqueous complexation, adsorption, and dissolution-precipitation reactions of Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the aquifer sediments. Dissolved Pb-EDTA complexes disappeared from the tracer cloud within 85 days, probably due to metal exchange reactions with Fe and adsorbed Zn (present prior to the injection from contamination by the sewage effluent). About 30% of the Cu-EDTA complexes remained within the tracer cloud 314 days after injection, even though the thermodynamic stability of the Pb-EDTA complex is greater than Cu-EDTA. It is hypothesized that stronger adsorption of Pb2+ to the aquifer sediments causes the Pb-EDTA complex to disassociate to a greater degree than the Cu-EDTA complex. The mass of dissolved Zn-EDTA increased during the first 175 days of the tracer test to 140% of the mass injected, with the increase due to desorption of sewage-derived Zn. Dissolved Ni-EDTA mass remained nearly constant throughout the tracer test, apparently only participating in reversible

  2. Aeroheating Testing and Predictions for Project Orion CEV at Turbulent Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9 Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles and in the NASA Langley Research Center 20 - Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Heating data were obtained using a thermocouple-instrumented approx.0.035-scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the flight vehicle. Runs were performed in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 20x10(exp 6)/ft, in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 48x10(exp 6)/ft, and in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft. In both facilities, enthalpy levels were low and the test gas (N2 in Tunnel 9 and air in the 20-Inch Mach 6) behaved as a perfect-gas. These test conditions produced laminar, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle, and laminar and transitional data in the 20- Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the experimental data to help define the accuracy of computational method. In general, it was found that both laminar data and predictions, and turbulent data and predictions, agreed to within less than the estimated 12% experimental uncertainty estimate. Laminar heating distributions from all three data sets were shown to correlate well and demonstrated Reynolds numbers independence when expressed in terms of the Stanton number based on adiabatic wall-recovery enthalpy. Transition onset locations on the leeside centerline were determined from the data and correlated in terms of boundary-layer parameters. Finally turbulent heating augmentation ratios were determined for several body-point locations and correlated in terms of the

  3. Impact of typical steady-state conditions and transient conditions on flow ripple and its test accuracy for axial piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junhui

    2015-09-01

    The current research about the flow ripple of axial piston pump mainly focuses on the effect of the structure of parts on the flow ripple. Therein, the structure of parts are usually designed and optimized at rated working conditions. However, the pump usually has to work in large-scale and time-variant working conditions. Therefore, the flow ripple characteristics of pump and analysis for its test accuracy with respect to variant steady-state conditions and transient conditions in a wide range of operating parameters are focused in this paper. First, a simulation model has been constructed, which takes the kinematics of oil film within friction pairs into account for higher accuracy. Afterwards, a test bed which adopts Secondary Source Method is built to verify the model. The simulation and tests results show that the angular position of the piston, corresponding to the position where the peak flow ripple is produced, varies with the different pressure. The pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase with the rise of pressure and the variation rate of pressure. For the pump working at a constant speed, the flow pulsation rate decreases dramatically with the increasing speed when the speed is less than 27.78% of the maximum speed, subsequently presents a small decrease tendency with the speed further increasing. With the rise of the variation rate of speed, the pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase. As the swash plate angle augments, the pulsating amplitude of flow ripple increases, nevertheless the flow pulsation rate decreases. In contrast with the effect of the variation of pressure, the test accuracy of flow ripple is more sensitive to the variation of speed. It makes the test accuracy above 96.20% available for the pulsating amplitude of pressure deviating within a range of ±6% from the mean pressure. However, with a variation of speed deviating within a range of ±2% from the mean speed, the attainable test

