Science.gov

Sample records for actual time required

  1. Hawaii requires actual exposure to validate distress claims.

    PubMed

    1999-10-29

    The "actual exposure" rule can now be applied in Hawaii to cases involving the recovery of damages for HIV exposure even if the virus is not transmitted. This ruling came as a result of the case of three airport baggage handlers who were exposed to a leaking container of HIV-positive blood. The Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that a plaintiff has to prove that the exposure involves a "scientifically accepted" method of transmission and that the fluid in question contained HIV. Furthermore, the court ruled, any liability for mental distress is limited to the time between discovery of contamination and confirmation that no infection resulted. With current testing standards, the time period between discovery and a negative test result is approximately 3 to 6 months.

  2. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index. PMID:15676672

  3. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index.

  4. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  5. The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  6. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  11. [Method for direct generation data for formatted case report forms based on requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Liu, Bao-Yan; He, Li-Yun; Zhang, Run-Shun

    2013-04-01

    Data authenticity is the basic requirement of clinical studies. In actual clinical conditions how to establish formatted case report forms (CRF) in line with the requirement for data authenticity is the key to ensure clinical data quality. On the basis of the characteristics of clinical data in actual clinical conditions, we determined elements for establishing formatted case report forms by comparing differences in data characteristics of CRFs in traditional clinical studies and in actual clinical conditions, and then generated formatted case report forms in line with the requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions. The data of formatted CRFs generated in this study could not only meet the requirement for data authenticity of clinical studies in actual clinical conditions, but also comply with data management practices for clinical studies, thus it is deemed as a progress in technical methods.

  12. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  13. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  14. Testing two temporal upscaling schemes for the estimation of the time variability of the actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.

    2015-10-01

    Temporal availability of grapes actual evapotranspiration is an emerging issue since vineyards farms are more and more converted from rainfed to irrigated agricultural systems. The manuscript aims to verify the accuracy of the actual evapotranspiration retrieval coupling a single source energy balance approach and two different temporal upscaling schemes. The first scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the main input variables, namely the NDVI, albedo and LST; the second scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the energy balance output, the actual evapotranspiration. The temporal upscaling schemes were implemented on: i) airborne remote sensing data acquired monthly during a whole irrigation season over a Sicilian vineyard; ii) low resolution MODIS products released daily or weekly; iii) meteorological data acquired by standard gauge stations. Daily MODIS LST products (MOD11A1) were disaggregated using the DisTrad model, 8-days black and white sky albedo products (MCD43A) allowed modeling the total albedo, and 8-days NDVI products (MOD13Q1) were modeled using the Fisher approach. Results were validated both in time and space. The temporal validation was carried out using the actual evapotranspiration measured in situ using data collected by a flux tower through the eddy covariance technique. The spatial validation involved airborne images acquired at different times from June to September 2008. Results aim to test whether the upscaling of the energy balance input or output data performed better.

  15. Education and Decision Making at the Time of Triptan Prescribing: Patient Expectations vs Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Paul G.; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Lettich, Alyssa; Wells, Rebecca E.; Robertson, Carrie E.; Mullin, Kathleen; Charleston, Larry; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimizing patient satisfaction with their medical care and maximizing patient adherence with treatment plans requires an understanding of patient preferences regarding education and their role in decision making when treatments are prescribed. Objective To assess the congruence between patient expectations and actual practice regarding education and decision making at the time a triptan is prescribed. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional survey was performed by headache fellow members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium at their respective tertiary care headache clinics. Migraine patients who were new patients to the headache clinic and who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years) completed questionnaires that assessed the education they received and their role in decision making at the time a triptan was first prescribed as well as their desire for education and participation in decision making when a triptan is prescribed. Results Consistent with patient preference, most participants received the majority of their education about the triptan from the prescriber's office (70.2%). In descending rank order, participants most desired to be informed about how to decide if a triptan should be taken, when during the course of migraine a triptan should be taken, possible side effects, cost, and how to obtain refills. Regarding side effects, most participants preferred to receive education about the most common side effects of a triptan rather than addressing all possible side effects. Regarding triptan dosing, participants desired to be informed in descending order of importance about taking other medications with triptans, how many doses can be taken for each migraine, how many doses can be taken each week/month, what to do if the triptan does not work, and the triptan mechanism of action. The vast majority of

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include any allowance for any increased cost for which adjustment is being requested. (c) The Contracting... be limited to increases or decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of... DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff. Actual hrs. Actual units (sq. yard) Increase/sq. yard...

  17. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the 'waterpipe' antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  18. Pacing strategy in simulated cycle time-trials is based on perceived rather than actual distance.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, V; Arkinstall, M J; Hawley, J A

    2001-06-01

    This study determined the pacing strategies and performance responses of six well-trained cyclists/triathletes (peak O2 uptake 66.4+/-3.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), mean+/-SD) during seven simulated time-trials (TT) conducted on a wind-braked cycle ergometer. All subjects first performed a 40 km familiarisation ride (TT1). They were then informed they would be riding a further four 40 km TT for the purpose of a reliability study. Instead, the actual distances ridden for the next three TT were a random order of 34 (TT2), 40 (TT3) and 46 km (TT4). The only feedback given to subjects during TT1-4 was the percentage distance of that ride remaining. During a further 40 km TT (TT5) subjects were allowed to view their heart rate (HR) responses throughout the ride. Despite the significantly different performance times across the three distances (47:23+/-4:23 vs 55:57+/-3:24 vs 65:41+/-3:56 min for the 34, 40 and 46 km respectively, P<0.001), average power output (296+/-48 vs 294+/-48 vs 286+/-40 W) and HR (173+/-11 vs 174+/-12 vs 173+/-12 beats x min(-1)) were similar. The true nature of the first part of the study was then revealed to subjects who subsequently completed an additional 34 km and 46 km TT TT6-7) in which the actual and perceived distance ridden was the same. Power output and HR responses were similar for both unknown (TT2 and TT6) and known (TT4 and TT7) rides for both distances: 296+/-48 vs 300+/-55 W and 173+/-11 vs 177+/-11 beats x min(-1) (34 km) and 286+/-40 vs 273+/-42 W and 173+/-12 vs 174+/-12 beats x min(-1) (46 km). In conclusion, well-trained cyclists rode at similar power outputs and HR during time trials they perceived to be the same distance, but which varied in actual distance from 34 to 46 km.

  19. Integration of Remote Sensing derived Actual Evapotranspiration with Meteorological Data for Real Time Demand Forecasting in Semi-arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, M. K.; Hafeez, M. M.; Chemin, Y.; Faux, R.; Sixsmith, J.

    2010-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is major consumer of fresh water, but a large part of the water devour for irrigation is wasted due to poor management of irrigation systems. Improving water management in irrigated areas require the analysis of real time water demand in order to determine the possibilities in which it may be modified and rationalised. Real time water demand information in irrigated areas is a key for planning about sustainable use of irrigation water. These activities are needed not only to improve water productivity, but also to increase the sustainability of irrigated agriculture by saving irrigation water. Demand forecasting entail the complete understanding of spatial and expected temporal variability of metrological parameters and evapotranspiration (ET). ET is the overriding aspect for irrigation demand forecasting at farm to catchment scale. Many models have been used to measure the ET rate, either empirical or functional. The major disadvantage of this approach is that most methods generate only point values, resulting in estimates that are not representative of large areas. These methods are based on crop factors under ideal conditions and cannot therefore represent actual crop ET. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful mean to estimate ET over various spatial and temporal scales. For improved irrigation system management and operation, a holistic approach of integrating remote sensing derived ET from SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping ET) algorithm, for Australian agro-ecosystem, with forecasted meteorological data and field application loss functions for major crops were used to forecast actual water demand in Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), New South Wales, Australia. It covers approximately 79,000 ha of intensive irrigation and comprise of number of secondary and tertiary canals. In order to capture the spatial variability, CIA has been divided into 22 nodes based on direction of flow and connectivity. All hydrological data of inflow (i

  20. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  1. Time interval moderates the relationship between psyching-up and actual sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi-Nassib, Sarra; Chtara, Moktar; Nassib, Sabri; Briki, Walid; Hammoudi-Riahi, Sabra; Tod, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-11-01

    This study attempted to test whether the strongest effect of psyching-up (PU) strategy on actual sprint performance can be observed when the strategy is used immediately (or almost) before performance compared with when there is a delay between PU and performance. To do so, 16 male sprinters (age, 20.6 ± 1.3 years; body mass, 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height, 180.8 ± 5.6 cm) were enrolled in a counterbalanced experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to 10 sessions (2 [Experimental Condition: imagery vs. distraction] × 5 [Time Intervals: no interval, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes]). Before performing the experimental tasks, participants rated: (a) the Hooper index, (b) their degree of self-confidence, and (c) after the completion of the experimental test; they rated their perceived effort. Findings showed that the imagery significantly improved sprint performance. Specifically, the imagery enhanced performance on the phase of acceleration (0-10 m) and on the overall sprint (0-30 m) when used immediately before performance and at 1- and 2-minute intervals but not for 3- and 5-minute intervals. These findings support the hypothesis that the potential effect of the PU strategy on performance vanishes over time. The pre-experimental task Hooper and self-efficacy indexes did not change across the 10 experimental sessions, reinforcing the view that the observed performance changes were directly caused by the experimental manipulation and not through any altered status of the athletes (self-efficacy, fatigue/recovery, and stress). The potential mechanisms underlying such a process and practical applications are discussed.

  2. Precise time and time interval users, requirements and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowser, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The functional areas of application of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) were considered and expanded. A comprehensive overview of the PTTI requirements and applications would provide an opportunity for individuals working in a specific functional area. Mutual problems, requirements, applications or successes shared by those in other functional areas were studied. Based upon the results of a two year study a compendium of PTTI requirements, applications and the means of meeting the requirements among Department of Defense components, other government agencies and major commercial users was compiled and is presented. It was found that the planning process for PTTI support for new acquisitions or new programs was less than a well defined, coordinated process. The processes are described in general terms and a generic model for requirements determination and subsequent coordination which may enhance the planning process and introduce cost benefits to the program is also presented.

  3. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  4. Timing of spacecraft date: Time accuracy requirements and timing facilities of the European Space Agency (ESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworak, H. P.

    1985-04-01

    The time accuracy requirements for various European Space Agency (ESA) missions are analyzed; the requirements are grouped by the type of mission. The evolution of satellite timing techniques since 1968 is shown, and the requirements for future ESA missions (until the late 1980's) are assessed. Timing systems and their configuration at various ESA ground stations and the operations control centers are described. Two studies on future techniques in the field of time dissemination and time synchronization conclude this paper: The LASSO mission (Laser Synchronization from Stationary Orbit) and a low-cost time dissemination technique using METEOSAT, the European meteorological satellites, are briefly outlined.

  5. Quantitative muscle strength testing: a comparison of job strength requirements and actual worker strength among military technicians.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D M; Clark, J A; Johns, R E; White, G L; Hoffman, S

    1989-01-01

    In this study the authors investigate the percentage of mismatch between job demands and worker physical capacity in Utah National Guard mechanics. This population had demonstrated a higher incidence of low back trouble than other job descriptions reviewed. The authors utilized onsite still and videotape photography and a computerized biomechanical strength prediction model to assess loads on the lumbosacral spine due to various job tasks. Job demands were then compared to the actual physical capacity of the individual workers based on static strength testing in job-related positions. A load cell on the testing apparatus entered the force generated into a computer which averaged the force of the last three seconds of a five-second lift. It was determined that as much as a 38% mismatch existed within this population for some job tasks which these workers were exposed to. Suggestions for preventing job-related low back cumulative trauma disorders are presented, including: engineering redesign, worker selection programs, work hardening, and others. PMID:2522169

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped...

  7. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped...

  8. Time required for adaptation of protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals that can appropriately adjust to varying environmental and nutritional conditions possess a survival advantage. Maintaining homeostasis and homeorhesis in response to changing nutritional conditions requires flexibility in nutrient partitioning and efficiencies. This is especially the case f...

  9. Time clock requirements for hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Chen; Vilnai-Yavetz, Iris; Rafaeli, Anat; Zemel, Moran

    2016-06-01

    An agreement negotiated following a doctors' strike in 2011 introduced a requirement that physicians in Israel's public hospitals clock in and out when starting and leaving work. The press reported strong negative reactions to this policy and predicted doctors deserting hospitals en masse. This study examines physicians' reactions toward the clock-in/clock-out policy 6 months after its implementation, and assesses the relationship between these reactions and aspects of their employment context. 676 physicians in 42 hospitals responded to a survey assessing doctor's reactions toward the clock, hospital policy makers, and aspects of their work. Reactions to the clock were generally negative. Sense of calling correlated positively with negative reactions to the clock, and the latter correlated positively with quit intentions. However, overall, respondents reported a high sense of calling and low quit intentions. We suggest that sense of calling buffers and protects physicians from quit intentions. Differences in reactions to the clock were associated with different employment characteristics, but sense of calling did not vary by hospital size or type or by physicians' specialty. The findings offer insights into how physicians' working environment affects their reactions to regulatory interventions, and highlight medical professionalism as buffering reactions to unpopular regulatory policies. PMID:27142179

  10. Time clock requirements for hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Chen; Vilnai-Yavetz, Iris; Rafaeli, Anat; Zemel, Moran

    2016-06-01

    An agreement negotiated following a doctors' strike in 2011 introduced a requirement that physicians in Israel's public hospitals clock in and out when starting and leaving work. The press reported strong negative reactions to this policy and predicted doctors deserting hospitals en masse. This study examines physicians' reactions toward the clock-in/clock-out policy 6 months after its implementation, and assesses the relationship between these reactions and aspects of their employment context. 676 physicians in 42 hospitals responded to a survey assessing doctor's reactions toward the clock, hospital policy makers, and aspects of their work. Reactions to the clock were generally negative. Sense of calling correlated positively with negative reactions to the clock, and the latter correlated positively with quit intentions. However, overall, respondents reported a high sense of calling and low quit intentions. We suggest that sense of calling buffers and protects physicians from quit intentions. Differences in reactions to the clock were associated with different employment characteristics, but sense of calling did not vary by hospital size or type or by physicians' specialty. The findings offer insights into how physicians' working environment affects their reactions to regulatory interventions, and highlight medical professionalism as buffering reactions to unpopular regulatory policies.

  11. Time required for gulf restoration uncertain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-05

    Hurricane Andrew's long term effect on Gulf of Mexico oil and gas operations likely won't be known until next year. This paper reports that while damage assessments have moved beyond the emergency stage, many offshore service companies say reliable estimates of the extent of damage or cost of repairs still are unavailable. The time needed to complete restorations won't be known conclusively until more organized surveys are complete. Even then, many contractors say, gulf operators must decide how to handle damage at each location-whether to repair damaged structures or replace them by applying technology not available when many of the fields were developed. Some damaged installations will not be replaced or restored, and the production will be lost.

  12. Time required to document temperature by electronic skin thermometer in a healthy neonate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananada Shankar; Chowdhury, T; Bandhopadhya, D; Ghosh, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    We studied the actual time taken to document temperature in a stable neonate by an electronic digital skin thermometer with automatic time beeper. We studied 100 neonates after initial stabilization. The mean time required for documenting the temperature by a electronic thermometer in axilla was 56.34+/-1.54 secs for term neonates (>2500g) and 54.87+/-1.23 secs for low birth weight (<2500g). The skin temperature measured simultaneously by the ordinary mercury thermometer kept for traditional 3 minutes supported the electronic measurement (P < 0.01).

  13. Perception Versus Actual Performance in Timely Tissue Plasminogen Activation Administration in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheryl B; Cox, Margueritte; Olson, DaiWai M; Britz, Gavin W; Constable, Mark; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee; Peterson, Eric D; Shah, Bimal R

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely thrombolytic therapy can improve stroke outcomes. Nevertheless, the ability of US hospitals to meet guidelines for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains suboptimal. What is unclear is whether hospitals accurately perceive their rate of tPA “door-to-needle” (DTN) time within 60 minutes and how DTN rates compare across different hospitals. Methods and Results DTN performance was defined by the percentage of treated patients who received tPA within 60 minutes of arrival. Telephone surveys were obtained from staff at 141 Get With The Guidelines hospitals, representing top, middle, and lowDTN performance. Less than one-third (29.1%) of staff accurately identified their DTN performance. Among middle- and low-performing hospitals (n=92), 56 sites (60.9%) overestimated their performance; 42% of middle performers and 85% of low performers overestimated their performance. Sites that overestimated tended to have lower annual volumes of tPA administration (median 8.4 patients [25th to 75th percentile 5.9 to 11.8] versus 10.2 patients [25th to 75th percentile 8.2 to 17.3], P=0.047), smaller percentages of eligible patients receiving tPA (84.7% versus 89.8%, P=0.008), and smaller percentages of DTN ≤60 minutes among treated patients (10.6% versus 16.6%, P=0.002). Conclusions Hospitals often overestimate their ability to deliver timely tPA to treated patients. Our findings indicate the need to routinely provide comparative provider performance rates as a key step to improving the quality of acute stroke care. PMID:26201547

  14. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  15. Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Lee, D.-C.; Christensen, J.N.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the western North Atlantic record variations in the Nd and Pb isotopic composition of Cenozoic deep water preserved during their growth. The timing and cause of the most striking change have been the subject of debate. Some have proposed that the shift took place after 4 Ma in response to the closure of the Panama gateway. Others have argued that the major change in isotope composition occurred as early as 8 Ma. This study presents high-resolution Nd isotope records for crusts previously dated using 10Be/9Be chronology. These data confirm that the shifts in Nd occurred after 4 Ma, consistent with a likely relationship with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, and in accordance with changes seen in other physical and chemical records. These results illustrate the need for both a robust chronological framework and high-resolution records before a reliable paleoceanographic interpretation can be made of the variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts.

  16. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  17. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  18. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  19. Meeting Core Requirements through Efficient Time Management. Teaching Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven

    1997-01-01

    Using a basketball unit as an example, this paper presents a model to help middle school physical educators accomplish a proper warmup, stretch, and cardiovascular workout as required by state core requirements without sacrificing time for skills acquisition and play. Concepts of individual goal setting and goal achievement are an inherent part of…

  20. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timely filing required. 1104.6 Section 1104.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  1. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timely filing required. 1104.6 Section 1104.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  2. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timely filing required. 1104.6 Section 1104.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  3. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timely filing required. 1104.6 Section 1104.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  4. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timely filing required. 1104.6 Section 1104.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  5. Time and Place Utility and the Requirement for Spontaneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerbinski, Jacqueline S.

    2009-01-01

    This research brief addresses the quandary that arises when distance learners require both time and place utility, and prefer live interface. The development of the hybrid course, which incorporates elements of time delayed and instantaneous interaction, is seen as a response to instructor and student scheduling conflicts. Faculty and student…

  6. Time required to achieve homogeneity in swine feed mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, G J; Miller, E; King, M T; Perfetti, G A; Warner, C R; Adamo, N C; Sporn, E M

    1982-03-01

    FD&C Red No. 3 was mixed with 20 kg pig feed to give a concentration of 0.1%. A mixing time of 30 min was sufficient to achieve homogeneity for this mixture. For larger amounts or more flocculent types of additives, a longer time may be required. Ammoniated glycyrrhizin was mixed with 8 separate batches of pig feed at a concentration of 1%; 1 h was sufficient mixing time.

