Science.gov

Sample records for actual time required

  1. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  2. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index. PMID:15676672

  3. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  4. The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  5. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  6. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  9. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  10. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.221 - If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If I travel to another place in the U.S. (other than my actual place of residence) am I required to spend time at my actual place of residence to receive reimbursement? 302-3.221 Section 302-3.221 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  12. Testing two temporal upscaling schemes for the estimation of the time variability of the actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.

    2015-10-01

    Temporal availability of grapes actual evapotranspiration is an emerging issue since vineyards farms are more and more converted from rainfed to irrigated agricultural systems. The manuscript aims to verify the accuracy of the actual evapotranspiration retrieval coupling a single source energy balance approach and two different temporal upscaling schemes. The first scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the main input variables, namely the NDVI, albedo and LST; the second scheme tests the temporal upscaling of the energy balance output, the actual evapotranspiration. The temporal upscaling schemes were implemented on: i) airborne remote sensing data acquired monthly during a whole irrigation season over a Sicilian vineyard; ii) low resolution MODIS products released daily or weekly; iii) meteorological data acquired by standard gauge stations. Daily MODIS LST products (MOD11A1) were disaggregated using the DisTrad model, 8-days black and white sky albedo products (MCD43A) allowed modeling the total albedo, and 8-days NDVI products (MOD13Q1) were modeled using the Fisher approach. Results were validated both in time and space. The temporal validation was carried out using the actual evapotranspiration measured in situ using data collected by a flux tower through the eddy covariance technique. The spatial validation involved airborne images acquired at different times from June to September 2008. Results aim to test whether the upscaling of the energy balance input or output data performed better.

  13. Education and Decision Making at the Time of Triptan Prescribing: Patient Expectations vs Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Paul G.; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Lettich, Alyssa; Wells, Rebecca E.; Robertson, Carrie E.; Mullin, Kathleen; Charleston, Larry; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimizing patient satisfaction with their medical care and maximizing patient adherence with treatment plans requires an understanding of patient preferences regarding education and their role in decision making when treatments are prescribed. Objective To assess the congruence between patient expectations and actual practice regarding education and decision making at the time a triptan is prescribed. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional survey was performed by headache fellow members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium at their respective tertiary care headache clinics. Migraine patients who were new patients to the headache clinic and who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years) completed questionnaires that assessed the education they received and their role in decision making at the time a triptan was first prescribed as well as their desire for education and participation in decision making when a triptan is prescribed. Results Consistent with patient preference, most participants received the majority of their education about the triptan from the prescriber's office (70.2%). In descending rank order, participants most desired to be informed about how to decide if a triptan should be taken, when during the course of migraine a triptan should be taken, possible side effects, cost, and how to obtain refills. Regarding side effects, most participants preferred to receive education about the most common side effects of a triptan rather than addressing all possible side effects. Regarding triptan dosing, participants desired to be informed in descending order of importance about taking other medications with triptans, how many doses can be taken for each migraine, how many doses can be taken each week/month, what to do if the triptan does not work, and the triptan mechanism of action. The vast majority of

  14. Actual preoperative fasting time in Brazilian hospitals: the BIGFAST multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; de Almeida Dias, Ana L; Dock-Nascimento, Diana B; Correia, Maria Isabel TD; Campos, Antonio CL; Portari-Filho, Pedro Eder; Oliveira, Sergio S

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged fasting increases organic response to trauma. This multicenter study investigated the gap between the prescribed and the actual preoperative fasting times in Brazilian hospitals and factors associated with this gap. Methods Patients (18–90-years-old) who underwent elective operations between August 2011 and September 2012 were included in the study. The actual and prescribed times for fasting were collected and correlated with sex, age, surgical disease (malignancies or benign disease), operation type, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of hospital (public or private), and nutritional status. Results A total of 3,715 patients (58.1% females) with a median age of 49 (18–94) years from 16 Brazilian hospitals entered the study. The median (range) preoperative fasting time was 12 (2–216) hours, and fasting time was longer (P<0.001) in hospitals using a traditional fasting protocol (13 [6–216] hours) than in others that had adopted new guidelines (8 [2–48] hours). Almost 80% (n=2,962) of the patients were operated on after 8 or more hours of fasting and 46.2% (n=1,718) after more than 12 hours. Prolonged fasting was not associated with physical score, age, sex, type of surgery, or type of hospital. Patients operated on due to a benign disease had an extended duration of preoperative fasting. Conclusion Actual preoperative fasting time is significantly longer than prescribed fasting time in Brazilian hospitals. Most of these hospitals still adopt traditional rather than modern fasting guidelines. All patients are at risk of long periods of fasting, especially those in hospitals that follow traditional practices. PMID:24627636

  15. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the 'waterpipe' antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  16. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  18. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  19. Time interval moderates the relationship between psyching-up and actual sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi-Nassib, Sarra; Chtara, Moktar; Nassib, Sabri; Briki, Walid; Hammoudi-Riahi, Sabra; Tod, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-11-01

    This study attempted to test whether the strongest effect of psyching-up (PU) strategy on actual sprint performance can be observed when the strategy is used immediately (or almost) before performance compared with when there is a delay between PU and performance. To do so, 16 male sprinters (age, 20.6 ± 1.3 years; body mass, 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height, 180.8 ± 5.6 cm) were enrolled in a counterbalanced experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to 10 sessions (2 [Experimental Condition: imagery vs. distraction] × 5 [Time Intervals: no interval, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes]). Before performing the experimental tasks, participants rated: (a) the Hooper index, (b) their degree of self-confidence, and (c) after the completion of the experimental test; they rated their perceived effort. Findings showed that the imagery significantly improved sprint performance. Specifically, the imagery enhanced performance on the phase of acceleration (0-10 m) and on the overall sprint (0-30 m) when used immediately before performance and at 1- and 2-minute intervals but not for 3- and 5-minute intervals. These findings support the hypothesis that the potential effect of the PU strategy on performance vanishes over time. The pre-experimental task Hooper and self-efficacy indexes did not change across the 10 experimental sessions, reinforcing the view that the observed performance changes were directly caused by the experimental manipulation and not through any altered status of the athletes (self-efficacy, fatigue/recovery, and stress). The potential mechanisms underlying such a process and practical applications are discussed. PMID:25029002

  20. Investigation of response time testing requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, V.I. ); Mayo, C.W. ); Weiss, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the Response Time Testing (RTT) Program was to determine if requirements for RTT could be eliminated for specific pressure and differential pressure transmitters and switches. This program was initiated when experience and historical data from a significant number of nuclear power plants indicated that, while RTT is both resource and exposure intensive, an insignificant number of pressure sensor failures have been detected through this type of testing. Assessment of plant response time data and performance of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on sensor hardware were the mechanisms used by the program to determine the redundancy of RTT in conjunction with other required periodic testing (e.g., calibrations, channel checks, surveillance tests). In general, the FMEA results indicated RTT is redundant to other periodic tests. Results of the program identified only two response time failure modes and two manufacturing/handling defects that may not concurrently affect sensor output. The two failure modes affect a limited number of sensor models. Appropriate testing has been identified in cases where response time degradation may not be coincident with significant sensor output change. 14 refs., 19 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  2. Quantitative muscle strength testing: a comparison of job strength requirements and actual worker strength among military technicians.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D M; Clark, J A; Johns, R E; White, G L; Hoffman, S

    1989-01-01

    In this study the authors investigate the percentage of mismatch between job demands and worker physical capacity in Utah National Guard mechanics. This population had demonstrated a higher incidence of low back trouble than other job descriptions reviewed. The authors utilized onsite still and videotape photography and a computerized biomechanical strength prediction model to assess loads on the lumbosacral spine due to various job tasks. Job demands were then compared to the actual physical capacity of the individual workers based on static strength testing in job-related positions. A load cell on the testing apparatus entered the force generated into a computer which averaged the force of the last three seconds of a five-second lift. It was determined that as much as a 38% mismatch existed within this population for some job tasks which these workers were exposed to. Suggestions for preventing job-related low back cumulative trauma disorders are presented, including: engineering redesign, worker selection programs, work hardening, and others. PMID:2522169

  3. Time required for adaptation of protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals that can appropriately adjust to varying environmental and nutritional conditions possess a survival advantage. Maintaining homeostasis and homeorhesis in response to changing nutritional conditions requires flexibility in nutrient partitioning and efficiencies. This is especially the case f...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management... BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when...

  5. Simulation of yearly rainfall time series at microscale resolution with actual properties: Intermittency, scale invariance, and rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrour, Nawal; Chazottes, Aymeric; Verrier, Sébastien; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall is a physical phenomenon resulting from the combination of numerous physical processes involving a wide range of scales, from microphysical processes to the general circulation of the atmosphere. Moreover, unlike other geophysical variables such as water vapor concentration, rainfall is characterized by a relaxation behavior that leads to an alternation of wet and dry periods. It follows that rainfall is a complex process which is highly variable both in time and space. Precipitation is thus characterized by the following features: rain/no-rain intermittency, multiple scaling regimes, and extreme events. All these properties are difficult to model simultaneously, especially when a large time and/or space scale domain is required. The aim of this paper is to develop a simulator capable of generating high-resolution rain-rate time series (15 s), the main statistical properties of which are close to an observed rain-rate time series. We also attempt to develop a model having consistent properties even when the fine-resolution-simulated time series are aggregated to a coarser resolution. In order to break the simulation problem down into subcomponents, the authors have focused their attention on several key properties of rainfall. The simulator is based on a sequential approach in which, first, the simulation of rain/no-rain durations permits the retrieval of fractal properties of the rain support. Then, the generation of rain rates through the use of a multifractal, Fractionally Integrated Flux (FIF), model enables the restitution of the rainfall's multifractal properties. This second step includes a denormalization process that was added in order to generate realistic rain-rate distributions.

  6. Time clock requirements for hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Chen; Vilnai-Yavetz, Iris; Rafaeli, Anat; Zemel, Moran

    2016-06-01

    An agreement negotiated following a doctors' strike in 2011 introduced a requirement that physicians in Israel's public hospitals clock in and out when starting and leaving work. The press reported strong negative reactions to this policy and predicted doctors deserting hospitals en masse. This study examines physicians' reactions toward the clock-in/clock-out policy 6 months after its implementation, and assesses the relationship between these reactions and aspects of their employment context. 676 physicians in 42 hospitals responded to a survey assessing doctor's reactions toward the clock, hospital policy makers, and aspects of their work. Reactions to the clock were generally negative. Sense of calling correlated positively with negative reactions to the clock, and the latter correlated positively with quit intentions. However, overall, respondents reported a high sense of calling and low quit intentions. We suggest that sense of calling buffers and protects physicians from quit intentions. Differences in reactions to the clock were associated with different employment characteristics, but sense of calling did not vary by hospital size or type or by physicians' specialty. The findings offer insights into how physicians' working environment affects their reactions to regulatory interventions, and highlight medical professionalism as buffering reactions to unpopular regulatory policies. PMID:27142179

  7. Time required for gulf restoration uncertain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-05

    Hurricane Andrew's long term effect on Gulf of Mexico oil and gas operations likely won't be known until next year. This paper reports that while damage assessments have moved beyond the emergency stage, many offshore service companies say reliable estimates of the extent of damage or cost of repairs still are unavailable. The time needed to complete restorations won't be known conclusively until more organized surveys are complete. Even then, many contractors say, gulf operators must decide how to handle damage at each location-whether to repair damaged structures or replace them by applying technology not available when many of the fields were developed. Some damaged installations will not be replaced or restored, and the production will be lost.

  8. Principal's Organizational Activities: An Analysis of the Differences between Actual and Ideal Time Expenditures as a Function of Career Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the gap between elementary school principals' rankings on current and ideal allocations of time for staff, student, managerial, curriculum, strategic, fiscal, and community activities as a function of career stage. Most principals surveyed preferred to spend more time on curricular and strategic activities than they were…

  9. What do stream tracers actually measure? Parameterization of stream transport models with geophysics-based transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Stream solute tracers are a popular tool to quantify exchanges of water and solutes between the advection-dominated main channel and locations of temporary (commonly "transient") storage. Commonly, in-stream tracer time-series are interpreted with numerical models using assumed residence time distributions for the subsurface because the true distribution cannot be measured. Here, we use time-series analysis of geophysical images of hyporheic solute transport to assess the hyporheic residence time distribution in-situ. This residence time distribution is used to parameterize a numerical model of solute transport and hyporheic exchange. A best-fit is determined by adjusting the maximum observed residence time to consider. In this way, we develop a threshold to differentiate locations in the subsurface that contributed to the in-stream breakthrough curve from those that were beyond the window of detection. Finally, this threshold can be mapped onto the geophysical transect to visualize the physical extent of flowpaths contributing to the in-stream solute breakthrough curve. For the first time, we show the window of detection (a temporal concept) mapped onto a spatial domain.

  10. Time required to document temperature by electronic skin thermometer in a healthy neonate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananada Shankar; Chowdhury, T; Bandhopadhya, D; Ghosh, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    We studied the actual time taken to document temperature in a stable neonate by an electronic digital skin thermometer with automatic time beeper. We studied 100 neonates after initial stabilization. The mean time required for documenting the temperature by a electronic thermometer in axilla was 56.34+/-1.54 secs for term neonates (>2500g) and 54.87+/-1.23 secs for low birth weight (<2500g). The skin temperature measured simultaneously by the ordinary mercury thermometer kept for traditional 3 minutes supported the electronic measurement (P < 0.01). PMID:20061590

  11. Perception Versus Actual Performance in Timely Tissue Plasminogen Activation Administration in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheryl B; Cox, Margueritte; Olson, DaiWai M; Britz, Gavin W; Constable, Mark; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee; Peterson, Eric D; Shah, Bimal R

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely thrombolytic therapy can improve stroke outcomes. Nevertheless, the ability of US hospitals to meet guidelines for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains suboptimal. What is unclear is whether hospitals accurately perceive their rate of tPA “door-to-needle” (DTN) time within 60 minutes and how DTN rates compare across different hospitals. Methods and Results DTN performance was defined by the percentage of treated patients who received tPA within 60 minutes of arrival. Telephone surveys were obtained from staff at 141 Get With The Guidelines hospitals, representing top, middle, and lowDTN performance. Less than one-third (29.1%) of staff accurately identified their DTN performance. Among middle- and low-performing hospitals (n=92), 56 sites (60.9%) overestimated their performance; 42% of middle performers and 85% of low performers overestimated their performance. Sites that overestimated tended to have lower annual volumes of tPA administration (median 8.4 patients [25th to 75th percentile 5.9 to 11.8] versus 10.2 patients [25th to 75th percentile 8.2 to 17.3], P=0.047), smaller percentages of eligible patients receiving tPA (84.7% versus 89.8%, P=0.008), and smaller percentages of DTN ≤60 minutes among treated patients (10.6% versus 16.6%, P=0.002). Conclusions Hospitals often overestimate their ability to deliver timely tPA to treated patients. Our findings indicate the need to routinely provide comparative provider performance rates as a key step to improving the quality of acute stroke care. PMID:26201547

  12. Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Lee, D.-C.; Christensen, J.N.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the western North Atlantic record variations in the Nd and Pb isotopic composition of Cenozoic deep water preserved during their growth. The timing and cause of the most striking change have been the subject of debate. Some have proposed that the shift took place after 4 Ma in response to the closure of the Panama gateway. Others have argued that the major change in isotope composition occurred as early as 8 Ma. This study presents high-resolution Nd isotope records for crusts previously dated using 10Be/9Be chronology. These data confirm that the shifts in Nd occurred after 4 Ma, consistent with a likely relationship with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, and in accordance with changes seen in other physical and chemical records. These results illustrate the need for both a robust chronological framework and high-resolution records before a reliable paleoceanographic interpretation can be made of the variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts.

  13. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  14. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  15. Meeting Core Requirements through Efficient Time Management. Teaching Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven

    1997-01-01

    Using a basketball unit as an example, this paper presents a model to help middle school physical educators accomplish a proper warmup, stretch, and cardiovascular workout as required by state core requirements without sacrificing time for skills acquisition and play. Concepts of individual goal setting and goal achievement are an inherent part of…

  16. Time required to achieve homogeneity in swine feed mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, G J; Miller, E; King, M T; Perfetti, G A; Warner, C R; Adamo, N C; Sporn, E M

    1982-03-01

    FD&C Red No. 3 was mixed with 20 kg pig feed to give a concentration of 0.1%. A mixing time of 30 min was sufficient to achieve homogeneity for this mixture. For larger amounts or more flocculent types of additives, a longer time may be required. Ammoniated glycyrrhizin was mixed with 8 separate batches of pig feed at a concentration of 1%; 1 h was sufficient mixing time. PMID:7200977

  17. Estimates of the maximum time required to originate life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1989-01-01

    Fossils of the oldest microorganisms exist in 3.5 billion year old rocks and there is indirect evidence that life may have existed 3.8 billion years ago (3.8 Ga). Impacts able to destroy life or interrupt prebiotic chemistry may have occurred after 3.5 Ga. If large impactors vaporized the oceans, sterilized the planets, and interfered with the origination of life, life must have originated in the time interval between these impacts which increased with geologic time. Therefore, the maximum time required for the origination of life is the time that occurred between sterilizing impacts just before 3.8 Ga or 3.5 Ga, depending upon when life first appeared on earth. If life first originated 3.5 Ga, and impacts with kinetic energies between 2 x 10 the the 34th and 2 x 10 to the 35th were able to vaporize the oceans, using the most probable impact flux, it is found that the maximum time required to originate life would have been 67 to 133 million years (My). If life originated 3.8 Ga, the maximum time to originate life was 2.5 to 11 My. Using a more conservative estimate for the flux of impacting objects before 3.8 Ga, a maximum time of 25 My was found for the same range of impactor kinetic energies. The impact model suggests that it is possible that life may have originated more than once.

  18. Time frequency requirements for radio interferometric earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Two systems of VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) are now applicable to earth physics: an intercontinental baseline system using antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network, now observing at one-month intervals to determine UTI for spacecraft navigation; and a shorter baseline system called ARIES (Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying), to be used to measure crustal movement in California for earthquake hazards estimation. On the basis of experience with the existing DSN system, a careful study has been made to estimate the time and frequency requirements of both the improved intercontinental system and of ARIES. Requirements for the two systems are compared and contrasted.

  19. The time required to perform pediatric transthoracic echocardiographic studies.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S J; Lax, D; Peoples, W; Flinn, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the time required to perform and evaluate transthoracic pediatric echocardiographic procedures by two groups of pediatric cardiologists; one group was university based and the other group was based in a private practice. Methods consisted of measuring five periods including technician preparation time, technician procedure time, physician imaging time, physician review and reporting time, and physician time in interpretation of the results of the study to the parent or patient. The study evaluated data for 200 studies for the university-based group (all of which were complete studies) and 193 studies for the private practice group (84% of which were complete studies and the remainder were partial studies). Eleven pediatric cardiologists participated in the study. Although some variations in physician imaging and review time were encountered, data demonstrated that mean total physician time for a complete echocardiographic study was 31.9 minutes for both groups. Mean total technical time for complete studies was 42.4 minutes for the private group and 40.9 minutes for the university group. These are the first data evaluating the technical and physician work durations for pediatric echocardiography. PMID:9417219

  20. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that women had significantly higher temperature variations than men (p < 0.01) along the time. In men, only the body region of the abdomen obtained a significant variance (p < 0.05) on the analyzed period, both in the anterior and posterior part. In women, the anterior abdomen and thighs, and the posterior part of the hands, forearms and abdomen showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Based on our results, it can be concluded that the time in rest condition required reaching a TSK balance in young men and women is variable, but for whole body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  1. Time required to injection-lock spin torque nanoscale oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippard, William; Pufall, Matthew; Kos, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    We have injection-locked a spin-transfer oscillator to a second-harmonic electrical input signal and measured the relative phase and amplitude of the device output as a function of DC current under steady-state conditions. The relative phase of the device varies quasi-linearly with DC bias, although the averaged amplitude decreases significantly outside of the spectrally determined locking range. By pulsing the injected microwaves, the time required for the device to phase-lock to the injected signal was measured as a function of microwave amplitude. The locking time varied quasi-linearly over the range of amplitudes studied, with the shortest locking times being a few nanoseconds.