  4. Testing the Sensitivity of Extratropical Cyclones to Variations in Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, G.; Booth, J. F.; Posselt, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones are a main driver of mid-latitude weather conditions, continually interacting with their synoptic and mesoscale environment. These systems are a product of the cyclogenetic environment in which they develop, and their associated circulation, latent heating, and radiative heating in turn exert significant influence on the near and far-field dynamic and thermodynamic state. With the projected warming to our climate system, the environments in which mid-latitude cyclones develop are changing, as are the controlling influences on storm characteristics: temperature, moisture content, jet strength, and baroclinicity. Feedbacks between changes in the initial environment and changes in extratropical cyclone properties represent a challenge to our ability to characterize the effects of changes in climate on the winds and rainfall produced by these storms. In this presentation, we consider how extratropical cyclones might respond to simultaneous changes in multiple environmental factors. We utilize an idealized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), allowing for systematic control of environmental conditions. We perform a comprehensive ensemble analysis by tracking the variations in extratropical cyclone properties as a function of the changes in the surrounding environment, with the aim of identifying key controls on cyclone characteristics. We consider the socially relevant impacts of changes in dynamics and precipitation, as well as considering the climatologically relevant impacts of changes in cloud and radiative properties. We identify and implement tunable variables best approximating changes in temperature, moisture content, jet strength, and baroclinicity. Examining the effects of each variable with single-variable sensitivity tests, we document the effect of each variable alone, before filling out a multivariate parameter space by combining variations of two or more variables. In reviewing the multivariate results, we

  5. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Positioning device systems—(a) Test Conditions. (1) The fixed anchorage should be rigid and should not have a..., nor exceed 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn) for the remainder of the arrest time. (4) All other...

  6. Periodic Boundary Conditions in QM/MM Calculations: Implementation and Tests.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana; Thiel, Walter

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations of reactions in solutions and in solvated enzymes can be performed using the QM/MM-Ewald approach with periodic boundary conditions (PBC) or a nonperiodic treatment with a finite solvent shell (droplet model). To avoid the changes in QM codes that are required in standard QM/MM-Ewald implementations, we present a general method (Gen-Ew) for periodic QM/MM calculations that can be used with any QM method in the QM/MM framework. The Gen-Ew approach approximates the QM/MM-Ewald method by representing the PBC potential by virtual charges on a sphere and the QM density by electrostatic potential (ESP) charges. Test calculations show that the deviations between Gen-Ew and QM/MM-Ewald results are generally small enough to justify the application of the Gen-Ew method in the absence of a suitable QM/MM-Ewald implementation. We compare the results from periodic QM/MM calculations (QM/MM-Ewald, Gen-Ew) to their nonperiodic counterparts (droplet model) for five test reactions in water and for the Claisen rearrangement in chorismate mutase. The periodic and nonperiodic QM/MM treatments give similar free energy profiles for the reactions in solution (umbrella sampling, free energy deviations of the order of 1 kcal/mol) and essentially the same energy profile (constrained geometry optimizations) for the Claisen rearrangement in chorismate mutase. In all cases considered, long-range electrostatic interactions are thus well captured by nonperiodic QM/MM calculations in a water droplet of reasonable size (radius of 15-20 Å). This provides further justification for the widespread use of the computationally efficient droplet model in QM/MM studies of reactions in solution and in enzymes. PMID:27420296

  7. Electrochemical behavior of a magnesium galvanic anode under ASTM test method G 97-89 conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Betancourt, L.; Rodriguez, C.

    1996-07-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a magnesium galvanic anode in an aerated 5 g/L calcium sulfate + 0.1 g/L magnesium hydroxide solution was investigated by measuring electrochemical impedance under the conditions of ASTM Test Method G 97-89. Impedance spectra showed the capacitance of a porous layer (C{sub po}) in the high-frequency region, the resistive component (R{sub po}) of the porous layer (R{sub po}) in the frequency range between 100 Hz and 1,000 Hz, and the resistance of charge transfer (R{sub t}) in the low-frequency region. R{sub po} and R{sub t} increased with time, whereas C{sub po} decreased with immersion time. Since the resistance of a film is proportional to its resistivity and thickness, an increase in R{sub po} was interpreted to mean passivation increased with immersion time. This increase in protection with time provided evidence for the existence of a protective layer over the magnesium anode surface. This layer was identified as Mg(OH){sub 2} using x-ray diffraction of corrosion products formed on the magnesium anode.

  8. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  9. Using sequential self-calibration method to identify conductivity distribution: Conditioning on tracer test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, B.X.; He, C.