  7. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that women had significantly higher temperature variations than men (p < 0.01) along the time. In men, only the body region of the abdomen obtained a significant variance (p < 0.05) on the analyzed period, both in the anterior and posterior part. In women, the anterior abdomen and thighs, and the posterior part of the hands, forearms and abdomen showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Based on our results, it can be concluded that the time in rest condition required reaching a TSK balance in young men and women is variable, but for whole body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  8. Timing-Dependent Actions of NGF Required for Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jaehoon; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Yu-ichi; Uda, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Background Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process. PMID:20126402

  9. Minimizing the area required for time constants in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    When a medium- or large-scale integrated circuit is designed, efforts are usually made to avoid the use of resistor-capacitor time constant generators. The capacitor needed for this circuit usually takes up more surface area on the chip than several resistors and transistors. When the use of this network is unavoidable, the designer usually makes an effort to see that the choice of resistor and capacitor combinations is such that a minimum amount of surface area is consumed. The optimum ratio of resistance to capacitance that will result in this minimum area is equal to the ratio of resistance to capacitance which may be obtained from a unit of surface area for the particular process being used. The minimum area required is a function of the square root of the reciprocal of the products of the resistance and capacitance per unit area. This minimum occurs when the area required by the resistor is equal to the area required by the capacitor.

  10. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  11. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Marshall, Philip J. E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  12. Coincidence-anticipation timing requirements are different in racket sports.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Selçuk; Devrilmez, Erhan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy of athletes of different racket sports with various stimulus velocity requirements. Ninety players (15 girls, 15 boys for each sport) from tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.4), badminton (M age = 12.5 yr., SD = 1.4), and table tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.2) participated in this study. Three different stimulus velocities, low, moderate, and high, were used to simulate the velocity requirements of these racket sports. Tennis players had higher accuracy when they performed under the low stimulus velocity compared to badminton and table tennis players. Badminton players performed better under the moderate speed comparing to tennis and table tennis players. Table tennis players had better performance than tennis and badminton players under the high stimulus velocity. Therefore, visual and motor systems of players from different racket sports may adapt to a stimulus velocity in coincidence-anticipation timing, which is specific to each type of racket sports.

  13. The Timing of Acupuncture Stimulation Does Not Influence Anesthetic Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akça, Ozan

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide generalized sedative and analgesic effects: Zusanli (St36), Sanyinjiao (Sp6), Liangqiu (St34), and Hegu (LI4). Needles were stimulated at 2-Hz and 10-Hz, with frequencies alternating at two-second intervals. On Preinduction day, electro-acupuncture was started 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and maintained throughout the study. On At-induction day, needles were positioned before induction of anesthesia, but electro-acupuncture stimulation was not initiated until after induction. On Control day, electrodes were positioned near the acupoints, but needles were not inserted. Noxious electrical stimulation was administered via 25-G needles on the upper abdomen (70 mA, 100 Hz, 10 seconds). Desflurane concentration was increased 0.5% when movement occurred and decreased 0.5% when it did not. These up-and-down sequences continued until volunteers crossed from movement to no-movement 4 times. The P50 of logistic regression identified desflurane requirement. Desflurane requirement was similar on the Control (5.2±0.6%, mean±SD), Preinduction (5.0±0.8%), and At-induction (4.7±0.3%, P=0.125) days. This type of acupuncture is thus unlikely to facilitate general anesthesia or decrease the need for anesthetic drugs. PMID:15673863

  14. Is It Time to Rethink Postgraduate Training Requirements for Licensure?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to postgraduate medical training have evolved substantially in recent years, reflecting the complexity of the educational mission. Residency programs seek to produce clinicians who achieve board certification as an attestation of their competency. Certification criteria are established by the American Board of Medical Specialties, are consistent from state to state, and include periods of supervised instruction ranging from as few as three years (for primary care specialties) to much longer for selected disciplines. In contrast, minimum postgraduate training criteria necessary for licensure as an independent practitioner are established by state medical boards and vary significantly among and within jurisdictions. In most states, licenses can be granted to individuals who have completed as little as one year of postgraduate training. The discrepancy between the minimum time commitment necessary to become a competent physician and that to be licensed as an independent practitioner has implications for health care quality and safety. Data are lacking as to the number of licenses issued nationally to individuals who have only partially completed residency training and the nature of practices they pursue. Extrapolating from available evidence, these individuals may very well provide care inferior to those who have satisfied training requirements for certification eligibility and be more prone to problematic behavior resulting in disciplinary action. Efforts to establish more rigorous licensure criteria will require dialog between members of the academic community, professional organizations, state medical boards, and legislatures. The recently proposed Interstate Medical Licensure Compact may serve as a prototype for achieving this goal.

  15. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-12-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  16. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  17. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  18. Requirements for Real-Time Laboratory Experimentation over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzmann, C.; Latchman, H. A.; Gillet, D.; Crisalle, O. D.

    A prototype system based on an inverted pendulum is used to study the Quality of Service and discuss requirements of remote-experimentation systems utilized for carrying out control engineering experiments over the Internet. This class of applications involves the transmission over the network of a variety of data types with their own peculiar…

  19. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  20. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P. Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K.

    2013-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  1. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Stewart, A Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K

    2013-12-19

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  2. 78 FR 54252 - Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements-One Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... FR 58389, for the number of respondents required to comply with the requirements of FAR subpart 4.15... Register on September 24, 2010, at 75 FR 58389. No public comments were received in prior years that have...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-- Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  3. On the actual variety of plate dynamical mechanisms and how mantle evolution affected them through time, from core formation to the Indian collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2010-05-01

    If horizontal plate motions were driven by thermal convection of the mantle, they would display the action of slow-to-change body forces. Yet rapid changes of spreading rate and direction, and ridge jumps, are well-documented for the past 130Ma. Also convection cannot readily cause rotations of a plate (e.g. Africa) about a pole within the plate or near it. And plate motions, especially that of India, scarcely fit a convective pattern. To address these problems we look first at mantle motivation at both ends of earth history, beginning with core formation. I then introduce 3 important properties of mantle materials, whose neglect by mantle modellers has surely impaired the value of their work, but whose recognition illuminates the present plate dynamical situation and provides the Earth with a heat engine that is not thermal convection. Finally I sketch the intervening changes in behaviour over time, the sharpest of which brought about the rise of atmospheric oxygen at ~2.25Ga. Core formation. As the very high specific angular momentum of mean planetary material (>105-fold relative to solar) can only be achieved if the planets were wholly accreted in presence of the nebula [1], the iron percolation model is ruled out, because it takes too long. This validates the A.E.Ringwood model (1960-1978) involving nebular H reaction with erupting FeO. The iron then loads the downgoing limb of what is then not a truly thermal convection system. Huge volumes of reaction water were produced, giving the early Earth a wet mantle, a (diminishing) feature that we'll see has constrained mantle behaviour ever since. Plate dynamics since 150Ma. Multiple plate dynamical evidence [2], which will be rapidly re-presented here, shows that currently (a) the Earth has a 2-layer mantle system with a boundary at ~660km and (b) that most cratons have tectospheric keels that reach right to that boundary, or nearly so. The argument is the simple and persuasive one (even to seismologists) of mantle

  4. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  5. Prediction of energy requirements and drying times for surface drying fresh produce

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    For numerous fresh fruits and vegetables, drying of surface adhering water is required to facilitate materials handling and wax treatments. Using humidity ratio difference and air flow rates as manipulated variables, a computer program and a graphical approach were developed to predict required drying time. Modeling results were extended to investigate air recycling and the relationship of recycling on energy requirements.

  6. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  7. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  8. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  9. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  11. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  12. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  13. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  14. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  15. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  16. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  17. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  19. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  1. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  3. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  4. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  9. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  11. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  14. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  16. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  17. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  18. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  19. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  20. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  1. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  2. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  3. 12 CFR 1403.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1403.4 Section 1403.4 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.4 Times, places, and requirements for identification...

  4. 7 CFR 1.113 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of... ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 1.113 Times, places, and requirements for identification of... such identification, the requester shall complete and sign in the presence of an agency official...

  5. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest....

  6. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest....

  7. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting method... subpart shall establish a time-accounting method that will provide affirmative evidence that each employee... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for...

  8. Preliminary Space VLBI Requirements for Observing Time on Ground Radio Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, David L.; Murphy, David W.; Preston, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An initial estimate has been made of the observing time required on ground radio telescopes by the space VLBI missions Radioastron and VSOP. Typical science programs have been adopted for both missions.

  9. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  10. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  11. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  12. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  13. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  14. Predictors of time to requiring dopaminergic treatment in 2 Parkinson's disease cohorts.

    PubMed

    Marras, Connie; McDermott, Michael P; Marek, Ken; Rochon, Paula; Naglie, Gary; Tanner, Caroline M; Rudolph, Alice; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E

    2011-03-01

    The rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Knowledge of factors associated with disease milestones and commonly used research outcome measures helps with patient counseling and guides the design and interpretation of clinical studies. The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors for time to acquiring disability requiring dopaminergic therapy that are reproducible within 2 large prospectively followed cohorts. Potential prognostic factors were identified using data from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial, and their reproducibility was examined using data from the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 trial (PRECEPT). In multivariable analyses of the DATATOP cohort, higher baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, full-time employment, a lesser smoking history, and onset on the left side were associated with a shorter time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy. PRECEPT data confirmed the associations of higher baseline UPDRS scores and full-time employment with shorter time to requiring treatment. Any clinical trial using the end point of time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy should ensure that groups are well balanced with respect to baseline UPDRS scores and the proportion of subjects employed full time and should consider including these variables as covariates in the statistical model for primary analysis of treatment effects. We suspect that individuals employed full time may have a lower threshold for requiring dopaminergic therapy because of occupational demands. PMID:21287602

  15. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  16. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  17. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  19. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  20. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  1. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall be... minutes of remaining service life. (c) Timers shall be readable by sight and by touch during use by the... period of 7 seconds or more after the preset time has elapsed. (e) Remaining service-life indicators...

  2. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon SONSat the FOSC's request. 75 FR 37712. The rule also confirmed that...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater.... Oil Spill Response Resources Return Time Several comments noted concerns about the return of assets...

  3. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. 135.265 Section 135.265 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  4. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. 135.263 Section 135.263 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  5. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. 135.263 Section 135.263 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  6. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. 135.263 Section 135.263 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  7. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. 135.265 Section 135.265 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  8. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. 135.263 Section 135.263 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  9. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. 135.265 Section 135.265 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  10. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. 135.265 Section 135.265 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  11. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. 135.265 Section 135.265 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  12. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. 135.263 Section 135.263 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest...

  13. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  14. Comparison of time required for traditional versus virtual orthognathic surgery treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, M K; Peacock, Z S; Laviv, A; Goldwaser, B R; Ortiz, R; Resnick, C M; Troulis, M J; Kaban, L B

    2016-09-01

    Virtual surgical planning (VSP) is a tool for predicting complex surgical movements in three dimensions and it may reduce preoperative laboratory time. A prospective study to compare the time required for standard preoperative planning versus VSP was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2014 through January 2015. Workflow data for bimaxillary cases planned by both standard techniques and VSP were recorded in real time. Time spent was divided into three parts: (1) obtaining impressions, face-bow mounting, and model preparation; (2) occlusal analysis and modification, model surgery, and splint fabrication; (3) online VSP session. Average times were compared between standard treatment planning (sum of parts 1 and 2) and VSP (sum of parts 1 and 3). Of 41 bimaxillary cases included, 20 were simple (symmetric) and 21 were complex (asymmetry and segmental osteotomies). Average times for parts 1, 2, and 3 were 4.43, 3.01, and 0.67h, respectively. The average time required for standard treatment planning was 7.45h and for VSP was 5.10h, a 31% time reduction (P<0.001). By eliminating all or some components of part 1, time savings may increase to as much as 91%. This study indicates that in an academic setting, VSP reduces the time required for treatment planning of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery cases.

  15. Compensation for Blur Requires Increase in Field of View and Viewing Time

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, MiYoung; Liu, Rong; Chien, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution is an important factor for human pattern recognition. In particular, low resolution (blur) is a defining characteristic of low vision. Here, we examined spatial (field of view) and temporal (stimulus duration) requirements for blurry object recognition. The spatial resolution of an image such as letter or face, was manipulated with a low-pass filter. In experiment 1, studying spatial requirement, observers viewed a fixed-size object through a window of varying sizes, which was repositioned until object identification (moving window paradigm). Field of view requirement, quantified as the number of “views” (window repositions) for correct recognition, was obtained for three blur levels, including no blur. In experiment 2, studying temporal requirement, we determined threshold viewing time, the stimulus duration yielding criterion recognition accuracy, at six blur levels, including no blur. For letter and face recognition, we found blur significantly increased the number of views, suggesting a larger field of view is required to recognize blurry objects. We also found blur significantly increased threshold viewing time, suggesting longer temporal integration is necessary to recognize blurry objects. The temporal integration reflects the tradeoff between stimulus intensity and time. While humans excel at recognizing blurry objects, our findings suggest compensating for blur requires increased field of view and viewing time. The need for larger spatial and longer temporal integration for recognizing blurry objects may further challenge object recognition in low vision. Thus, interactions between blur and field of view should be considered for developing low vision rehabilitation or assistive aids. PMID:27622710

  16. Compensation for Blur Requires Increase in Field of View and Viewing Time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, MiYoung; Liu, Rong; Chien, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution is an important factor for human pattern recognition. In particular, low resolution (blur) is a defining characteristic of low vision. Here, we examined spatial (field of view) and temporal (stimulus duration) requirements for blurry object recognition. The spatial resolution of an image such as letter or face, was manipulated with a low-pass filter. In experiment 1, studying spatial requirement, observers viewed a fixed-size object through a window of varying sizes, which was repositioned until object identification (moving window paradigm). Field of view requirement, quantified as the number of "views" (window repositions) for correct recognition, was obtained for three blur levels, including no blur. In experiment 2, studying temporal requirement, we determined threshold viewing time, the stimulus duration yielding criterion recognition accuracy, at six blur levels, including no blur. For letter and face recognition, we found blur significantly increased the number of views, suggesting a larger field of view is required to recognize blurry objects. We also found blur significantly increased threshold viewing time, suggesting longer temporal integration is necessary to recognize blurry objects. The temporal integration reflects the tradeoff between stimulus intensity and time. While humans excel at recognizing blurry objects, our findings suggest compensating for blur requires increased field of view and viewing time. The need for larger spatial and longer temporal integration for recognizing blurry objects may further challenge object recognition in low vision. Thus, interactions between blur and field of view should be considered for developing low vision rehabilitation or assistive aids. PMID:27622710

  17. Performance requirements of real-time continuous media computing: specification techniques and hardware/software implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Venkatesh; Subrahmanyam, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Today's typical multimedia computer consists of a fast CPU and multimedia peripherals such as attached sound and video support hardware. In such a machine, the low-level audio and video handling may be performed by these peripherals while any significant processing on these media requires the intimate involvement of the CPU, main memory system and the operating system. Given that these components are not typically designed to meet the real-time requirements of continuous media, there are a number of constraints on the nature of multimedia applications that can be executed. To get around these constraints, demanding multimedia applications may typically be offloaded to attached peripheral compute engines which are customized to execute the applications. This approach requires dedicating resources to specific applications and suffers from the problem that such applications are not flexible integrated with the main system. We posit that new software and hardware technologies are needed to truly integrate real-time multimedia processing capabilities within a multimedia computer. The design of these technologies must be based on a thorough understanding of the timing and real-time computing requirements of various types of continuous media. Formal mechanisms are needed to express and analyze these requirements in order for multimedia operating systems to efficiently and correctly schedule the use of computing and communication resources. Indeed such mechanisms may be used to guide the specification and design of hardware and software processing component. In this paper, we present a framework for specifying the timing properties and computational requirements of continuous media. We discuss the usefulness of this framework in the context of some common audio and video data formats. We also discuss the impact of this framework on the design of resource scheduling mechanisms. Finally we offer some insights on designing audio/video processing engines based on real-time

  18. Teenagers' Perceived and Actual Probabilities of Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namerow, Pearila Brickner; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescent females' (N=425) actual and perceived probabilities of pregnancy. Subjects estimated their likelihood of becoming pregnant the last time they had intercourse, and indicated the dates of last intercourse and last menstrual period. Found that the distributions of perceived probability of pregnancy were nearly identical for both…

  19. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  20. Optimal Time to Surgery for Patients Requiring Laparoscopic Appendectomy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Therese M; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2016-02-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common condition requiring emergency surgery worldwide. Although current guidelines recommend prompt appendectomy as the preferred treatment, no time interval for surgery has been indicated. We used an integrative review methodology to critically evaluate evidence on the relationship between time to surgery and hospital length of stay and to identify the ideal time to surgery for patients undergoing appendectomy. We included 14 studies in our synthesis, most of which (n = 9/14, 64%) indicated that longer time delays to surgical intervention increased hospital length of stay for patients presenting with appendicitis. Researchers report that the optimal time for surgery is 24 to 36 hours after symptom onset, or 10 to 24 hours from admission. The results of our review indicate that patient symptoms on presentation may signify advancing pathology and may be more important than the time delay interval in defining surgical priority. PMID:26849985

  1. 32 CFR 1908.31 - Requirements as to time and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1908.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO § 3.6 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Agency Action on Mdr Appeals § 1908.31 Requirements as to time and...

  2. 32 CFR 1908.31 - Requirements as to time and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1908.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO § 3.6 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Agency Action on Mdr Appeals § 1908.31 Requirements as to time and...

  3. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. 97.41 Section 97.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX...

  4. 29 CFR 1611.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1611.4 Times, places, and requirements for... to records about another individual under false pretenses is a misdemeanor punishable by fine up to... about another individual under false pretenses is a misdemeanor punishable by fine up to $5,000. (e)...

  5. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... declaring his or her identity and stipulating that he or she understands it is a misdemeanor punishable by... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 16.4 Section 16.4 Protection of Environment...

  6. 22 CFR 215.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... verify the individual's identity; e.g. driver's license, employee identification card or medicare card... identity and which stipulates that the individual understands that knowingly or willfully seeking or... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Times, places, and requirements...

  7. 45 CFR 705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... establish his or her identity by a signature, address, date of birth, and one other identification, such as... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests and identification of records requested. 705.4 Section 705.4...

  8. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  9. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  10. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  11. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  12. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  13. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  14. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  15. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  16. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  17. Yes, It Is Time to Rethink Postgraduate Training Requirements for Licensure!

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Janis M

    2016-01-01

    In his Commentary in this issue, Dr. Freeman asks whether it is time to rethink postgraduate training requirements for licensure. The majority of U.S. states require a minimum of one year of postgraduate residency training to qualify for a medical license. The original rationale for requiring just a single year of training dates back over half a century to the era of a general practitioner completing medical school followed by a rotating internship prior to heading out into independent general practice. Today, however, the requirement for a single year of training for licensure is in direct contrast to the more rigorous requirements for specialty certification, the current trend in medical education toward competency-based training, and the unanimous agreement among national organizations that readiness for independent practice usually takes three to five years of progressive training. The complexity of medical practice today, the rising use of technology, and the rapid explosion of the understanding of medical science raise the important question of whether this licensing requirement is out of sync with state medical boards' goal of protecting the public by licensing only qualified physicians. A national discussion should be held to distinguish clear minimal standards for physician training that protect the public by ensuring that practicing physicians are highly qualified through rigorous training.

  18. Overestimation of required recovery time during repeated sprint exercise with self-regulated recovery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Thompson, Richard; Oliver, Jon L

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the reliability and accuracy of self-regulated recovery time and performance during repeated sprinting. On 4 occasions, 14 men (24.5 ± 5.0 years) completed 10 × 6 seconds cycle sprints against 7.5% body mass, self-regulating (SR) recovery time to maintain performance. Subjects then repeated the test, but with a reduced recovery (RR) of 10% less recovery time. Across the first 4 trials, there were no between-trial differences in peak power output (PPO) or mean power output (MPO), recovery time, or fatigue index (p > 0.05). Random variation in recovery time was reduced across trials 3-4 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 7.5%, 95% confidence limits [CL] = 5.4-12.4%) compared with trials 1-2 (CV = 16.0, 95% CL = 11.4-27.0%) and 2-3 (CV = 10.1%, 95% CL = 7.2-16.7%) but was consistent across trials for PPO and MPO (between-trials CV, ≤3.3%). There were no trial effects for any performance, physiological, or perceptual measures when comparing SR with RR (p > 0.05), although heart rate and perceptual measures increased with subsequent sprint efforts (p ≤ 0.05). After 2 familiarization trials, subjects can reliably self-regulate recovery time to maintain performance during repeated sprints. However, subjects overestimate the amount of recovery time required, as reducing this time by 10% had no effect on performance, perceptual, or physiological parameters. Self-regulated sprinting is potentially a reliable training tool, particularly for sprint training where maintenance of work is desired. However, overestimation of required recovery time means that performance improvements may not be achieved if the goal of training is improvement of repeated sprint performance with incomplete recovery.