  2. Precondition of time required for the generation of methane hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezničák, Štefan; Malcho, Milan; Siažik, Ján

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with methane hydrates generated from natural gas. Methane hydrates in nature. Thermobaric conditions necessary for their generation from the natural gas, composition of december 2015 from the company SPP - distribúcia, a.s. It deals with the estimated time of their formation, at a constant pressures of 5, 10 and 15 MPa and at different subcooling temperature. Determination the temperature required for the generation of methane hydrates at these pressures and temperature range based on the equation from research by Kim et. al..

  3. Minimizing the area required for time constants in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    When a medium- or large-scale integrated circuit is designed, efforts are usually made to avoid the use of resistor-capacitor time constant generators. The capacitor needed for this circuit usually takes up more surface area on the chip than several resistors and transistors. When the use of this network is unavoidable, the designer usually makes an effort to see that the choice of resistor and capacitor combinations is such that a minimum amount of surface area is consumed. The optimum ratio of resistance to capacitance that will result in this minimum area is equal to the ratio of resistance to capacitance which may be obtained from a unit of surface area for the particular process being used. The minimum area required is a function of the square root of the reciprocal of the products of the resistance and capacitance per unit area. This minimum occurs when the area required by the resistor is equal to the area required by the capacitor.

  4. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtotpropto r-γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will only be of

  5. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  6. The Timing of Acupuncture Stimulation Does Not Influence Anesthetic Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akça, Ozan

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide generalized sedative and analgesic effects: Zusanli (St36), Sanyinjiao (Sp6), Liangqiu (St34), and Hegu (LI4). Needles were stimulated at 2-Hz and 10-Hz, with frequencies alternating at two-second intervals. On Preinduction day, electro-acupuncture was started 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and maintained throughout the study. On At-induction day, needles were positioned before induction of anesthesia, but electro-acupuncture stimulation was not initiated until after induction. On Control day, electrodes were positioned near the acupoints, but needles were not inserted. Noxious electrical stimulation was administered via 25-G needles on the upper abdomen (70 mA, 100 Hz, 10 seconds). Desflurane concentration was increased 0.5% when movement occurred and decreased 0.5% when it did not. These up-and-down sequences continued until volunteers crossed from movement to no-movement 4 times. The P50 of logistic regression identified desflurane requirement. Desflurane requirement was similar on the Control (5.2±0.6%, mean±SD), Preinduction (5.0±0.8%), and At-induction (4.7±0.3%, P=0.125) days. This type of acupuncture is thus unlikely to facilitate general anesthesia or decrease the need for anesthetic drugs. PMID:15673863

  7. Is It Time to Rethink Postgraduate Training Requirements for Licensure?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to postgraduate medical training have evolved substantially in recent years, reflecting the complexity of the educational mission. Residency programs seek to produce clinicians who achieve board certification as an attestation of their competency. Certification criteria are established by the American Board of Medical Specialties, are consistent from state to state, and include periods of supervised instruction ranging from as few as three years (for primary care specialties) to much longer for selected disciplines. In contrast, minimum postgraduate training criteria necessary for licensure as an independent practitioner are established by state medical boards and vary significantly among and within jurisdictions. In most states, licenses can be granted to individuals who have completed as little as one year of postgraduate training. The discrepancy between the minimum time commitment necessary to become a competent physician and that to be licensed as an independent practitioner has implications for health care quality and safety. Data are lacking as to the number of licenses issued nationally to individuals who have only partially completed residency training and the nature of practices they pursue. Extrapolating from available evidence, these individuals may very well provide care inferior to those who have satisfied training requirements for certification eligibility and be more prone to problematic behavior resulting in disciplinary action. Efforts to establish more rigorous licensure criteria will require dialog between members of the academic community, professional organizations, state medical boards, and legislatures. The recently proposed Interstate Medical Licensure Compact may serve as a prototype for achieving this goal. PMID:26445079

  8. Processing of indexical information requires time: Evidence from change deafness

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Donoso, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Studies of change detection have increased our understanding of attention, perception, and memory. In two innovative experiments we showed that the change detection phenomenon can be used to examine other areas of cognition—specifically, the processing of linguistic and indexical information in spoken words. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive resources must be used to process indexical information, whereas an alternative suggests that it is processed more slowly than linguistic information. Participants performed a lexical decision task and were asked whether the voice presenting the stimuli changed. Nonwords varying in their likeness to real words were used in the lexical decision task to encourage participants to vary the amount of cognitive resources/processing time. More cognitive resources/processing time are required to make a lexical decision with word-like nonwords. Participants who heard word-like nonwords were more likely to detect the change when it occurred (Experiment 1) and were more confident that the voice was the same when it did not change (Experiment 2). These results suggest that indexical information is processed more slowly than linguistic information and demonstrate how change detection can provide insight to other areas of cognition. PMID:21678230

  9. Reducing the Time Requirement of k-Means Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Adebiyi, Ezekiel Femi; Oyelade, Jelilli Olarenwaju; Doumbia, Seydou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional k-means and most k-means variants are still computationally expensive for large datasets, such as microarray data, which have large datasets with large dimension size d. In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space Rd and an integer k. The problem is to determine a set of k points in Rd, called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. In this work, we develop a novel k-means algorithm, which is simple but more efficient than the traditional k-means and the recent enhanced k-means. Our new algorithm is based on the recently established relationship between principal component analysis and the k-means clustering. We provided the correctness proof for this algorithm. Results obtained from testing the algorithm on three biological data and six non-biological data (three of these data are real, while the other three are simulated) also indicate that our algorithm is empirically faster than other known k-means algorithms. We assessed the quality of our algorithm clusters against the clusters of a known structure using the Hubert-Arabie Adjusted Rand index (ARIHA). We found that when k is close to d, the quality is good (ARIHA>0.8) and when k is not close to d, the quality of our new k-means algorithm is excellent (ARIHA>0.9). In this paper, emphases are on the reduction of the time requirement of the k-means algorithm and its application to microarray data due to the desire to create a tool for clustering and malaria research. However, the new clustering algorithm can be used for other clustering needs as long as an appropriate measure of distance between the centroids and the members is used. This has been demonstrated in this work on six non-biological data. PMID:23239974

  10. Reducing the time requirement of k-means algorithm.

    PubMed

    Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Adebiyi, Ezekiel Femi; Oyelade, Jelilli Olarenwaju; Doumbia, Seydou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional k-means and most k-means variants are still computationally expensive for large datasets, such as microarray data, which have large datasets with large dimension size d. In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space R(d) and an integer k. The problem is to determine a set of k points in R(d), called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. In this work, we develop a novel k-means algorithm, which is simple but more efficient than the traditional k-means and the recent enhanced k-means. Our new algorithm is based on the recently established relationship between principal component analysis and the k-means clustering. We provided the correctness proof for this algorithm. Results obtained from testing the algorithm on three biological data and six non-biological data (three of these data are real, while the other three are simulated) also indicate that our algorithm is empirically faster than other known k-means algorithms. We assessed the quality of our algorithm clusters against the clusters of a known structure using the Hubert-Arabie Adjusted Rand index (ARI(HA)). We found that when k is close to d, the quality is good (ARI(HA)>0.8) and when k is not close to d, the quality of our new k-means algorithm is excellent (ARI(HA)>0.9). In this paper, emphases are on the reduction of the time requirement of the k-means algorithm and its application to microarray data due to the desire to create a tool for clustering and malaria research. However, the new clustering algorithm can be used for other clustering needs as long as an appropriate measure of distance between the centroids and the members is used. This has been demonstrated in this work on six non-biological data. PMID:23239974

  11. Instructor Time Requirements to Develop and Teach Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    How much time does it take to teach an online course? Does teaching online take more or less time than teaching face-to-face? Instructors, department chairs, deans, and program administrators have long believed that teaching online is more time-consuming than teaching face-to-face. Many research studies and practitioner articles indicate…

  12. How Much Time Is Required for Using Evaluation Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Rebecca; Roecks, Alan

    The activities and procedures for Education Service Center, Region 20, Evaluation Services' time accounting system are described. Each individual in the evaluation component at the end of the working day records his or her time spent on an activity. This is done through the use of the time accounting form which is completed and turned in weekly to…

  13. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  14. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  15. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  16. Requirements for Real-Time Laboratory Experimentation over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzmann, C.; Latchman, H. A.; Gillet, D.; Crisalle, O. D.

    A prototype system based on an inverted pendulum is used to study the Quality of Service and discuss requirements of remote-experimentation systems utilized for carrying out control engineering experiments over the Internet. This class of applications involves the transmission over the network of a variety of data types with their own peculiar…

  17. Corticospinal excitability is reduced in a simple reaction time task requiring complex timing.

    PubMed

    Kennefick, Michael; Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2016-07-01

    Increasing the complexity of a movement has been shown to result in longer simple reaction time (RT), which has been attributed to sequencing or timing requirements following the go-signal. However, RT differences may also be due to differences in corticospinal excitability (CE) as previous studies have found an enhanced excitatory state of corticospinal neurons in complex tasks. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used in the present study to probe the excitability of the motor pathway during the simple RT interval for single (simple) versus multiple (complex) key press responses. Premotor RT data indicated that participants responded significantly (p<.001) faster in the simple task compared to the complex task, confirming response complexity was manipulated appropriately. Analysis of the CE data indicated that motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes increased with time following the go-signal in both conditions and that MEP amplitudes in the simple task were significantly larger than those in the complex task when evoked within 75ms of movement onset (p=.009). These findings suggest that the rate of increase for initiation-related neural activation is reduced for complex as compared to simple movements, which may partially explain differences in RT. PMID:27064075

  18. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  19. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  20. PPP/nonreal-time trajectory program interface requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgavern, J. L.; Arbet, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The selection process for interfacing a nonreal time trajectory program with the procedures and performance program is outlined; the interface provides summary data timelines for any desired trajectory profile. Consideration was given to two separate digital programs for satisfying capabilities. One was the CDC 6400 digital program BANDITO, and the second was the UNIVAC 1110 SVDS program.

  1. 50 CFR 424.17 - Time limits and required actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.17 Time limits and... whether a species is an endangered or threatened species, or to designate or revise critical habitat, the... except on the basis of sufficient new information that warrants a reproposal. (b) Critical...

  2. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offers next day delivery to Washington, DC. If the e-filing option is chosen (for those pleadings and documents that are appropriate for e-filing, as determined by reference to the information on the Board's Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  3. 49 CFR 1104.6 - Timely filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offers next day delivery to Washington, DC. If the e-filing option is chosen (for those pleadings and documents that are appropriate for e-filing, as determined by reference to the information on the Board's Web site), then the e-filed pleading or document is timely filed if the e-filing process is...

  4. 50 CFR 424.17 - Time limits and required actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.17 Time limits and... whether a species is an endangered or threatened species, or to designate or revise critical habitat,...

  5. Time required for a sphere to fall through a funnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, J.; Altschul, B.; Crittenden, S.

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally test a recently proposed theory of the behavior of a single frictional, inelastic, spherical particle falling under gravity through a symmetric funnel. We find that, while many qualitative results of the theory are supported by the data, the quantitative behavior of a real sphere falling through a real funnel differs from the predictions. The behavior above a 45∘ funnel angle, the duration, and the dependence of the duration on the initial horizontal position all show significant deviations from the predicted results. In particular, for drop positions near the gap, the duration of the fall is often significantly less than predicted for 50∘ and 60∘ funnel angles; and at a 60∘ funnel angle, where the data best matches the model, the R2 goodness of fit is only 0.27. The fit can be significantly improved for 60∘ funnel angle by relaxing the most stringent approximation of the theory, which asserts that the transition from slipping to rolling is governed by a single constant parameter, β, independent of impact speed and angle. We conclude that, although the theory captures most of the key features of the dynamics of a ball falling through a funnel, it does not do so with quantitative accuracy, indicating that for commonly encountered balls and drop heights, a more realistic model of particle collisions is required.

  6. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P. Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K.

    2013-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  7. 78 FR 54252 - Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements-One Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... FR 58389, for the number of respondents required to comply with the requirements of FAR subpart 4.15... Register on September 24, 2010, at 75 FR 58389. No public comments were received in prior years that have...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-- Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  8. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  9. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Domestic Operations § 121.471 Flight time limitations and rest...

  10. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  12. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Domestic Operations § 121.471 Flight time limitations and rest...

  13. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  14. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  15. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  17. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  18. On the actual variety of plate dynamical mechanisms and how mantle evolution affected them through time, from core formation to the Indian collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2010-05-01

    If horizontal plate motions were driven by thermal convection of the mantle, they would display the action of slow-to-change body forces. Yet rapid changes of spreading rate and direction, and ridge jumps, are well-documented for the past 130Ma. Also convection cannot readily cause rotations of a plate (e.g. Africa) about a pole within the plate or near it. And plate motions, especially that of India, scarcely fit a convective pattern. To address these problems we look first at mantle motivation at both ends of earth history, beginning with core formation. I then introduce 3 important properties of mantle materials, whose neglect by mantle modellers has surely impaired the value of their work, but whose recognition illuminates the present plate dynamical situation and provides the Earth with a heat engine that is not thermal convection. Finally I sketch the intervening changes in behaviour over time, the sharpest of which brought about the rise of atmospheric oxygen at ~2.25Ga. Core formation. As the very high specific angular momentum of mean planetary material (>105-fold relative to solar) can only be achieved if the planets were wholly accreted in presence of the nebula [1], the iron percolation model is ruled out, because it takes too long. This validates the A.E.Ringwood model (1960-1978) involving nebular H reaction with erupting FeO. The iron then loads the downgoing limb of what is then not a truly thermal convection system. Huge volumes of reaction water were produced, giving the early Earth a wet mantle, a (diminishing) feature that we'll see has constrained mantle behaviour ever since. Plate dynamics since 150Ma. Multiple plate dynamical evidence [2], which will be rapidly re-presented here, shows that currently (a) the Earth has a 2-layer mantle system with a boundary at ~660km and (b) that most cratons have tectospheric keels that reach right to that boundary, or nearly so. The argument is the simple and persuasive one (even to seismologists) of mantle

  19. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  20. 30 CFR 48.23 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method for disapproval; commencement of training; approval of instructors. 48.23 Section 48.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING...

  1. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method for disapproval; commencement of training; approval of instructors. 48.3 Section 48.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING...

  2. 30 CFR 48.23 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method for disapproval; commencement of training; approval of instructors. 48.23 Section 48.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING...

  3. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method for disapproval; commencement of training; approval of instructors. 48.3 Section 48.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING...

  4. Prediction of energy requirements and drying times for surface drying fresh produce

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    For numerous fresh fruits and vegetables, drying of surface adhering water is required to facilitate materials handling and wax treatments. Using humidity ratio difference and air flow rates as manipulated variables, a computer program and a graphical approach were developed to predict required drying time. Modeling results were extended to investigate air recycling and the relationship of recycling on energy requirements.

  5. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting method. 610.404 Section 610.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible...

  6. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest....

  7. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest....

  8. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  9. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  10. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  11. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  12. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  13. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  14. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  15. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  16. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  17. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  19. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  20. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  1. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  2. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  3. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  4. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  5. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  9. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 16.4 Section 16.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.4 Times, places, and requirements...

  11. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-08-26

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems.

  12. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.4 Times, places, and requirements...

  13. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  14. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  15. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under this... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting...

  16. What Actually Happened.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An ethics consult was scheduled for the following day. Prior to the consult, Mr. Hope subsequently decompensated and was transferred to the local hospital. The ethics consultation service continued with the ethics consult to discuss the ethical concerns of the medical staff but in particular to create an open forum for the staff to process their moral distress over the care of this patient and to come to an agreed-on plan on how they would proceed should the resident code. The patient never returned to the long-term care setting. While in the emergency room, the patient took a turn for the worse and appeared to require intubation. The emergency room attending physician contacted the patient's family and discussed the imminent likelihood of the patient's demise and the potential harm caused to the patient by resuscitation and intubation, and the family agreed to switch to comfort measures, allowing the patient to pass peacefully. The family stated to the ER physician that they needed to feel as though they had done everything they could to keep their loved one alive and did not want any responsibility for his death. The staff at the long-term care setting still remember Mr. Hope in their daily work and talk about him often. PMID:27348844

  17. 31 CFR 357.29 - Time required for processing transaction request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.29 Time required for processing transaction request. For purposes of a transaction...

  18. 31 CFR 357.29 - Time required for processing transaction request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.29 Time required for processing...

  19. 31 CFR 357.29 - Time required for processing transaction request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.29 Time required for processing transaction request. For purposes of a transaction...

  20. 31 CFR 357.29 - Time required for processing transaction request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.29 Time required for processing transaction request. For purposes of a transaction...

  1. 31 CFR 357.29 - Time required for processing transaction request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.29 Time required for processing transaction request. For purposes of a transaction...

  2. Preliminary Space VLBI Requirements for Observing Time on Ground Radio Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, David L.; Murphy, David W.; Preston, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An initial estimate has been made of the observing time required on ground radio telescopes by the space VLBI missions Radioastron and VSOP. Typical science programs have been adopted for both missions.

  3. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  4. Predictors of time to requiring dopaminergic treatment in 2 Parkinson's disease cohorts.

    PubMed

    Marras, Connie; McDermott, Michael P; Marek, Ken; Rochon, Paula; Naglie, Gary; Tanner, Caroline M; Rudolph, Alice; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E

    2011-03-01

    The rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Knowledge of factors associated with disease milestones and commonly used research outcome measures helps with patient counseling and guides the design and interpretation of clinical studies. The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors for time to acquiring disability requiring dopaminergic therapy that are reproducible within 2 large prospectively followed cohorts. Potential prognostic factors were identified using data from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial, and their reproducibility was examined using data from the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 trial (PRECEPT). In multivariable analyses of the DATATOP cohort, higher baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, full-time employment, a lesser smoking history, and onset on the left side were associated with a shorter time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy. PRECEPT data confirmed the associations of higher baseline UPDRS scores and full-time employment with shorter time to requiring treatment. Any clinical trial using the end point of time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy should ensure that groups are well balanced with respect to baseline UPDRS scores and the proportion of subjects employed full time and should consider including these variables as covariates in the statistical model for primary analysis of treatment effects. We suspect that individuals employed full time may have a lower threshold for requiring dopaminergic therapy because of occupational demands. PMID:21287602

  5. 30 CFR 816.101 - Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements. 816.101 Section 816.101 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.101 Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, rough backfilling and grading for surface mining...

  6. 30 CFR 816.101 - Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. 816.101 Section 816.101 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.101 Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, rough backfilling and grading for surface mining...