    2008-01-01

    An iterative inverse method, the sequential self-calibration method, is developed for mapping spatial distribution of a hydraulic conductivity field by conditioning on nonreactive tracer breakthrough curves. A streamline-based, semi-analytical simulator is adopted to simulate solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. The simulation is used as the forward modeling step. In this study, the hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be a deterministic or random variable. Within the framework of the streamline-based simulator, the efficient semi-analytical method is used to calculate sensitivity coefficients of the solute concentration with respect to the hydraulic conductivity variation. The calculated sensitivities account for spatial correlations between the solute concentration and parameters. The performance of the inverse method is assessed by two synthetic tracer tests conducted in an aquifer with a distinct spatial pattern of heterogeneity. The study results indicate that the developed iterative inverse method is able to identify and reproduce the large-scale heterogeneity pattern of the aquifer given appropriate observation wells in these synthetic cases. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2008.

  10. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity. PMID:27437143

  11. Testing of the hydromechanical prediction model of soil erosion under the conditions of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogichaishvili, G. P.; Kirvalidze, D. R.; Gorjomeladze, O. L.

    2014-09-01

    A hydromechanical model for predicting water (rain-induced) soil erosion was tested on the experimental plots of the Research Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops in Zendidi village (the Ajara Autonomous Republic) and the Sabashvili Institute of Soil Science, Agrochemistry, and Melioration in Khevi and Kitskhi villages (Upper Imeretia, Western Georgia). A comparison of factual and predicted values of rain-induced erosion for the plots with permanent black fallow showed that the model overestimated the average annual soil loss for the yellow-brown strongly eroded soil in Zendidi village by 23.22 t/ha (133%). This value ranged in different years from 18 to 1052%. For the plots with corn, the predicted value of annual erosion was by 16.94 t/ha higher than the factual value (overestimation of 488%). A comparison of factual and predicted values of rainfall erosion for the plots under sprinkling irrigation also showed that the predicted soil loss was higher than the factual one by 4.14-30.40 t/ha for corn, 6.76-11.14 t/ha for winter wheat, and 15.75-24.12 t/ha for the plots with stubble of winter wheat and barley. Thus, the hydromechanical model for predicting water erosion inadequately describes it under the conditions of Western Georgia and has to be refined.

  12. Thermal stabilities of drops of burning thermoplastics under the UL 94 vertical test conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-02-15

    The properties of polymer melts will strongly affect the fire hazard of the pool induced by polymer melt flow. In this study the thermal stabilities of eight thermoplastic polymers as well as their melting drops generated under the UL 94 vertical burning test conditions were investigated by thermogravimetric experiments. It was found that the kinetic compensation effect existed for the decomposition reactions of the polymers and their drops. For polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the onset decomposition temperature and the two decomposition kinetic parameters (the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy) of the drop were less than those of the polymer. However, the onset decomposition temperature and the two kinetic parameters of PC's drop were greater than those of polycarbonate (PC). Interestingly, for polyethylenevinylacetate (EVA18) the drop hardly contained the vinyl acetate chain segments. Similarly, for the PMMA/LDPE blends and the PMMA/PP blends, when the volume fraction of PMMA was less than 50% the drop hardly contained PMMA, implying that the blend would not drip until PMMA burned away and its surface temperature approached the decomposition temperature of the continuous phase composed of LDPE or PP.

  13. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  14. Local Flow Conditions for Propulsion Experiments on the NASA F-15B Propulsion Flight Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Corda, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Local flow conditions were measured underneath the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-15B airplane to support development of future experiments on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF). The local Mach number and flow angles were measured using a conventional air data boom on a cone-cylinder mounted under the PFTF and compared with the airplane air data nose boom measurements. At subsonic flight speeds, the airplane and PFTF Mach numbers were approximately equal. Transonic Mach number values were up to 0.1 greater at the PFTF than the airplane, which is a counterintuitive result. The PFTF local supersonic Mach numbers were as much as 0.46 less than the airplane values. The maximum local Mach number at the PFTF was approximately 1.6 at an airplane Mach number near 2.0. The PFTF local angle of attack was negative at all Mach numbers, ranging from -3 to -8 degrees. When the airplane angle of sideslip was zero, the PFTF local value was zero between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.1, -2 degrees between Mach 1.1 and Mach 1.5, and increased from zero to 1 degree from Mach 1.5 to Mach 2.0. Airplane inlet shock waves crossed the aerodynamic interface plane between Mach 1.85 and Mach 1.90.