  19. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.

  20. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    The results of government study of long range liquid hydrogen (LH2) requirements for the time period of 1995 through the year 2005 are presented. To assure an adequate supply of LH2 is available in support of various programs, it is imperative a long range projection of LH2 requirements be developed and maintained. This information is vital in planning for necessary procurement actions and assuring adequate industry lead time to acquiring the necessary production and distribution capabilities. The Advanced Launch System and High-Altitude Long-Endurance programs may represent the predominant government needs for LH2 in the long range. The assembled data clearly indicates a need for KSC (Kennedy Space Center) constant program/project surveillance. Also clear is the need for KSC to monitor industry's plans for LH2 plant production and distribution expansion.

  1. To predict sufentanil requirement for postoperative pain control using a real-time method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhao; Duan, Guangyou; Guo, Shanna; Ying, Ying; Huang, Penghao; Zhang, Mi; Li, Ningbo; Zhang, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative identification of individual sensitivity to opioid analgesics could improve the quality of postoperative analgesia. We explored the feasibility and utility of a real-time assessment of sufentanil sensitivity in predicting postoperative analgesic requirement. Our primary study included 111 patients who underwent measurements of pressure and quantitative pricking pain thresholds before and 5 minutes after sufentanil infusion. Pain intensity was assessed during the first 24-hour postsurgery, and patients who reported inadequate levels of analgesia were excluded from the study. The sufentanil requirement for patient-controlled analgesia was recorded, and a subsequent exploratory study of 20 patients facilitated the interpretation of the primary study results. In the primary study, experimental pain thresholds increased (P < 0.001) 5 minutes after sufentanil infusion, and the percent change in pricking pain threshold was positively associated with sufentanil requirement at 12 and 24 hours after surgery (β = 0.318, P = 0.001; and β = 0.335, P = 0.001). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that patients with a change in pricking pain threshold >188% were >50% likely to require more sufentanil for postoperative pain control. In the exploratory study, experimental pain thresholds significantly decreased after the operation (P < 0.001), and we observed a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the percent change in pricking pain threshold before and after surgery. Preoperative detection of individual sensitivity to sufentanil via the above described real-time method was effective in predicting postoperative sufentanil requirement. Thus, percent change in pricking pain threshold might be a feasible predictive marker of postoperative analgesia requirement. PMID:27336880

  2. Timing and control requirements for a 32-channel AMU-ADC ASIC for the PHENIX detector

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M.S.; Ericson, M.N.; Britton, C.L. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    A custom CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been developed consisting of an analog memory unit (AMU) has been developed consisting of an analog memory unit (AMU) and analog to digital converter (ADC), both of which have been designed for applications in the PHENIX experiment. This IC consists of 32 pipes of analog memory with 64 cells per pipe. Each pipe also has its own ADC channel. Timing and control signal requirements for optimum performance are discussed in this paper.

  3. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  4. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  5. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  6. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  7. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  8. Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

    1988-02-01

    The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system.

  9. Functional equivalence for response programming of actually performing versus imagining movements.

    PubMed

    Ito, M

    1999-06-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that response programming occurs when movements are only imagined. 12 subjects were required to react and produce the sequence of same or different force by squeezing a handle as quickly and accurately as possible after the two reaction signals which were separated by the interstimulus interval of 1 sec. The reaction time to initiate the second response was examined when the first response is covertly performed, but the second response is actually performed. The reaction times to initiate the second responses were significantly shorter for imagining and actually performing different movements or the control condition. There was no significant difference in reaction time between the conditions with the same movements. These findings were interpreted as evidence for functional equivalence for response programming of actually performing versus imagining movements. PMID:10407903

  10. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  11. Phytochrome is required for the occurrence of time-dependent phototropism in maize coleoptiles

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Iino, M

    1996-12-01

    Time-dependent phototropism (TDP), sometimes called second positive curvature, occurs when the duration of phototropic stimulation with blue light (B) exceeds a few minutes. TDP was characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles raised under continuous red light (R). Subsequently, coleoptiles adapted to darkness were used to investigate the effect of R on TDP. It was found that TDP, which is induced in R-grown coleoptiles, does not occur in dark-adapted coleoptiles and that dark-adapted coleoptiles begin to show TDP after treatment with R. The TDP responsiveness became maximal 1-2 h after treatment with a R pulse and decreased during the next few hours. At least 10 min was required after a short pulse of R before the coleoptile began to respond to B for the induction of TDP. The effect of R in establishing the TDP responsiveness was totally suppressed by a pulse of far-red light given immediately after an inductive pulse of R. It is concluded that the mechanism of TDP requires for its establishment a R signal perceived by phytochrome. The TDP of R-grown and R-pretreated coleoptiles showed relationships to stimulation times and fluence rates that are similar to those reported for oat coleoptiles, except that TDP of maize showed a sharp increase in its magnitude within a narrow range of stimulation times as short as 5-10 min. PMID:11539322

  12. Correlations between time required for radiological diagnoses, readers' performance, display environments, and difficulty of cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Rockette, Howard E.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Hoy, Ronald J.; Feist, John H.; Thaete, F. Leland; King, Jill L.; Slasky, B. S.; Miketic, Linda M.; Straub, William H.

    1991-07-01

    In a series of large ROC studies, the authors analyzed the time radiologists took to diagnose PA chest images as a function of observer performance indices (Az), display environments, and difficulty of cases. Board-certified radiologists interpreted at least 600 images each for the presence or absence of one or more of the following abnormalities: interstitial disease, nodule, and pneumothorax. Results indicated that there exists a large inter- reader variability in the time required to diagnose PA chest images. There is no correlation between a reader's specific median reading time and his/her performance. Time generally increases as the number of abnormalities on a single image increases and for cases with subtle abnormalities. Results also indicated that, in general, the longer the time for interpretation of a specific case (within reader), the further the observer's confidence ratings were from the truth. These findings were found to hold true regardless of the display mode. These results may have implications with regards to the appropriate methodology that should be used for imaging systems evaluations and for measurements of productivity for radiologists.

  13. Comparison of the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts using two Brazilian ultrasound devices.

    PubMed

    Brito Jr, Manoel; Soares, Janir Alves; Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Camilo, Carla Cristina; Moreira Jr, Gil

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts cemented with zinc phosphate (ZF) or glass ionomer cement (GIC), using two Brazilian ultrasound devices (BUD). Seventy two human inferior premolars with single root canals were sectioned transversally at the cementoenamel junction. In each specimen, the root canal was endodontically treated, the post space was prepared to a depth of 9 mm and the canal was molded to obtain a post impression. After the casting procedures, the posts were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 36) according to the luting material used: G1 - ZF and G2 - GIC. The tooth and luted post set was then embedded in an acrylic resin block. The groups were then divided into 3 subgroups (n = 12) according to the ultrasound device used: A - Enac (Osada Electric, Japan), used as a control group; B - Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante, Brazil) and C - Jet Sonic Satelec (Gnatus, Brazil). The posts were submitted to the vibration process with maximum power set on all surrounding surfaces. Time of application was recorded with a chronometer until complete post dislodgment, and the data were analyzed by the ANOVA test (p < 0.05). The averages required for post removal in G1 and G2 were respectively 41.42 and 92.03 seconds, with significant statistical difference (p = 0.001). No statistical difference was observed among the three ultrasound devices (p = 0.088), and the BUD presented a performance similar to that of the international gold standard device (Enac). Moreover, the type of luting agent had a greater influence on the time required for post removal than the origin of the ultrasonic unit.

  14. An analysis of thermal response factors and how to reduce their computational time requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Te RESFAC2 version of the Thermal Response Factor Program (RESFAC) is the result of numerous modifications and additions to the original RESFAC. These modifications and additions have significantly reduced the program's computational time requirement. As a result of this work, the program is more efficient and its code is both readable and understandable. This report describes what a thermal response factor is; analyzes the original matrix algebra calculations and root finding techniques; presents a new root finding technique and streamlined matrix algebra; supplies ten validation cases and their results.

  15. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L.; Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.

    2014-02-12

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  16. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L.; Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.

    2014-02-01

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  17. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC. PMID:23540200

  18. Resources Required for Semi-Automatic Volumetric Measurements in Metastatic Chordoma: Is Potentially Improved Tumor Burden Assessment Worth the Time Burden?

    PubMed

    Fenerty, Kathleen E; Patronas, Nicholas J; Heery, Christopher R; Gulley, James L; Folio, Les R

    2016-06-01

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is the current standard for assessing therapy response in patients with malignant solid tumors; however, volumetric assessments are thought to be more representative of actual tumor size and hence superior in predicting patient outcomes. We segmented all primary and metastatic lesions in 21 chordoma patients for comparison to RECIST. Primary tumors were segmented on MR and validated by a neuroradiologist. Metastatic lesions were segmented on CT and validated by a general radiologist. We estimated times for a research assistant to segment all primary and metastatic chordoma lesions using semi-automated volumetric segmentation tools available within our PACS (v12.0, Carestream, Rochester, NY), as well as time required for radiologists to validate the segmentations. We also report success rates of semi-automatic segmentation in metastatic lesions on CT and time required to export data. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of volumetric segmentation workflow in research and clinical settings. The research assistant spent approximately 65 h segmenting 435 lesions in 21 patients. This resulted in 1349 total segmentations (average 2.89 min per lesion) and over 13,000 data points. Combined time for the neuroradiologist and general radiologist to validate segmentations was 45.7 min per patient. Exportation time for all patients totaled only 6 h, providing time-saving opportunities for data managers and oncologists. Perhaps cost-neutral resource reallocation can help acquire volumes paralleling our example workflow. Our results will provide researchers with benchmark resources required for volumetric assessments within PACS and help prepare institutions for future volumetric assessment criteria.

  19. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  20. Time series requirements and trends of temperature and precipitation extremes over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Guido; Desiato, Franco; Fraschetti, Piero; Perconti, Walter; Piervitali, Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    Extreme climate events have strong impacts on society and economy; accordingly,the knowledge of their trends on long period is crucial for the definition and implementation of a national adaptation strategy to climate change. The Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) identified a set of temperature and precipitation indices suited to investigate variability and trends of climate extremes. It is well known that extreme indices calculation is more demanding than first and second order statistics are: daily temperature and precipitation data are required and strict constrains in terms of continuity and completeness must be met. In addition, possible dishomogeneities affecting time series must be identified and adjusted before indices calculation. When metadata are not available, statistical methods can provide scientist a relevant support for homogeneity check; however, ad-hoc decision criteria (sometimes subjective) must be applied whenever contradictory results characterize different statistical homogeneity tests. In this work, a set of daily (minimum and maximum) temperature and precipitation time series for the period 1961-2011 were selected in order to guarantee a quite uniform spatial distribution of the stations over the Italian territory and according to the afore-said continuity and completeness criteria. Following the method described by Vincent, the homogeneity check of temperature time series was run at annual level. Two well-documented tests were employed (F-test and T-test), both implemented in the free R-package RHtestV3. The Vincent method was also used for a further investigation of time series homogeneity. Temperature dishomogeneous series were discarded. For precipitation series, no homogeneity check was run. The selected series were employed at daily level to calculate a reliable set of extreme indices. For each station, a linear model was employed for indices trend estimation. Finally, single station results were

  1. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  2. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  3. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  4. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  5. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  6. Real-Time, Interactive Echocardiography Over High-Speed Networks: Feasibility and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    Real-time, Interactive Echocardiography Over High Speed Networks: Feasibility and Functional Requirements is an experiment in advanced telemedicine being conducted jointly by the NASA Lewis Research Center, the NASA Ames Research Center, and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. In this project, a patient undergoes an echocardiographic examination in Cleveland while being diagnosed remotely by a cardiologist in California viewing a real-time display of echocardiographic video images transmitted over the broadband NASA Research and Education Network (NREN). The remote cardiologist interactively guides the sonographer administering the procedure through a two-way voice link between the two sites. Echocardiography is a noninvasive medical technique that applies ultrasound imaging to the heart, providing a "motion picture" of the heart in action. Normally, echocardiographic examinations are performed by a sonographer and cardiologist who are located in the same medical facility as the patient. The goal of telemedicine is to allow medical specialists to examine patients located elsewhere, typically in remote or medically underserved geographic areas. For example, a small, rural clinic might have access to an echocardiograph machine but not a cardiologist. By connecting this clinic to a major metropolitan medical facility through a communications network, a minimally trained technician would be able to carry out the procedure under the supervision and guidance of a qualified cardiologist.

  7. Measurement of the time required for termites to pass each other in tunnels of different curvatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Seungwoo; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2013-08-01

    Subterranean termites construct complex tunnel networks for foraging. During travel in the tunnels, termites often encounter one another when passing in opposite directions. Such encounters are likely to affect the "movement efficiency," which is the time required for a termite to travel a certain distance in a tunnel. In this study, we explored how individual-individual encounters affect movement efficiency in tunnels by measuring the time (τ) taken by two termites to pass one another in tunnels of different curvatures. Artificial tunnels of 5 cm in length and variable widths (W) of 2, 3, or 4 mm were made. Tunnel distance (D) was 2, 3, 4, or 5 cm. When D had a higher value, curvature was lower. When W = 2, τ was significantly shorter in the tunnel with D = 5 than in tunnels of D = 2, 3, or 4, whereas τ was statistically the same for D = 2, 3 and 4. When W = 3, τ was shorter in the tunnel with D = 5 than for D = 3 and 4, while τ was longer in the tunnel with D = 2 than for D = 3 and 4. When W = 4, τ was longer in the tunnels with D = 2 and 3 than for D = 4 and 5. Based on these observations, 3 types of termite behavior were identified: biased walking, backward walking, and zigzag walking. We considered these results in relation to foraging efficiency.

  8. Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice

    PubMed Central

    Papantoniou, Christos; Gerkema, Menno P.; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task applied in this study consists of three daily sessions in a three-arm maze, with a food reward at the end of each arm. During each session, mice should avoid one specific arm to avoid a foot-shock. We previously demonstrated that, rather than using external cue-based strategies, mice use an internal clock (circadian strategy) for TPL, referred to as circadian TPL (cTPL). It is unknown in which brain region(s) or peripheral organ(s) the consulted clock underlying cTPL resides. Three candidates were examined in this study: (a) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a light entrainable oscillator (LEO) and considered the master circadian clock in the brain, (b) the food entrainable oscillator (FEO), entrained by restricted food availability, and (c) the adrenal glands, harboring an important peripheral oscillator. cTPL performance should be affected if the underlying oscillator system is abruptly phase-shifted. Therefore, we first investigated cTPL sensitivity to abrupt light and food shifts. Next we investigated cTPL in SCN-lesioned- and adrenalectomized mice. Abrupt FEO phase-shifts (induced by advancing and delaying feeding time) affected TPL performance in specific test sessions while a LEO phase-shift (induced by a light pulse) more severely affected TPL performance in all three daily test sessions. SCN-lesioned mice showed no TPL deficiencies compared to SHAM-lesioned mice. Moreover, both SHAM- and SCN-lesioned mice showed unaffected cTPL performance when re-tested after bilateral adrenalectomy. We conclude that, although cTPL is sensitive to timing manipulations with light as well as food, neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for

  9. Subduction on long time scales: Tighter constraints on mantle rheologies require cross-disciplinary engagement with subduction histories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.

    2016-04-01

    the lower mantle show that it must have been a major ocean. Individual geologists' earlier suggestions of this ocean had not gained sustained traction, but the combination with geophysical subsurface evidence provides strong predictions of where to look for its sutured remains. If correct, this scenario implies much simpler, more systematic slab sinking than the prevailing hypothesis of Farallon-only subduction. Generalizing to subduction worldwide, geophysics tends to turn in circles when slab sinking behaviour has to be postulated because both mantle rheologies and subduction histories are insufficiently known. Convection modelling may go down erroneous paths unnoticed if subduction history is assumed more certain than it actually is. As a result, widely varying estimates of sinking behaviour stand unreconciled across a large number of regional slab interpretations, implying little generalizable process knowledge for the mantle. Examples are vastly divergent age estimates for certain slabs, differing postulates of slab 'stagnation' times on the '670', or hypothesized viscosity maxima at 1500 km or 2000 km depth. For geophysics, the way forward is to embrace geological observations despite their messiness, which also requires serious engagement with their uncertainties - in this case, with spatio-temporal subduction histories as boundary conditions for slab interpretations. The promise is that slab sinking behaviour may turn out to be significantly more systematic than currently perceived, with correspondingly tighter constraints on mantle rheologies.

  10. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161... review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this part. (ii) Product performance data... are available for EPA to review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this...

  11. 78 FR 49700 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... burden in time or expense. The liability for the section 4959 excise tax is imposed by statute, and not..., notice of the date, time, and place for the public hearing will be published in the Federal...

  12. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required. 121.523 Section 121.523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of...

  13. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required. 121.523 Section 121.523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of...

  14. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required. 121.523 Section 121.523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of...

  15. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required. 121.523 Section 121.523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of...

  16. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required. 121.523 Section 121.523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of...

  17. System requirements for one-time-use ENRAF control panel software

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-08-19

    An Enraf Densitometer is installed on tank 241-AY-102. The Densitometer will frequently be tasked to obtain and log density profiles. The activity can be effected a number of ways. Enraf Incorporated provides a software package called ''Logger18'' to its customers for the purpose of in-shop testing of their gauges. Logger18 is capable of accepting an input file which can direct the gauge to obtain a density profile for a given tank level and bottom limit. Logger18 is a complex, DOS based program which will require trained technicians and/or tank farm entries to obtain the data. ALARA considerations have prompted the development of a more user-friendly, computer-based interface to the Enraf densitometers. This document records the plan by which this new Enraf data acquisition software will be developed, reviewed, verified, and released. This plan applies to the development and implementation of a one-time-use software program, which will be called ''Enraf Control Panel.'' The software will be primarily used for remote operation of Enraf Densitometers for the purpose of obtaining and logging tank product density profiles.

  18. Determination of Time Required for Materials Exposed to Oxygen to Return to Reduced Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Hirsch, David; Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Increased material flammability due to exposure to high oxygen concentrations is a concern from both a safety and operational perspective. Localized, high oxygen concentrations can occur when exiting a higher oxygen concentration environment due to material saturation, as well as oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. Understanding of oxygen diffusion and permeation and its correlation to flammability risks can reduce the likelihood of fires while improving procedures as NASA moves to longer missions with increased extravehicular activities in both spacecraft and off-Earth habitats. This paper examines the time required for common spacecraft materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced flammability after removal from the increased oxygen concentration environment. Specifically, NASA-STD-6001A maximum oxygen concentration testing and ASTM F-1927 permeability testing were performed on Nomex 4 HT90-40, Tiburon 5 Surgical Drape, Cotton, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Liquid-Cooled Ventilation Garment, EMU Thermal Comfort Undergarment, EMU Mosite Foam with Spandex Covering, Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) Outer Cross-section, ACES Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG), ACES O2 Hose Material, Minicel 6 Polyethylene Foam, Minicel Polyethylene Foam with Nomex Covering, Pyrell Polyurethane Foam, and Zotek 7 F-30 Foam.

  19. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  2. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subject to evaluation by the District Manager to determine the effectiveness of the training programs. If... submit a revised program of instruction for 30 CFR 75.1502, shall also submit a revised training plan... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where...