  7. 30 CFR 816.101 - Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements. 816.101 Section 816.101 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.101 Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, rough backfilling and grading for surface mining...

  8. 30 CFR 816.101 - Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements. 816.101 Section 816.101 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.101 Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, rough backfilling and grading for surface mining...

  9. 30 CFR 816.101 - Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements. 816.101 Section 816.101 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.101 Backfilling and grading: Time and distance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, rough backfilling and grading for surface mining...

  10. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting method. 610.404 Section 610.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for...

  11. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting method. 610.404 Section 610.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for...

  12. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement for time-accounting method. 610.404 Section 610.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for...

  13. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  14. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  15. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  16. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  17. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  18. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  19. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  20. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  1. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of the imposition of data requirements. 161.30 Section 161.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  2. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of the imposition of data requirements. 161.30 Section 161.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  3. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of the imposition of data requirements. 161.30 Section 161.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  4. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  5. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon SONSat the FOSC's request. 75 FR 37712. The rule also confirmed that...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater.... Oil Spill Response Resources Return Time Several comments noted concerns about the return of assets...

  6. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  7. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) temporary interim rule will suspend oil spill response time...

  8. Precise time technology for selected Air Force systems: Present status and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yannoni, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology is becoming increasingly significant to Air Force operations as digital techniques find expanded utility in military missions. Timing has a key role in the function as well as in navigation. A survey of the PTTI needs of several Air Force systems is presented. Current technology supporting these needs was reviewed and new requirements are emphasized for systems as they transfer from initial development to final operational deployment.

  9. In-season time series analysis of Resourcesat-1 AWiFS data for estimating irrigation water requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. V.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Roy, P. S.

    2008-06-01

    AWiFS sensor on board IRS-P6 (Resourcesat-1), with its unique features—wide swath and 5-day revisit capability provides excellent opportunities to carry out in-season analysis of irrigated agriculture. The study carried out in Hirakud command area, Orissa State indicated that the progression of rice crop acreage could be mapped through analysis of time series AWiFS data set. The spectral emergence pattern of rice crop was found useful to identify the period of rice transplantation and its variability across the command area. This information, integrated with agro-meteorological data, was used to quantify 10-daily canal-wise irrigation water requirement. A comparison with field measured actual irrigation supplies indicated an overall supply adequacy of 88% and showed wide variability at lateral canal level ranging between 18% and 109%. The supply pattern also did not correspond with the chronological variations associated with crop water requirement, supplies were 15% excess during initial part of season (December and January) and were 20.1% deficit during later part of season (February to April). Rescheduling the excess supplies of the initial period could have reduced the deficit to 15% during peak season. The study has demonstrated the usefulness of AWiFS data to generate the irrigation water requirement by mid-season, subsequent to which 38% supplies were yet to be allocated. This would support the irrigation managers to reschedule the irrigation water supplies to achieve better synchronization between requirement and supply leading to improved water use efficiency.

  10. Compensation for Blur Requires Increase in Field of View and Viewing Time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, MiYoung; Liu, Rong; Chien, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution is an important factor for human pattern recognition. In particular, low resolution (blur) is a defining characteristic of low vision. Here, we examined spatial (field of view) and temporal (stimulus duration) requirements for blurry object recognition. The spatial resolution of an image such as letter or face, was manipulated with a low-pass filter. In experiment 1, studying spatial requirement, observers viewed a fixed-size object through a window of varying sizes, which was repositioned until object identification (moving window paradigm). Field of view requirement, quantified as the number of "views" (window repositions) for correct recognition, was obtained for three blur levels, including no blur. In experiment 2, studying temporal requirement, we determined threshold viewing time, the stimulus duration yielding criterion recognition accuracy, at six blur levels, including no blur. For letter and face recognition, we found blur significantly increased the number of views, suggesting a larger field of view is required to recognize blurry objects. We also found blur significantly increased threshold viewing time, suggesting longer temporal integration is necessary to recognize blurry objects. The temporal integration reflects the tradeoff between stimulus intensity and time. While humans excel at recognizing blurry objects, our findings suggest compensating for blur requires increased field of view and viewing time. The need for larger spatial and longer temporal integration for recognizing blurry objects may further challenge object recognition in low vision. Thus, interactions between blur and field of view should be considered for developing low vision rehabilitation or assistive aids. PMID:27622710

  11. Proof that timing requirements of the FDDI token ring protocol are satisfied. [fiber distributed data interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) is an ANSI draft proposed standard for a 100 Mbit/s fiber-optic token ring. The FDDI timed token access protocol provides dynamic adjustment of the load offered to the ring, with the goal of maintaining a specified token rotation time and of providing a guaranteed upper bound on time between successive arrivals of the token at a station. FDDI also provides automatic recovery when errors occur. The bound on time between successive token arrivals is guaranteed only if the token rotates quickly enough to satisfy timer requirements in each station when all ring resources are functioning properly. Otherwise, recovery would be initiated unnecessarily. The purpose of this paper is to prove that FDDI timing requirements are satisfied, i.e., the token rotates quickly enough to prevent initiation of recovery unless there is failure of a physical resource or unless the network management entity within a station initiates the recovery process.

  12. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  13. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  14. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  15. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  16. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  17. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  18. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  19. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  20. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  1. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  2. 12 CFR 310.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.4 Times, places, and requirements... appearing in person on weekdays, other than official holidays, at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation....m. (b) Individuals appearing in person at the Corporation seeking access to or amendment of...

  3. 12 CFR 310.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.4 Times, places, and requirements... Deposit Insurance Corporation, 550 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20429, between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) Individuals appearing in person at the Corporation seeking access to or amendment...

  4. 12 CFR 310.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.4 Times, places, and requirements... appearing in person on weekdays, other than official holidays, at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation....m. (b) Individuals appearing in person at the Corporation seeking access to or amendment of...

  5. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  6. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  7. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  8. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  11. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  12. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  13. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  14. 45 CFR 1705.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests. 1705.4 Section 1705.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS §...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers. 91.1057 Section 91.1057 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers. 91.1057 Section 91.1057 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest...

  17. Localization, characterization and candidate gene discovery for genes controlling dormancy, chilling requirement, bloom time, and heat requirement in Prunus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial fruiting trees require sustained exposure to low, near freezing, temperatures before vigorous floral and vegetative bud break is possible after the resumption of warm temperatures in the spring. The depth of dormancy, duration of chilling required (the chilling requirement, CR) blooming da...

  18. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  19. Vacuum-venipuncture skills: time required and importance of tube order

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess specific vacuum-venipuncture skills and the influence of the time involved in skin puncture and blood collection. Methods Thirty subjects undergoing venipuncture in which video analysis was possible were included. These procedures were carried out by four nurses and recorded with a digital camera. Venipuncture skills classified by our observations were delineated on the basis of frame-by-frame video images, and a graph of x and y coordinates was created. Results With the first blood-collection tube, strong blood flow required the practitioner to push the tube back in to compensate for the strong repulsive force in approximately 46% of cases. By the third blood-collection tube, the blood flow had weakened; therefore, the tube was moved up and down. In cases that required a second venipuncture, the tube was already pierced, so the time required to fill it to 5 mL was significantly longer. Conclusion Hand movement of the practitioner is adjusted according to blood flow. Reflex movement in response to strong blood flow may increase the risk of pushing the needle through the vein with excessive force. The time required to fill the tube varies among nurses, tube order, and level of venipuncture skills. PMID:23966786

  20. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms. PMID:24693654

  1. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  2. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    The results of government study of long range liquid hydrogen (LH2) requirements for the time period of 1995 through the year 2005 are presented. To assure an adequate supply of LH2 is available in support of various programs, it is imperative a long range projection of LH2 requirements be developed and maintained. This information is vital in planning for necessary procurement actions and assuring adequate industry lead time to acquiring the necessary production and distribution capabilities. The Advanced Launch System and High-Altitude Long-Endurance programs may represent the predominant government needs for LH2 in the long range. The assembled data clearly indicates a need for KSC (Kennedy Space Center) constant program/project surveillance. Also clear is the need for KSC to monitor industry's plans for LH2 plant production and distribution expansion.

  3. Time-dependent ambulance allocation considering data-driven empirically required coverage.

    PubMed

    Degel, Dirk; Wiesche, Lara; Rachuba, Sebastian; Werners, Brigitte

    2015-12-01

    Empirical studies considering the location and relocation of emergency medical service (EMS) vehicles in an urban region provide important insight into dynamic changes during the day. Within a 24-hour cycle, the demand, travel time, speed of ambulances and areas of coverage change. Nevertheless, most existing approaches in literature ignore these variations and require a (temporally and spatially) fixed (double) coverage of the planning area. Neglecting these variations and fixation of the coverage could lead to an inaccurate estimation of the time-dependent fleet size and individual positioning of ambulances. Through extensive data collection, now it is possible to precisely determine the required coverage of demand areas. Based on data-driven optimization, a new approach is presented, maximizing the flexible, empirically determined required coverage, which has been adjusted for variations due to day-time and site. This coverage prevents the EMS system from unavailability of ambulances due to parallel operations to ensure an improved coverage of the planning area closer to realistic demand. An integer linear programming model is formulated in order to locate and relocate ambulances. The use of such a programming model is supported by a comprehensive case study, which strongly suggests that through such a model, these objectives can be achieved and lead to greater cost-effectiveness and quality of emergency care. PMID:24609684

  4. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  5. The ATP costs and time required to degrade ubiquitinated proteins by the 26 S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Peth, Andreas; Nathan, James A; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    The degradation of ubiquitinated proteins by 26 S proteasomes requires ATP hydrolysis. To investigate if the six proteasomal ATPases function independently or in a cyclic manner, as proposed recently, we used yeast mutants that prevent ATP binding to Rpt3, Rpt5, or Rpt6. Although proteasomes contain six ATPase subunits, each of these single mutations caused a 66% reduction in basal ATP hydrolysis, and each blocked completely the 2-3-fold stimulation of ATPase activity induced by ubiquitinated substrates. Therefore, the ATPase subunits must function in a ordered manner, in which each is required for the stimulation of ATPase activity by substrates. Although ATP is essential for multiple steps in proteasome function, when the rate of ATP hydrolysis was reduced incrementally, the degradation of Ub5-DHFR (where Ub is ubiquitin and DHFR is dihydrofolate reductase) decreased exactly in parallel. This direct proportionality implies that a specific number of ATPs is consumed in degrading a ubiquitinated protein. When the ubiquitinated DHFR was more tightly folded (upon addition of the ligand folate), the rate of ATP hydrolysis was unchanged, but the time to degrade a Ub5-DHFR molecule (∼13 s) and the energy expenditure (50-80 ATPs/Ub5-DHFR) both increased by 2-fold. With a mutation in the ATPase C terminus that reduced gate opening into the 20 S proteasome, the energy costs and time required for conjugate degradation also increased. Thus, different ubiquitin conjugates activate similarly the ATPase subunit cycle that drives proteolysis, but polypeptide structure determines the time required for degradation and thus the energy cost. PMID:23965995

  6. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  7. 75 FR 17919 - Submission for OMB Review; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-One-time Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors. A request for public comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors...

  8. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... and Rest Requirements § 135.269 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and... may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a three- or four-pilot crew if...

  9. Histone hypoacetylation is required to maintain late replication timing of constitutive heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Casas-Delucchi, Corella S; van Bemmel, Joke G; Haase, Sebastian; Herce, Henry D; Nowak, Danny; Meilinger, Daniela; Stear, Jeffrey H; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The replication of the genome is a spatio-temporally highly organized process. Yet, its flexibility throughout development suggests that this process is not genetically regulated. However, the mechanisms and chromatin modifications controlling replication timing are still unclear. We made use of the prominent structure and defined heterochromatic landscape of pericentric regions as an example of late replicating constitutive heterochromatin. We manipulated the major chromatin markers of these regions, namely histone acetylation, DNA and histone methylation, as well as chromatin condensation and determined the effects of these altered chromatin states on replication timing. Here, we show that manipulation of DNA and histone methylation as well as acetylation levels caused large-scale heterochromatin decondensation. Histone demethylation and the concomitant decondensation, however, did not affect replication timing. In contrast, immuno-FISH and time-lapse analyses showed that lowering DNA methylation, as well as increasing histone acetylation, advanced the onset of heterochromatin replication. While dnmt1(-)(/)(-) cells showed increased histone acetylation at chromocenters, histone hyperacetylation did not induce DNA demethylation. Hence, we propose that histone hypoacetylation is required to maintain normal heterochromatin duplication dynamics. We speculate that a high histone acetylation level might increase the firing efficiency of origins and, concomitantly, advances the replication timing of distinct genomic regions. PMID:21908399

  10. Histone hypoacetylation is required to maintain late replication timing of constitutive heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Delucchi, Corella S.; van Bemmel, Joke G.; Haase, Sebastian; Herce, Henry D.; Nowak, Danny; Meilinger, Daniela; Stear, Jeffrey H.; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The replication of the genome is a spatio-temporally highly organized process. Yet, its flexibility throughout development suggests that this process is not genetically regulated. However, the mechanisms and chromatin modifications controlling replication timing are still unclear. We made use of the prominent structure and defined heterochromatic landscape of pericentric regions as an example of late replicating constitutive heterochromatin. We manipulated the major chromatin markers of these regions, namely histone acetylation, DNA and histone methylation, as well as chromatin condensation and determined the effects of these altered chromatin states on replication timing. Here, we show that manipulation of DNA and histone methylation as well as acetylation levels caused large-scale heterochromatin decondensation. Histone demethylation and the concomitant decondensation, however, did not affect replication timing. In contrast, immuno-FISH and time-lapse analyses showed that lowering DNA methylation, as well as increasing histone acetylation, advanced the onset of heterochromatin replication. While dnmt1−/− cells showed increased histone acetylation at chromocenters, histone hyperacetylation did not induce DNA demethylation. Hence, we propose that histone hypoacetylation is required to maintain normal heterochromatin duplication dynamics. We speculate that a high histone acetylation level might increase the firing efficiency of origins and, concomitantly, advances the replication timing of distinct genomic regions. PMID:21908399

  11. Correlations between time required for radiological diagnoses, readers' performance, display environments, and difficulty of cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Rockette, Howard E.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Hoy, Ronald J.; Feist, John H.; Thaete, F. Leland; King, Jill L.; Slasky, B. S.; Miketic, Linda M.; Straub, William H.

    1991-07-01

    In a series of large ROC studies, the authors analyzed the time radiologists took to diagnose PA chest images as a function of observer performance indices (Az), display environments, and difficulty of cases. Board-certified radiologists interpreted at least 600 images each for the presence or absence of one or more of the following abnormalities: interstitial disease, nodule, and pneumothorax. Results indicated that there exists a large inter- reader variability in the time required to diagnose PA chest images. There is no correlation between a reader's specific median reading time and his/her performance. Time generally increases as the number of abnormalities on a single image increases and for cases with subtle abnormalities. Results also indicated that, in general, the longer the time for interpretation of a specific case (within reader), the further the observer's confidence ratings were from the truth. These findings were found to hold true regardless of the display mode. These results may have implications with regards to the appropriate methodology that should be used for imaging systems evaluations and for measurements of productivity for radiologists.

  12. Relation between acid dissolution time in the vacuum test tube and time required for graphitization for AMS target preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yousuke; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tsunomori, Fumiaki

    2007-06-01

    Availability of an effective graphitization system is essential for the successful operation of an AMS laboratory for radiocarbon measurements. We have set up a graphitization system consisting of metal vacuum lines for cleaning CO2 sample gas which is then converted to graphite. CO2 gas from a carbonate sample is produced in vacuum in a test tube by injecting concentrated phosphoric acid. The tube is placed into a heated metal block to accelerate dissolution. However, we have observed systematic differences in the time required to convert the CO2 gas to graphite under a hydrogen atmosphere, from less than 3 h to over 10 h. We have conducted a series of experiments including background measurements and yield measurements to monitor secondary carbon contamination and changes in isotopic fractionation. All of the tests show that the carbon isotope ratios remain unaffected by the duration of the process. We also used a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to identify possible contaminant gases. Contaminant peaks were identified at high mass (larger than 60) only for long duration experiments. This suggests a possible reaction between the rubber cap and acid fumes producing a contaminant gas that impeded the reduction of CO2.

  13. An analysis of thermal response factors and how to reduce their computational time requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Te RESFAC2 version of the Thermal Response Factor Program (RESFAC) is the result of numerous modifications and additions to the original RESFAC. These modifications and additions have significantly reduced the program's computational time requirement. As a result of this work, the program is more efficient and its code is both readable and understandable. This report describes what a thermal response factor is; analyzes the original matrix algebra calculations and root finding techniques; presents a new root finding technique and streamlined matrix algebra; supplies ten validation cases and their results.

  14. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  15. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  16. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.269 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three-...

  17. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  18. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.269 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three-...

  19. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L.; Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.

    2014-02-01

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  20. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L.; Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.

    2014-02-12

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  1. Addressing the real-time synchronization requirements of multimedia in an object-oriented framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathomas, Michael; Blair, Gordon S.; Coulson, Geoff; Robin, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    It is now recognized that object-oriented techniques are well suited to the design and implementation of multimedia applications. Objects may be used to encapsulate the great variety of hardware devices used in such applications and to abstract over the details of low level interfaces. Furthermore, complex media processing algorithms, such as compression/decompression, may be encapsulated within objects making them easier to reuse across applications. Real-time synchronization is also an essential aspect of multimedia which arises from the inherently temporal properties of media such as audio and video. In this paper, we propose a set of programming abstractions and an approach to address real-time synchronization requirements in an object-oriented framework. In our approach, active objects encapsulate media processing activities. Real-time synchronization is maintained by reactive objects that control the execution of media processing objects. A key advantage of our approach is that it allows the separation of synchronization from the behavior of objects. Both objects and synchronization specifications may be reused in different contexts. In addition, the approach enables the specification of real-time synchronization in a high-level notation that has proven well suited to this task.