  15. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, V. G.; Faskhiev, V. N.; Kovalenko, N. P.; Shestibratov, K. A.; Miroshnikov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014–2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity. PMID:27437143

  16. Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Implicit measures such as the Implicit Association Test (OAT) have recently become popular as tools in research on evaluative conditioning. The reason is that these measures are thought to be impervious to changes in valence that are due to conscious propositional knowledge about the relation between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the…

  17. Note on Unconditional and Conditional Hypothesis Testing: A Discussion of an Issue Raised by van der Linden and Sotaridona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In the context of reviewing an article for this journal (van der Linden & Sotaridona, this issue, pp. 283-304) the topic of unconditional and conditional hypothesis testing came under consideration. While this is hardly a new issue (consider, for example, arguments regarding the chi square vs. Fisher exact test of independence for a 2 x 2…

  18. Validity and Fairness Implications of Varying Time Conditions on a Diagnostic Test of Academic English Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute; Elder, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars have questioned the practice of assessing academic writing in the context of a one-off language test, claiming that the time restrictions imposed in the test environment, when compared to the writing conditions typical at university, may prevent learners from displaying the kinds of writing skills required in academic…

  19. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  20. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  1. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew; Stecher, Dave

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  2. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT.

  3. A Method for Calculating the Heat Required for Windshield Thermal Ice Prevention Based on Extensive Flight Tests in Natural Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Holdaway, George H; Steinmetz, Charles P

    1947-01-01

    An equation is presented for calculating the heat flow required from the surface of an internally heated windshield in order to prevent the formation of ice accretions during flight in specified icing conditions. To ascertain the validity of the equation, comparison is made between calculated values of the heat required and measured values obtained for test windshields in actual flights in icing conditions. The test windshields were internally heated and provided data applicable to two common types of windshield configurations; namely the V-type and the type installed flush with the fuselage contours. These windshields were installed on a twin-engine cargo airplane and the icing flights were conducted over a large area of the United States during the winters of 1945-46 and 1946-47. In addition to the internally heated windshield investigation, some test data were obtained for a windshield ice-prevention system in which heated air was discharged into the windshield boundary layer. The general conclusions resulting from this investigation are as follows: 1) The amount of heat required for the prevention of ice accretions on both flush- and V-type windshields during flight in specified icing conditions can be calculated with a degree of accuracy suitable for design purposes. 2) A heat flow of 2000 to 2500 Btu per hour per square foot is required for complete and continuous protection of a V-type windshield in fight at speeds up to 300 miles per hour in a moderate cumulus icing condition. For the same degree of protection and the same speed range, a value of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot suffices in a moderate stratus icing condition. 3) A heat supply of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot is adequate for a flush windshield located well aft of the fuselage stagnation region, at speeds up to 300 miles per hour, for flight in both stratus and moderate cumulus icing conditions. 4) The external air discharge system of windshield thermal ice prevention is thermally

  4. Conditional averaging of the Cloud Radiative Effect as a higher order test of GCM radiation budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreopoulos, L.