  3. [An Exploratory Study of Methods for Quantifying the Analysis of Human Aggression. Avoidance of Time-Out from, and Withdrawal of, Positive Reinforcement in Humans: Reduction in Actual and Potential Reinforcement as a Stimulus for Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svinicki, Marilla Scott; Symannek, Brigitte

    The first of these two articles presents the methods, results, and discussions of six experiments which employed an avoidance of time-out from positive reinforcement schedule with human subjects to investigate: (1) whether time-outs may be considered aversive events; and (2) if so, whether the aversiveness was sufficient to produce aggressive…

  4. Design requirements and development of an airborne descent path definition algorithm for time navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Thompson, J. L.; Groce, J. L.; Schwab, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements for a 4D path definition algorithm are described. These requirements were developed for the NASA ATOPS as an extension of the Local Flow Management/Profile Descent algorithm. They specify the processing flow, functional and data architectures, and system input requirements, and recommended the addition of a broad path revision (reinitialization) function capability. The document also summarizes algorithm design enhancements and the implementation status of the algorithm on an in-house PDP-11/70 computer. Finally, the requirements for the pilot-computer interfaces, the lateral path processor, and guidance and steering function are described.

  5. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required. 121.521 Section 121.521 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  6. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required. 121.521 Section 121.521 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  7. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required. 121.521 Section 121.521 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  8. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required. 121.521 Section 121.521 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  9. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required. 121.521 Section 121.521 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest time... the program manager. All time between these two points is part of the duty period, even if flight time... flight time because of circumstances beyond the control of the program manager or flight crewmember...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest time... the program manager. All time between these two points is part of the duty period, even if flight time... flight time because of circumstances beyond the control of the program manager or flight crewmember...

  12. Actual status of veralipride use

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    During the climacteric period, several symptoms exist that motivate women to seek medical advice; one of the most common is the hot flush, which presents in 75%–85% of these during a variable time span. For the treatment of hot flush, several non-hormonal treatments exist; among them, veralipride has shown to be a useful treatment of vasomotor symptoms during the climacteric period. In recent times, several medical societies have discredited its use. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to define a measured position in relation to the use of this drug. On completion of this review, it was possible to conclude that this drug has an antidopaminergic mechanism of action. The recommended schedule is: 100 mg/day for 20 days, with 10 days drug free. Since the risk of undesirable secondary effects such as galactorrhea, mastodynia, and extrapyramidal can increase with use, no more than 3 treatment cycles are recommended. This drug has a residual effect that can allow drug-free intervals, which permit a longer time between schedules. PMID:20852674

  13. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (2) Applications for conditional registration of a new chemical under section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Act... review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this part. (ii) Product performance data... are available for EPA to review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this...

  14. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (2) Applications for conditional registration of a new chemical under section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Act... review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this part. (ii) Product performance data... are available for EPA to review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this...

  15. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this part. (ii) Product performance data... are available for EPA to review: (i) Product chemistry data, as required by subpart C of this part... data which are necessary to support the unconditional registration of a pesticide product under...

  16. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(2... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  17. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(2... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(2... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-pilot crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in... total flight time of the assigned flight, when added to any commercial flying by that flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-pilot crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in... total flight time of the assigned flight, when added to any commercial flying by that flight...

  1. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  2. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  3. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  4. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  5. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  6. 78 FR 49681 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130266-11; 78 FR 20523) containing... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... the tax ] is due, without regard to extensions of time to file the return. Treas. Reg. Sec. Sec....

  7. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  8. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  9. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  10. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  11. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  12. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  13. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  14. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  15. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  16. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period...

  17. Factors Affecting Accuracy and Time Requirements of a Glucose Oxidase-Peroxidase Assay for Determination of Glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and rapid assays for glucose are desirable for analysis of glucose and starch in food and feedstuffs. An established colorimetric glucose oxidase-peroxidase method for glucose was modified to reduce analysis time, and evaluated for factors that affected accuracy. Time required to perform t...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  1. The time required for water attack at the phosphorus atom of simple phosphodiesters and of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Lad, Chetan; Wyman, Paul; Williams, Nicholas H.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Phosphodiester linkages, including those that join the nucleotides of DNA, are highly resistant to spontaneous hydrolysis. The rate of water attack at the phosphorus atom of phosphodiesters is known only as an upper limit, based on the hydrolysis of the dimethyl phosphate anion. That reaction was found to proceed at least 99% by C–O cleavage, at a rate suggesting an upper limit of 10−15 s−1 for P–O cleavage of phosphodiester anions at 25°C. To evaluate the rate enhancement produced by P–O cleaving phosphodiesterases such as staphylococcal nuclease, we decided to establish the actual value of the rate constant for P–O cleavage of a simple phosphodiester anion. In dineopentyl phosphate, C–O cleavage is sterically precluded so that hydrolysis occurs only by P–O cleavage. Measurements at elevated temperatures indicate that the dineopentyl phosphate anion undergoes hydrolysis in water with a t1/2 of 30,000,000 years at 25°C, furnishing an indication of the resistance of the internucleotide linkages of DNA to water attack at phosphorus. These results imply that staphylococcal nuclease (kcat = 95 s−1) enhances the rate of phosphodiester hydrolysis by a factor of ≈1017. In alkaline solution, thymidylyl-3′-5′-thymidine (TpT) has been reported to decompose 105-fold more rapidly than does dineopentyl phosphate. We find however that TpT and thymidine decompose at similar rates and with similar activation parameters, to a similar set of products, at pH 7 and in 1 M KOH. We infer that the decomposition of TpT is initiated by the breakdown of thymidine, not by phosphodiester hydrolysis. PMID:16537483

  2. Knowledge Work, Working Time, and Use of Time among Finnish Dual-Earner Families: Does Knowledge Work Require the Marginalization of Private Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the…

  3. THE PSTD ALGORITHM: A TIME-DOMAIN METHOD REQUIRING ONLY TWO CELLS PER WAVELENGTH. (R825225)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations. It uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT), instead of finite differences on conventional finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods, to represent spatial derivatives. Because the Fourie...

  4. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  5. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors, prediction cases, and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  6. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans.

  7. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the Administrator..., if a unit provided an allocation in the notice of data availability issued under paragraph (a)(1)...

  8. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... Group 1 allowances to the new unit set-aside for such control period; or (B) If the State has a SIP... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  9. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... Group 1 allowances to the new unit set-aside for such control period; or (B) If the State has a SIP... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the Administrator..., if a unit provided an allocation in the notice of data availability issued under paragraph (a)(1)...

  11. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... Group 1 allowances to the new unit set-aside for such control period; or (B) If the State has a SIP... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the...

  12. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... new unit set-aside after promulgation of each notice of data availability required in paragraph (b)(1... each year thereafter, as provided in a notice of data availability issued by the Administrator..., if a unit provided an allocation in the notice of data availability issued under paragraph (a)(1)...

  13. 12 CFR 792.55 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... the system manager responding to the request, must present a single document bearing a photograph... is provided, the system manager responding to the request may require further identifying...

  14. Assessment of a mandatory tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination requirement on vaccine uptake over time.

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Consoli, Stephanie A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily; Rutala, William A

    2012-01-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all healthcare personnel who provide direct patient care unless medically contraindicated. Our university hospital made employment conditional upon receipt of Tdap vaccine. Implementation for newly hired employees quickly resulted in complete compliance, but achieving adherence among current workers required setting a termination date for noncompliance.

  15. 12 CFR 310.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 5 U.S.C. 552, where the Corporation determines it to be necessary for the individual's protection, a... require that individuals provide minimal identifying data such as full name, date and place of birth, or other personal information necessary to ensure proper identity before processing requests for records....

  16. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  17. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  18. Requirements for implementing real-time control functional modules on a hierarchical parallel pipelined system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, Thomas E.; Michaloski, John L.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of a robot control system leads to a broad range of processing requirements. One fundamental requirement of a robot control system is the necessity of a microcomputer system in order to provide sufficient processing capability.The use of multiple processors in a parallel architecture is beneficial for a number of reasons, including better cost performance, modular growth, increased reliability through replication, and flexibility for testing alternate control strategies via different partitioning. A survey of the progression from low level control synchronizing primitives to higher level communication tools is presented. The system communication and control mechanisms of existing robot control systems are compared to the hierarchical control model. The impact of this design methodology on the current robot control systems is explored.

  19. Leak Locating Experiment for Actual Underground Water Supply Pipelines with a Novel Locating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Sup; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kang, Seokhoon; Jun, Kyungkoo; Choi, Byoungjo

    This paper presents a novel leak locating system to identify precise position of leak spots of underground water supply pipelines. The system has been studied and developed upon excellent foundation with modern mobile communication technology and the internet. However, the leak locating algorithm in the new system requires knowing the exact acoustical wave speed inside water-filled pipelines and the accurate time arrival difference between sensors to detect precise leak location. Especially the time difference is calculated with optimal maximum likelihood method. For the demonstration of the new system, an intensive experiment performed with 315 m long actual underground water supply pipelines showed an excellent detection capability.

  20. Applications and requirements for real-time simulators in ground-test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, Dale J.; Blech, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This report relates simulator functions and capabilities to the operation of ground test facilities, in general. The potential benefits of having a simulator are described to aid in the selection of desired applications for a specific facility. Configuration options for integrating a simulator into the facility control system are discussed, and a logical approach to configuration selection based on desired applications is presented. The functional and data path requirements to support selected applications and configurations are defined. Finally, practical considerations for implementation (i.e., available hardware and costs) are discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal inspection of records, and if EPA grants the request, the individual may appear at the time and...) Before conducting a personal inspection of his or her records, an individual must present sufficient... declaring his or her identity and stipulating that he or she understands it is a misdemeanor punishable...

  2. Timing and Sequence Requirements Defined for Embryonic Maintenance of Imprinted DNA Methylation at Rasgrf1▿

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Rebecca; Chang, Yanjie; Soloway, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    Epigenetic programming is critical for normal development of mammalian embryos. Errors cause misexpression of genes and aberrant development (E. Li, C. Beard, and R. Jaenisch, Nature 366:362-365, 1993). Imprinted genes are important targets of epigenetic regulation, but little is known about how the epigenetic patterns are established in the parental germ lines and maintained in the embryo. Paternal allele-specific expression at the imprinted Rasgrf1 locus in mice is controlled by paternal allele-specific methylation at a differentially methylated domain (DMD). DMD methylation is in turn controlled by a direct repeat sequence immediately downstream of the DMD which is required for establishing Rasgrf1 methylation in the male germ line (B. J. Yoon et al., Nat. Genet. 30:92-96, 2002). To determine if these repeats have a role in methylation maintenance, we developed a conditional deletion of the repeat sequence in mice and showed that the repeats are also required during a narrow interval to maintain paternal methylation of Rasgrf1 in developing embryos. Removing the repeats upon fertilization caused a total loss of methylation by the morula stage, but by the epiblast stage, the repeats were completely dispensable for methylation maintenance. This developmental interval coincides with genome-wide demethylation and remethylation in mice which most imprinted genes resist. Our data show that the Rasgrf1 repeats serve at least two functions: first, to establish Rasgrf1 DNA methylation in the male germ line, and second, to resist global demethylation in the preimplantation embryo. PMID:17030618

  3. Derivation of the scan time requirement for maintaining a consistent PET image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: the image quality of PET for larger patients is relatively poor, even though the injection dose is optimized considering the NECR characteristics of the PET scanner. This poor image quality is due to the lower level of maximum NECR that can be achieved in these large patients. The aim of this study was to optimize the PET scan time to obtain a consistent PET image quality regardless of the body size, based on the relationship between the patient specific NECR (pNECR) and body weight. Methods: eighty patients (M/F=53/27, body weight: 059 ± 1 kg) underwent whole-body FDG PET scans using a Philips GEMINI GS PET/CT scanner after an injection of 0.14 mCi/kg FDG. The relationship between the scatter fraction (SF) and body weight was determined by repeated Monte Carlo simulations using a NEMA scatter phantom, the size of which varied according to the relationship between the abdominal circumference and body weight. Using this information, the pNECR was calculated from the prompt and delayed PET sinograms to obtain the prediction equation of NECR vs. body weight. The time scaling factor (FTS) for the scan duration was finally derived to make PET images with equivalent SNR levels. Results: the SF and NECR had the following nonlinear relationships with the body weight: SF=0.15 ṡ body weight0.3 and NECR = 421.36 (body weight)-0.84. The equation derived for FTS was 0.01ṡ body weight + 0.2, which means that, for example, a 120-kg person should be scanned 1.8 times longer than a 70 kg person, or the scan time for a 40-kg person can be reduced by 30%. Conclusion: the equation of the relative time demand derived in this study will be useful for maintaining consistent PET image quality in clinics.

  4. 48 CFR 52.216-30 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate Price Competition. 52.216... Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate.../Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition Without Adequate Price Competition...

  5. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  6. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  7. 45 CFR 1800.4 - Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request. 1800.4 Section 1800.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1800.4...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6110-5 - Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request constitutes a request for disclosure of the... the Internal Revenue Service has determined that additional disclosure of information other than the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and time requirements; actions...

  9. 33 CFR 150.503 - What are the time interval requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the time interval requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls? 150.503 Section 150.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters... maintenance on survival craft falls? (a) Each fall used in a launching device for survival craft or...

  10. 36 CFR 1121.4 - Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request. 1121.4 Section 1121.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRIVACY...

  11. 5 CFR 2608.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required. 2608.209 Section 2608.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES TESTIMONY BY OGE EMPLOYEES RELATING TO OFFICIAL INFORMATION AND PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS IN...

  12. 5 CFR 1216.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required. 1216.209 Section 1216.209 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES TESTIMONY BY MSPB EMPLOYEES RELATING TO OFFICIAL INFORMATION AND PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  13. 10 CFR 1707.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required. 1707.209 Section 1707.209 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD TESTIMONY BY DNFSB EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents §...

  14. 5 CFR 2417.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required. 2417.209 Section 2417.209 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL GENERAL PROVISIONS TESTIMONY...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  18. miRNAs are required for generating a time-delay critical for the circadian oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongmin; D’Alessandro, Matthew; Lee, Choogon

    2013-01-01

    Background Circadian clocks coordinate an organism’s activities and regulate metabolic homeostasis in relation to daily environmental changes, most notably light/dark cycles. As in other organisms, the timekeeping mechanism in mammals depends on a self-sustaining transcriptional negative feedback loop with a built-in time delay in feedback inhibition. Although the time delay is essential for generating a slow, self-sustaining negative feedback loop with a period close to 24 hours, the exact mechanisms underlying the time delay are not known. Results We show here that RNA interference mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is an essential mechanism in generating the time delay. In Dicer-deficient (and thus miRNA-deficient) cells and mice, circadian rhythms were dramatically shortened (by ~2 hours), although the rhythms remained robust. The period shortening was caused by faster PER1 and PER2 translation in the Dicer-deficient cells. We also identified three specific miRNAs that regulate Per expression, and showed that knockdown of these miRNAs in wild-type cells also shortened the circadian period. Conclusions Consistent with the canonical function of miRNAs as translational modulators of target genes and their widespread roles in cell physiology, circadian rhythms are also modulated by miRNA-mediated RNA interference acting on posttranscriptional regulation of key clock genes. Our present study definitively shows that RNA interference is an important modulator of circadian rhythms by controlling the pace of PER synthesis, and presents a novel layer of regulation for the clock. PMID:24094851

  19. Real-time imaging required for optimal echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve calcification

    PubMed Central

    Yousry, Mohamed; Rickenlund, Anette; Petrini, Johan; Gustavsson, Tomas; Prahl, Ulrica; Liska, Jan; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Maria J; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aortic valve calcification (AVC), even without haemodynamic significance, may be prognostically import as an expression of generalized atherosclerosis, but techniques for echocardiographic assessment are essentially unexplored. Methods Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic recordings (Philips IE33) of the aortic valve in short-axis and long-axis views were performed in 185 consecutive patients within 1 week before surgery for aortic stenosis (n = 109, AS), aortic regurgitation (n = 61, AR), their combination (n = 8) or dilation of the ascending aorta (n = 7). The grey scale mean (GSMn) of the aortic valve in an end-diastolic short-axis still frame was measured. The same frame was scored visually 1–5 as indicating that the aortic valve was normal, thick, or had mild, moderate or severe calcification. The visual echodensity of each leaflet was determined real time applying the same 5-grade scoring system for each leaflet, and the average for the whole valve was calculated. Finally, a similar calcification score for the whole valve based on inspection and palpation by the surgeon was noted. Results Visual assessment of real-time images using the proposed scoring system showed better correlation with the surgical evaluation of the degree of valve calcification (r = 0·83, P<0·001) compared to evaluation of stop frames by visual assessment (r = 0·66, P<0·001) or the GSMn score (r = 0·64, P<0·001). High inter- and intra-observer correlations were observed for real-time visual score (both intraclass correlation coefficient = 0·93). Conclusion Real-time evaluation of the level of AVC is superior to using stop frames assessed either visually or by dedicated computer grey scale measurement software. PMID:23031068

  20. Hypersonic Research Vehicle (HRV) real-time flight test support feasibility and requirements study. Part 1: Real-time flight experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.; Ramnath, Rudrapatna V.; Vrable, Daniel L.; Hirvo, David H.; Mcmillen, Lowell D.; Osofsky, Irving B.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify potential real time remote computational applications to support monitoring HRV flight test experiments along with definitions of preliminary requirements. A major expansion of the support capability available at Ames-Dryden was considered. The focus is on the use of extensive computation and data bases together with real time flight data to generate and present high level information to those monitoring the flight. Six examples were considered: (1) boundary layer transition location; (2) shock wave position estimation; (3) performance estimation; (4) surface temperature estimation; (5) critical structural stress estimation; and (6) stability estimation.

  1. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  2. Regional Insect Inventories Require Long Time, Extensive Spatial Sampling and Good Will

    PubMed Central

    Fattorini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how faunistic knowledge develops is of paramount importance to correctly evaluate completeness of insect inventories and to plan future research at regional scale, yet this is an unexplored issue. Aim of this paper was to investigate the processes that lead to a complete species inventory at a regional level for a beetle family. The tenebionid beetles of Latium region (Italy) were analysed as a case study representative of general situations. A comprehensive faunistic database including 3,561 records spanning from 1871 to 2010 was realized examining 25,349 museum specimens and published data. Accumulation curves and non-parametric estimators of species richness were applied to model increase in faunistic knowledge over time, through space and by collectors’ number. Long time, large spatial extent and contribution of many collectors were needed to obtain a reliable species inventory. Massive sampling was not effective in recovering more species. Amateur naturalists (here called parafaunists) were more efficient collectors than professional entomologists. Museum materials collected by parafaunists over long periods and large spatial extent resulted to be a cost effective source of faunistic information with small number of collected individuals. It is therefore important to valuate and facilitate the work of parafaunists as already suggested for parataxonomists. By contrast, massive collections by standardized techniques for ecological research seem to be of scarce utility in improving faunistic knowledge, but their value for faunistic studies may be enhanced if they are conducted in poorly surveyed areas. PMID:23630627

  3. The translational regulatory function of SecM requires the precise timing of membrane targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Mee-Ngan; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2011-01-01

    In E. coli, secA expression is regulated at the translational level by an upstream gene (secM) that encodes a presecretory protein. SecM contains a C-terminal sequence motif that induces a transient translation arrest. Inhibition of SecM membrane targeting prolongs the translation arrest and increases SecA synthesis by concomitantly altering the structure of the secM-secA mRNA. Here we show that the SecM signal peptide plays an essential role in this regulatory process by acting as a molecular timer that coordinates membrane targeting with the synthesis of the arrest motif. We found that signal peptide mutations that alter targeting kinetics and insertions or deletions that change the distance between the SecM signal peptide and the arrest motif perturb the balance between the onset and release of arrest that is required to regulate SecA synthesis. Furthermore, we found that the strength of the interaction between the ribosome and the SecM arrest motif is calibrated to ensure the release of arrest upon membrane targeting. Our results strongly suggest that several distinctive features of the SecM protein evolved as a consequence of constraints imposed by the ribosome and the Sec machinery. PMID:21635582

  4. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  5. Superconducting single-photon counting system for optical experiments requiring time-resolution in the picosecond range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, Julia; Grüner, Roman; Schubert, Marco; May, Torsten; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen; Hofherr, Matthias; Arndt, Matthias; Henrich, Dagmar; Il'in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a cryogenic measurement system for single-photon counting, which can be used in optical experiments requiring high time resolution in the picosecond range. The system utilizes niobium nitride superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors which are integrated in a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) setup. In this work, we describe details of the mechanical design, the electrical setup, and the cryogenic optical components. The performance of the complete system in TCSPC mode is tentatively benchmarked using 140 fs long laser pulses at a repetition frequency of 75 MHz. Due to the high temporal stability of these pulses, the measured time resolution of 35 ps (FWHM) is limited by the timing jitter of the measurement system. The result was cross-checked in a Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) setup, where scattered pulses from a β-barium borate crystal have been detected with the same time resolution.