  2. Conserved Promoter Motif Is Required for Cell Cycle Timing of dnaX Transcription in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Keiler, Kenneth C.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2001-01-01

    Cells use highly regulated transcriptional networks to control temporally regulated events. In the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, many cellular processes are temporally regulated with respect to the cell cycle, and the genes required for these processes are expressed immediately before the products are needed. Genes encoding factors required for DNA replication, including dnaX, dnaA, dnaN, gyrB, and dnaK, are induced at the G1/S-phase transition. By analyzing mutations in the dnaX promoter, we identified a motif between the −10 and −35 regions that is required for proper timing of gene expression. This motif, named RRF (for repression of replication factors), is conserved in the promoters of other coordinately induced replication factors. Because mutations in the RRF motif result in constitutive gene expression throughout the cell cycle, this sequence is likely to be the binding site for a cell cycle-regulated transcriptional repressor. Consistent with this hypothesis, Caulobacter extracts contain an activity that binds specifically to the RRF in vitro. PMID:11466289

  3. Time required to determine performance variables and production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Haim, A; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Adin, G; Tamir, A; Arieli, A; Halachmi, I; Moallem, U; Orlov, A; Brosh, A

    2014-07-01

    Thirty-five lactating dairy cows throughout weeks of lactation (WOL) 16 to 30 were used to determine optimal time needed for reliable measurement of performance variables, and to classify the cows into high-, medium-, and low-efficiency groups. Individual performance variables [body weight (BW), dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production] were measured daily with a computerized monitoring system. Body condition was visually scored weekly and used to calculate retained or depleted body energy as a result of fat content change (REF). Milk composition was analyzed weekly. Body weight, DMI, and total recovered energy (RE), which represents energy in milk production plus REF, were summarized weekly. Efficiency was calculated as RE/DMI and as residual feed intake (RFI; i.e., the difference between actual and expected DMI), which was calculated from multiple linear regression of DMI dependence on BW(0.75) and RE. Unexpectedly, it was found that BW did not affect DMI and RE/DMI. Changes and relative changes in phenotypic coefficient of variation and correlations among data from shortened tests ranging from 1 wk (WOL 16) to a sequence of 15-wk tests were used to determine optimal test period durations for 5 traits: BW, DMI, RE, RE/DMI, and RFI. Traits were fitted into a mixed model with repeated measures. For each week, the traits were summarized as a sequence of cumulative data, starting from WOL 16 and cumulated over periods that increased in 1-wk steps up to WOL 16 to 29. Weekly cumulations were compared with those for entire test period (WOL 16 to 30). Consistency of each cow's efficiency classification as high, medium, or low was tested by the total-agreement procedure; the kappa index P-value was used. Throughout WOL 16 to 30, the effects of increasing test period duration on between-animal coefficient of variation differed with respect to the various performance variables and RE/DMI: it tended to change with respect to BW, did not change with respect to DMI, and

  4. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC. PMID:23540200

  5. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  6. Surgeon motivations behind the timing of breast reconstruction in patients requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ming; Reinertsen, Erik; McClure, Evan; Liu, Shuling; Kruper, Laura; Tanna, Neil; Boyd, J. Brian; Granzow, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Although postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been shown to reduce breast cancer burden and improve survival, PMRT may negatively influence outcomes after reconstruction. The goal of this study was to compare current opinions of plastic and reconstructive surgeons (PRS) and surgical oncologists (SO) regarding the optimal timing of breast reconstruction for patients requiring PMRT. Methods Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS), and the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) were asked to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. Responses were solicited in accordance to the Dillman method, and they were analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Results A total of 330 members of the ASPS and 348 members of the ASBS and SSO participated in our survey. PRS and SO differed in patient–payor mix (p < 0.01) and practice setting (p < 0.01), but they did not differ by urban versus rural setting (p = 0.65) or geographic location (p = 0.30). Although PRS favored immediate reconstruction versus SO, overall timing did not significantly differ between the two specialists (p = 0.14). The primary rationale behind delayed breast reconstruction differed significantly between PRS and SO (p < 0.01), with more PRS believing that the reconstructive outcome is significantly and adversely affected by radiation. Both PRS and SO cited “patient-driven desire to have immediate reconstruction” (p = 0.86) as the primary motivation for immediate reconstruction. Conclusions Although the optimal timing of reconstruction is controversial between PRS and SO, our study suggests that the timing of reconstruction in PMRT patients is ultimately driven by patient preferences and the desire of PRS to optimize aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26277336

  7. Timely Closure of the Prospore Membrane Requires SPS1 and SPO77 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paulissen, Scott M; Slubowski, Christian J; Roesner, Joseph M; Huang, Linda S

    2016-07-01

    During sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a double lipid bilayer called the prospore membrane is formed de novo, growing around each meiotic nucleus and ultimately closing to create four new cells within the mother cell. Here we show that SPS1, which encodes a kinase belonging to the germinal center kinase III family, is involved in prospore membrane development and is required for prospore membrane closure. We find that SPS1 genetically interacts with SPO77 and see that loss of either gene disrupts prospore membrane closure in a similar fashion. Specifically, cells lacking SPS1 and SPO77 produce hyperelongated prospore membranes from which the leading edge protein complex is not removed from the prospore membrane in a timely fashion. The SPS1/SPO77 pathway is required for the proper phosphorylation and stability of Ssp1, a member of the leading edge protein complex that is removed and degraded when the prospore membrane closes. Genetic dissection of prospore membrane closure finds SPS1 and SPO77 act in parallel to a previously described pathway of prospore membrane closure that involves AMA1, an activator of the meiotic anaphase promoting complex. PMID:27182947

  8. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to ciliated airway epithelia requires prolonged incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Zabner, J; Zeiher, B G; Friedman, E; Welsh, M J

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia will be an important factor in determining whether recombinant adenoviruses can be developed as vectors for transferring cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA to patients with cystic fibrosis. Current understanding of the biology of CF lung disease suggests that vectors should express transgene in mature, ciliated airway epithelia. We evaluated the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to primary cultures of normal and CF human airway epithelia. Our studies showed that the airway cells developed from an undifferentiated epithelium with markers characteristic of basal cells and a surface covered by short microvilli 3 days after seeding to a mature epithelium whose apical surface was covered with cilia by 10 to 14 days. The ability of adenovirus vectors to express a reporter gene and to correct defective cyclic AMP-stimulated Cl- transport in CF epithelia was correlated inversely with the state of differentiation. However, the inefficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer could be partially corrected when the contact time between vector and epithelium was prolonged. After prolonged contact, we observed complete correction of the CF Cl- transport defect in differentiated CF airway epithelia in culture and of the Cl- transport defect in the nasal epithelia of mice homozygous for the deltaF508 mutation. The fact that gene transfer to airway epithelia required prolonged incubation with vector contrasts with the rapid infection observed in cell models such as 293 and HeLa cells, which are commonly used to study adenovirus infection. Gene transfer observed after prolonged incubation may result from mechanisms different from those that mediate infection of 293 cells. These observations suggest that interventions that either increase the contact time or alter the epithelium or the vector may be required to facilitate gene transfer to ciliated respiratory epithelia

  9. 75 FR 22805 - Submission for OMB Review; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-One-Time Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ..., withdrawal. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Notice, published in the Federal Register at 75 FR...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-Time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors AGENCIES... Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors published in...

  10. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  11. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  12. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  13. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  14. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  15. Real-Time, Interactive Echocardiography Over High-Speed Networks: Feasibility and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    Real-time, Interactive Echocardiography Over High Speed Networks: Feasibility and Functional Requirements is an experiment in advanced telemedicine being conducted jointly by the NASA Lewis Research Center, the NASA Ames Research Center, and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. In this project, a patient undergoes an echocardiographic examination in Cleveland while being diagnosed remotely by a cardiologist in California viewing a real-time display of echocardiographic video images transmitted over the broadband NASA Research and Education Network (NREN). The remote cardiologist interactively guides the sonographer administering the procedure through a two-way voice link between the two sites. Echocardiography is a noninvasive medical technique that applies ultrasound imaging to the heart, providing a "motion picture" of the heart in action. Normally, echocardiographic examinations are performed by a sonographer and cardiologist who are located in the same medical facility as the patient. The goal of telemedicine is to allow medical specialists to examine patients located elsewhere, typically in remote or medically underserved geographic areas. For example, a small, rural clinic might have access to an echocardiograph machine but not a cardiologist. By connecting this clinic to a major metropolitan medical facility through a communications network, a minimally trained technician would be able to carry out the procedure under the supervision and guidance of a qualified cardiologist.

  16. Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice

    PubMed Central

    Papantoniou, Christos; Gerkema, Menno P.; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task applied in this study consists of three daily sessions in a three-arm maze, with a food reward at the end of each arm. During each session, mice should avoid one specific arm to avoid a foot-shock. We previously demonstrated that, rather than using external cue-based strategies, mice use an internal clock (circadian strategy) for TPL, referred to as circadian TPL (cTPL). It is unknown in which brain region(s) or peripheral organ(s) the consulted clock underlying cTPL resides. Three candidates were examined in this study: (a) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a light entrainable oscillator (LEO) and considered the master circadian clock in the brain, (b) the food entrainable oscillator (FEO), entrained by restricted food availability, and (c) the adrenal glands, harboring an important peripheral oscillator. cTPL performance should be affected if the underlying oscillator system is abruptly phase-shifted. Therefore, we first investigated cTPL sensitivity to abrupt light and food shifts. Next we investigated cTPL in SCN-lesioned- and adrenalectomized mice. Abrupt FEO phase-shifts (induced by advancing and delaying feeding time) affected TPL performance in specific test sessions while a LEO phase-shift (induced by a light pulse) more severely affected TPL performance in all three daily test sessions. SCN-lesioned mice showed no TPL deficiencies compared to SHAM-lesioned mice. Moreover, both SHAM- and SCN-lesioned mice showed unaffected cTPL performance when re-tested after bilateral adrenalectomy. We conclude that, although cTPL is sensitive to timing manipulations with light as well as food, neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for

  17. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  18. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  19. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  20. Subduction on long time scales: Tighter constraints on mantle rheologies require cross-disciplinary engagement with subduction histories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.

    2016-04-01

    the lower mantle show that it must have been a major ocean. Individual geologists' earlier suggestions of this ocean had not gained sustained traction, but the combination with geophysical subsurface evidence provides strong predictions of where to look for its sutured remains. If correct, this scenario implies much simpler, more systematic slab sinking than the prevailing hypothesis of Farallon-only subduction. Generalizing to subduction worldwide, geophysics tends to turn in circles when slab sinking behaviour has to be postulated because both mantle rheologies and subduction histories are insufficiently known. Convection modelling may go down erroneous paths unnoticed if subduction history is assumed more certain than it actually is. As a result, widely varying estimates of sinking behaviour stand unreconciled across a large number of regional slab interpretations, implying little generalizable process knowledge for the mantle. Examples are vastly divergent age estimates for certain slabs, differing postulates of slab 'stagnation' times on the '670', or hypothesized viscosity maxima at 1500 km or 2000 km depth. For geophysics, the way forward is to embrace geological observations despite their messiness, which also requires serious engagement with their uncertainties - in this case, with spatio-temporal subduction histories as boundary conditions for slab interpretations. The promise is that slab sinking behaviour may turn out to be significantly more systematic than currently perceived, with correspondingly tighter constraints on mantle rheologies.

  1. 78 FR 49700 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... burden in time or expense. The liability for the section 4959 excise tax is imposed by statute, and not..., notice of the date, time, and place for the public hearing will be published in the Federal...

  2. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  3. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  4. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  5. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  6. Determination of Time Required for Materials Exposed to Oxygen to Return to Reduced Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Hirsch, David; Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Increased material flammability due to exposure to high oxygen concentrations is a concern from both a safety and operational perspective. Localized, high oxygen concentrations can occur when exiting a higher oxygen concentration environment due to material saturation, as well as oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. Understanding of oxygen diffusion and permeation and its correlation to flammability risks can reduce the likelihood of fires while improving procedures as NASA moves to longer missions with increased extravehicular activities in both spacecraft and off-Earth habitats. This paper examines the time required for common spacecraft materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced flammability after removal from the increased oxygen concentration environment. Specifically, NASA-STD-6001A maximum oxygen concentration testing and ASTM F-1927 permeability testing were performed on Nomex 4 HT90-40, Tiburon 5 Surgical Drape, Cotton, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Liquid-Cooled Ventilation Garment, EMU Thermal Comfort Undergarment, EMU Mosite Foam with Spandex Covering, Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) Outer Cross-section, ACES Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG), ACES O2 Hose Material, Minicel 6 Polyethylene Foam, Minicel Polyethylene Foam with Nomex Covering, Pyrell Polyurethane Foam, and Zotek 7 F-30 Foam.

  7. System requirements for one-time-use ENRAF control panel software

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-08-19

    An Enraf Densitometer is installed on tank 241-AY-102. The Densitometer will frequently be tasked to obtain and log density profiles. The activity can be effected a number of ways. Enraf Incorporated provides a software package called ''Logger18'' to its customers for the purpose of in-shop testing of their gauges. Logger18 is capable of accepting an input file which can direct the gauge to obtain a density profile for a given tank level and bottom limit. Logger18 is a complex, DOS based program which will require trained technicians and/or tank farm entries to obtain the data. ALARA considerations have prompted the development of a more user-friendly, computer-based interface to the Enraf densitometers. This document records the plan by which this new Enraf data acquisition software will be developed, reviewed, verified, and released. This plan applies to the development and implementation of a one-time-use software program, which will be called ''Enraf Control Panel.'' The software will be primarily used for remote operation of Enraf Densitometers for the purpose of obtaining and logging tank product density profiles.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  11. Design requirements and development of an airborne descent path definition algorithm for time navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Thompson, J. L.; Groce, J. L.; Schwab, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements for a 4D path definition algorithm are described. These requirements were developed for the NASA ATOPS as an extension of the Local Flow Management/Profile Descent algorithm. They specify the processing flow, functional and data architectures, and system input requirements, and recommended the addition of a broad path revision (reinitialization) function capability. The document also summarizes algorithm design enhancements and the implementation status of the algorithm on an in-house PDP-11/70 computer. Finally, the requirements for the pilot-computer interfaces, the lateral path processor, and guidance and steering function are described.

  12. Boehmite Actual Waste Dissolutions Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2008-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite, sodium aluminate and boehmite. Gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic. Boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Samples were taken from four Hanford tanks and homogenized in order to give a sample that is representative of REDOX (Reduction Oxidation process for Pu recovery) sludge solids. Bench scale testing was performed on the homogenized waste to study the dissolution of boehmite. Dissolution was studied at three different hydroxide concentrations, with each concentration being run at three different temperatures. Samples were taken periodically over the 170 hour runs in order to determine leaching kinetics. Results of the dissolution studies and implications for the proposed processing of these wastes will be discussed.

  13. Early, steep subduction of India beneath Asia required by timing of UHP metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, M. L.; Klemperer, S. L.; Singh, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2004-12-01

    Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks in the NW Himalaya are the youngest on earth, and allow testing of critical questions of UHP formation and exhumation and the India-Asia collision. The Tso Morari Complex (TMC) is a UHP subduction zone complex in eastern Ladakh in the western Himalaya, south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone. New U-Pb SHRIMP data from zircon shows the TMC has a Proterozoic protolith with a Pan-African history, and defines three stages in the Eocene history of the TMC, hence constraining the timing of collision, subduction, and exhumation in the western Himalaya. Our precise new single zircon U-Pb ages indicate that UHP eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 53.3±0.7 Ma followed by a HP eclogite-facies event at 50.0±0.6 Ma, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism at 47.5±0.5 Ma. Retrograde zircon growth may result from dehydration reaction-related fluids evolved during exhumation; the intermittent presence of these fluids would allow zircon crystallization during exhumation that would document the changing P-T conditions. Today India subducts beneath Tibet at an angle of only c. 10° ; at this low angle, rocks must travel over 500 km along the subduction thrust to reach the depth of c. 100 km required for UHP metamorphism. Initial collision of India with Asia, based on stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data, is widely cited as being at 55±1 Ma. Here we show that Indian rocks reached UHP depths at 53.3±0.7 Ma. Given the fast India-Asia convergence rate of 69 km/m.y., our result implies an earlier onset of collision (c. 57 Ma) and that UHP rocks must have traveled a short, hence steep path into the mantle. We infer that early continental subduction was at a steep angle, probably vertical, comparable to modern continental subduction in the Hindu Kush.

  14. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-pilot crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in... total flight time of the assigned flight, when added to any commercial flying by that flight...

  15. 78 FR 49681 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130266-11; 78 FR 20523) containing... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... the tax ] is due, without regard to extensions of time to file the return. Treas. Reg. Sec. Sec....

  16. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  17. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  18. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  19. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  20. 50 CFR 501.4 - Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requests for access-times, places and requirements for identification of individuals. 501.4 Section 501.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 501.4 Requests for access—times, places...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or...

  4. 76 FR 39090 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies; Notice of Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... & Electric Company, AGL Resources, Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. Spectra Energy Corp., Regency Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies;...

  5. The time required for water attack at the phosphorus atom of simple phosphodiesters and of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Lad, Chetan; Wyman, Paul; Williams, Nicholas H.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Phosphodiester linkages, including those that join the nucleotides of DNA, are highly resistant to spontaneous hydrolysis. The rate of water attack at the phosphorus atom of phosphodiesters is known only as an upper limit, based on the hydrolysis of the dimethyl phosphate anion. That reaction was found to proceed at least 99% by C–O cleavage, at a rate suggesting an upper limit of 10−15 s−1 for P–O cleavage of phosphodiester anions at 25°C. To evaluate the rate enhancement produced by P–O cleaving phosphodiesterases such as staphylococcal nuclease, we decided to establish the actual value of the rate constant for P–O cleavage of a simple phosphodiester anion. In dineopentyl phosphate, C–O cleavage is sterically precluded so that hydrolysis occurs only by P–O cleavage. Measurements at elevated temperatures indicate that the dineopentyl phosphate anion undergoes hydrolysis in water with a t1/2 of 30,000,000 years at 25°C, furnishing an indication of the resistance of the internucleotide linkages of DNA to water attack at phosphorus. These results imply that staphylococcal nuclease (kcat = 95 s−1) enhances the rate of phosphodiester hydrolysis by a factor of ≈1017. In alkaline solution, thymidylyl-3′-5′-thymidine (TpT) has been reported to decompose 105-fold more rapidly than does dineopentyl phosphate. We find however that TpT and thymidine decompose at similar rates and with similar activation parameters, to a similar set of products, at pH 7 and in 1 M KOH. We infer that the decomposition of TpT is initiated by the breakdown of thymidine, not by phosphodiester hydrolysis. PMID:16537483

  6. Knowledge Work, Working Time, and Use of Time among Finnish Dual-Earner Families: Does Knowledge Work Require the Marginalization of Private Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the…

  7. THE PSTD ALGORITHM: A TIME-DOMAIN METHOD REQUIRING ONLY TWO CELLS PER WAVELENGTH. (R825225)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations. It uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT), instead of finite differences on conventional finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods, to represent spatial derivatives. Because the Fourie...

  8. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors, prediction cases, and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  9. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  10. New Accounting Requirements for Non-Profits--The Time for Implementation Is Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses changes in the accounting requirements for nonprofit organizations resulting from the implementation of two Statements of Financial Accounting Standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. Examines changes in recording transactions, ascertaining the correct way to record donations or unconditional promises for donations,…

  11. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  12. 40 CFR 161.30 - Timing of the imposition of data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161... data which are necessary to support the unconditional registration of a pesticide product under section 3(c)(5) of the Act. While every registered pesticide product must eventually be supported by...

  13. 34 CFR 75.511 - Waiver of requirement for a full-time project director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans; and 34 CFR 80.30... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.511 Waiver of requirement for a...

  14. 34 CFR 75.511 - Waiver of requirement for a full-time project director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans; and 34 CFR 80.30... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.511 Waiver of requirement for a...

  15. 34 CFR 75.511 - Waiver of requirement for a full-time project director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans; and 34 CFR 80.30... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.511 Waiver of requirement for a...

  16. 34 CFR 75.511 - Waiver of requirement for a full-time project director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans; and 34 CFR 80.30... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.511 Waiver of requirement for a...

  17. 34 CFR 75.511 - Waiver of requirement for a full-time project director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans; and 34 CFR 80.30... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.511 Waiver of requirement for a...

  18. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  19. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  20. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  1. Requirements for implementing real-time control functional modules on a hierarchical parallel pipelined system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, Thomas E.; Michaloski, John L.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of a robot control system leads to a broad range of processing requirements. One fundamental requirement of a robot control system is the necessity of a microcomputer system in order to provide sufficient processing capability.The use of multiple processors in a parallel architecture is beneficial for a number of reasons, including better cost performance, modular growth, increased reliability through replication, and flexibility for testing alternate control strategies via different partitioning. A survey of the progression from low level control synchronizing primitives to higher level communication tools is presented. The system communication and control mechanisms of existing robot control systems are compared to the hierarchical control model. The impact of this design methodology on the current robot control systems is explored.