    2010-12-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) are quite capable in producing temporally and spatially averaged radiative fluxes that are close to observed values. Closer examination however of clear-sky fluxes and Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) reveal that the agreement is often the result of numerous error cancellations in the spatiotemporal and spectral domains. One manifestation of this phenomenon is canceling CRE errors among different cloud types. Recent approaches of cloud retrieval analysis from satellites allow us to determine the contribution to the total CRE of various cloud types, information that can be used as a diagnostic of the quality of cloud-radiation simulations in GCMs. In this presentation we apply such conditional averaging to CREs and cloud types provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The ISCCP D1 gridded cloud product contains the joint distribution of cloud top pressure and cloud optical depth at 280 km grid cells observed daily every 3-hours. The patterns of these joint distributions can be used to identify, via cluster analysis, distinct states of the atmosphere at the mesoscale, which ISCCP terms "weather states". The spatiotemporal distribution of distinct weather states is now available as a separate ISCCP D1 product for various geographical zones. We identify the relative contribution to the total CRE (shortwave, longwave, and net; both top of the atmosphere and surface) of these weather states separately for the extended low latitudes, northern midlatitudes and southern midlatitudes for the period 1984-2007 by conditionally averaging the CREs of the ISCCP FD data set according to weather state. Results from such a CRE breakdown that can be used as higher order GCM diagnostics include: (a) The seasonal cycle of CRE of the various weather states and the relationship between their relative strength and their frequency of occurrence; b) the identification of the most dominant weather states in terms of their relative

  5. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Applicability. This section describes procedures for determining air conditioning-related CO2 emissions from... at idle when CO2 emissions are measured without any air conditioning systems operating, followed by a ten-minute period at idle when CO2 emissions are measured with the air conditioning system...

  6. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Applicability. This section describes procedures for determining air conditioning-related CO2 emissions from... at idle when CO2 emissions are measured without any air conditioning systems operating, followed by a ten-minute period at idle when CO2 emissions are measured with the air conditioning system...

  7. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  8. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  9. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

  10. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials. PMID:27587118

  11. Use of estuarine water column tests for detecting toxic conditions in ambient areas of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D. Jr. )

    1995-02-01

    Various estuarine water column toxicity tests were conducted twice in nine different ambient stations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over a 2-year period (1991 to 1993) to determine if toxic conditions existed. The following 8-d toxicity tests were conducted: larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) survival and growth test; larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) survival and growth test; and a copepod (Eurytemora affinis) life-cycle test. During the second year of testing, two 48-h coot clam (Mulinia lateralis) tests were conducted at each station during each testing period. In 1991, the toxicity tests were conducted twice at stations in the Potomac River at Morgantown and Dahlgren, and in the Patapsco River and the Wye River at the Manor House. All of the above tests were conducted during the fall of 1992 and spring of 1993 at two stations in the Wye River, Nanticoke River, and Middle River. Inorganic contaminants, organic contaminants, and water-quality conditions were measured concurrently during the toxicity testing of ambient water. In 1991, reduced growth of sheepshead minnow larvae was reported at both Potomac River stations during the first test. Significant mortality of either the copepod or sheepshead minnow larvae was also reported at the Wye River during both tests. Results from the 1992/93 testing generally showed minimal effects for three of the test species at all stations. Reduced normal shell development was reported for the coot clam at both Middle River stations during the fall and spring tests concurrently with concentrations of various trace metals that exceeded chronic marine water-quality criteria.

  12. Moving from the laboratory to the field: Adding natural environmental conditions to toxicology testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive. To ...

  13. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... ``Vision'' Jet. The SF50 is a low- wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine...

  14. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... low-wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine turbofan- powered aircraft. It...

  15. 40 CFR 1066.845 - AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... voluntary procedure for measuring the net impact of air conditioner operation on CO2 emissions. See 40 CFR... solar heating is disabled for certain test intervals as described in this section. (d) Interior air... tests according to 40 CFR 86.132-00(a) through (g). If the vehicle has been tested within the last...

  16. Illusions of competence during study can be remedied by manipulations that enhance learners' sensitivity to retrieval conditions at test.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Bjork, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring one's knowledge during study is susceptible to a foresight bias (Koriat and Bjork, 2005). Judgments of learning (JOLs) are inflated whenever information that is present at study and absent, but solicited, at test, such as the targets in cue-target paired associates, highlights aspects of cues that are less apparent when those cues are presented alone. The present findings demonstrate that foresight bias can be alleviated by study-test experience (Experiment 1), particularly test experience (Experiments 2 and 3), and by delaying JOLs after study (Experiment 4) and that both foresight bias and its alleviation have behavioral consequences, as measured by study time allocation (Experiment 5). Collectively, the findings suggest that overconfidence and misallocation of study time arise from a mismatch that is inherent to education--that the answer is present at study and absent at test--and that alleviating the problem requires creating conditions at study that sensitize learners to retrieval conditions at test.