  6. Impact of the stage of dementia on the time required for bathing-related care: a pilot study in a Japanese nursing home.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2004-09-01

    Time required for bathing-related care for nursing home residents with various stages of severe dementia were observed. Time required for each resident, including guiding to the bathroom, undressing, and dressing were plotted in graphs in order to make comparisons. The situations and conversations observed for the instances when additional time was needed were analyzed. Stage of dementia affected the amount of time required for the task of guiding to the bathroom, but did not appear to affect time required for dressing or undressing. For dressing and undressing, additional time was required when caregivers failed to keep to a specific routine. PMID:15288799

  7. Evaluation of a method estimating real-time individual lysine requirements in two lines of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, L; Pomar, C; Létourneau Montminy, M P; Bernier, J F; Pomar, J

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of precision feeding in growing-finishing facilities requires accurate estimates of the animals' nutrient requirements. The objectives of the current study was to validate a method for estimating the real-time individual standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirements of growing-finishing pigs and the ability of this method to estimate the Lys requirements of pigs with different feed intake and growth patterns. Seventy-five pigs from a terminal cross and 72 pigs from a maternal cross were used in two 28-day experimental phases beginning at 25.8 (±2.5) and 73.3 (±5.2) kg BW, respectively. Treatments were randomly assigned to pigs within each experimental phase according to a 2×4 factorial design in which the two genetic lines and four dietary SID Lys levels (70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the requirements estimated by the factorial method developed for precision feeding) were the main factors. Individual pigs' Lys requirements were estimated daily using a factorial approach based on their feed intake, BW and weight gain patterns. From 25 to 50 kg BW, this method slightly underestimated the pigs' SID Lys requirements, given that maximum protein deposition and weight gain were achieved at 115% of SID Lys requirements. However, the best gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) was obtained at a level of 85% or more of the estimated Lys requirement. From 70 to 100 kg, the method adequately estimated the pigs' individual requirements, given that maximum performance was achieved at 100% of Lys requirements. Terminal line pigs ate more (P=0.04) during the first experimental phase and tended to eat more (P=0.10) during the second phase than the maternal line pigs but both genetic lines had similar ADG and protein deposition rates during the two phases. The factorial method used in this study to estimate individual daily SID Lys requirements was able to accommodate the small genetic differences in feed intake, and it was concluded that this method can be

  8. A STATE-VARIABLE APPROACH FOR PREDICTING THE TIME REQUIRED FOR 50% RECRYSTALLIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. STOUT; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    It is important to be able to model the recrystallization kinetics in aluminum alloys during hot deformation. The industrial relevant process of hot rolling is an example of where the knowledge of whether or not a material recrystallizes is critical to making a product with the correct properties. Classically, the equations that describe the kinetics of recrystallization predict the time to 50% recrystallization. These equations are largely empirical; they are based on the free energy for recrystallization, a Zener-Holloman parameter, and have several adjustable exponents to fit the equation to engineering data. We have modified this form of classical theory replacing the Zener-Hollomon parameter with a deformation energy increment, a free energy available to drive recrystallization. The advantage of this formulation is that the deformation energy increment is calculated based on the previously determined temperature and strain-rate sensitivity of the constitutive response. We modeled the constitutive response of the AA5182 aluminum using a state variable approach, the value of the state variable is a function of the temperature and strain-rate history of deformation. Thus, the recrystallization kinetics is a function of only the state variable and free energy for recrystallization. There are no adjustable exponents as in classical theory. Using this approach combined with engineering recrystallization data we have been able to predict the kinetics of recrystallization in AA5182 as a function of deformation strain rate and temperature.

  9. Dilp8 requires the neuronal relaxin receptor Lgr3 to couple growth to developmental timing

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Andres; Heredia, Fabiana; Casimiro, Andreia P.; Macedo, Andre; Nunes, Catarina; Garcez, Marcia; Dias, Angela R. Mantas; Volonte, Yanel A.; Uhlmann, Thomas; Caparros, Esther; Koyama, Takashi; Gontijo, Alisson M.

    2015-01-01

    How different organs in the body sense growth perturbations in distant tissues to coordinate their size during development is poorly understood. Here we mutate an invertebrate orphan relaxin receptor gene, the Drosophila Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 3 (Lgr3), and find body asymmetries similar to those found in insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8) mutants, which fail to coordinate growth with developmental timing. Indeed, mutation or RNA intereference (RNAi) against Lgr3 suppresses the delay in pupariation induced by imaginal disc growth perturbation or ectopic Dilp8 expression. By tagging endogenous Lgr3 and performing cell type-specific RNAi, we map this Lgr3 activity to a new subset of CNS neurons, four of which are a pair of bilateral pars intercerebralis Lgr3-positive (PIL) neurons that respond specifically to ectopic Dilp8 by increasing cAMP-dependent signalling. Our work sheds new light on the function and evolution of relaxin receptors and reveals a novel neuroendocrine circuit responsive to growth aberrations. PMID:26510564

  10. Atlas-Based Segmentation Improves Consistency and Decreases Time Required for Contouring Postoperative Endometrial Cancer Nodal Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Amy V.; Wortham, Angela; Wernick, Iddo; Evans, Andrew; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Accurate target delineation of the nodal volumes is essential for three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for endometrial cancer adjuvant therapy. We hypothesized that atlas-based segmentation ('autocontouring') would lead to time savings and more consistent contours among physicians. Methods and Materials: A reference anatomy atlas was constructed using the data from 15 postoperative endometrial cancer patients by contouring the pelvic nodal clinical target volume on the simulation computed tomography scan according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0418 trial using commercially available software. On the simulation computed tomography scans from 10 additional endometrial cancer patients, the nodal clinical target volume autocontours were generated. Three radiation oncologists corrected the autocontours and delineated the manual nodal contours under timed conditions while unaware of the other contours. The time difference was determined, and the overlap of the contours was calculated using Dice's coefficient. Results: For all physicians, manual contouring of the pelvic nodal target volumes and editing the autocontours required a mean {+-} standard deviation of 32 {+-} 9 vs. 23 {+-} 7 minutes, respectively (p = .000001), a 26% time savings. For each physician, the time required to delineate the manual contours vs. correcting the autocontours was 30 {+-} 3 vs. 21 {+-} 5 min (p = .003), 39 {+-} 12 vs. 30 {+-} 5 min (p = .055), and 29 {+-} 5 vs. 20 {+-} 5 min (p = .0002). The mean overlap increased from manual contouring (0.77) to correcting the autocontours (0.79; p = .038). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that autocontouring leads to increased consistency and time savings when contouring the nodal target volumes for adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer, although the autocontours still required careful editing to ensure that the lymph nodes at risk of recurrence are properly included in the target

  11. Model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) for real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth signal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2013-05-01

    While conducting a cutting-edge research in a specific domain, we realize that (1) requirements clarity and correctness are crucial to our success [1], (2) hardware is hard to change, most work is in software requirements development, coding and testing [2], (3) requirements are constantly changing, so that configurability, reusability, scalability, adaptability, modularity and testability are important non-functional attributes [3], (4) cross-domain knowledge is necessary for complex systems [4], and (5) if our research is successful, the results could be applied to other domains with similar problems. In this paper, we propose to use model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) to model and guide our requirements/development, since models are easy to understand, execute, and modify. The domain for our research is Electronic Warfare (EW) real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth (IBW1) signal simulation. The proposed four MDRE models are (1) Switch-and-Filter architecture, (2) multiple parallel data bit streams alignment, (3) post-ADC and pre-DAC bits re-mapping, and (4) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) filter bank. This research is unique since the instantaneous bandwidth we are dealing with is in gigahertz range instead of conventional megahertz.

  12. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-06-10

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development.

  13. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  14. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  15. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  16. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  17. Wait, are you sad or angry? Large exposure time differences required for the categorization of facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M

    2013-03-18

    Facial expressions of emotion are essential components of human behavior, yet little is known about the hierarchical organization of their cognitive analysis. We study the minimum exposure time needed to successfully classify the six classical facial expressions of emotion (joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, fear) plus neutral as seen at different image resolutions (240 × 160 to 15 × 10 pixels). Our results suggest a consistent hierarchical analysis of these facial expressions regardless of the resolution of the stimuli. Happiness and surprise can be recognized after very short exposure times (10-20 ms), even at low resolutions. Fear and anger are recognized the slowest (100-250 ms), even in high-resolution images, suggesting a later computation. Sadness and disgust are recognized in between (70-200 ms). The minimum exposure time required for successful classification of each facial expression correlates with the ability of a human subject to identify it correctly at low resolutions. These results suggest a fast, early computation of expressions represented mostly by low spatial frequencies or global configural cues and a later, slower process for those categories requiring a more fine-grained analysis of the image. We also demonstrate that those expressions that are mostly visible in higher-resolution images are not recognized as accurately. We summarize implications for current computational models.

  18. Wait, are you sad or angry? Large exposure time differences required for the categorization of facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Facial expressions of emotion are essential components of human behavior, yet little is known about the hierarchical organization of their cognitive analysis. We study the minimum exposure time needed to successfully classify the six classical facial expressions of emotion (joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, fear) plus neutral as seen at different image resolutions (240 × 160 to 15 × 10 pixels). Our results suggest a consistent hierarchical analysis of these facial expressions regardless of the resolution of the stimuli. Happiness and surprise can be recognized after very short exposure times (10–20 ms), even at low resolutions. Fear and anger are recognized the slowest (100–250 ms), even in high-resolution images, suggesting a later computation. Sadness and disgust are recognized in between (70–200 ms). The minimum exposure time required for successful classification of each facial expression correlates with the ability of a human subject to identify it correctly at low resolutions. These results suggest a fast, early computation of expressions represented mostly by low spatial frequencies or global configural cues and a later, slower process for those categories requiring a more fine-grained analysis of the image. We also demonstrate that those expressions that are mostly visible in higher-resolution images are not recognized as accurately. We summarize implications for current computational models. PMID:23509409

  19. Time and Effort Required by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Learn to Use a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, Thomas N.; Dijkers, Marcel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Powered exoskeletons have been demonstrated as being safe for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), but little is known about how users learn to manage these devices. Objective: To quantify the time and effort required by persons with SCI to learn to use an exoskeleton for assisted walking. Methods: A convenience sample was enrolled to learn to use the first-generation Ekso powered exoskeleton to walk. Participants were given up to 24 weekly sessions of instruction. Data were collected on assistance level, walking distance and speed, heart rate, perceived exertion, and adverse events. Time and effort was quantified by the number of sessions required for participants to stand up, walk for 30 minutes, and sit down, initially with minimal and subsequently with contact guard assistance. Results: Of 22 enrolled participants, 9 screen-failed, and 7 had complete data. All of these 7 were men; 2 had tetraplegia and 5 had motor-complete injuries. Of these, 5 participants could stand, walk, and sit with contact guard or close supervision assistance, and 2 required minimal to moderate assistance. Walk times ranged from 28 to 94 minutes with average speeds ranging from 0.11 to 0.21 m/s. For all participants, heart rate changes and reported perceived exertion were consistent with light to moderate exercise. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence that persons with neurological weakness due to SCI can learn to walk with little or no assistance and light to somewhat hard perceived exertion using a powered exoskeleton. Persons with different severities of injury, including those with motor complete C7 tetraplegia and motor incomplete C4 tetraplegia, may be able to learn to use this device. PMID:26364280

  20. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided.

  1. Numerical study of the time required for the gravitational capture in the bi-circular four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machuy, A. L.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Stuchi, T. J.

    A gravitational capture occurs when a spacecraft (or any particle with negligible mass) changes from a hyperbolic orbit with a small positive energy around a celestial body into an elliptic orbit with a small negative energy without the use of any propulsive system. The force responsible for this modification in the orbit of the spacecraft is the gravitational force of the third and the fourth bodies involved in the dynamics. In this way, those forces are used as a zero cost control, equivalent to a continuous thrust applied in the spacecraft. One of the most important applications of this property is the construction of trajectories to the Moon to minimize fuel consumption. The concept of gravitational capture is used, together with the basic ideas of the gravity-assisted maneuver and the bi-elliptic transfer orbit, to generate a trajectory that requires fuel consumption smaller than the one required by the Hohmann transfer. The objective of the present paper is to study the time required for the ballistic gravitational capture in a dynamical model that has the presence of four bodies. In particular, the Earth-Moon-Sun-Spacecraft system is considered.

  2. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided. PMID:27110994

  3. Requirements and methodologies for real-time infrared sensor emulation in hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Reynolds, Terry M.

    1998-07-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of infrared missile seekers has been a proven method for seeker evaluation for many years. Infrared HWIL testing has two primary modes, projection or injection. With infrared projection HWIL testing, the seeker's optics and detectors are retained as part of the simulation since an infrared scene in the correct waveband is presented to the seeker's optics, and is then detected and processed. When using the injection mode of HWIL testing the infrared scene is injected directly into the seeker's electronics and bypasses the imaging and detection process. When this type of simulation is used it is critical to model the optical and electrical processes that would have degraded the image in a real-world scenario. Real-time modeling of sensor system modulation transfer functions and other forms of image degradation is a computationally intensive task. The types of calculations necessary for real- time sensor modeling often push the processing requirements past the capabilities of standard processors and custom processing hardware is required. This paper discusses solutions to this problem that have been implemented for infrared seekers at the U.S. Army's Aviation and Missile Command's, Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  4. Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1996-03-01

    Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

  5. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  6. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability.

    PubMed

    Rogge, Jessica; Sherenco, Katrina; Malling, Rachel; Thiele, Erica; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT data from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys are presented, including the length of time to train subjects to target, present hand, and present foot, important responses that can be used to aid in health inspection and treatment. A high percentage of the squirrel and owl monkeys were successfully trained on target and present hand. Present foot, a less natural response, was harder to train and maintain. Although squirrel monkeys did learn to target significantly faster than owl monkeys, the 2 genera did not differ on time to train on subsequent behavior. These data demonstrate that although owl monkeys may require slightly more time to acclimate to a PRT program, it is still possible to establish a PRT program with neotropical primates, and once animals have been introduced to the program, they can learn new responses in a relatively few short sessions.

  7. A Comparison of Positive Reinforcement Training Techniques in Owl and Squirrel Monkeys: Time Required to Train to Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, Jessica; Sherenco, Katrina; Malling, Rachel; Thiele, Erica; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Williams, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal’s control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT data from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys are presented, including the length of time to train subjects to target, present hand, and present foot, important responses that can be used to aid in health inspection and treatment. A high percentage of the squirrel and owl monkeys were successfully trained on target and present hand. Present foot, a less natural response, was harder to train and maintain. Although squirrel monkeys did learn to target significantly faster than owl monkeys, the 2 genera did not differ on time to train on subsequent behavior. These data demonstrate that although owl monkeys may require slightly more time to acclimate to a PRT program, it is still possible to establish a PRT program with neotropical primates, and once animals have been introduced to the program, they can learn new responses in a relatively few short sessions. PMID:23795685

  8. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  9. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  10. Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Deepak; Diril, M Kasim; Busayavalasa, Kiran; Risal, Sanjiv; Nakagawa, Shoma; Lindkvist, Rebecca; Shen, Yan; Coppola, Vincenzo; Tessarollo, Lino; Kudo, Nobuaki R; Kaldis, Philipp; Liu, Kui

    2014-09-29

    In mitosis, the Greatwall kinase (called microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase like [Mastl] in mammals) is essential for prometaphase entry or progression by suppressing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. PP2A suppression in turn leads to high levels of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation. We have used a mouse model with an oocyte-specific deletion of Mastl to show that Mastl-null oocytes resume meiosis I and reach metaphase I normally but that the onset and completion of anaphase I are delayed. Moreover, after the completion of meiosis I, Mastl-null oocytes failed to enter meiosis II (MII) because they reassembled a nuclear structure containing decondensed chromatin. Our results show that Mastl is required for the timely activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to allow meiosis I exit and for the rapid rise of Cdk1 activity that is needed for the entry into MII in mouse oocytes.

  11. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    PubMed Central

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  12. Methodology for the passive control of orbital inclination and mean local time to meet sun-synchronous orbit requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Kraft, Lauri

    1992-01-01

    The mean local time (MLT) of equatorial crossing of a sun-synchronous Earth-observing spacecraft orbit drifts with inclination; therefore, in order to maintain the MLT, the inclination must be controlled. Inclination may be maintained actively by costly out-of-plane maneuvers or passively by using the perturbing forces due to the sun and moon. This paper examines the passive control approach using the Earth Observing System (EOS) as a basis for the discussion. Applications to Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft are presented for comparison. This technique is especially beneficial to spacecraft lacking propulsion systems. The results indicate that passive inclination control appears to be the preferable maintenance method when spacecraft weight restrictions, operational considerations, and scientific requirements apply.

  13. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  14. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  15. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  16. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  17. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  18. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  19. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  4. Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 is required for normal timing of cell cycle progression during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ye, Diana Z; Li, Zhaoyu; Teta-Bissett, Monica; Peng, Yong; Taub, Rebecca; Greenbaum, Linda E; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2015-01-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 (Prl-1) is an immediate-early gene that is significantly induced during liver regeneration. Several in vitro studies have suggested that Prl-1 is important for the regulation of cell cycle progression. To evaluate its function in liver regeneration, we ablated the Prl-1 gene specifically in mouse hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. Prl-1 mutant mice (Prl-1(loxP/loxP);AlfpCre) appeared normal and fertile. Liver size and metabolic function in Prl-1 mutants were comparable to controls, indicating that Prl-1 is dispensable for liver development, postnatal growth, and hepatocyte differentiation. Mutant mice demonstrated a delay in DNA synthesis after 70% partial hepatectomy, although ultimate liver mass restoration was not affected. At 40 h posthepatectomy, reduced protein levels of the cell cycle regulators cyclin E, cyclin A2, cyclin B1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 were observed in Prl-1 mutant liver. Investigation of the major signaling pathways involved in liver regeneration demonstrated that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were significantly reduced at 40 h posthepatectomy in Prl-1 mutants. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Prl-1 is required for proper timing of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Prl-1 promotes G1/S progression via modulating expression of several cell cycle regulators through activation of the AKT and STAT3 signaling pathway.

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 is required for normal timing of cell cycle progression during liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ye, Diana Z.; Li, Zhaoyu; Teta-Bissett, Monica; Peng, Yong; Taub, Rebecca; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 (Prl-1) is an immediate-early gene that is significantly induced during liver regeneration. Several in vitro studies have suggested that Prl-1 is important for the regulation of cell cycle progression. To evaluate its function in liver regeneration, we ablated the Prl-1 gene specifically in mouse hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. Prl-1 mutant mice (Prl-1loxP/loxP;AlfpCre) appeared normal and fertile. Liver size and metabolic function in Prl-1 mutants were comparable to controls, indicating that Prl-1 is dispensable for liver development, postnatal growth, and hepatocyte differentiation. Mutant mice demonstrated a delay in DNA synthesis after 70% partial hepatectomy, although ultimate liver mass restoration was not affected. At 40 h posthepatectomy, reduced protein levels of the cell cycle regulators cyclin E, cyclin A2, cyclin B1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 were observed in Prl-1 mutant liver. Investigation of the major signaling pathways involved in liver regeneration demonstrated that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were significantly reduced at 40 h posthepatectomy in Prl-1 mutants. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Prl-1 is required for proper timing of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Prl-1 promotes G1/S progression via modulating expression of several cell cycle regulators through activation of the AKT and STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:25377314

  6. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  7. Isolating the actual signal of paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. M.; Moreno, E.; Bassinot, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2011-12-01

    of the field determinations. It can be argued that studies of long-term field behaviour do not require the same accuracy as for knowledge of the field variations that prevailed during the past millenia. We have followed another track after noticing that samples containing exclusively monodomain magnetite provide almost systematically the right field determination. Thus, we prefer to select appropriate samples for standard Thellier experiments from thermal demagnetization diagrams of twin specimens. This preliminary thermal treatment also has the advantage of providing suitable directions so that there is no time waste and no loss of information.