  2. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  3. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  4. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  5. How to unlock the benefits of MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and Just-in-Time.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, M A

    1994-05-01

    Manufacturing companies need to use the best and most applicable parts of MRP II and JIT to run their businesses effectively. MRP II provides the methodology to plan and control the total resources of the company and focuses on the processes that add value to their customers' products. It is the cornerstone of total quality management, as it reduces the variability and costly activities in the communication and subsequent execution of the required steps from customer order to shipment. JIT focuses on simplifying the total business operation and execution of business processes. MRP II and JIT are the foundations for successful manufacturing businesses. PMID:10134147

  6. Time Students Spend Reading Threaded Discussions in Online Graduate Courses Requiring Asynchronous Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie H.; Green, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results of a study that provides bases for comparison between the time necessary to participate in courses delivered asynchronously online and courses delivered in a traditional classroom setting. Weekly discussion threads from 21 sections of six courses offered as part of online, degree-granting, accredited, graduate…

  7. Length of Time Required to Graduate for Community College Students Transferring to Senior Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Jr., J. Conrad; Bunn, Catherine E.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to answer questions concerning academic success, as measured by time-to-degree, of community college students who transfer to senior institutions. Discusses barriers students encounter, the impact of personal characteristics on adjustment, the use of student support services to overcome those barriers, and the extent of integration into…

  8. Derivation of the scan time requirement for maintaining a consistent PET image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: the image quality of PET for larger patients is relatively poor, even though the injection dose is optimized considering the NECR characteristics of the PET scanner. This poor image quality is due to the lower level of maximum NECR that can be achieved in these large patients. The aim of this study was to optimize the PET scan time to obtain a consistent PET image quality regardless of the body size, based on the relationship between the patient specific NECR (pNECR) and body weight. Methods: eighty patients (M/F=53/27, body weight: 059 ± 1 kg) underwent whole-body FDG PET scans using a Philips GEMINI GS PET/CT scanner after an injection of 0.14 mCi/kg FDG. The relationship between the scatter fraction (SF) and body weight was determined by repeated Monte Carlo simulations using a NEMA scatter phantom, the size of which varied according to the relationship between the abdominal circumference and body weight. Using this information, the pNECR was calculated from the prompt and delayed PET sinograms to obtain the prediction equation of NECR vs. body weight. The time scaling factor (FTS) for the scan duration was finally derived to make PET images with equivalent SNR levels. Results: the SF and NECR had the following nonlinear relationships with the body weight: SF=0.15 ṡ body weight0.3 and NECR = 421.36 (body weight)-0.84. The equation derived for FTS was 0.01ṡ body weight + 0.2, which means that, for example, a 120-kg person should be scanned 1.8 times longer than a 70 kg person, or the scan time for a 40-kg person can be reduced by 30%. Conclusion: the equation of the relative time demand derived in this study will be useful for maintaining consistent PET image quality in clinics.

  9. 12 CFR 1102.102 - Times, places and requirements for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Times, places and requirements for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system and for the identification of individuals making requests for access to records pertaining to them. 1102.102 Section 1102.102 Banks and Banking...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE...

  11. Pea germplasm with partial resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum that extends the time required by the pathogen to infect host tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus S. sclerotiorum can be a serious disease on pea. Currently there are no pea genotypes with complete resistance to this pathogen. Selective wild pea genotypes from the Pisum Core Collection and cultivars were assessed for the time required by S. sclerotiorum to seve...

  12. 78 FR 24349 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J; Time-Limited Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...This regulation establishes a time-limited exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus mycoides isolate J in or on potato, when used in accordance with the terms of the section 18 emergency exemption. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing......

  13. How "the best" companies use MRP (materiel requirements planning) and just-in-time for successful manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Spencer, M S

    1994-08-01

    A study of production planning and control methods used in six leading companies found that a blending strategy is more effective than reliance on a single system. The blending of just-in-time and materiel requirements planning and other approaches allowed companies to select methods that best fit the unique characteristics of their production environments. PMID:10135464

  14. 26 CFR 301.6110-5 - Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request constitutes a request for disclosure of the... the Internal Revenue Service has determined that additional disclosure of information other than the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and time requirements; actions...

  15. 48 CFR 52.216-30 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate Price Competition. 52.216... Price Competition. As prescribed in 16.601(e)(2), insert the following provision: Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition Without Adequate Price Competition...

  16. 36 CFR 1121.4 - Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Times, places, and requirements for the identification of the individual making a request. 1121.4 Section 1121.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRIVACY...

  17. Hypersonic Research Vehicle (HRV) real-time flight test support feasibility and requirements study. Part 1: Real-time flight experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.; Ramnath, Rudrapatna V.; Vrable, Daniel L.; Hirvo, David H.; Mcmillen, Lowell D.; Osofsky, Irving B.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify potential real time remote computational applications to support monitoring HRV flight test experiments along with definitions of preliminary requirements. A major expansion of the support capability available at Ames-Dryden was considered. The focus is on the use of extensive computation and data bases together with real time flight data to generate and present high level information to those monitoring the flight. Six examples were considered: (1) boundary layer transition location; (2) shock wave position estimation; (3) performance estimation; (4) surface temperature estimation; (5) critical structural stress estimation; and (6) stability estimation.

  18. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  19. Impact of the stage of dementia on the time required for bathing-related care: a pilot study in a Japanese nursing home.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2004-09-01

    Time required for bathing-related care for nursing home residents with various stages of severe dementia were observed. Time required for each resident, including guiding to the bathroom, undressing, and dressing were plotted in graphs in order to make comparisons. The situations and conversations observed for the instances when additional time was needed were analyzed. Stage of dementia affected the amount of time required for the task of guiding to the bathroom, but did not appear to affect time required for dressing or undressing. For dressing and undressing, additional time was required when caregivers failed to keep to a specific routine. PMID:15288799

  20. Minimum and Maximum Times Required to Obtain Representative Suspended Sediment Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitto, A.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R.; Church, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Bottle sampling is a convenient method of obtaining suspended sediment measurements for the development of sediment budgets. While these methods are generally considered to be reliable, recent analysis of depth-integrated sampling has identified considerable uncertainty in measurements of grain-size concentration between grain-size classes of multiple samples. Point-integrated bottle sampling is assumed to represent the mean concentration of suspended sediment but the uncertainty surrounding this method is not well understood. Here we examine at-a-point variability in velocity, suspended sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and grain-size moments to determine if traditional point-integrated methods provide a representative sample of suspended sediment. We present continuous hour-long observations of suspended sediment from the sand-bedded portion of the Fraser River at Mission, British Columbia, Canada, using a LISST laser-diffraction instrument. Spectral analysis suggests that there are no statistically significant peak in energy density, suggesting the absence of periodic fluctuations in flow and suspended sediment. However, a slope break in the spectra at 0.003 Hz corresponds to a period of 5.5 minutes. This coincides with the threshold between large-scale turbulent eddies that scale with channel width/mean velocity and hydraulic phenomena related to channel dynamics. This suggests that suspended sediment samples taken over a period longer than 5.5 minutes incorporate variability that is larger scale than turbulent phenomena in this channel. Examination of 5.5-minute periods of our time series indicate that ~20% of the time a stable mean value of volumetric concentration is reached within 30 seconds, a typical bottle sample duration. In ~12% of measurements a stable mean was not reached over the 5.5 minute sample duration. The remaining measurements achieve a stable mean in an even distribution over the intervening interval.

  1. Dilp8 requires the neuronal relaxin receptor Lgr3 to couple growth to developmental timing

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Andres; Heredia, Fabiana; Casimiro, Andreia P.; Macedo, Andre; Nunes, Catarina; Garcez, Marcia; Dias, Angela R. Mantas; Volonte, Yanel A.; Uhlmann, Thomas; Caparros, Esther; Koyama, Takashi; Gontijo, Alisson M.

    2015-01-01

    How different organs in the body sense growth perturbations in distant tissues to coordinate their size during development is poorly understood. Here we mutate an invertebrate orphan relaxin receptor gene, the Drosophila Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 3 (Lgr3), and find body asymmetries similar to those found in insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8) mutants, which fail to coordinate growth with developmental timing. Indeed, mutation or RNA intereference (RNAi) against Lgr3 suppresses the delay in pupariation induced by imaginal disc growth perturbation or ectopic Dilp8 expression. By tagging endogenous Lgr3 and performing cell type-specific RNAi, we map this Lgr3 activity to a new subset of CNS neurons, four of which are a pair of bilateral pars intercerebralis Lgr3-positive (PIL) neurons that respond specifically to ectopic Dilp8 by increasing cAMP-dependent signalling. Our work sheds new light on the function and evolution of relaxin receptors and reveals a novel neuroendocrine circuit responsive to growth aberrations. PMID:26510564

  2. Dilp8 requires the neuronal relaxin receptor Lgr3 to couple growth to developmental timing.

    PubMed

    Garelli, Andres; Heredia, Fabiana; Casimiro, Andreia P; Macedo, Andre; Nunes, Catarina; Garcez, Marcia; Dias, Angela R Mantas; Volonte, Yanel A; Uhlmann, Thomas; Caparros, Esther; Koyama, Takashi; Gontijo, Alisson M

    2015-01-01

    How different organs in the body sense growth perturbations in distant tissues to coordinate their size during development is poorly understood. Here we mutate an invertebrate orphan relaxin receptor gene, the Drosophila Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 3 (Lgr3), and find body asymmetries similar to those found in insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8) mutants, which fail to coordinate growth with developmental timing. Indeed, mutation or RNA intereference (RNAi) against Lgr3 suppresses the delay in pupariation induced by imaginal disc growth perturbation or ectopic Dilp8 expression. By tagging endogenous Lgr3 and performing cell type-specific RNAi, we map this Lgr3 activity to a new subset of CNS neurons, four of which are a pair of bilateral pars intercerebralis Lgr3-positive (PIL) neurons that respond specifically to ectopic Dilp8 by increasing cAMP-dependent signalling. Our work sheds new light on the function and evolution of relaxin receptors and reveals a novel neuroendocrine circuit responsive to growth aberrations. PMID:26510564

  3. A STATE-VARIABLE APPROACH FOR PREDICTING THE TIME REQUIRED FOR 50% RECRYSTALLIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. STOUT; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    It is important to be able to model the recrystallization kinetics in aluminum alloys during hot deformation. The industrial relevant process of hot rolling is an example of where the knowledge of whether or not a material recrystallizes is critical to making a product with the correct properties. Classically, the equations that describe the kinetics of recrystallization predict the time to 50% recrystallization. These equations are largely empirical; they are based on the free energy for recrystallization, a Zener-Holloman parameter, and have several adjustable exponents to fit the equation to engineering data. We have modified this form of classical theory replacing the Zener-Hollomon parameter with a deformation energy increment, a free energy available to drive recrystallization. The advantage of this formulation is that the deformation energy increment is calculated based on the previously determined temperature and strain-rate sensitivity of the constitutive response. We modeled the constitutive response of the AA5182 aluminum using a state variable approach, the value of the state variable is a function of the temperature and strain-rate history of deformation. Thus, the recrystallization kinetics is a function of only the state variable and free energy for recrystallization. There are no adjustable exponents as in classical theory. Using this approach combined with engineering recrystallization data we have been able to predict the kinetics of recrystallization in AA5182 as a function of deformation strain rate and temperature.

  4. Time required to obtain representative point-integrated suspended sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitto, A.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R.; Church, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Suspended sediment sampling by conventional bottle sampling methods remains one of the primary ways in which sediment input is measured for sediment budgets. Depth- and point-integrated methods are commonly assumed to accurately represent suspended sediment transport and to contain minimal error, however a recent study of depth-integrated sampling has identified considerable uncertainty between grain-size classes of multiple samples. The uncertainty surrounding point-integrated sampling methods is less well understood. This field study examines at-a-point variability in suspended sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and grain-size moments to determine if traditional point-integrated methods accurately provide a representative sample of suspended sediment. Here, we present observations of suspended sediment from the sand bedded portion of the Fraser River at Mission, British Columbia, Canada, using a LISST laser-diffraction instrument. Measurements were obtained during the 2010 and 2013 freshet to address scales of sediment transport variability related to turbulence and hydraulic phenomena, respectively. Our observations indicate that the minimum sampling time to obtain representative indicators of suspended sediment transport ranges between 100 to 200 seconds. We are exploring the scales of variability embedded in the flow and the uncertainty in point-integrated sampling. Our goal is to understand the magnitude and the sources of error in suspended sediment measurements, to better understand the sources of uncertainty in sediment budgets.

  5. Hatching late in the season requires flexibility in the timing of song learning.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stefan; Teichel, Johanna; Ter Maat, Andries; Voigt, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    Most songbirds learn their songs from adult tutors, who can be their father or other male conspecifics. However, the variables that control song learning in a natural social context are largely unknown. We investigated whether the time of hatching of male domesticated canaries has an impact on their song development and on the neuroendocrine parameters of the song control system. Average age difference between early- and late-hatched males was 50 days with a maximum of 90 days. Song activity of adult tutor males decreased significantly during the breeding season. While early-hatched males were exposed to tutor songs for on average the first 99 days, late-hatched peers heard adult song only during the first 48 days of life. Remarkably, although hatching late in the season negatively affected body condition, no differences between both groups of males were found in song characteristics either in autumn or in the following spring. Similarly, hatching date had no effect on song nucleus size and circulating testosterone levels. Our data suggest that late-hatched males must have undergone accelerated song development. Furthermore, the limited tutor song exposure did not affect adult song organization and song performance. PMID:26311160

  6. Evaluation of a method estimating real-time individual lysine requirements in two lines of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, L; Pomar, C; Létourneau Montminy, M P; Bernier, J F; Pomar, J

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of precision feeding in growing-finishing facilities requires accurate estimates of the animals' nutrient requirements. The objectives of the current study was to validate a method for estimating the real-time individual standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirements of growing-finishing pigs and the ability of this method to estimate the Lys requirements of pigs with different feed intake and growth patterns. Seventy-five pigs from a terminal cross and 72 pigs from a maternal cross were used in two 28-day experimental phases beginning at 25.8 (±2.5) and 73.3 (±5.2) kg BW, respectively. Treatments were randomly assigned to pigs within each experimental phase according to a 2×4 factorial design in which the two genetic lines and four dietary SID Lys levels (70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the requirements estimated by the factorial method developed for precision feeding) were the main factors. Individual pigs' Lys requirements were estimated daily using a factorial approach based on their feed intake, BW and weight gain patterns. From 25 to 50 kg BW, this method slightly underestimated the pigs' SID Lys requirements, given that maximum protein deposition and weight gain were achieved at 115% of SID Lys requirements. However, the best gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) was obtained at a level of 85% or more of the estimated Lys requirement. From 70 to 100 kg, the method adequately estimated the pigs' individual requirements, given that maximum performance was achieved at 100% of Lys requirements. Terminal line pigs ate more (P=0.04) during the first experimental phase and tended to eat more (P=0.10) during the second phase than the maternal line pigs but both genetic lines had similar ADG and protein deposition rates during the two phases. The factorial method used in this study to estimate individual daily SID Lys requirements was able to accommodate the small genetic differences in feed intake, and it was concluded that this method can be

  7. Atlas-Based Segmentation Improves Consistency and Decreases Time Required for Contouring Postoperative Endometrial Cancer Nodal Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Amy V.; Wortham, Angela; Wernick, Iddo; Evans, Andrew; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Accurate target delineation of the nodal volumes is essential for three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for endometrial cancer adjuvant therapy. We hypothesized that atlas-based segmentation ('autocontouring') would lead to time savings and more consistent contours among physicians. Methods and Materials: A reference anatomy atlas was constructed using the data from 15 postoperative endometrial cancer patients by contouring the pelvic nodal clinical target volume on the simulation computed tomography scan according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0418 trial using commercially available software. On the simulation computed tomography scans from 10 additional endometrial cancer patients, the nodal clinical target volume autocontours were generated. Three radiation oncologists corrected the autocontours and delineated the manual nodal contours under timed conditions while unaware of the other contours. The time difference was determined, and the overlap of the contours was calculated using Dice's coefficient. Results: For all physicians, manual contouring of the pelvic nodal target volumes and editing the autocontours required a mean {+-} standard deviation of 32 {+-} 9 vs. 23 {+-} 7 minutes, respectively (p = .000001), a 26% time savings. For each physician, the time required to delineate the manual contours vs. correcting the autocontours was 30 {+-} 3 vs. 21 {+-} 5 min (p = .003), 39 {+-} 12 vs. 30 {+-} 5 min (p = .055), and 29 {+-} 5 vs. 20 {+-} 5 min (p = .0002). The mean overlap increased from manual contouring (0.77) to correcting the autocontours (0.79; p = .038). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that autocontouring leads to increased consistency and time savings when contouring the nodal target volumes for adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer, although the autocontours still required careful editing to ensure that the lymph nodes at risk of recurrence are properly included in the target

  8. Research requirements for a real-time flight measurements and data analysis system for subsonic transport high-lift research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Harris, Franklin K.; Lytle, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A multiphased research program to obtain detailed flow characteristics on a multielement high-lift flap system is being conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at NASA Langley Research Center. Upcoming flight tests have required the development of a highly capable and flexible flight measurement and data analysis instrumentation system. This instrumentation system will be more comprehensive than any of the systems used on previous high-lift flight experiment at NASA Langley. The system will provide the researcher near-real-time information for decision making needed to modify a flight test in order to further examine unexpected flow conditions. This paper presents the research requirements and instrumentation design concept for an upcoming flight experiment for the subsonic transport high-lift research program. The flight experiment objectives, the measurement requirements, the data acquisition system, and the onboard data analysis and display capabilities are described.