  17. Conditional and Unconditional Tests (and Sample Size) Based on Multiple Comparisons for Stratified 2 × 2 Tables

    PubMed Central

    Martín Andrés, A.; Herranz Tejedor, I.; Álvarez Hernández, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel test is the most frequent asymptotic test used for analyzing stratified 2 × 2 tables. Its exact alternative is the test of Birch, which has recently been reconsidered by Jung. Both tests have a conditional origin: Pearson's chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. But both tests have the same drawback that the result of global test (the stratified test) may not be compatible with the result of individual tests (the test for each stratum). In this paper, we propose to carry out the global test using a multiple comparisons method (MC method) which does not have this disadvantage. By refining the method (MCB method) an alternative to the Mantel-Haenszel and Birch tests may be obtained. The new MC and MCB methods have the advantage that they may be applied from an unconditional view, a methodology which until now has not been applied to this problem. We also propose some sample size calculation methods. PMID:26075012

  18. Drinking water test methods in crisis-afflicted areas: comparison of methods under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Bleul, Ingo; Schulenburg, Jörg; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Klein, Günter

    2011-11-01

    To simplify the testing of drinking water in crisis-afflicted areas (as in Kosovo in 2007), rapid test methods were compared with the standard test. For Escherichia coli and coliform pathogens, rapid tests were made available: Colilert(®)-18, P/A test with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucoronid, and m-Endo Broth. Biochemical differentiation was carried out by Enterotube™ II. Enterococci were determined following the standard ISO test and by means of Enterolert™. Four hundred ninety-nine water samples were tested for E. coli and coliforms using four methods. Following the standard method, 20.8% (n=104) of the samples contained E. coli, whereas the rapid tests detected between 19.6% (m-Endo Broth, 92.0% concordance) and 20.0% (concordance: 93.6% Colilert-18 and 94.8% P/A-test) positive samples. Regarding coliforms, the percentage of concordant results ranged from 98.4% (P/A-test) to 99.0% (Colilert-18). Colilert-18 and m-Endo Broth detected even more positive samples than the standard method did. Enterococci were detected in 93 of 573 samples by the standard method, but in 92 samples by Enterolert (concordance: 99.5%). Considering the high-quality equipment and time requirements of the standard method, the use of rapid tests in crisis-afflicted areas is sufficiently reliable.

  19. 78 FR 43963 - Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions... public of the Sixty-Second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and...

  20. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning system automatically defaults to a recirculation mode when set to maximum cooling. Continue idling... system defaults to a recirculation mode when set to maximum cooling and maintains recirculation with the... at idle when CO2 emissions are measured without any air conditioning systems operating, followed by...

  1. Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…

  2. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  3. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, Dave; Poerschke, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  4. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  5. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  6. Hot-Fire Testing of 100 LB(sub F) LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LO2/LCH4 ) has recently been viewed as a potential green propulsion system for both the Altair ascent main engine (AME) and reaction control system (RCS). The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development Project (PCAD) has been tasked by NASA to develop these green propellant systems to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. However, experience with LO2/LCH4 as a propellant combination is limited, so testing of these systems is critical to demonstrating reliable ignition and performance. A test program of a 100 lb f reaction control engine (RCE) is underway at the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) of the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a focus on conducting tests at altitude conditions. These tests include a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows for the inlet conditions of the propellant to be varied to test warm to subcooled liquid propellant temperatures. Engine performance, including thrust, c* and vacuum specific impulse (I(sub sp,vac)) will be presented as a function of propellant temperature conditions. In general, the engine performed as expected, with higher performance at warmer propellant temperatures but better efficiency at lower propellant temperatures. Mixture ratio effects were inconclusive within the uncertainty bands of data, but qualitatively showed higher performance at lower ratios.

  7. 42 CFR 493.801 - Condition: Enrollment and testing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 493 published on March 14, 1990 (55 FR 9538) prior to September 1, 1992, the rules of this... would normally require reflex, distributive, or confirmatory testing at another laboratory, the... another laboratory for analysis, but the requested testing was limited to reflex, distributive,...