  8. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  9. The Timing of Multiple Retrieval Events Can Alter GluR1 Phosphorylation and the Requirement for Protein Synthesis in Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Werner, Craig T.; Parsons, Ryan G.; Gafford, Georgette M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that maintaining a fear memory after retrieval requires de novo protein synthesis. However, no study to date has examined how the temporal dynamics of repeated retrieval events affect this protein synthesis requirement. The present study varied the timing of a second retrieval of an established auditory fear memory…

  10. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  11. How information about the time requirements and legacy effects of treatments influence decision-making in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Laiteerapong, Neda; Fairchild, Paige C; Nathan, Aviva G; Quinn, Michael T; Huang, Elbert S

    2016-01-01

    Objective When deciding about diabetes treatments, patients are typically uninformed about how much time is required before (time requirements), or for how long treatments change outcomes (legacy effects). However, patients may be motivated to adopt treatments with time-related treatment information. We explored whether this information alters a patients' likelihood of starting medications. Research design and methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 60 adults with type 2 diabetes for <10 years and hypertension on oral medications. We measured change in likelihood of starting medications after receiving time requirement (diabetes, 10 years; hypertension, 3 years) and legacy effect (diabetes, 10 additional years; hypertension, none) information. Responses were analyzed for themes about time-related treatment information. Results At baseline, 70% of participants reported being very likely to start a recommended medication. Nearly half (40%) were less likely to start a diabetes medication after being informed of time requirements; but after being informed of legacy effects, 32% reported being more likely. Fewer participants changed likelihoods of starting antihypertensives with time-related information. Many participants expressed that medications' benefits were important to them regardless of time-related information. Participants considered time requirements for diabetes medications too long and compared them to their life expectancy. Many participants were interested in legacy effects of diabetes medications because they looked forward to discontinuing medications, although some expressed doubt that benefits could persist after stopping medications. Conclusions While prolonged time requirements may dissuade patients from adopting treatments, the promise of legacy effects may motivate patients to commit to diabetes treatments. PMID:27158521

  12. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  13. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  14. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  15. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  16. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    forward to her visits. Case managers help negotiate compliance to medication, housing, meaningful activity, substance abuse, poverty, isolation, and everything else living in the community can throw at you. Without a spouse you tend to spend a lot of time alone. One of the main reasons Marie-Claude and I moved in with each other was that neither of us was enjoying living alone. It was very romantic at first but now we are just friends who see less and less of each other. I suspect schizophrenia interferes with the quality and depth of relationships you have with other people. Amongst the people I know, schizophrenia has meant a pretty solitary life of poverty. I have a lot of acquaintances, and colleagues, but few close friends when not at work. Over the last ten years of living with schizophrenia on medication it is celibacy that has hurt the most. It saps the life out of you, your self confidence, your self esteem. In some Scandinavian countries and Holland disabled people are allowed monthly visits by state approved sex workers. To me that is only common sense. To live without sex is unnatural and can only cause emotional suffering. We don't recognize the importance of quality sexual experience in keeping people healthy and happy in France. That doesn't mean it isn't I have a pretty high profile in my community through the meaningful activity I do. From having a half dozen names and faces to remember, I now have what seems like hundreds. I have a lot of trouble remembering people's names and faces. I am still meeting new people but I'm rarely invited to socialize with any after work. They have families, full time jobs, kids, cars, cottages, etc. My life at home is pretty solitary. It's a nuisance to travel across the city to visit people. There are few people that I share a similar background with. Since people with schizophrenia tend to have trouble learning new things, and change very little as a result, we tend to have trouble making new friends. People with

  17. The solar exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Masaatsu; Hirai, Chizuko; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of solar radiation for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body is well known, the solar exposure time required to prevent vitamin D deficiency has not been determined in Japan. This study attempted to identify the time of solar exposure required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the body by season, time of day, and geographic location (Sapporo, Tsukuba, and Naha) using both numerical simulations and observations. According to the numerical simulation for Tsukuba at noon in July under a cloudless sky, 3.5 min of solar exposure are required to produce 5.5 μg vitamin D3 per 600 cm2 skin corresponding to the area of a face and the back of a pair of hands without ingestion from foods. In contrast, it took 76.4 min to produce the same quantity of vitamin D3 at Sapporo in December, at noon under a cloudless sky. The necessary exposure time varied considerably with the time of the day. For Tsukuba at noon in December, 22.4 min were required, but 106.0 min were required at 09:00 and 271.3 min were required at 15:00 for the same meteorological conditions. Naha receives high levels of ultraviolet radiation allowing vitamin D3 synthesis almost throughout the year.

  18. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  19. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  20. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Leverage) Conditional Commitments to Reserve Leverage for A Rbic § 4290.1220 Requirement for RBIC to file... Leverage commitment more than 90 days following your submission of an annual SBA Form 468 or a SBA Form...

  1. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actual SO2 emissions rate. 74.22... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation...

  2. Actualization and the Fear of Death: Retesting an Existential Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith; Robinson, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrates that within a group of highly actualized individuals, the degree to which "own death" is integrated into constructs of self is a far more powerful predictor of fear of death than actualization. Findings suggest that actualization and integration are independent in their overall effect on fear of death. (Author)

  3. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  4. The solar UV exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyauchi, Masaatsu; Hirai, Chizuko

    2013-04-01

    After the discovery of Antarctic ozone hole, the negative effect of exposure of human body to harmful solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known. However, there is positive effect of exposure to UV radiation, i.e., vitamin D synthesis. Although the importance of solar UV radiation for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body is well known, the solar exposure time required to prevent vitamin D deficiency has not been well determined. This study attempted to identify the time of solar exposure required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the body by season, time of day, and geographic location (Sapporo, Tsukuba, and Naha, in Japan) using both numerical simulations and observations. According to the numerical simulation for Tsukuba at noon in July under a cloudless sky, 2.3 min of solar exposure are required to produce 5.5 μg vitamin D3 per 600 cm2 skin. This quantity of vitamin D represents the recommended intake for an adult by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the 2010 Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). In contrast, it took 49.5 min to produce the same amount of vitamin D3 at Sapporo in the northern part of Japan in December, at noon under a cloudless sky. The necessary exposure time varied considerably with the time of the day. For Tsukuba at noon in December, 14.5 min were required, but at 09:00 68.7 min were required and at 15:00 175.8 min were required for the same meteorological conditions. Naha receives high levels of UV radiation allowing vitamin D3 synthesis almost throughout the year. According to our results, we are further developing an index to quantify the necessary time of UV radiation exposure to produce required amount of vitamin D3 from a UV radiation data.

  5. 12 CFR 1102.102 - Times, places and requirements for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... license, employee or military identification card, and medicare card. (4) Method for verifying identity—by... pertaining to individual records in a record system and for the identification of individuals making requests... requirements for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system and for the identification...

  6. Algorithms for the Control of NTM by Localized ECRH. Principles and Requirements of the Real Time Diagnostic and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    D' Antona, G.; Cirant, S.; Farina, D.; Gandini, F.; Lazzaro, E.; Treuterer, W.; Manini, A.

    2008-03-12

    The diagnostics requirements for the control of NTM instabilities is outlined stressing the importance of correctly managing the estimate uncertainty by the control system. A methodology for the Bayesian assimilation of model predictions and observations is outlined together with an example of application.

  7. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), from which it can be retrieved with SPARQL, a language designed for querying RDF-based models. The Semantic Web technologies should allow federated queries over multiple triple stores. In this paper we compare the efficiency of a set of biologically relevant queries as applied to a number of different triple store implementations. Results Previously we developed a library of queries to guide the use of our knowledge base Cell Cycle Ontology implemented as a triple store. We have now compared the performance of these queries on five non-commercial triple stores: OpenLink Virtuoso (Open-Source Edition), Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the data uploading time, the query execution time and the scalability. The queries we had chosen addressed diverse ontological or biological questions, and we found that individual store performance was quite query-specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behaviour across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time queries, 2) moderate response time queries and 3) relatively long response time queries. SwiftOWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second one and Virtuoso in the third one. Conclusions Our analysis showed that some queries behaved idiosyncratically, in a triple store specific manner, mainly with SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. Virtuoso, as expected, displayed a very balanced performance - its load time and its response time for all the

  8. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert D.

    2012-04-19

    We reviewed glare models with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh and Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  9. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-12 - Extension of time to make contributions to satisfy requirements of section 412.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-12 Extension of time to...

  10. Throwing patterns used by collegiate baseball players in actual games.

    PubMed

    Barrett, David D; Burton, Allen W

    2002-03-01

    The form of 3,684 throws made by 100 players in 7 collegiate baseball games was examined in relation to position, distance, and active and inactive situations. All throws made from the first pitch to the last out for 94 half innings were videotaped from the stands. The results showed that the interrater reliability of task, environment, and performance measures were all acceptable to excellent (percentage of agreement was at least 80%), indicating that qualitative aspects of throwing can be reliably measured in an actual sport context. Alternatives to the most advanced pattern were observed at least half the time for catchers and infielders at most distances in both active and inactive situations andfor pitchers and outfielders only in inactive situations.

  11. Specifying of requirements for spatio-temporal data in map by eye-tracking and space-time-cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelka, Stanislav; Voženílek, Vit

    2013-03-01

    One of the most objective methods of map use evaluation (in terms of reading, analysis and interpretation. is an analysis of eye movements of map reader, known as eye-tracking method. GazePlots and HeatMaps as the most commonly used visualization methods of eye-tracking data cannot effectively express the change of time. The authors introduce a Space-Time-Cube for spatio-temporal visualization. It displays the map at the base of the cube (axes X and Y) while Z axis is used to represent time. Spatial and temporal components of a map are shown together, and relationship between space and time can be revealed. During the authors' research, the user interaction over the map legend of agriculture of the Czech Republic school maps was tested. Space-Time-Cube displayed both components (spatial and temporal) together and allowed easy visual analysis of four respondents' (map readers') work with a map. Using Space- Time-Cube for visual analysis provides satisfactory results, although this form of visualization is not widespread and for someone it may seem complex and confusing.

  12. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  13. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S. J. Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B.

    2015-03-15

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  14. 19 CFR 149.2 - Importer security filing-requirement, time of transmission, verification of information, update...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... time specified in paragraph (b) of this section via a CBP-approved electronic interchange system. (b..., ISF Importers must submit: (1) Seller, buyer, importer of record number / foreign trade zone applicant... (g)(1) of this section in the event that any necessary modifications to the approved electronic...

  15. 78 FR 59228 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... FR 49681). The regulations provide guidance to charitable hospital organizations regarding the... Accordingly, the final and temporary regulations (TD 9629), that are the subject of FR Doc. 2013-19931, are... Time for Filing the Return; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION:...

  16. 29 CFR 2705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 2705.4 Times, places, and... hour of 8:30 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. The individual submitting the request should present himself or...

  17. 13 CFR 108.1220 - Requirement for NMVC Company to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for NMVC Company to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw. 108.1220 Section 108.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.115 - Is the employee required to report to or submit a timely application for reemployment to his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer of his or her intent to return to the employment position by either reporting to work or submitting a timely application for reemployment. Whether the employee is required to report to work or... the beginning of the first full regularly-scheduled work period on the first full calendar...

  19. 20 CFR 1002.115 - Is the employee required to report to or submit a timely application for reemployment to his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer of his or her intent to return to the employment position by either reporting to work or submitting a timely application for reemployment. Whether the employee is required to report to work or... the beginning of the first full regularly-scheduled work period on the first full calendar...

  20. 20 CFR 1002.115 - Is the employee required to report to or submit a timely application for reemployment to his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer of his or her intent to return to the employment position by either reporting to work or submitting a timely application for reemployment. Whether the employee is required to report to work or... the beginning of the first full regularly-scheduled work period on the first full calendar...

  1. 20 CFR 1002.115 - Is the employee required to report to or submit a timely application for reemployment to his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer of his or her intent to return to the employment position by either reporting to work or submitting a timely application for reemployment. Whether the employee is required to report to work or... the beginning of the first full regularly-scheduled work period on the first full calendar...

  2. 20 CFR 1002.115 - Is the employee required to report to or submit a timely application for reemployment to his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employer of his or her intent to return to the employment position by either reporting to work or submitting a timely application for reemployment. Whether the employee is required to report to work or... the beginning of the first full regularly-scheduled work period on the first full calendar...

  3. [Dogs babesiosis--still actually problem].

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis (piroplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease with a symptoms of hemolytic anemia. For the first time babesiosis was described in dogs in United States in 1934. The etiological factor of this disease in Poland is protozoa Babesia canis, and its vector--Dermacentor-tick. The most common symptoms of babesiosis are: icterus, hemoglobinuria, occasionally vomits and diarrhea. The biochemical examination of blood serum from sick animals can reveal the increase of activity of AST, ALT, the increase of total bilirubine, urea and creatynine concentrations. The results of hematological examinations can show anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis of babesiosis bases on anamnesis, clinical examinations of dogs, microscopical examinations of blood smears from sick animals; IF-assay and PCR can also be helpful for the diagnosis of babesiosis. Till now does not exist the effective immunoprophylaxis against this disease. Babesiosis is well-known disease, however there are still problems with therapy of infected animals. Most effective drug in therapy of dog piroplasmosis is imidocarb, but sometimes can be observed side effects after it application. It is possible that the genetically differences which are detected in subspecies may have an influence on the severity of disease and the effectiveness of therapy.

  4. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  5. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  6. Hypersonic Research Vehicle (HRV) real-time flight test support feasibility and requirements study. Part 2: Remote computation support for flight systems functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.; Hewett, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are assessed for the use of remote computation to support HRV flight testing. First, remote computational requirements were developed to support functions that will eventually be performed onboard operational vehicles of this type. These functions which either cannot be performed onboard in the time frame of initial HRV flight test programs because the technology of airborne computers will not be sufficiently advanced to support the computational loads required, or it is not desirable to perform the functions onboard in the flight test program for other reasons. Second, remote computational support either required or highly desirable to conduct flight testing itself was addressed. The use is proposed of an Automated Flight Management System which is described in conceptual detail. Third, autonomous operations is discussed and finally, unmanned operations.

  7. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. PMID:26949231

  8. Numerical study of the time required for the gravitational capture in the bicircular four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machuy, A.; Prado, A.; Stuchi, T.

    A gravitational capture occurs when a spacecraft or any particle with negligible mass change from a hyperbolic orbit with a small positive energy around a celestial body into an elliptic orbit with a small negative energy without the use of any propulsive system The force responsible for this modification in the orbit of the spacecraft is the gravitational force of the third and the fourth bodies involved in the dynamics In this way those forces are used as a zero cost control equivalent to a continuous thrust applied in the spacecraft One of the most important applications of this property is the construction of trajectories to the Moon The concept of gravitational capture is used together with the basic ideas of the gravity-assisted maneuver and the bi-elliptic transfer orbit to generate a trajectory that requires a fuel consumption smaller than the one required by the Hohmann transfer This maneuver consists of the following steps i the spacecraft is launched from an initial circular orbit with radius r 0 to an elliptic orbit that crosses the Moon s path ii a Swing-By with the Moon is used to increase the apoapsis of the elliptic orbit This step completes the first part of the bi-elliptic transfer with some savings in Delta V due to the energy gained from the Swing-By iii With the spacecraft at the apoapsis a second very small impulse is applied to rise the periapsis to the Earth-Moon distance The solar effects can reduce even more the magnitude of this impulse iv The transfer is completed with the gravitational capture of

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  10. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  11. Comparison of the Number of Image Acquisitions and Procedural Time Required for Transarterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with and without Tumor-Feeder Detection Software.

    PubMed

    Iwazawa, Jin; Ohue, Shoichi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Mitani, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the number of image acquisitions and procedural time required for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with and without tumor-feeder detection software in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 50 cases involving software-assisted TACE (September 2011-February 2013) and 84 cases involving TACE without software assistance (January 2010-August 2011). We compared the number of image acquisitions, the overall procedural time, and the therapeutic efficacy in both groups. Results. Angiography acquisition per session reduced from 6.6 times to 4.6 times with software assistance (P < 0.001). Total image acquisition significantly decreased from 10.4 times to 8.7 times with software usage (P = 0.004). The mean procedural time required for a single session with software-assisted TACE (103 min) was significantly lower than that for a session without software (116 min, P = 0.021). For TACE with and without software usage, the complete (68% versus 63%, resp.) and objective (78% versus 80%, resp.) response rates did not differ significantly. Conclusion. In comparison with software-unassisted TACE, automated feeder-vessel detection software-assisted TACE for HCC involved fewer image acquisitions and could be completed faster while maintaining a comparable treatment response.

  12. Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time".