  9. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-06-10

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development. PMID:27056332

  10. Wait, are you sad or angry? Large exposure time differences required for the categorization of facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Facial expressions of emotion are essential components of human behavior, yet little is known about the hierarchical organization of their cognitive analysis. We study the minimum exposure time needed to successfully classify the six classical facial expressions of emotion (joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, fear) plus neutral as seen at different image resolutions (240 × 160 to 15 × 10 pixels). Our results suggest a consistent hierarchical analysis of these facial expressions regardless of the resolution of the stimuli. Happiness and surprise can be recognized after very short exposure times (10–20 ms), even at low resolutions. Fear and anger are recognized the slowest (100–250 ms), even in high-resolution images, suggesting a later computation. Sadness and disgust are recognized in between (70–200 ms). The minimum exposure time required for successful classification of each facial expression correlates with the ability of a human subject to identify it correctly at low resolutions. These results suggest a fast, early computation of expressions represented mostly by low spatial frequencies or global configural cues and a later, slower process for those categories requiring a more fine-grained analysis of the image. We also demonstrate that those expressions that are mostly visible in higher-resolution images are not recognized as accurately. We summarize implications for current computational models. PMID:23509409

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  12. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  13. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  14. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  15. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  16. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. Time and Effort Required by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Learn to Use a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, Thomas N.; Dijkers, Marcel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Powered exoskeletons have been demonstrated as being safe for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), but little is known about how users learn to manage these devices. Objective: To quantify the time and effort required by persons with SCI to learn to use an exoskeleton for assisted walking. Methods: A convenience sample was enrolled to learn to use the first-generation Ekso powered exoskeleton to walk. Participants were given up to 24 weekly sessions of instruction. Data were collected on assistance level, walking distance and speed, heart rate, perceived exertion, and adverse events. Time and effort was quantified by the number of sessions required for participants to stand up, walk for 30 minutes, and sit down, initially with minimal and subsequently with contact guard assistance. Results: Of 22 enrolled participants, 9 screen-failed, and 7 had complete data. All of these 7 were men; 2 had tetraplegia and 5 had motor-complete injuries. Of these, 5 participants could stand, walk, and sit with contact guard or close supervision assistance, and 2 required minimal to moderate assistance. Walk times ranged from 28 to 94 minutes with average speeds ranging from 0.11 to 0.21 m/s. For all participants, heart rate changes and reported perceived exertion were consistent with light to moderate exercise. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence that persons with neurological weakness due to SCI can learn to walk with little or no assistance and light to somewhat hard perceived exertion using a powered exoskeleton. Persons with different severities of injury, including those with motor complete C7 tetraplegia and motor incomplete C4 tetraplegia, may be able to learn to use this device. PMID:26364280

  19. INFLUENCE OF LUTING AGENTS ON TIME REQUIRED FOR CAST POST REMOVAL BY ULTRASOUND: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janir Alves; Brito, Manoel; Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Melo, Anielo Faleiro; Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Sotomayor, Nadia Del Carmen Soto; Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Silva, André Luis Faria e

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the influence of luting agents on ultrasonic vibration time for intraradicular cast post removal. Material and Methods: After endodontic treatment, 30 roots of extracted human canines were embedded in resin cylinders. The post-holes were prepared at 10 mm depth and their impressions were taken using autopolymerizing acrylic resin. After casting procedures using a nickel-chromium alloy, the posts were randomly distributed into 3 groups (n=10) according to the luting material: G1- zinc phosphate (SS White) (control group), G2 - glass ionomer cement (Vidrion C; SS White), and G3- resin cement (C&B; Bisco). In G3, the adhesive procedure was performed before post cementation. After 24 h, the cement line was removed at the post/tooth interface using a fine diamond bur, and the ST-09 tip of an Enac ultrasound unit was applied at maximum power on all surfaces surrounding the posts. The application time was recorded with a chronometer until the post was completely dislodged and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The roots were removed from the acrylic resin and inspected to detect cracks and/or fractures. The means for G1, G2, and G3 were 168.5, 59.5, and 285 s, respectively, with statistically significant differences among them. Two G3 posts resisted removal, one of which developed a vertical fracture line. Conclusions: Therefore, the cement type had a direct influence on the time required for ultrasonic post removal. Compared to the zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements, the resin cement required a longer ultrasonic vibration time. PMID:19466241

  20. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided. PMID:27110994

  1. Requirements and methodologies for real-time infrared sensor emulation in hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Reynolds, Terry M.

    1998-07-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of infrared missile seekers has been a proven method for seeker evaluation for many years. Infrared HWIL testing has two primary modes, projection or injection. With infrared projection HWIL testing, the seeker's optics and detectors are retained as part of the simulation since an infrared scene in the correct waveband is presented to the seeker's optics, and is then detected and processed. When using the injection mode of HWIL testing the infrared scene is injected directly into the seeker's electronics and bypasses the imaging and detection process. When this type of simulation is used it is critical to model the optical and electrical processes that would have degraded the image in a real-world scenario. Real-time modeling of sensor system modulation transfer functions and other forms of image degradation is a computationally intensive task. The types of calculations necessary for real- time sensor modeling often push the processing requirements past the capabilities of standard processors and custom processing hardware is required. This paper discusses solutions to this problem that have been implemented for infrared seekers at the U.S. Army's Aviation and Missile Command's, Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  2. Optimization of the surfaces used to capture antibodies from single hybridomas reduces the time required for microengraving.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Jehnna L; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Love, J Christopher

    2009-01-30

    The most common method for the generation of monoclonal antibodies involves the identification and isolation of hybridomas from polyclonal populations. The discovery of new antibodies for biochemical and immunohistochemical assays in a rapid and efficient manner, however, remains a challenge. Here, a series of experiments are described that realize significant improvements to an approach for screening large numbers of single cells to identify antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies in a high-throughput manner (10(5)-10(6) cells in less than 12 h). The soft lithographic process called microengraving yields microarrays of monoclonal antibodies that can be correlated to individual hybridomas; the cells can then be retrieved and expanded to establish new cell lines. The factors examined here included the glass slide used for the microarray, the buffer used to deposit capture antibodies onto the glass, the type of polyclonal antibodies used to capture the secreted antibodies, and the time required for microengraving. Compared to earlier reports of this method, these studies resulted in increased signal-to-noise ratios for individual elements in the microarrays produced, and a considerable decrease in the time required to produce one microarray from a set of cells (from 2-4 h to 3-10 min). These technical advances will improve the throughput and reduce the costs for this alternative to traditional screening by limiting serial dilution. PMID:19028499

  3. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  4. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  5. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  6. Time Requirements for the Different Item Types Proposed for Use in the Revised SAT®. Research Report No. 2007-3. ETS RR-07-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Cline, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    The current study used three data sources to estimate time requirements for different item types on the now current SAT Reasoning Test™. First, we estimated times from a computer-adaptive version of the SAT® (SAT CAT) that automatically recorded item times. Second, we observed students as they answered SAT questions under strict time limits and…

  7. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  8. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  9. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  10. Moving Sound Source Localization Based on Sequential Subspace Estimation in Actual Room Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Suyama, Kenji

    This paper presents a novel method for moving sound source localization and its performance evaluation in actual room environments. The method is based on the MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) which is one of the most high resolution localization methods. When using the MUSIC, a computation of eigenvectors of correlation matrix is required for the estimation. It needs often a high computational costs. Especially, in the situation of moving source, it becomes a crucial drawback because the estimation must be conducted at every the observation time. Moreover, since the correlation matrix varies its characteristics due to the spatial-temporal non-stationarity, the matrix have to be estimated using only a few observed samples. It makes the estimation accuracy degraded. In this paper, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) is applied for sequentially estimating the eigenvectors spanning the subspace. In the PAST, the eigen-decomposition is not required, and therefore it is possible to reduce the computational costs. Several experimental results in the actual room environments are shown to present the superior performance of the proposed method.

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  17. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  18. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  19. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  20. Isolating the actual signal of paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. M.; Moreno, E.; Bassinot, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2011-12-01

    of the field determinations. It can be argued that studies of long-term field behaviour do not require the same accuracy as for knowledge of the field variations that prevailed during the past millenia. We have followed another track after noticing that samples containing exclusively monodomain magnetite provide almost systematically the right field determination. Thus, we prefer to select appropriate samples for standard Thellier experiments from thermal demagnetization diagrams of twin specimens. This preliminary thermal treatment also has the advantage of providing suitable directions so that there is no time waste and no loss of information.

  1. The Timing of Multiple Retrieval Events Can Alter GluR1 Phosphorylation and the Requirement for Protein Synthesis in Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Werner, Craig T.; Parsons, Ryan G.; Gafford, Georgette M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that maintaining a fear memory after retrieval requires de novo protein synthesis. However, no study to date has examined how the temporal dynamics of repeated retrieval events affect this protein synthesis requirement. The present study varied the timing of a second retrieval of an established auditory fear memory…

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  3. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  4. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... duty for more than 30 hours. Such a crewmember is considered to be on continuous duty from the time...

  5. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  6. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  7. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION... are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? You must pay for return travel...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION... are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? You must pay for return travel...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION... are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? You must pay for return travel...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION... are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? You must pay for return travel...

  12. 47 CFR 73.3549 - Requests for extension of time to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. 73.3549 Section 73.3549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. Requests for extension of... decoders for monitoring and generating the EAS codes and Attention Signal should be made to the FCC...

  13. 47 CFR 73.3549 - Requests for extension of time to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. 73.3549 Section 73.3549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. Requests for extension of... decoders for monitoring and generating the EAS codes and Attention Signal should be made to the FCC...

  14. 47 CFR 73.3549 - Requests for extension of time to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. 73.3549 Section 73.3549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. Requests for extension of... decoders for monitoring and generating the EAS codes and Attention Signal should be made to the FCC...

  15. 47 CFR 73.3549 - Requests for extension of time to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. 73.3549 Section 73.3549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. Requests for extension of... decoders for monitoring and generating the EAS codes and Attention Signal should be made to the FCC...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3549 - Requests for extension of time to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. 73.3549 Section 73.3549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EAS encoders and decoders. Requests for extension of... decoders for monitoring and generating the EAS codes and Attention Signal should be made to the FCC...

  17. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  18. How information about the time requirements and legacy effects of treatments influence decision-making in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Laiteerapong, Neda; Fairchild, Paige C; Nathan, Aviva G; Quinn, Michael T; Huang, Elbert S

    2016-01-01

    Objective When deciding about diabetes treatments, patients are typically uninformed about how much time is required before (time requirements), or for how long treatments change outcomes (legacy effects). However, patients may be motivated to adopt treatments with time-related treatment information. We explored whether this information alters a patients' likelihood of starting medications. Research design and methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 60 adults with type 2 diabetes for <10 years and hypertension on oral medications. We measured change in likelihood of starting medications after receiving time requirement (diabetes, 10 years; hypertension, 3 years) and legacy effect (diabetes, 10 additional years; hypertension, none) information. Responses were analyzed for themes about time-related treatment information. Results At baseline, 70% of participants reported being very likely to start a recommended medication. Nearly half (40%) were less likely to start a diabetes medication after being informed of time requirements; but after being informed of legacy effects, 32% reported being more likely. Fewer participants changed likelihoods of starting antihypertensives with time-related information. Many participants expressed that medications' benefits were important to them regardless of time-related information. Participants considered time requirements for diabetes medications too long and compared them to their life expectancy. Many participants were interested in legacy effects of diabetes medications because they looked forward to discontinuing medications, although some expressed doubt that benefits could persist after stopping medications. Conclusions While prolonged time requirements may dissuade patients from adopting treatments, the promise of legacy effects may motivate patients to commit to diabetes treatments. PMID:27158521

  19. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  20. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  1. 36 CFR 805.4 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Council decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY ACT § 805.4 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Council decisionmaking. (a) Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations (40 CFR 1505.1) contains requirements to ensure adequate... the NEPA process begins, the point at which it ends, and the key officials required to...

  2. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  3. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  4. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods... list of early retirees for whom claims are being submitted, and documentation of the actual costs...

  5. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods... list of early retirees for whom claims are being submitted, and documentation of the actual costs...

  6. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods... list of early retirees for whom claims are being submitted, and documentation of the actual costs...

  7. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  8. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... operations may schedule an airman for flight deck duty as a flight engineer, or navigator in a crew of...

  9. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, MF

    2015-01-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency (RF) and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog ‘electro-optial’ method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3mm × 3mm × 20mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3mm × 3mm × 5mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain. PMID:25905626

  10. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Levin, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog ‘electro-optial’ method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  11. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  12. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    forward to her visits. Case managers help negotiate compliance to medication, housing, meaningful activity, substance abuse, poverty, isolation, and everything else living in the community can throw at you. Without a spouse you tend to spend a lot of time alone. One of the main reasons Marie-Claude and I moved in with each other was that neither of us was enjoying living alone. It was very romantic at first but now we are just friends who see less and less of each other. I suspect schizophrenia interferes with the quality and depth of relationships you have with other people. Amongst the people I know, schizophrenia has meant a pretty solitary life of poverty. I have a lot of acquaintances, and colleagues, but few close friends when not at work. Over the last ten years of living with schizophrenia on medication it is celibacy that has hurt the most. It saps the life out of you, your self confidence, your self esteem. In some Scandinavian countries and Holland disabled people are allowed monthly visits by state approved sex workers. To me that is only common sense. To live without sex is unnatural and can only cause emotional suffering. We don't recognize the importance of quality sexual experience in keeping people healthy and happy in France. That doesn't mean it isn't I have a pretty high profile in my community through the meaningful activity I do. From having a half dozen names and faces to remember, I now have what seems like hundreds. I have a lot of trouble remembering people's names and faces. I am still meeting new people but I'm rarely invited to socialize with any after work. They have families, full time jobs, kids, cars, cottages, etc. My life at home is pretty solitary. It's a nuisance to travel across the city to visit people. There are few people that I share a similar background with. Since people with schizophrenia tend to have trouble learning new things, and change very little as a result, we tend to have trouble making new friends. People with

  13. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  14. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain. PMID:25905626

  15. The solar UV exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyauchi, Masaatsu; Hirai, Chizuko

    2013-04-01

    After the discovery of Antarctic ozone hole, the negative effect of exposure of human body to harmful solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known. However, there is positive effect of exposure to UV radiation, i.e., vitamin D synthesis. Although the importance of solar UV radiation for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body is well known, the solar exposure time required to prevent vitamin D deficiency has not been well determined. This study attempted to identify the time of solar exposure required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the body by season, time of day, and geographic location (Sapporo, Tsukuba, and Naha, in Japan) using both numerical simulations and observations. According to the numerical simulation for Tsukuba at noon in July under a cloudless sky, 2.3 min of solar exposure are required to produce 5.5 μg vitamin D3 per 600 cm2 skin. This quantity of vitamin D represents the recommended intake for an adult by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the 2010 Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). In contrast, it took 49.5 min to produce the same amount of vitamin D3 at Sapporo in the northern part of Japan in December, at noon under a cloudless sky. The necessary exposure time varied considerably with the time of the day. For Tsukuba at noon in December, 14.5 min were required, but at 09:00 68.7 min were required and at 15:00 175.8 min were required for the same meteorological conditions. Naha receives high levels of UV radiation allowing vitamin D3 synthesis almost throughout the year. According to our results, we are further developing an index to quantify the necessary time of UV radiation exposure to produce required amount of vitamin D3 from a UV radiation data.

  16. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the time of request for a draw. 4290.1220 Section 4290.1220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... financial statements at the time of request for a draw. (a) If you submit a request for a draw against your... SBA Form 468. (b) You will not be eligible for a draw if you are not in compliance with this §...

  17. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the time of request for a draw. 4290.1220 Section 4290.1220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... financial statements at the time of request for a draw. (a) If you submit a request for a draw against your...). (b) You will not be eligible for a draw if you are not in compliance with this § 4290.1220....

  18. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the time of request for a draw. 4290.1220 Section 4290.1220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... financial statements at the time of request for a draw. (a) If you submit a request for a draw against your... SBA Form 468. (b) You will not be eligible for a draw if you are not in compliance with this §...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the time of request for a draw. 4290.1220 Section 4290.1220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... financial statements at the time of request for a draw. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 80224, December 23, 2011. (a) If you submit a request for a draw against your Leverage commitment more than...

  20. 10 CFR 1707.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a... DNFSB EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 1707.209 Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response...

  1. Algorithms for the Control of NTM by Localized ECRH. Principles and Requirements of the Real Time Diagnostic and Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, G.; Cirant, S.; Farina, D.; Gandini, F.; Lazzaro, E.; Treuterer, W.; Manini, A.

    2008-03-01

    The diagnostics requirements for the control of NTM instabilities is outlined stressing the importance of correctly managing the estimate uncertainty by the control system. A methodology for the Bayesian assimilation of model predictions and observations is outlined together with an example of application.

  2. Algorithms for the Control of NTM by Localized ECRH. Principles and Requirements of the Real Time Diagnostic and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    D' Antona, G.; Cirant, S.; Farina, D.; Gandini, F.; Lazzaro, E.; Treuterer, W.; Manini, A.

    2008-03-12

    The diagnostics requirements for the control of NTM instabilities is outlined stressing the importance of correctly managing the estimate uncertainty by the control system. A methodology for the Bayesian assimilation of model predictions and observations is outlined together with an example of application.

  3. Higher Education Administrators, Defamation, and Actual Malice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    In "New York Times Co. v. Sullivan," the Supreme Court held that the First Amendment protects news media defendants from libel suits by public officials and public figures. Public college and university administrators are considered to be public officials under this ruling. To prevail in defamation cases, public plaintiffs must prove actual…

  4. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), from which it can be retrieved with SPARQL, a language designed for querying RDF-based models. The Semantic Web technologies should allow federated queries over multiple triple stores. In this paper we compare the efficiency of a set of biologically relevant queries as applied to a number of different triple store implementations. Results Previously we developed a library of queries to guide the use of our knowledge base Cell Cycle Ontology implemented as a triple store. We have now compared the performance of these queries on five non-commercial triple stores: OpenLink Virtuoso (Open-Source Edition), Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the data uploading time, the query execution time and the scalability. The queries we had chosen addressed diverse ontological or biological questions, and we found that individual store performance was quite query-specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behaviour across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time queries, 2) moderate response time queries and 3) relatively long response time queries. SwiftOWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second one and Virtuoso in the third one. Conclusions Our analysis showed that some queries behaved idiosyncratically, in a triple store specific manner, mainly with SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. Virtuoso, as expected, displayed a very balanced performance - its load time and its response time for all the

  5. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required. In those cases where time clocks are used, employees who voluntarily come in before their regular...

  6. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert D.

    2012-04-19

    We reviewed glare models with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh and Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  7. Comparison of the time required to administer three different fluke and worm combination products to commercial beef cattle at housing.

    PubMed

    Webster, R; Knox, K; Berger, F; Delaveau, J; Forbes, A B

    2008-01-01

    Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P < .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level. PMID:18415946

  8. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. J.; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Böttcher, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Huetz, A.; Lin, N.; Picard, Y. J.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  9. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S. J. Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B.

    2015-03-15

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  10. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times.

    PubMed

    Weber, S J; Manschwetus, B; Billon, M; Böttcher, M; Bougeard, M; Breger, P; Géléoc, M; Gruson, V; Huetz, A; Lin, N; Picard, Y J; Ruchon, T; Salières, P; Carré, B

    2015-03-01

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented. PMID:25832212

  11. Can we (actually) assess global risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of the dynamic interactions of the different components of global risk (e.g. hazard, exposure, vulnerability or resilience) is one of the main challenges in risk assessment and management. In state-of-the-art approaches for the analysis of risk, natural and socio-economic systems are typically treated separately by using different methods. In flood risk studies, for instance, physical scientists typically focus on the study of the probability of flooding (i.e. hazard), while social scientists mainly examine the exposure, vulnerability or resilience to flooding. However, these different components are deeply interconnected. Changes in flood hazard might trigger changes in vulnerability, and vice versa. A typical example of these interactions is the so-called "levee effect", whereby heightening levees to reduce the probability of flooding often leads to increase the potential adverse consequences of flooding as people often perceive that flood risk was completely eliminated once the levee was raised. These interconnections between the different components of risk remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is of serious concern as it limits our ability to plan appropriate risk prevention measures. To design flood control structures, for example, state-of-the-art models can indeed provide quantitative assessments of the corresponding risk reduction associated to the lower probability of flooding. Nevertheless, current methods cannot estimate how, and to what extent, such a reduction might trigger a future increase of the potential adverse consequences of flooding (the aforementioned "levee effect"). Neither can they evaluate how the latter might (in turn) lead to the requirement of additional flood control structures. Thus, while many progresses have been made in the static assessment of flood risk, more inter-disciplinary research is required for the development of methods for dynamic risk assessment, which is very much

  12. 78 FR 59228 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... FR 49681). The regulations provide guidance to charitable hospital organizations regarding the... Accordingly, the final and temporary regulations (TD 9629), that are the subject of FR Doc. 2013-19931, are... Time for Filing the Return; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION:...