  8. Test Equating under the NEAT Design: A Necessary Condition for Anchor Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2010-01-01

    Mroch, Suh, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); Suh, Mroch, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); and Kane, Mroch, Suh, & Ripkey (2009) provided elucidating discussions on critical properties of linear equating methods under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. In this popular equating design, two test forms are administered to different groups of…

  9. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  10. Measurements of VOC emissions from three building materials using small environmental chamber under defined standard test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Lusztyk, E.; Magee, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    VOC emission profile is an important parameter to describe the building materials and consumer products for their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). Emission profiles are dependent on the test conditions. It is therefore very important to standardize testing conditions in order to compare emission factors and decay constants reported by various testing laboratories. Standard chamber test conditions (Chamber temperature of 23 C, relative humidity of 50 %, air change rate of 1 ACH, and specimen loading ratio of 0.4 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) have been proposed for using small environment chamber (0.05 m{sup 3}) by an international consortium research program led by the Institute for Research in Construction, NRCC. VOC emissions (excluding formaldehyde) from three building materials, a particleboard, a carpet with rubber backing and a vinyl floor tile were measured under above defined test conditions. Samples of the chamber air were collected using multi-sorbent tubes during the chamber tests, and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) GC/FID. GC peaks were identified using TD/GC/MS. Major VOCs emitted were solvents, aldehydes, C10-and C15-terpenes for the particleboard, alkanes, alkenes and 4-phenyl cyclohexene for the carpet. VOC emissions from vinyl floor tile were dominated by a mixture of two alkyl propanoates, which eluted late (at about 230 C) on GC column. Total VOCs in the chamber air reached at 1100, 210 and 2400 m g/m3 for the particleboard, carpet and vinyl floor tile respectively. The analytical variation was around 5 to 10 % judged by a number of duplicates analyzed during the tests. First order exponential decay model and power law decay model were used to describe the emission factor decay from 12 h after the start of dynamic chamber tests. The power law model was found to better fit the experimental data than the first order decay model.

  11. The use of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess relationships between bioaccessible metals in urban soil and neurodevelopmental conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Yinding; McDermott, Suzanne; Cai, Bo; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lead, Jamie

    2016-05-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and cerebral palsy (CP) are serious neurodevelopment conditions and low birth weight (LBW) is correlated with both ID and CP. The actual causes and mechanisms for each of these child outcomes are not well understood. In this study, the relationship between bioaccessible metal concentrations in urban soil and these child conditions were investigated. A physiologically based extraction test (PBET) mimicking gastric and intestinal processes was applied to measure the bio-accessibility of four metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) in urban soil, and a Bayesian Kriging method was used to estimate metal concentrations in geocoded maternal residential sites. The results showed that bioaccessible metal concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase were statistically significantly associated with the child outcomes. Lead and nickel were associated with ID, lead and cadmium was associated with LBW, and cadmium was associated with CP. The total concentrations and stomach concentrations were not correlated to significant effects in any of the analyses. For lead, an estimated threshold value was found that was statistically significant in predicting low birth weight. The change point test was statistically significant (p value = 0.045) at an intestine threshold level of 9.2 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 8.9-9.4, p value = 0.0016), which corresponds to 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil. This is a narrow confidence interval for an important relationship. PMID:26840511

  12. On testing current cognitive theories of Pavlovian conditioning in the human Pavlovian autonomic transswitching preparation.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J

    1991-01-01

    The Rescorla-Wagner theory, which Lachnit and Kimmel's transswitching evidence has apparently contradicted, is fundamentally cognitive, inasmuch as it views Pavlovian conditioning as "the learning of relations among events". Kimmel and Lachnit's criticism that Lovibond's theory-saving defence "does little more than immunize a theory against problematic empirical findings" is analogous to the charge of circularity in explanation that cognitive, Tolmanian researchers used to bring against their S-R, Hullian opponents. A way out of the circle in human autonomic transswitching is to measure the cognitive process of relational conditional stimulus-unconditional stimulus contingency learning throughout the experiment, as has been done in simple Pavlovian human autonomic conditioning, although it may also be desirable to check whether such continuous measurement changes the basic transswitching phenomenon itself. The other issue briefly commented on is the relation between animal and human experiments and theoretical formulations, where the more basic distinction may be not between animals and humans, but between conditional stimulus-instrumental response and conditional stimulus-conditional response preparations. The latter preparations (of which human electrodermal transswitching is an instance) appear to be sensitive to S-R as well as (cognitive) S-S factors.