    PubMed

    Catling, David C; Glein, Christopher R; Zahnle, Kevin J; McKay, Christopher P

    2005-06-01

    Life is constructed from a limited toolkit: the Periodic Table. The reduction of oxygen provides the largest free energy release per electron transfer, except for the reduction of fluorine and chlorine. However, the bonding of O2 ensures that it is sufficiently stable to accumulate in a planetary atmosphere, whereas the more weakly bonded halogen gases are far too reactive ever to achieve significant abundance. Consequently, an atmosphere rich in O2 provides the largest feasible energy source. This universal uniqueness suggests that abundant O2 is necessary for the high-energy demands of complex life anywhere, i.e., for actively mobile organisms of approximately 10(-1)-10(0) m size scale with specialized, differentiated anatomy comparable to advanced metazoans. On Earth, aerobic metabolism provides about an order of magnitude more energy for a given intake of food than anaerobic metabolism. As a result, anaerobes do not grow beyond the complexity of uniseriate filaments of cells because of prohibitively low growth efficiencies in a food chain. The biomass cumulative number density, n, at a particular mass, m, scales as n (> m) proportional to m(-1) for aquatic aerobes, and we show that for anaerobes the predicted scaling is n proportional to m (-1.5), close to a growth-limited threshold. Even with aerobic metabolism, the partial pressure of atmospheric O2 (P(O2)) must exceed approximately 10(3) Pa to allow organisms that rely on O2 diffusion to evolve to a size approximately 10(3) m x P(O2) in the range approximately 10(3)-10(4) Pa is needed to exceed the threshold of approximately 10(2) m size for complex life with circulatory physiology. In terrestrial life, O(2) also facilitates hundreds of metabolic pathways, including those that make specialized structural molecules found only in animals. The time scale to reach P(O(2)) approximately 10(4) Pa, or "oxygenation time," was long on the Earth (approximately 3.9 billion years), within almost a factor of 2 of the Sun

  13. Sewage sludge ash to phosphate fertilizer by chlorination and thermal treatment: residence time requirements for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Wegerer, Harald; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash can be performed by mixing the ash with environmentally compatible chlorides (e.g. CaCl2 or MgCl2) and water, pelletizing the mixture and treating the pellets in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy, muffle oven tests (500-1150 degrees C) and investigations in a laboratory-scale rotary reactor (950-1050 degrees C, residence time 1-25 min) were carried out. In the rotary reactor, up to 97% of Cu, 95% Pb and 95% Zn can be removed at 1050 degrees C. As Cl release starts from 400 degrees C (obtained from thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry experiments), heavy metals are already removed partially within the heating period. This heavy metal removal can be described as being similar to a first-order rate law. To meet the limit values specified in the Austrian and German fertilizer ordinances, residence times of the order of minutes are sufficient at 950 degrees C. PMID:23393980

  14. Interaction between Workers during a Short Time Window Is Required for Bacterial Symbiont Transmission in Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Sarah E.; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  15. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Sarah E; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  16. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  17. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  18. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  19. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  20. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  1. Requirements regarding dose rate and exposure time for killing of tumour cells in beta particle radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Veronika; Stenerlöw, Bo; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify combinations of dose rate and exposure time that have the potential to provide curative treatment with targeted radionuclide therapy applying low dose rate beta irradiation. Methods Five tumour cell lines, U-373MG and U-118MG gliomas, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-431 cervical squamous carcinoma and SKBR-3 breast cancer, were used. An experimental model with 105 tumour cells in each sample was irradiated with low dose rate beta particles. The criterion for successful treatment was absence of recovery of cells during a follow-up period of 3 months. The initial dose rates were in the range 0.1–0.8 Gy/h, and the cells were continuously exposed for 1, 3 or 7 days. These combinations covered dose rates and doses achievable in targeted radionuclide therapy. Results Continuous irradiation with dose rates of 0.2–0.3 and 0.4–0.6 Gy/h for 7 and 3 days, respectively, could kill all cells in each tumour cell sample. These treatments gave total radiation doses of 30–40 Gy. However, when exposed for just 24 h with about 0.8 Gy/h, only the SKBR-3 cells were successfully treated; all the other cell types recovered. There were large cell type-dependent variations in the growth delay patterns for the cultures that recovered. The U-118MG cells were most resistant and the U-373MG and SKBR-3 cells most sensitive to the treatments. The HT-29 and A-431 cells were intermediate. Conclusion The results serve as a guideline for the combinations of dose rate and exposure time necessary to kill tumour cells when applying low dose rate beta irradiation. The shift from recovery to “cure” fell within a narrow range of dose rate and exposure time combinations. PMID:16718515

  2. Temporal Changes in Ebola Transmission in Sierra Leone and Implications for Control Requirements: a Real-time Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Anton; Kucharski, Adam; Aki-Sawyerr, Yvonne; White, Mark A.; Flasche, Stefan; Baguelin, Marc; Pollington, Timothy; Carney, Julia R.; Glover, Rebecca; Smout, Elizabeth; Tiffany, Amanda; Edmunds, W. John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between August and November 2014, the incidence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) rose dramatically in several districts of Sierra Leone. As a result, the number of cases exceeded the capacity of Ebola holding and treatment centres. During December, additional beds were introduced, and incidence declined in many areas. We aimed to measure patterns of transmission in different regions, and evaluate whether bed capacity is now sufficient to meet future demand. Methods: We used a mathematical model of EVD infection to estimate how the extent of transmission in the nine worst affected districts of Sierra Leone changed between 10th August 2014 and 18th January 2015. Using the model, we forecast the number of cases that could occur until the end of March 2015, and compared bed requirements with expected future capacity. Results: We found that the reproduction number, R, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a typical infectious individual, declined between August and December in all districts. We estimated that R was near the crucial control threshold value of 1 in December. We further estimated that bed capacity has lagged behind demand between August and December for most districts, but as a consequence of the decline in transmission, control measures caught up with the epidemic in early 2015. Conclusions: EVD incidence has exhibited substantial temporal and geographical variation in Sierra Leone, but our results suggest that the epidemic may have now peaked in Sierra Leone, and that current bed capacity appears to be sufficient to keep the epidemic under-control in most districts. PMID:25737806

  3. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  4. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  5. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  6. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  7. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  8. Depression and Self-Actualization in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between depressive affect and self-actualization in gifted adolescents (N=248). Found that gifted students who were not self-actualizing types were more depressed; and guilt, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, and cognitive difficulty were important symptoms. Gifted adolescents tended to be more socially…

  9. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  10. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  11. A Study of Self-Actualization and Facilitative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-actualization measures and ability in facilitative communication of trainees from counseling, social work, and psychology programs to determine if differences existed between the three groups. Self-actualization indexes were significantly correlated with ability in facilitative communication. (RC)

  12. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  13. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-06-23

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research.

  14. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  15. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 100 cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 103 cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  16. Guidelines to implement the license renewal technical requirements of 10CFR54 for integrated plant assessments and time-limited aging analyses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, G.; Philpot, L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the initial results of the Nuclear Energy Institute License Renewal Implementation Guideline Task Force over the period August 1994 to July 1995 to develop guidance for complying with technical requirements of 10CFR54. The report also provided a starting point for the development of NEI 95-10, ``Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10CCR54-The License Renewal Rule``. Information in this document can be used by utilities to prepare the technical material needed in an application for license renewal (LR) of a nuclear power unit. This guideline provides methods for identifying systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and their intended functions within the scope of license renewal. It identifies structures and components (SCs) requiring aging management review and methods for performing the aging management review. The guideline provides a process for identifying and evaluating time-limited aging analyses.

  17. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  18. Comparison of Time Required by D-RaCe, R-Endo and Mtwo Instruments for Retreatment: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Akansha; Shetty, Shashit; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Kamal Krishan; Garg, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate and compare the amount of time required by three rotary NiTi instruments in removing gutta-percha from root canal during retreatment with hand file as control. Materials and Methods: Eighty human mandibular premolars with single straight root canals were prepared and obturated by cold lateral condensation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. After two weeks, the 80 teeth were divided into one control group and 3 retreatment groups (n = 20 each). Gutta-percha was removed using H-files, the D-RaCe, or the Mtwo or the R-Endo retreatment systems. Retreatment time was calculated using stopwatch. Results: D-RaCe and Mtwo required significantly less time than R-Endo and hand file. Hand file took maximum time, which was significantly slower than all groups. However, D-RaCe and Mtwo retreatment time was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: D-RaCe and Mtwo remove gutta-percha faster than R-Endo and Hand files. PMID:25859525

  19. Effect of body mass index on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shohab, Durre; Ayub, Ramsha; Alam, Muhammad Umar; Butt, Amna; Sheikh, Sanam; Assad, Salman; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of body mass index (BMI) on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing three BMI groups. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of 129 patients who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to August 2013. All the patients underwent PCNL by a standard technique. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having a BMI ≤24 kg/m2 were included in the normal group, those having a BMI of 24.1–30.0 kg/m2 were included in the overweight group, and those having a BMI >30 kg/m2 were included in the obese group. Three groups were compared for operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results A total of 129 patients including 44 females and 85 males were included with a mean age of 45.00±1.44 years. The mean age in the normal group was 43.29±1.69 years, 47.08±1.29 years in the overweight group, and 43.61±1.25 years in the obese group. The mean stone size in the normal group was 25.46±8.92 mm, 28.01±8.40 mm in the overweight group, and 26.84±7.41 mm in the obese group. Our results showed no statistically significant difference with respect to mean operative time, mean hospital stay, and stone clearance in the normal, obese, and overweight patients undergoing PCNL. Postoperative complications and analgesia requirement were also similar in all the three groups. Conclusion There was no effect of BMI on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing PCNL. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of renal stones in obese patients. PMID:26623145

  20. Which body for embodied cognition? Affordance and language within actual and perceived reaching space.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; Costantini, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    The mental representation of one's own body does not necessarily correspond to the physical body. For instance, a dissociation between perceived and actual reach-ability has been shown, that is, individuals perceive that they can reach objects that are out of grasp. We presented participants with 3D pictures of objects located at four different distances, namely near-reaching space, actual-reaching space, perceived-reaching space and non-reaching space. Immediately after they were presented with function, manipulation, observation or pointing verbs and were required to judge if the verb was compatible with the object. Participants were faster with function and manipulation verbs than with observation and pointing verbs. Strikingly, with both function and manipulation verbs participants were faster when objects were presented in actual than the perceived reaching space. These findings suggest that our knowledge of the world is implicitly built online through behaviour, and is not necessarily reflected in explicit estimates or conscious representations.

  1. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., that they do not engage in any work. Their early or late clock punching may be disregarded. Minor... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required....

  2. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., that they do not engage in any work. Their early or late clock punching may be disregarded. Minor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required....

  3. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., that they do not engage in any work. Their early or late clock punching may be disregarded. Minor... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required....

  4. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., that they do not engage in any work. Their early or late clock punching may be disregarded. Minor... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required....

  5. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., that they do not engage in any work. Their early or late clock punching may be disregarded. Minor... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required....

  6. Accelerometer data requirements for reliable estimation of habitual physical activity and sedentary time of children during the early years - a worked example following a stepped approach.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Daniel D; Costa, Silvia; Clemes, Stacy A; Routen, Ash C; Moore, Helen J; Barber, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a worked example of a stepped process to reliably estimate the habitual physical activity and sedentary time of a sample of young children. A total of 299 children (2.9 ± 0.6 years) were recruited. Outcome variables were daily minutes of total physical activity, sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity and proportional values of each variable. In total, 282 (94%) provided 3 h of accelerometer data on ≥1 day and were included in a 6-step process: Step-1: determine minimum wear-time; Step-2: process 7-day-data; Step-3: determine the inclusion of a weekend day; Step-4: examine day-to-day variability; Step-5: calculate single day intraclass correlation (ICC) (2,1); Step-6: calculate number of days required to reach reliability. Following the process the results were, Step-1: 6 h was estimated as minimum wear-time of a standard day. Step-2: 98 (32%) children had ≥6 h wear on 7 days. Step-3: no differences were found between weekdays and weekend days (P ≥ 0.05). Step-4: no differences were found between day-to-day variability (P ≥ 0.05). Step-5: single day ICC's (2,1) ranged from 0.48 (total physical activity and sedentary time) to 0.53 (proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Step-6: to reach reliability (ICC = 0.7), 3 days were required for all outcomes. In conclusion following a 7 day wear protocol, ≥6 h on any 3 days was found to have acceptable reliability. The stepped-process offers researchers a method to derive sample-specific wear-time criterion.

  7. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  8. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  9. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  10. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution. PMID:20077923

  11. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

  12. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  13. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  15. Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Liblik, Raino

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's actual and perceived motor competence. 280 children between the ages of 10 and 13 years individually completed the Children's Physical Self-perception Profile which assesses perceptions of sport competence, physical conditioning, strength, body attractiveness, and general physical self-worth. The internal reliabilities (a) of the subscales ranged from .75 to .82. After completing the profile, the subject's actual motor competence was measured using tests of aerobic fitness and functional strength. Body fatness (sum of five skinfolds) was measured as an objective measure of perceived body attractiveness. Analysis of variance showed that boys and girls differed in perceived competence and actual motor competence. The boys showed higher perceived competence on four scores, but there was no sex difference in perception of body attractiveness. Correlations and regression analysis showed that actual and perceived motor competence were significantly but only moderately (r =.25-.56) correlated. In addition, items of perceived physical competence and age accounted for 17% (sit-ups) to 25% (endurance shuttle run) of the variance in actual motor competence of the children. These findings showed that 10- to 13-yr-old children can only moderately assess personal motor competence. PMID:12186225

  16. PsbS is required for systemic acquired acclimation and post-excess-light-stress optimization of chlorophyll fluorescence decay times in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ciszak, Kamil; Kulasek, Milena; Barczak, Anna; Grzelak, Justyna; Maćkowski, Sebastian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4-1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4-1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4-1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4-1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4-1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress.

  17. Small Body GN&C Research Report: A Guidance and Control Technique for Small-Body Proximity Operations with Guaranteed Guidance Resolvability and Required Thruster Silent Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet

    2005-01-01

    The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.

  18. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  19. [Actual situation of medical checkups carried out by Industrial Health Organizations in Japan--manpower and service].

    PubMed

    Obata, Yasuko; Narisada, Hiroyuki; Fujishiro, Kazuya; Tsutsui, Takao; Shimizu, Takashi; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Oda, Susumu; Okubo, Toshiteru

    2003-03-01

    Japanese Industrial Health Organizations (IHOs) have been taking part in medical checkups for employees in accordance with the law of industrial safety and health in Japan. We carried out a questionnaire survey for each IHO in order to learn the actual number of full-time doctors and their proportion of work time. We sent a questionnaire to 112 IHOs (members of International Federation of Industrial Health Organizations) by mail, of which 77 replied (68.8%). In addition, we carried out an interview survey in 3 IHOs. The actual number of full-time doctors was 0 to 51, about half of IHOs have less than 5 doctors/each. Regarding the proportion of work time, among full-time doctors, half of them take part in general health checkups. About 70% of nurses' work time is taken up doing health checkups. The results revealed that the number and the proportion of work time of full-time doctors depends on the characteristics of the area and the background of the organization, for instance, what kind of hygiene services they provide. Depending on the doctors' work style (e.g. full-time or part-time) and their specialities and experience, their work may be shared. Japanese employers are required to report the number of workers with abnormal findings found by medical checkups to the Labor Standards Office. Many IHOs provide service to employers in filling out their reports. Thus, we also asked each IHO about this service. Forty out of the 77 IHOs (51.9%) answered that they are providing statistical analysis and the filling-out service. They count the number of workers with abnormal findings in each company and helped the employer to fill out the report form. Twenty-nine of those 40 IHOs responded that they decided which findings were "abnormal" by using only items that are set by law. However, 7 IHOs reported the fact that they also add some optional items when making the decision. The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in annual medical checkups, which is one of the

  20. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  1. Meditation and college students' self-actualization and rated stress.

    PubMed

    Janowiak, J J; Hackman, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper concerns the efficacy of meditation and relaxation in promoting self-actualization and changes in self-reported stress among 62 college students. Two groups were given mantra meditation and a yogic relaxation technique referred to as Shavasana. Pre- and posttest measures were taken on the Personal Orientation Inventory and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Both groups showed significant increases in scores on self-actualization; however, no differences were found between groups. Meditation training was associated with larger gains in scores on measures of systematic relaxed behavior than of the relaxation training.

  2. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  3. Required High School Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  4. Reviving the Bowen Ratio method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a vertical column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the ratio of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen ratio over time and in the vertical. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen ratio sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen ratio method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the vertical. The traditional Bowen ratio method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen Ratio method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the vertical air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was

  5. SEBAL-based Daily Actual Evapotranspiration Forecasting using Wavelets Decomposition Analysis and Multivariate Relevance Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural lands are sources of food and energy for population around the globe. These lands are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change including variations in rainfall regimes, weather patterns, and decreased availability of water for irrigation. In addition, it is not unusual that irrigated agriculture is forced to divert less water in order to make it available for other uses, e.g. human consumption and others. As part of implementation of better policies for water control and management, irrigation companies and water user associations have been implemented water conveyance and distribution monitoring systems along with soil moisture sensors networks in the last decades. These systems allow them to manage and distribute water among the users based on their requirements and water availability while collecting information about actual soil moisture conditions in representative crop fields. In spite of this, requested water deliveries by farmers/water users is based typically on total water share, traditions and past experience on irrigation, which in most cases do not correspond to the actual crop evapotranspiration, already affected by climate change. Therefore it is necessary to provide actual information about the crop water requirements to water users/managers, so they can better quantify the required vs. available water for the irrigation events along the irrigation season. To estimate the actual evapotranspiration in a spatial extent the Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) algorithm has demonstrated its effectiveness using satellite or airborne data. Nonetheless the estimation is restricted to the day when the geospatial information was obtained. Without information of precise future daily water crop demand there is a continuous challenge for the implementation of better water distribution and management policies in the irrigation system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the plausibility of using

  6. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  7. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  8. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  9. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  10. Reported vs. Actual Job Search by Unemployment Insurance Claimants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Robert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares self-reported job search contacts of unemployment insurance recipients with independently verified job-search contacts. The separate equations estimated for reported and actual job contacts suggest that systematic misreporting may distort the conclusions. Some implications of the findings for reported unemployment rates also are explored.…

  11. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  12. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  13. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  14. The Implications of Language for Facilitating Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charleen Katharine

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the implications of language within an educational context as a means of facilitating self-actualization. Three premises identified in a priori fashion were drawn from the literature in linguistics, psychology, and general semantics, creating a three-part language continuum--acquisition, development, and…

  15. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  16. Stability Tests with Actual Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    solutions in two laboratory experiments. The first experiment tested four waste solutions for supersaturation of aluminum by monitoring the aluminum concentration after seeding with gibbsite. The second experiment tested two waste samples for precipitation of aluminosilicates by heating the solutions to accelerate solids formation. The results of the experiments with actual waste solutions are supported in this report.

  17. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  18. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  19. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  20. Commitment to Change Statements Can Predict Actual Change in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Jacqueline; Herbert, Carol P.; Maclure, Malcolm; Dormuth, Colin; Wright, James M.; Legare, Jeanne; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Premi, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Statements of commitment to change are advocated both to promote and to assess continuing education interventions. However, most studies of commitment to change have used self-reported outcomes, and self-reports may significantly overestimate actual performance. As part of an educational randomized controlled trial, this study…

  1. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  2. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  3. 19 CFR 162.79b - Recovery of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... case in which a monetary penalty is not assessed or a written notification of claim of monetary penalty is not issued, the port director will issue a written notice to the person of the liability for the... actual loss of revenue. Whether or not a monetary penalty is assessed under this subpart, the...

  4. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  5. "New York Times v. Sullivan" and Its Progeny: Was There a "Chilling Effect?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawley, Brian

    In 1964 the United States Supreme Court issued a landmark decision, in the case of the New York Times v. Sullivan, that was hailed as a tremendous victory for the news media. This decision changed the law of libel by introducing a fourth requirement of "actual malice" in addition to three previously accepted requirements--publication,…

  6. Has the connection between polyploidy and diversification actually been tested?

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Many major clades of angiosperms have several whole genome duplications (polyploidization events) in their distant past, suggesting that polyploidy drives or at least permits diversification. However, data on recently diverged groups are more equivocal, finding little evidence of elevated diversification following polyploidy. The discrepancy may be attributable at least in part to methodology. Many studies use indirect methods, such as chromosome numbers, genome size, and Ks plots, to test polyploidy, although these approaches can be misleading, and often lack sufficient resolution. A direct test of diversification following polyploidy requires a sequence-based approach that traces the history of nuclear genomes rather than species. These methods identify the point of coalescence of ancestral genomes, but may be misleading about the time and thus the extent of diversification. Limitations of existing methods mean that the connection between polyploidy and diversification has not been rigorously tested and remains unknown.

  7. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  8. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  9. Randomized Comparison of Actual and Ideal Body Weight for Size Selection of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in Overweight Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Kang, Hyo Jong; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-08-01

    Size selection of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic based on actual body weight remains a common practice. However, ideal body weight might allow for a better size selection in obese patients. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of ideal body weight and actual body weight when choosing the appropriate size of the LMA Classic by a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients with age 20 to 70 yr, body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), and the difference between LMA sizes based on actual weight and ideal weight were allocated to insert the LMA Classic using either actual body weight or ideal body weight in a weight-based formula for size selection. After insertion of the device, several variables including insertion parameters, sealing function, fiberoptic imaging, and complications were investigated. The insertion success rate at the first attempt was lower in the actual weight group (82%) than in the ideal weight group (96%), even it did not show significant difference. The ideal weight group had significantly shorter insertion time and easier placement. However, fiberoptic views were significantly better in the actual weight group. Intraoperative complications, sore throat in the recovery room, and dysphonia at postoperative 24 hr occurred significantly less often in the ideal weight group than in the actual weight group. It is suggested that the ideal body weight may be beneficial to the size selection of the LMA Classic in overweight patients (Clinical Trial Registry, NCT 01843270).