  13. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  17. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  18. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  19. 25 CFR 39.214 - What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time educational program? 39.214 Section 39.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION...

  20. 25 CFR 39.214 - What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time educational program? 39.214 Section 39.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION...

  1. 25 CFR 39.214 - What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time educational program? 39.214 Section 39.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION...

  2. 25 CFR 39.214 - What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time educational program? 39.214 Section 39.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION...

  3. 25 CFR 39.214 - What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the minimum number of instructional hours required in order to be considered a full-time educational program? 39.214 Section 39.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION...

  4. 45 CFR 260.75 - If a State is claiming a waiver inconsistency for work requirements or time limits, what must the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work requirements or time limits, what must the Governor certify? 260.75 Section 260.75 Public Welfare... limits, what must the Governor certify? (a) The Governor of the State must certify in writing to the... nonexempt individuals. (d)(1) The Governor's certification must be provided no later than October 1,...

  5. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. PMID:26949231

  6. Complications Requiring Hospital Admission and Causes of In-Hospital Death over Time in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Chang Wook; Choi, Jong Young; Lee, Chang Don; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Moon Young; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Woo, Hyun Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Data on the epidemiology of alcoholic cirrhosis, especially in Asian countries, are limited. We compared the temporal evolution of patterns of alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis over the last decade. Methods We retrospectively examined the inpatient datasets of five referral centers during 2002 and 2011. The study included patients who were admitted due to specific complications of liver cirrhosis. We compared the causes of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths between patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Results Among the included 2,799 hospitalizations (2,165 patients), 1,496 (1,143 patients) were from 2002, and 1,303 (1,022 patients) were from 2011. Over time, there was a reduction in the rate of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) as a cause of hospitalization and an increase in the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma. Deaths that were attributable to HE or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) significantly decreased, whereas those due to hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) significantly increased over time in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. However, in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis, hepatic failure and HRS remained the principal causes of in-hospital death during both time periods. Conclusions The major causes of in-hospital deaths have evolved from acute cirrhotic complications, including HE or SBP to HRS in alcoholic cirrhosis, whereas those have remained unchanged in nonalcoholic cirrhosis during the last decade. PMID:26087788

  7. Hypersonic Research Vehicle (HRV) real-time flight test support feasibility and requirements study. Part 2: Remote computation support for flight systems functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.; Hewett, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are assessed for the use of remote computation to support HRV flight testing. First, remote computational requirements were developed to support functions that will eventually be performed onboard operational vehicles of this type. These functions which either cannot be performed onboard in the time frame of initial HRV flight test programs because the technology of airborne computers will not be sufficiently advanced to support the computational loads required, or it is not desirable to perform the functions onboard in the flight test program for other reasons. Second, remote computational support either required or highly desirable to conduct flight testing itself was addressed. The use is proposed of an Automated Flight Management System which is described in conceptual detail. Third, autonomous operations is discussed and finally, unmanned operations.

  8. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  10. Analysis of Non-Standard Lightning Impulse Voltage for Actual Substation and Generation Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Shigemitsu; Koutou, Masanori; Yuasa, Sadayuki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Yamagiwa, Tokio

    Evaluation of lightning surge waveforms that actually enter into substations is important when investigating the test voltage of electric power equipment. The standard lightning impulse waveform (1.2/50μs) is used for factory tests. However, the actual lightning surge waveforms in actual substations are complex waveforms in which various different oscillations are superimposed. Investigation of insulation characteristics of equipment against the complex waveforms and the standard one has significant importance. We analyzed these waveforms entering actual substations with respect to the insulation characteristics of gas insulated switchigear (GIS). From the results, we defined four types of non-standard lightning impulse waveforms. Then non-standard lightning impulse voltage is generated by an equipment circuit which is consisted of an impulse generator (IG), R, L and C is analyzed with EMTP. Voltage time characteristics were evaluated from the obtained impulse voltages.

  11. Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time".

    PubMed

    Catling, David C; Glein, Christopher R; Zahnle, Kevin J; McKay, Christopher P

    2005-06-01

    Life is constructed from a limited toolkit: the Periodic Table. The reduction of oxygen provides the largest free energy release per electron transfer, except for the reduction of fluorine and chlorine. However, the bonding of O2 ensures that it is sufficiently stable to accumulate in a planetary atmosphere, whereas the more weakly bonded halogen gases are far too reactive ever to achieve significant abundance. Consequently, an atmosphere rich in O2 provides the largest feasible energy source. This universal uniqueness suggests that abundant O2 is necessary for the high-energy demands of complex life anywhere, i.e., for actively mobile organisms of approximately 10(-1)-10(0) m size scale with specialized, differentiated anatomy comparable to advanced metazoans. On Earth, aerobic metabolism provides about an order of magnitude more energy for a given intake of food than anaerobic metabolism. As a result, anaerobes do not grow beyond the complexity of uniseriate filaments of cells because of prohibitively low growth efficiencies in a food chain. The biomass cumulative number density, n, at a particular mass, m, scales as n (> m) proportional to m(-1) for aquatic aerobes, and we show that for anaerobes the predicted scaling is n proportional to m (-1.5), close to a growth-limited threshold. Even with aerobic metabolism, the partial pressure of atmospheric O2 (P(O2)) must exceed approximately 10(3) Pa to allow organisms that rely on O2 diffusion to evolve to a size approximately 10(3) m x P(O2) in the range approximately 10(3)-10(4) Pa is needed to exceed the threshold of approximately 10(2) m size for complex life with circulatory physiology. In terrestrial life, O(2) also facilitates hundreds of metabolic pathways, including those that make specialized structural molecules found only in animals. The time scale to reach P(O(2)) approximately 10(4) Pa, or "oxygenation time," was long on the Earth (approximately 3.9 billion years), within almost a factor of 2 of the Sun

  12. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Sarah E; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  13. Interaction between Workers during a Short Time Window Is Required for Bacterial Symbiont Transmission in Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Sarah E.; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  14. Sewage sludge ash to phosphate fertilizer by chlorination and thermal treatment: residence time requirements for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Wegerer, Harald; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash can be performed by mixing the ash with environmentally compatible chlorides (e.g. CaCl2 or MgCl2) and water, pelletizing the mixture and treating the pellets in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy, muffle oven tests (500-1150 degrees C) and investigations in a laboratory-scale rotary reactor (950-1050 degrees C, residence time 1-25 min) were carried out. In the rotary reactor, up to 97% of Cu, 95% Pb and 95% Zn can be removed at 1050 degrees C. As Cl release starts from 400 degrees C (obtained from thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry experiments), heavy metals are already removed partially within the heating period. This heavy metal removal can be described as being similar to a first-order rate law. To meet the limit values specified in the Austrian and German fertilizer ordinances, residence times of the order of minutes are sufficient at 950 degrees C. PMID:23393980

  15. 34 CFR 263.8 - What are the payback requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN EDUCATION DISCRETIONARY GRANT PROGRAMS Professional Development... Professional Development program are required to— (1) Sign an agreement, at the time of selection for training... for which training was actually received under the Professional Development program. (c) The...

  16. Requirements regarding dose rate and exposure time for killing of tumour cells in beta particle radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Veronika; Stenerlöw, Bo; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify combinations of dose rate and exposure time that have the potential to provide curative treatment with targeted radionuclide therapy applying low dose rate beta irradiation. Methods Five tumour cell lines, U-373MG and U-118MG gliomas, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-431 cervical squamous carcinoma and SKBR-3 breast cancer, were used. An experimental model with 105 tumour cells in each sample was irradiated with low dose rate beta particles. The criterion for successful treatment was absence of recovery of cells during a follow-up period of 3 months. The initial dose rates were in the range 0.1–0.8 Gy/h, and the cells were continuously exposed for 1, 3 or 7 days. These combinations covered dose rates and doses achievable in targeted radionuclide therapy. Results Continuous irradiation with dose rates of 0.2–0.3 and 0.4–0.6 Gy/h for 7 and 3 days, respectively, could kill all cells in each tumour cell sample. These treatments gave total radiation doses of 30–40 Gy. However, when exposed for just 24 h with about 0.8 Gy/h, only the SKBR-3 cells were successfully treated; all the other cell types recovered. There were large cell type-dependent variations in the growth delay patterns for the cultures that recovered. The U-118MG cells were most resistant and the U-373MG and SKBR-3 cells most sensitive to the treatments. The HT-29 and A-431 cells were intermediate. Conclusion The results serve as a guideline for the combinations of dose rate and exposure time necessary to kill tumour cells when applying low dose rate beta irradiation. The shift from recovery to “cure” fell within a narrow range of dose rate and exposure time combinations. PMID:16718515

  17. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  18. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... whenever crop rotation requirements and land leasing practices limit the yield history available. FCIC will...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual... subsequent crop year. The database may contain a maximum of the 10 most recent crop years and may...

  19. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  20. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  1. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  2. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  3. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  4. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  5. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  6. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  7. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  8. Road injuries and relaxed licensing requirements for driving light motorcycles in Spain: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marí-Dell’Olmo, Marc; Borrell, Carme; Nebot, Manel; Villalbí, Joan R; Santamariña, Elena; Tobias, Aurelio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess differences between the risk of injury for motorcycle riders before and after the passing of a law allowing licenced car drivers to drive light motorcycles without having to take a special motorcycle driving test. Methods We carried out a quasi-experimental study involving comparison groups, and a time-series analysis from 1 January 2002 to 30 April 2008. The study group was composed of people injured while driving or riding a light motorcycle (engine capacity 51–125 cubic centimetres), while the comparison groups consisted of riders of heavy motorcycles (engine capacity > 125 cc), mopeds (engine capacity ≤ 50 cc) or cars who were injured in a collision within the city limits. The “intervention” was a law passed in October 2004 allowing car drivers to drive light motorcycles without taking a special driving test. To detect and quantify changes over time we used Poisson regression, with adjustments for trend and seasonality in road injuries and the existence of a driver’s licence penalty point system. Findings The risk of injury among light motorcycle riders was greater after the law than before (relative risk, RR = 1.46; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.34–1.60). Although less markedly, after the law the risk of injury also increased among heavy motorcycle drivers (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02–1.29) but remained unchanged among riders of mopeds (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83–1.01) and cars (RR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.97–1.16). Conclusion Allowing car drivers to drive motorcycles without passing a special test increases the number of road injuries from motorcycle accidents. PMID:19649363

  9. Temporal Changes in Ebola Transmission in Sierra Leone and Implications for Control Requirements: a Real-time Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Anton; Kucharski, Adam; Aki-Sawyerr, Yvonne; White, Mark A.; Flasche, Stefan; Baguelin, Marc; Pollington, Timothy; Carney, Julia R.; Glover, Rebecca; Smout, Elizabeth; Tiffany, Amanda; Edmunds, W. John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between August and November 2014, the incidence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) rose dramatically in several districts of Sierra Leone. As a result, the number of cases exceeded the capacity of Ebola holding and treatment centres. During December, additional beds were introduced, and incidence declined in many areas. We aimed to measure patterns of transmission in different regions, and evaluate whether bed capacity is now sufficient to meet future demand. Methods: We used a mathematical model of EVD infection to estimate how the extent of transmission in the nine worst affected districts of Sierra Leone changed between 10th August 2014 and 18th January 2015. Using the model, we forecast the number of cases that could occur until the end of March 2015, and compared bed requirements with expected future capacity. Results: We found that the reproduction number, R, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a typical infectious individual, declined between August and December in all districts. We estimated that R was near the crucial control threshold value of 1 in December. We further estimated that bed capacity has lagged behind demand between August and December for most districts, but as a consequence of the decline in transmission, control measures caught up with the epidemic in early 2015. Conclusions: EVD incidence has exhibited substantial temporal and geographical variation in Sierra Leone, but our results suggest that the epidemic may have now peaked in Sierra Leone, and that current bed capacity appears to be sufficient to keep the epidemic under-control in most districts. PMID:25737806

  10. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 100 cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 103 cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  11. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  12. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  14. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  15. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  16. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  17. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  18. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  19. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  20. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  1. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  3. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  4. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  5. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  6. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  7. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  8. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  9. Effect of body mass index on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shohab, Durre; Ayub, Ramsha; Alam, Muhammad Umar; Butt, Amna; Sheikh, Sanam; Assad, Salman; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of body mass index (BMI) on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing three BMI groups. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of 129 patients who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to August 2013. All the patients underwent PCNL by a standard technique. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having a BMI ≤24 kg/m2 were included in the normal group, those having a BMI of 24.1–30.0 kg/m2 were included in the overweight group, and those having a BMI >30 kg/m2 were included in the obese group. Three groups were compared for operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results A total of 129 patients including 44 females and 85 males were included with a mean age of 45.00±1.44 years. The mean age in the normal group was 43.29±1.69 years, 47.08±1.29 years in the overweight group, and 43.61±1.25 years in the obese group. The mean stone size in the normal group was 25.46±8.92 mm, 28.01±8.40 mm in the overweight group, and 26.84±7.41 mm in the obese group. Our results showed no statistically significant difference with respect to mean operative time, mean hospital stay, and stone clearance in the normal, obese, and overweight patients undergoing PCNL. Postoperative complications and analgesia requirement were also similar in all the three groups. Conclusion There was no effect of BMI on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing PCNL. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of renal stones in obese patients. PMID:26623145

  10. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  11. Time Demands of Psychological Assessment: Implications for School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Harrison; Taub, Gordon E.

    This study surveys practicing school psychologists (N=86) in both private and public sectors for their estimates of the time required to administer, score, and interpret the tests they regularly administer in their schools. It provides school districts and school psychologists with time estimates, which can be used to quantify the actual time…

  12. Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Denmark 2000-2012: Time Trends of Incidence and Prevalence of Risk Factors—A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Soja, Anne-Merete; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury is a severe illness associated with poor prognosis. However, information pertaining to incidence rates and prevalence of risk factors remains limited in spite of increasing focus. We evaluate time trends of incidence rates and changing patterns in prevalence of comorbidities, concurrent medication, and other risk factors in nationwide retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods All patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury were identified between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2012. By cross-referencing data from national administrative registries, the association of changing patterns in dialysis treatment, comorbidity, concurrent medication and demographics with incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury was evaluated. Results A total of 18,561 adult patients with dialysis-requiring AKI were identified between 2000 and 2012. Crude incidence rate of dialysis-requiring AKI increased from 143 per million (95% confidence interval, 137–144) in 2000 to 366 per million (357–375) in 2006, and remained stable hereafter. Notably, incidence of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CRRT) and use of acute renal replacement therapy in elderly >75 years increased substantially from 23 per million (20–26) and 328 per million (300–355) in 2000, to 213 per million (206–220) and 1124 per million (1076–1172) in 2012, respectively. Simultaneously, patient characteristics and demographics shifted towards increased age and comorbidity. Conclusions Although growth in crude incidence rate of dialysis-requiring AKI stabilized in 2006, continuous growth in use of CRRT, and acute renal replacement therapy of elderly patients >75 years, was observed. Our results indicate an underlying shift in clinical paradigm, as opposed to unadulterated growth in incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI. PMID:26863015

  13. Accelerometer data requirements for reliable estimation of habitual physical activity and sedentary time of children during the early years - a worked example following a stepped approach.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Daniel D; Costa, Silvia; Clemes, Stacy A; Routen, Ash C; Moore, Helen J; Barber, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a worked example of a stepped process to reliably estimate the habitual physical activity and sedentary time of a sample of young children. A total of 299 children (2.9 ± 0.6 years) were recruited. Outcome variables were daily minutes of total physical activity, sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity and proportional values of each variable. In total, 282 (94%) provided 3 h of accelerometer data on ≥1 day and were included in a 6-step process: Step-1: determine minimum wear-time; Step-2: process 7-day-data; Step-3: determine the inclusion of a weekend day; Step-4: examine day-to-day variability; Step-5: calculate single day intraclass correlation (ICC) (2,1); Step-6: calculate number of days required to reach reliability. Following the process the results were, Step-1: 6 h was estimated as minimum wear-time of a standard day. Step-2: 98 (32%) children had ≥6 h wear on 7 days. Step-3: no differences were found between weekdays and weekend days (P ≥ 0.05). Step-4: no differences were found between day-to-day variability (P ≥ 0.05). Step-5: single day ICC's (2,1) ranged from 0.48 (total physical activity and sedentary time) to 0.53 (proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Step-6: to reach reliability (ICC = 0.7), 3 days were required for all outcomes. In conclusion following a 7 day wear protocol, ≥6 h on any 3 days was found to have acceptable reliability. The stepped-process offers researchers a method to derive sample-specific wear-time criterion. PMID:26920123

  14. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution. PMID:20077923

  15. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  16. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  17. The use of a prospective audit proforma to improve door-to-mask times for acute exacerbations chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV).

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Howes, T Q; Parker, M; Roberts, C M

    2014-12-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an evidence based management of acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD. Previous national and international audits of clinical practice have shown variation against guideline standards with significant delays in initiating NIV. We aimed to map the clinical pathway to better understand delays and reduce the door-to-NIV time to less than 3 hours for all patients with acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD requiring this intervention, by mandating the use of a guideline based educational management proforma.The proforma was introduced at 7 acute hospitals in North London and Essex and initiated at admission of the patient. It was used to record the clinical pathway and patient outcomes until the point of discharge or death. Data for 138 patients were collected. 48% of patients commenced NIV within 3 hours with no reduction in door-to-mask time during the study period. Delays in starting NIV were due to: time taken for review by the medical team (101 minutes) and time taken for NIV to be started once a decision had been made (49 minutes). There were significant differences in door-to-NIV decision and mask times between differing respiratory on-call systems, p < 0.05). The introduction of the proforma had no effect on door-to-mask times over the study period. Main reasons for delay were related to timely access to medical staff and to NIV equipment; however, a marked variation in practice within these hospitals was been noted, with a 9-5 respiratory on-call system associated with shorter NIV initiation times. PMID:24945887

  18. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  19. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  20. Power and energy requirements for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottes, P. A.; Holtz, R. E.; Uherka, K. L.

    A large data base exists covering almost all aspects of the requirements for the successful development of electromagnetic launchers. To extend the use of electromagnetic launchers to the limits of technology for such exotic applications as hypervelocity weaponry or space launch systems, it is useful to examine the energy and power requirements for such uses. One way to do this is to purposely neglect all system losses in order to determine minimum power and energy requirements. Actual power requirements will most likely be higher by at least a factor of three. Calculations are presented for minimum power requirements, launch acceleration time, projectile kinetic energy, and projectile inertial force as a function of projectile mass, projectile terminal velocity, and the length of the launch tube. Results of these calculations are presented.

  1. Small Body GN&C Research Report: A Guidance and Control Technique for Small-Body Proximity Operations with Guaranteed Guidance Resolvability and Required Thruster Silent Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet

    2005-01-01

    The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.