  13. Reasoning with conditionals: a test of formal models of four theories.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. Psychological Review, 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). If. Oxford: Oxford University Press), a dual-process variant of the model theory (Verschueren, N., Schaeken, W., & d'Ydewalle, G. (2005). A dual-process specification of causal conditional reasoning. Thinking &Reasoning, 11, 278-293), and the probabilistic theory (Oaksford, M., Chater, N., & Larkin, J. (2000). Probabilities and polarity biases in conditional inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 883-899). The first three theories are formalized as multinomial models. The models are applied to the frequencies of patterns of acceptance or rejection across the four basic inferences modus ponens, acceptance of the consequent, denial of the antecedent, and modus tollens. Model fits are assessed for two large data sets, one representing reasoning with abstract, basic conditionals, the other reflecting reasoning with pseudo-realistic causal and non-causal conditionals. The best account of the data was provided by a modified version of the mental-model theory, augmented by directionality, and by the dual-process model.

  14. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  15. Study on Actual Performance and Exhaust Heat of Air-conditioner Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Satoru

    A novel simple measuring method of actual performance of room air-conditioners by neural net work analysis (NNW) has been developed. The actual performance for a long term which is difficult to be measured by air enthalpy method is able to be measured easily by this method. In other words, actual performance of room air-conditioners can be measured by the proposed NNW method without measurement of air flow at indoor unit and outdoor unit which changes due to clogging of heat exchanger by dust. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed NNW method, the room air-conditioner for experiment was set up. Inputs to NNW are outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, indoor wet-bulb temperature, inlet temperature of evaporator, outlet temperature of evaporator, condensation temperature and power consumption. The output from NNW is COP. The COP by NNW method has mean errors under 2.8% in quasi-steady operation condition and has mean errors under 4.6% in unsteady operation condition, compared to the COP of air enthalpy method. Results show that the COP of air conditioners can be measured easily for a long term using NNW within a high degree of accuracy.

  16. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  17. The dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process and its boundary conditions: Evidence based on human tests.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2016-04-01

    The reconsolidation process is the mechanism by which the strength and/or content of consolidated memories are updated. This process is triggered by the presentation of a reminder (training cues). It is not always possible to trigger the reconsolidation process. For example, memory age and strength are boundary conditions for the reconsolidation process. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes in these conditions. We propose that the boundary conditions of the reconsolidation process are not fixed and vary as a consequence of the interaction between memory features and reminder characteristics. To modify memory properties, participants received a threatening social protocol that improves memory acquisition or a control condition (fake, without social interaction) prior to learning pairs of meaningless syllables. To determine whether a strong young or old declarative memory undergoes the reconsolidation process, we used an interference task (a second list of pairs of meaningless syllables) to disrupt memory re-stabilization. To assess whether the older memory could be strengthened, we repeated the triggering of reconsolidation. Strong young or old memories modulated by a threatening experience could be interfered during reconsolidation and updated (strengthened) by reconsolidation. Rather than being fixed, boundary conditions vary according to the memory features (strong memory), which indicates the dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to modify these limits by recruiting the reconsolidation process and making it functionally operative again. This novel scenario opens the possibility to new therapeutically approaches that take into account the reconsolidation process.

  18. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  19. Infant Long-Term Memory for a Conditioned Response and Intelligence Test Performance at 2 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    To find predictive relations between measures taken in infancy and later scores on intelligence tests, a study was made that measured in the infant those cognitive processes examined later in life. Operant conditioning tasks were employed which required 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old infants to execute some response to produce an environmental…

  20. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…