  10. Introducing a framework to improve estimation of actual evapotranspiration using MODIS images with SEBAL algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mianabadi, Ameneh; Alizadeh, Amin; Sanaeinejad, Hossein; Ghahraman, Bijan; Davary, Kamran; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    To have an accurate estimation of actual evapotranspiration, it is a good idea to use every-day images of MODIS. But under clouded condition, it is difficult to have appropriate images and also it is time-consuming to interpret all those images. Therefore, in this paper, we tried to choose the appropriate images to improve estimation of actual evapotranspiration. For this purpose, we introduced a framework to choose appropriate dates to produce best estimation of actual evapotranspiration. On the other hand, finding the location of dry (hot pixel) and wet (cold pixel) endpoints of evapotranspiration spectrum is so important. We dealt with this problem by employing the statistical procedure for automated selection of cold and hot pixels. We also visually reviewed the location of hot and cold pixels using land cover image to ensure that the most appropriate pixels had been selected. To integrate evapotranspiration over time, the linear and spline interpolation techniques were applied. Also, based on the precipitation rates during 5 days before the date of image and the mean seasonal amount of evapotranspiration, we found a logarithmic equation to produce the best estimation of evapotranspiration during the given time. Results showed that the logarithmic equation could produce more accurate estimation of evapotranspiration rather than linear interpolation.

  11. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  14. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  15. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations PMID:25562896

  16. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations

  17. Self-actualizations and experience with Zen meditation: is a learning period necessary for meditation?

    PubMed

    Compton, W C; Becker, G M

    1983-11-01

    Tested the hypothesis that inconsistencies found in research on the relationship between Zen meditation and self-actualization were due in part to the existence of a learning period for Zen meditation. It was hypothesized that increases in self-actualization would be observed only after the completion of the learning period. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was given to 36 students of Soto Zen and 34 undergraduate students who never had mediated. Analysis of covariance adjusted the group means for differences in age, education, and sex. t-tests revealed that all hypotheses were supported for the Inner Directed scale of the POI and supported in part for the Time Competent scale. Results were discussed as supporting the hypothesized learning period for Zen meditation. Implications for future research on Zen meditation were discussed.

  18. [Comparison analysis between potential and actual pattern of artificial oases in arid region].

    PubMed

    Jia, B; Ci, L; Yang, X; Yang, J; Pan, B

    2000-12-01

    Based on theoretical analysis and demonstration research, the conception of potential pattern in the agriculture landscape of artificial oases in Xinjiang arid region and its analysis unit were discussed. The potential landscape pattern was defined as the one composed by spatial units with basic characteristics and properties which had no change or less change with the time. In agriculture landscape, soil was found to be a relatively stable element, and hence, different soil classification unit could be used to analyze the potential landscape pattern. A case study was carried out to analyze the potential and actual pattern of the artificial cases in Shihezi reclamation area by using the indexes of diversity, evenness, aggregation, mean patch elongation, patch shape fragmentation and mean patch fractal dimension. The result showed that the landscape pattern changed orderly from the potential to actual pattern, and the potential pattern could be used as the absolute criterion for researches on pattern changes in agriculture landscape.

  19. Is Ecosystem-Atmosphere Observation in Long-Term Networks actually Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Science uses observations to build knowledge by testable explanations and predictions. The "scientific method" requires controlled systematic observation to examine questions, hypotheses and predictions. Thus, enquiry along the scientific method responds to questions of the type "what if …?" In contrast, long-term observation programs follow a different strategy: we commonly take great care to minimize our influence on the environment of our measurements, with the aim to maximize their external validity. We observe what we think are key variables for ecosystem-atmosphere exchange and ask questions such as "what happens next?" or "how did this happen?" This apparent deviation from the scientific method begs the question whether any explanations we come up with for the phenomena we observe are actually contributing to testable knowledge, or whether their value remains purely anecdotal. Here, we present examples to argue that, under certain conditions, data from long-term observations and observation networks can have equivalent or even higher scientific validity than controlled experiments. Internal validity is particularly enhanced if observations are combined with modeling. Long-term observations of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes identify trends and temporal scales of variability. Observation networks reveal spatial patterns and variations, and long-term observation networks combine both aspects. A necessary condition for such observations to gain validity beyond the anecdotal is the requirement that the data are comparable: a comparison of two measured values, separated in time or space, must inform us objectively whether (e.g.) one value is larger than the other. In turn, a necessary condition for the comparability of data is the compatibility of the sensors and procedures used to generate them. Compatibility ensures that we compare "apples to apples": that measurements conducted in identical conditions give the same values (within suitable uncertainty intervals

  20. Determination of the Actual Contact Surface of a Brush Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    The number of partial contact surfaces of a brush-ring contact is measured by means of a statistical method. The particular brush is fitted with wicks - that is, insulated and cemented cylinders of brush material, terminating in the brush surface. The number of partial contact surfaces can be computed from the length of the rest periods in which such wicks remain without current. Resistance measurements enable the determination of the size of the contact surfaces. The pressure in the actual contact surface of a recently bedded brush is found to be not much lower than the Brinell hardness of the brush.

  1. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour. PMID:15384317

  2. Optimum Design of a Passive Suspension System of a Vehicle Subjected to Actual Random Road Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamboli, J. A.; Joshi, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Vehicles are subjected to random excitation due to road unevenness and variable velocity. In most research work reported earlier, the response analysis for Mean Square Acceleration Response (MSAR) has been carried out by considering the power spectral density (PSD) of the road excitation as white noise, and the velocity of the vehicle as constant. However, in the present paper the PSD of the actual road excitation has been found to follow an approximately exponentially decreasing curve. Also the change in vehicle velocity has a significant effect on the values of Root Mean Square Acceleration Response (RMSAR). Therefore, in this work, the RMSAR of a vehicle dynamic system subjected to actual random road excitations is obtained so as to account for the effect of the actual PSD of road excitation and the frequent changes in vehicle velocity. The RMSAR of the vehicle is calculated for actual field excitation using the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) technique to obtain the PSD, by recording observations at the rear wheel. The effect of time lag due to wheelbase on the RMSAR of the vehicle is studied. For this purpose, a new ratio α(τ) has been introduced. The relationship between α(τ) and the autocorrelation has been formulated. This ratio is useful for considering the effect of time lag due to wheelbase on RMSAR. Similarly, the effect of vehicle velocity on the RMSAR is obtained.Further, from a ride comfort point of view, the values of the design variables like spring stiffness and viscous damping coefficient of the front and rear suspensions have been obtained, by minimising the RMSAR using the desired boundary values of the vertical RMSAR as specified in the chart of ISO 2631, 1985(E) [1].

  3. My School, My Self: It's Time for the Paradigm Shift to Actually Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodget, Alden S.

    2016-01-01

    As is becoming increasingly clear from research into the role of emotion in learning, people think and learn about what matters to them. This article discusses why the purpose of education ought to be to help students figure out who they are and what the world means to them. This is how they become productive, moral citizens of the world.…

  4. "Take More time to Actually Listen": Students' Reflections on Participation and Negotiation in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Gillean; Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela; Lloyd, Gwynedd; Hamilton, Lorna; Sharp, Stephen; Macleod, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour in schools is an emotive topic and one of enduring political interest and sensitivity. The media often portrays schools as violent and dangerous places and young people as ever more unruly. This paper explores findings from a recent large-scale national study on behaviour and focuses on the data from primary and secondary school students…

  5. A polymorphism in an autophagy-related gene, ATG16L1, influences time to delivery in women with an unfavorable cervix who require labor induction.

    PubMed

    Doulaveris, Georgios; Orfanelli, Theofano; Benn, Kiesha; Zervoudakis, Ioannis; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-07-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process that maintains homeostasis by the removal of damaged organelles and proteins. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) gene results in decreased autophagy. We evaluated whether the ATG16L1 polymorphism influenced the time to delivery during labor induction in pregnant women with an unfavorable cervix. DNA from 69 women with an unfavorable cervix who required labor induction due to post-term (>294 days) (n=26), oligohydramnios (n=17), hypertension or pre-eclampsia (n=10), abnormal fetal heart rate (n=8), diabetes (n=3) or other reasons (n=5) was tested by gene amplification and endonuclease digestion for a SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880). The mean hours (SD) from induction to delivery was 20.8 (9.7) for women who were A,A homozygotes, 19.2 (8.8) for A,G heterozygotes and 14.3 (6.6) for homozygote carriers of the G,G variant (P=0.03 A,A vs. G,G, P=0.04 A,A/A,G vs. G,G). The G,G prevalence was 24.4% and 4.2% for those who delivered in ≤24 and >24 h, respectively (P=0.04). There was no difference in genotype distribution by indication for induction. A decreased genetic capacity for autophagy may be beneficial in women with an unfavorable cervix whose labor has to be induced. PMID:23633462

  6. Lessons Learned from Eight Years' Experience of Actual Operation, and Future Prospects of JMA Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Nishimae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, experiences of actual operation of EEW have been gained by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). During this period, we have learned lessons from many M6- and M7-class earthquakes, and the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. During the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake, JMA system functioned well: it issued a warning message more than 15 s before strong ground shaking in the Tohoku district (relatively near distance from the epicenter). However, it was not perfect: in addition to the problem of large extent of fault rupture, some false warning messages were issued due to the confusion of the system because of simultaneous multiple aftershocks which occurred at the wide rupture area. To address the problems, JMA will introduce two new methods into the operational system this year to start their tests, aiming at practical operation within a couple of years. One is Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) method, which is an integrated algorithm of multiple hypocenter determination techniques with Bayesian estimation, in which amplitude information is also used for hypocenter determination. The other is Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) method, in which warning message is issued when strong ground shaking is detected at nearby stations around the target site (e.g., within 30 km). Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not required in PLUM. Aiming at application for several years later, we are investigating a new approach, in which current wavefield is estimated in real time, and then future wavefield is predicted time evolutionally from the current situation using physics of wave propagation. Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not necessarily required, but real-time observation of ground shaking is necessary. JMA also plans to predict long period ground motion (up to 8 s) with the EEW system for earthquake damage mitigation in high-rise buildings. Its test will start using the operational system in the near future.

  7. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  8. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  9. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  10. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  11. Back Pain During 6 deg Head-Down Tilt Approximates That During Actual Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Karen J.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Murthy, Gita; Convertino, Victor A.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts often experience back pain during spaceflight. It was found that during spaceflight, 14 of 19 Shuttle crewmembers experienced back pain, which they described as dull (62%), localized to the lower back (500/6), and with an intensity of 2 on a 5-point scale. Further, the spine lengthens 4-7 cm in microgravity. Our objective was to compare back pain and spinal lengthening (body height increase) during simulated microgravity (6 deg head-down tilt, HDT) with the some parameters during actual microgravity. Eight male subjects completed a modified McGill pain questionnaire with intensity graded from zero (no pain) to five (intense and incapacitating gain) each day at 7.-OO pm during 2 d pre-HDT control, 16 d HDT, and I d post-HDT recovery periods. Only 2 subjects reported any pain after day 9 of HDT and during recov- ery. Heights increased 2.1 t 0.5 cm by day 3 of HDT and re- mained at that level until the end of the HDT period. Although spinal lengthening in space is greater than that during HDT, the HDT model approximates the level, type, distribution, and time course of back pain associated with actual microgrovity. In the HDT model, pain subsides in intensity when spinal lengthening stops. Therefore, back pain in actual and simulated microgravity may result from stretching of spinal andlor paraspinal tissues until a new spinal length is reached.

  12. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  13. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines the latency of anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are programmed according to movement velocity. However, the linkage between APAs and velocity has been highlighted within single subjects who were asked to voluntarily change movement velocity; therefore, till now, it has been impossible to discern whether the key factor determining APA latency was the intended movement velocity or the actual one. Aim of this study was to distinguish between these two factors. We analyzed the APA chain that stabilizes the arm during a brisk index finger flexion in two groups of subjects: (1) 29 who composed our database from previous experiments and were asked to "go-as-fast-as-possible" (go-fast), but actually performed the movement with different speeds (238-1, 180°/s), and (2) ten new subjects who performed the go-fast movement at more than 500°/s and were then asked to go-slow at about 50% of their initial velocity, thus moving at 300-800°/s. No correlation between APA latency and actual movement speed was observed when all subjects had to go-fast (p > 0.50), while delayed APAs were found in the ten new subjects when they had to go-slow (p < 0.001). Moreover, in the speed range between 300 and 800°/s, the APA latency depended only on movement instruction: subjects going fast showed earlier APAs than those going slow (p < 0.001). These data suggest a stronger role of the intended movement velocity versus the actual one in modifying the timing of postural muscles recruitment with respect to the prime mover. These results also strengthen the idea of a shared postural and voluntary command within the same motor act.

  14. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  15. Illinois adopts 'actual exposure' rule for distress claims.

    PubMed

    1998-10-30

    The Illinois Supreme Court has ruled that plaintiffs must prove actual exposure to HIV if they hope to recover damages in fear-of-AIDS lawsuits. Most state courts accept that as the standard for determining if a claim is legitimate. Two cases were addressed in the ruling. In one case, [name removed] sued Dr. [name removed] and the estate of [name removed]'s late partner, who died of AIDS-related complications in 1991. While [name removed] was employed by the doctors, she cut herself on a used scalpel in a waste basket. The scalpel was not tested, but she has had three HIV tests which have shown negative results. The other case involved six people who sued Northwestern University after learning that a dental student who treated them was HIV-positive. The six people have also tested negative.

  16. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  17. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  18. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  19. Actual and desired computer literacy among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Agho, A O; Williams, A M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of computer literacy among allied health students, with specific focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy students, and to investigate the perceived differences between actual computer literacy and desired computer literacy. Two established measurement instruments were used to collect data from a sample of 377 allied health students. T-tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted to analyze the data. Results show that allied health students take very few computer courses, but they are generally aware of the applications of computers in the practice of allied health and they desire a higher level of computer literacy than they currently have.

  20. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  6. Analysis of Actual Soil Degradation by Erosion Using Satellite Imagery and Terrain Attributes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizala, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Soil water and wind erosion (possibly tillage erosion) is the most significant soil degradation factor in the Czech Republic. Moreover, this phenomenon also affects seriously quality of water sources., About 50 % of arable land are endangered by water erosion and about 10 % of arable land are endangered wind erosion in the Czech Republic. These processes have been accelerated by human activity. Specific condition of agriculture land in the Czech Republic including highland relief and particularly size of land parcel and intensification of agriculture does not enable to reduce flow of runoff water. Insufficient protection against accelerated erosion processes is related to lack of landscape and hydrographic elements and large area of agricultural plots. Currently, this issue is solved at plot scale by field investigation or at regional scale using numerical and empirical erosion models. Nevertheless, these models enable only to predict the potential of soil erosion. Large scale assessment of actual degradation level of soils is based on expert knowledge. However, there are still many uncertainties in this issue. Therefore characterization of actual degradation level of soil is required especially for assessment of long-term impact of soil erosion on soil fertility. Soil degradation by erosion can be effectively monitored or quantified by modern tools of remote sensing with variable level of detail accessible. Aims of our study is to analyse the applicability of remote sensing for monitoring of actual soil degradation by erosion. Satellite and aerial image data (multispectral and hyperspectral), terrain attributes and data from field investigation are the main source for this analyses. The first step was the delimitation of bare soils using supervised classification of the set of Landsat scenes from 2000 - 2014. The most suitable period of time for obtaining spectral image data with the lowest vegetation cover of soil was determined. The results were verified by

  7. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  8. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    -predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  9. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  10. Moderating Effects of Voluntariness on the Actual Use of Electronic Health Records for Allied Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Benny PS

    2015-01-01

    Background Mandatory versus voluntary requirement has moderating effect on a person’s intention to use a new information technology. Studies have shown that the use of technology in health care settings is predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence, facilitating conditions, and attitude towards computer. These factors have different effects on mandatory versus voluntary environment of use. However, the degree and direction of moderating effect of voluntariness on these factors remain inconclusive. Objective This study aimed to examine the moderating effect of voluntariness on the actual use of an electronic health record (EHR) designed for use by allied health professionals in Hong Kong. Specifically, this study explored and compared the moderating effects of voluntariness on factors organized into technology, implementation, and individual contexts. Methods Physiotherapists who had taken part in the implementation of a new EHR were invited to complete a survey. The survey included questions that measured the levels of voluntariness, technology acceptance and use, and attitude towards technology. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with actual use of a compulsory module and a noncompulsory module of the EHR. Results In total, there were 93 participants in the study. All of them had access to the noncompulsory module, the e-Progress Note, to record progress notes of their patients. Out of the 93 participants, 57 (62%) were required to use a compulsory module, the e-Registration, to register patient attendance. In the low voluntariness environment, Actual Use was associated with Effort Expectancy (mean score of users 3.51, SD 0.43; mean score of non-users 3.21, SD 0.31; P=.03). Effort Expectancy measured the perceived ease of use and was a variable in the technology context. The variables in the implementation and individual contexts did not show a difference between the two groups. In the high

  11. [Contradiction and intention of actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients].

    PubMed

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Actual Situation and Statistical Observation on Home Custody of Mental Patients (1918) by Kure and Kashida has diverse content but contains many contradictions. This book is a record of investigations performed by 15 psychiatrists regarding home custody of mental patients in 15 prefectures between 1910 and 1916. The book is written in archaic Japanese and contains a mixture of old Kanji characters and Katakana, so few people have read the entire book in recent years. We thoroughly read the book over 2 years, and presented the results of our investigation and analysis. The contents were initially published in Tokyo Journal of Medical Sciences as a series of 4 articles, and published as a book in 1918. The Department of the Interior distributed 100 copies of the book to relevant personnel. Until its dissolution in 1947, the Department of the Interior included the Police Department and had a great deal of authority. The Health and Welfare Ministry became independent from the Department of the Interior in 1938. Therefore, mental institutions were under the supervision of the police force for many years. At the time, an important task for police officers was to search for infectious disease patients and to seclude and restrain them. Thus, home custody for mental patients was also supervised under the direction of the Police Department. This book is a record of an external investigation performed by psychiatrists on home custody supervised by the police. When investigating the conditions, one of the psychiatrists obtained a copy of "Documents for mental patients under confinement" at the local police station. The contents of these documents included records of hearings by the police, as well as applications for confinement submitted by family members, as well as detailed specifications and drawings of the confinement room. With a local photographer, they traveled deep into the mountains to investigate the conditions under which mental patients were living. The book

  12. Time and frequency requirement for the earth and ocean physics applications program. [characteristics and orbital mechanics of artificial satellites for data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of time and frequency standards to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program (EOPAP) is discussed. The goals and experiments of the EOPAP are described. Methods for obtaining frequency stability and time synchronization are analyzed. The orbits, trajectories, and characteristics of the satellites used in the program are reported.

  13. 25 CFR 162.248 - What will BIA do if rent payments are not made in the time and manner required by an agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subpart. If the lease requires that rent payments be made to us, we will send the tenant and its sureties..., including collection on any available bond or referral of the debt to the Department of the Treasury for.... (c) Partial payments may be accepted by the Indian landowners or us, but acceptance will not...

  14. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L.

    1993-03-15

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  15. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses.

  16. How to actualize potential: a bioecological approach to talent development.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams-Ceci, Sterling; Williams, Wendy M

    2016-08-01

    Bioecological theory posits three interacting principles to explain developmental outcomes such as fluctuating achievement levels and changing heritability coefficients. Here, we apply the theory to the domain of talent development, by reviewing short-term and long-term cognitive interventions. We argue that macro-level analyses of cultural practices (e.g., matrilineal inheritance and property ownership) and national systems of education are consistent with the bioecological theory; when the findings from these analyses are unpacked, the engines that drive them are so-called proximal processes. This finding has implications for the design and delivery of instruction and the development of talent. We argue that talent is fostered by the same three bioecological mechanisms that explain the actualization of genetic potential. We conclude by discussing several self-descriptions and personal narratives by gifted students in which they spontaneously refer to these bioecological mechanisms in their own talent-development processes. Similar testimonials have been documented by historic talent researchers such as Benjamin Bloom, noting the importance of continual adjustments in feedback.

  17. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. PMID:24634058

  18. Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated and actual flight.

    PubMed

    Billings, C E; Gerke, R J; Wick, R L

    1975-03-01

    Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. The data from the airplane and simulator were compared. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight. It is concluded that the GAT-1 simulator is a useful and sensitive device for studies of the effects of mild stress on pilot performance, but extrapolation of simulator data to the flight environment must be approached with considerable caution.

  19. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  20. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.