  2. PsbS is required for systemic acquired acclimation and post-excess-light-stress optimization of chlorophyll fluorescence decay times in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ciszak, Kamil; Kulasek, Milena; Barczak, Anna; Grzelak, Justyna; Maćkowski, Sebastian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4–1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4–1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4–1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4–1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4–1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress. PMID:25654166

  3. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  4. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is required during mitosis for timely satisfaction of the mitotic checkpoint but not for the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghee; Kenny, Alison E; Rieder, Conly L

    2010-07-01

    Although p38 activity is reported to be required as cells enter mitosis for proper spindle assembly and checkpoint function, its role during the division process remains controversial in lieu of direct data. We therefore conducted live cell studies to determine the effect on mitosis of inhibiting or depleting p38. We found that in the absence of p38 activity the duration of mitosis is prolonged by approximately 40% in nontransformed human RPE-1, approximately 80% in PtK2 (rat kangaroo), and approximately 25% in mouse cells, and this prolongation leads to an elevated mitotic index. However, under this condition chromatid segregation and cytokinesis are normal. Using Mad2/YFP-expressing cells, we show the prolongation of mitosis in the absence of p38 activity is directly due to a delay in satisfying the mitotic checkpoint. Inhibiting p38 did not affect the rate of chromosome motion; however, it did lead to the formation of significantly (10%) longer metaphase spindles. From these data we conclude that normal p38 activity is required for the timely stable attachment of all kinetochores to spindle microtubules, but not for the fidelity of the mitotic process. We speculate that p38 activity promotes timely checkpoint satisfaction by indirectly influencing those motor proteins (e.g., Klp10, Klp67A) involved in regulating the dynamics of kinetochore microtubule ends. PMID:20462950

  5. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  6. Characterization of within-day beginning times of storms for stochastic simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beginning times of storms within a day are often required for stochastic modeling purposes and for studies on plant growth. This study investigated the variation in frequency distributions of storm-initiation time (SI time) within a day due to elevation changes and month. Actual storms without 2...

  7. [Actual situation of medical checkups carried out by Industrial Health Organizations in Japan--manpower and service].

    PubMed

    Obata, Yasuko; Narisada, Hiroyuki; Fujishiro, Kazuya; Tsutsui, Takao; Shimizu, Takashi; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Oda, Susumu; Okubo, Toshiteru

    2003-03-01

    Japanese Industrial Health Organizations (IHOs) have been taking part in medical checkups for employees in accordance with the law of industrial safety and health in Japan. We carried out a questionnaire survey for each IHO in order to learn the actual number of full-time doctors and their proportion of work time. We sent a questionnaire to 112 IHOs (members of International Federation of Industrial Health Organizations) by mail, of which 77 replied (68.8%). In addition, we carried out an interview survey in 3 IHOs. The actual number of full-time doctors was 0 to 51, about half of IHOs have less than 5 doctors/each. Regarding the proportion of work time, among full-time doctors, half of them take part in general health checkups. About 70% of nurses' work time is taken up doing health checkups. The results revealed that the number and the proportion of work time of full-time doctors depends on the characteristics of the area and the background of the organization, for instance, what kind of hygiene services they provide. Depending on the doctors' work style (e.g. full-time or part-time) and their specialities and experience, their work may be shared. Japanese employers are required to report the number of workers with abnormal findings found by medical checkups to the Labor Standards Office. Many IHOs provide service to employers in filling out their reports. Thus, we also asked each IHO about this service. Forty out of the 77 IHOs (51.9%) answered that they are providing statistical analysis and the filling-out service. They count the number of workers with abnormal findings in each company and helped the employer to fill out the report form. Twenty-nine of those 40 IHOs responded that they decided which findings were "abnormal" by using only items that are set by law. However, 7 IHOs reported the fact that they also add some optional items when making the decision. The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in annual medical checkups, which is one of the

  8. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  9. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  10. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  11. Required High School Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  12. Reviving the Bowen Ratio method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a vertical column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the ratio of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen ratio over time and in the vertical. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen ratio sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen ratio method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the vertical. The traditional Bowen ratio method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen Ratio method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the vertical air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was

  13. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  14. A nuclear factor required for specific translation of cyclin B may control the timing of first meiotic cleavage in starfish oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galas, S; Barakat, H; Dorée, M; Picard, A

    1993-01-01

    In most animals, the rate of cyclin B synthesis increases after nuclear envelope breakdown during the first meiotic cell cycle. We have found that cyclin B-cdc2 kinase activity drops earlier in emetine-treated than in control starfish oocytes, although the protein synthesis inhibitor does not activate the cyclin degradation pathway prematurely. Moreover, protein synthesis is required to prevent meiotic cleavage to occur prematurely, sometimes before chromosomes have segregated on the metaphase plate. In normal conditions, increased synthesis of cyclin B after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) balances cyclin degradation and increases the time required for cyclin B-cdc2 kinase to drop below the level that inhibits cleavage. Taken together, these results point to cyclin B as a possible candidate that could explain the need for increased protein synthesis during meiosis I. Although direct experimental evidence was not provided in the present work, cyclin B synthesis after GVBD may be important for correct segregation of homologous chromosomes at the end of first meiotic metaphase, as shown by a variety of cytological disorders that accompany premature cleavage. Although the overall stimulation of protein synthesis because of cdc2 kinase activation is still observed in oocytes from which the germinal vesicle has been removed before hormonal stimulation, the main increase of cyclin B synthesis normally observed after germinal vesicle breakdown is suppressed. The nuclear factor required for specific translation of cyclin B after GVBD is not cyclin B mRNA, as shown by using a highly sensitive reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction procedure that failed to detect any cyclin B mRNA in isolated germinal vesicles. Images PMID:7513215

  15. Time-dependent changes in insulin requirement for maternal glycemic control during antenatal corticosteroid therapy in women with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Arata; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Miyakoshi, Kei; Fukutake, Marie; Kasuga, Yoshifumi; Ochiai, Daigo; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-31

    Though recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth to improve perinatal outcomes, antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) treatment can cause maternal hyperglycemia, especially in cases of glucose intolerance. A standardized protocol for preventing hyperglycemia during ACS treatment remains to be established. We herein retrospectively investigated the time-dependent changes in insulin dose required for maternal glycemic control during ACS treatment in gestational diabetes (GDM). Twelve singleton pregnant women with GDM who received 12 mg of betamethasone intramuscularly twice 24 hours apart were included in this analysis. Of those, eight also received ritodrine hydrochloride for preterm labor. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 70-120 mg/dL with continuous intravenous infusion of insulin and nothing by mouth for 48 hours after the first betamethasone administration. After the first dose of betamethasone, the insulin dosage needed for glycemic control gradually increased and reached a maximum (6.6 ± 5.8 units/hr) at 10 hours, then, decreased to 4.1 ± 1.5 units/hr at 24 hours. Similar changes in the insulin requirement were found after the second betamethasone dose (the maximum insulin dosage: 5.5 ± 1.6 units/hr at 9 hours following the second administration). Women treated with ritodrine hydrochloride needed more insulin, than those without ritodrine hydrochloride treatment (130.8 ± 15.0 vs. 76.8 ± 15.2 units/day, respectively, p < 0.05). Our data indicated that the requirement for insulin is highest 9-10 hours after each dose of betamethasone. When GDM is treated with ACS, levels of blood glucose should be carefully monitored, especially in patients treated with ritodrine hydrochloride. PMID:26510662

  16. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  17. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  18. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  19. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  20. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  1. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  2. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  3. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  4. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  5. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  6. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  7. Actual change and inaccurate recall contribute to posttraumatic growth following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Sean; Sheldon, Kennon M; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    People with cancer often report that they experience personal growth as a result of the disease, but such reports have unclear validity. Some suggest such growth results from Rogers's (1951) hypothesized organismic valuing process (OVP), an innate tendency for people to gravitate toward well-being; others suggest this growth may be a positive illusion resulting from temporal self-comparisons. To test these conceptualizations, the authors examined 83 individuals with Stages 0-III breast or prostate cancer. Patients completed measures of positive attributes and personal life goals before radiotherapy (Time 1) and after radiotherapy (Time 2). At Time 2, participants also attempted to recreate their Time 1 responses and completed a posttraumatic growth (PTG) measure. PTG was significantly related with actual increases (but not perceived increases) in the relative importance of intrinsic goals versus extrinsic goals and with perceived increases (but not actual increases) in positive attributes. These measures were unrelated to one another and thus explained unique variance in PTG. Data suggest that both actual change processes related to the OVP and biases in autobiographic recall may independently contribute to PTG reports. PMID:18837598

  8. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  9. Orthogonal-state-based deterministic secure quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.

  10. Has the connection between polyploidy and diversification actually been tested?

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Many major clades of angiosperms have several whole genome duplications (polyploidization events) in their distant past, suggesting that polyploidy drives or at least permits diversification. However, data on recently diverged groups are more equivocal, finding little evidence of elevated diversification following polyploidy. The discrepancy may be attributable at least in part to methodology. Many studies use indirect methods, such as chromosome numbers, genome size, and Ks plots, to test polyploidy, although these approaches can be misleading, and often lack sufficient resolution. A direct test of diversification following polyploidy requires a sequence-based approach that traces the history of nuclear genomes rather than species. These methods identify the point of coalescence of ancestral genomes, but may be misleading about the time and thus the extent of diversification. Limitations of existing methods mean that the connection between polyploidy and diversification has not been rigorously tested and remains unknown. PMID:26855304

  11. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  12. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  15. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  16. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  18. Integrating MODIS and Landsat Data Using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach to Estimate Actual Evapotranspiration at Multiple Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in space and time is critical for developing useful basin water balance models and for monitoring vegetation water use and drought severity analysis. In this study, we combined MODIS and Landsat thermal data using a 'time-limited' stable fractional relation...

  19. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations PMID:25562896

  20. Is Ecosystem-Atmosphere Observation in Long-Term Networks actually Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Science uses observations to build knowledge by testable explanations and predictions. The "scientific method" requires controlled systematic observation to examine questions, hypotheses and predictions. Thus, enquiry along the scientific method responds to questions of the type "what if …?" In contrast, long-term observation programs follow a different strategy: we commonly take great care to minimize our influence on the environment of our measurements, with the aim to maximize their external validity. We observe what we think are key variables for ecosystem-atmosphere exchange and ask questions such as "what happens next?" or "how did this happen?" This apparent deviation from the scientific method begs the question whether any explanations we come up with for the phenomena we observe are actually contributing to testable knowledge, or whether their value remains purely anecdotal. Here, we present examples to argue that, under certain conditions, data from long-term observations and observation networks can have equivalent or even higher scientific validity than controlled experiments. Internal validity is particularly enhanced if observations are combined with modeling. Long-term observations of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes identify trends and temporal scales of variability. Observation networks reveal spatial patterns and variations, and long-term observation networks combine both aspects. A necessary condition for such observations to gain validity beyond the anecdotal is the requirement that the data are comparable: a comparison of two measured values, separated in time or space, must inform us objectively whether (e.g.) one value is larger than the other. In turn, a necessary condition for the comparability of data is the compatibility of the sensors and procedures used to generate them. Compatibility ensures that we compare "apples to apples": that measurements conducted in identical conditions give the same values (within suitable uncertainty intervals

  1. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  2. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  3. A polymorphism in an autophagy-related gene, ATG16L1, influences time to delivery in women with an unfavorable cervix who require labor induction.

    PubMed

    Doulaveris, Georgios; Orfanelli, Theofano; Benn, Kiesha; Zervoudakis, Ioannis; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-07-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process that maintains homeostasis by the removal of damaged organelles and proteins. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) gene results in decreased autophagy. We evaluated whether the ATG16L1 polymorphism influenced the time to delivery during labor induction in pregnant women with an unfavorable cervix. DNA from 69 women with an unfavorable cervix who required labor induction due to post-term (>294 days) (n=26), oligohydramnios (n=17), hypertension or pre-eclampsia (n=10), abnormal fetal heart rate (n=8), diabetes (n=3) or other reasons (n=5) was tested by gene amplification and endonuclease digestion for a SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880). The mean hours (SD) from induction to delivery was 20.8 (9.7) for women who were A,A homozygotes, 19.2 (8.8) for A,G heterozygotes and 14.3 (6.6) for homozygote carriers of the G,G variant (P=0.03 A,A vs. G,G, P=0.04 A,A/A,G vs. G,G). The G,G prevalence was 24.4% and 4.2% for those who delivered in ≤24 and >24 h, respectively (P=0.04). There was no difference in genotype distribution by indication for induction. A decreased genetic capacity for autophagy may be beneficial in women with an unfavorable cervix whose labor has to be induced. PMID:23633462

  4. "Take More time to Actually Listen": Students' Reflections on Participation and Negotiation in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Gillean; Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela; Lloyd, Gwynedd; Hamilton, Lorna; Sharp, Stephen; Macleod, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour in schools is an emotive topic and one of enduring political interest and sensitivity. The media often portrays schools as violent and dangerous places and young people as ever more unruly. This paper explores findings from a recent large-scale national study on behaviour and focuses on the data from primary and secondary school students…

  5. My School, My Self: It's Time for the Paradigm Shift to Actually Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodget, Alden S.

    2016-01-01

    As is becoming increasingly clear from research into the role of emotion in learning, people think and learn about what matters to them. This article discusses why the purpose of education ought to be to help students figure out who they are and what the world means to them. This is how they become productive, moral citizens of the world.…

  6. Lessons Learned from Eight Years' Experience of Actual Operation, and Future Prospects of JMA Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Nishimae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, experiences of actual operation of EEW have been gained by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). During this period, we have learned lessons from many M6- and M7-class earthquakes, and the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. During the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake, JMA system functioned well: it issued a warning message more than 15 s before strong ground shaking in the Tohoku district (relatively near distance from the epicenter). However, it was not perfect: in addition to the problem of large extent of fault rupture, some false warning messages were issued due to the confusion of the system because of simultaneous multiple aftershocks which occurred at the wide rupture area. To address the problems, JMA will introduce two new methods into the operational system this year to start their tests, aiming at practical operation within a couple of years. One is Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) method, which is an integrated algorithm of multiple hypocenter determination techniques with Bayesian estimation, in which amplitude information is also used for hypocenter determination. The other is Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) method, in which warning message is issued when strong ground shaking is detected at nearby stations around the target site (e.g., within 30 km). Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not required in PLUM. Aiming at application for several years later, we are investigating a new approach, in which current wavefield is estimated in real time, and then future wavefield is predicted time evolutionally from the current situation using physics of wave propagation. Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not necessarily required, but real-time observation of ground shaking is necessary. JMA also plans to predict long period ground motion (up to 8 s) with the EEW system for earthquake damage mitigation in high-rise buildings. Its test will start using the operational system in the near future.

  7. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  8. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  9. Accuracy of self-reported versus actual online gambling wins and losses.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia; Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to compare the accuracy of self-reported with actual monetary outcomes of online fixed odds sports betting, live action sports betting, and online casino gambling at the individual level of analysis. Subscribers to bwin.party digital entertainment's online gambling service volunteered to respond to the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and questions about their estimated gambling results on specific games for the last 3 or 12 months. We compared the estimated results of each subscriber with his or her actual betting results data. On average, between 34% and 40% of the participants expressed a favorable distortion of their gambling outcomes (i.e., they underestimated losses or overestimated gains) depending on the time period and game. The size of the discrepancy between actual and self-reported results was consistently associated with the self-reported presence of gambling-related problems. However, the specific direction of the reported discrepancy (i.e., favorable vs. unfavorable bias) was not associated with gambling-related problems. PMID:24708074

  10. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  11. Actualization of the Hydrogeological Model of the Ojos Negros VALLEY\\'{ }s Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Gaytan, J.; Vazquez Gonzalez, R.

    2002-12-01

    A regional groundwater flow model is actualized in order to study the water table behavior in the zone of the Ojos Negros valley, which is located in the state of Baja California, Mexico. In the actualization process of the Ojos Negros valley's hydrogeological model, is used all the information proportionate for the National Commission of Water, as well as that information obtained from academic and research works achieved in the study zone, about the hydrogeological conditions that present the Ojos Negros and Real del Castillo aquifers. In addition, a groundwater flow simulator is modified and improved from the numerical point of view. The actualized simulator solves numerically the Boussinesq equation, using centrals finite-differences techniques, the "fully implicit" approximation for the temporary variation, and the iterative method of successive over relaxation. Also it counts with the structure to considering the temporary variation of the different variables and geohydrologics conditions that has influence upon the groundwater system, and with programming subroutines in MATLAB (2000) for the graphic display of results. The simulation results are appropriate for determining the phreatic surface and the flow directions in different time intervals. The phreatic surface information can be used for studying the behavior (temporary evolution) of water table in the aquifers.

  12. Back Pain During 6 deg Head-Down Tilt Approximates That During Actual Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Karen J.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Murthy, Gita; Convertino, Victor A.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts often experience back pain during spaceflight. It was found that during spaceflight, 14 of 19 Shuttle crewmembers experienced back pain, which they described as dull (62%), localized to the lower back (500/6), and with an intensity of 2 on a 5-point scale. Further, the spine lengthens 4-7 cm in microgravity. Our objective was to compare back pain and spinal lengthening (body height increase) during simulated microgravity (6 deg head-down tilt, HDT) with the some parameters during actual microgravity. Eight male subjects completed a modified McGill pain questionnaire with intensity graded from zero (no pain) to five (intense and incapacitating gain) each day at 7.-OO pm during 2 d pre-HDT control, 16 d HDT, and I d post-HDT recovery periods. Only 2 subjects reported any pain after day 9 of HDT and during recov- ery. Heights increased 2.1 t 0.5 cm by day 3 of HDT and re- mained at that level until the end of the HDT period. Although spinal lengthening in space is greater than that during HDT, the HDT model approximates the level, type, distribution, and time course of back pain associated with actual microgrovity. In the HDT model, pain subsides in intensity when spinal lengthening stops. Therefore, back pain in actual and simulated microgravity may result from stretching of spinal andlor paraspinal tissues until a new spinal length is reached.

  13. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  14. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing

    PubMed Central

    HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410

  15. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  16. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  17. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  18. Analysis of Actual Soil Degradation by Erosion Using Satellite Imagery and Terrain Attributes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizala, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Soil water and wind erosion (possibly tillage erosion) is the most significant soil degradation factor in the Czech Republic. Moreover, this phenomenon also affects seriously quality of water sources., About 50 % of arable land are endangered by water erosion and about 10 % of arable land are endangered wind erosion in the Czech Republic. These processes have been accelerated by human activity. Specific condition of agriculture land in the Czech Republic including highland relief and particularly size of land parcel and intensification of agriculture does not enable to reduce flow of runoff water. Insufficient protection against accelerated erosion processes is related to lack of landscape and hydrographic elements and large area of agricultural plots. Currently, this issue is solved at plot scale by field investigation or at regional scale using numerical and empirical erosion models. Nevertheless, these models enable only to predict the potential of soil erosion. Large scale assessment of actual degradation level of soils is based on expert knowledge. However, there are still many uncertainties in this issue. Therefore characterization of actual degradation level of soil is required especially for assessment of long-term impact of soil erosion on soil fertility. Soil degradation by erosion can be effectively monitored or quantified by modern tools of remote sensing with variable level of detail accessible. Aims of our study is to analyse the applicability of remote sensing for monitoring of actual soil degradation by erosion. Satellite and aerial image data (multispectral and hyperspectral), terrain attributes and data from field investigation are the main source for this analyses. The first step was the delimitation of bare soils using supervised classification of the set of Landsat scenes from 2000 - 2014. The most suitable period of time for obtaining spectral image data with the lowest vegetation cover of soil was determined. The results were verified by

  19. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions. PMID:26265050

  20. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.