Science.gov

Sample records for actual transmission ratio

  1. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  2. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  3. Maternal transmission, sex ratio distortion, and mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Steve J.; Hodson, Christina N.; Hamilton, Phineas T.; Opit, George P.; Gowen, Brent E.

    2015-01-01

    In virtually all multicellular eukaryotes, mitochondria are transmitted exclusively through one parent, usually the mother. In this short review, we discuss some of the major consequences of uniparental transmission of mitochondria, including deleterious effects in males and selection for increased transmission through females. Many of these consequences, particularly sex ratio distortion, have well-studied parallels in other maternally transmitted genetic elements, such as bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods. We also discuss the consequences of linkage between mitochondria and other maternally transmitted genetic elements, including the role of cytonuclear incompatibilities in maintaining polymorphism. Finally, as a case study, we discuss a recently discovered maternally transmitted sex ratio distortion in an insect that is associated with extraordinarily divergent mitochondria. PMID:25870270

  4. Multilateral Control with Haptic Transmission Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Ryogo; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Skill education has been a serious problem in various fields. Since haptic information from the real environment is so important for human advanced skill as well as visual and audio information, the only conventional technology of visual and audio information could not realize accurate skill education. Thus, bilateral control that is able to transmit force sensation from the real environment may become a key technology. Then, multilateral control based on bilateral control that is able to transmit force sensation to several operators is suitable for skill education system. However, it is necessary for application of multilateral control to skill education based on haptic information that the influences from the operators are variable according to the trainee's skill acquisition level. Thus, this paper proposes multilateral control with the transmission ratio that is able to be designed according to the trainee's skill acquisition level. Then, five types of multilateral control are realized by designing the transmission ratio. Finally, the experiments results are shown in order to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  5. Orthogonal-state-based deterministic secure quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.

  6. Reviving the Bowen Ratio method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a vertical column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the ratio of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen ratio over time and in the vertical. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen ratio sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen ratio method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the vertical. The traditional Bowen ratio method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen Ratio method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the vertical air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was

  7. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  8. Continuously variable or fixed ratio velocity transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a traction transmission mechanism. It comprises: a toric inner race element, a toric outer race element, encircling and complimentary with the inner race element, and arranged concentric therewith, a driving means operatively associated with one of the race elements to drive the same, a race element support means, one of the race elements being the driving race and the other of the elements being the driven race. The driving race element being formed of Separate halves, transmission roller means operatively associated with the driving and driven race elements and arranged for limited pivot between the race elements to drive by traction force the the driven race element from the driving race element and thereby mounted for angular pivotal adjustment to vary the speed of the driven race element.

  9. Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

  10. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  11. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  12. Control system for a multiple ratio transmission having a lockup clutch torque converter

    SciTech Connect

    Van Selous, J.S.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a power transmission mechanism for a driveline for a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. The process comprises: a hydrokinetic torque converter having a bladed impeller housing driven by the engine, a bladed turbine in the housing, a bladed stator and a turbine shaft connected to the turbine; multiple ratio gearing having a torque input member and a torque output member with plural torque flow paths defined by gear elements between the input and output members and having clutch and brake servo means for establishing selectively four forward driving speed ratios and a reverse ratio; and the highest speed ratio being an overdrive, the second highest speed ratio being a direct one-to-one speed ratio and the third highest speed ratio being an underdrive.

  13. Beam propagation ratios measurement based on transmissive liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Dong; Tian, Jindong

    2015-03-01

    A method is presenting for measuring beam propagation ratios (M2) of laser beam utilizing transmissive liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM). In this paper, the function of digital zoom lens (DZL) could be obtained by loading a calculated gray-scale of DZL with desired focal length into the LC-SLM and the accurate focal length of DZL could be gotten by a correction method. By comparing with the standard measuring method provided by ISO (International Standard Organization), through using the transmissive LC-SLM, the beam propagation ratios could be calculated by curve fitting based on the beam spot size collected by digital camera versus the focal length of DZL without any movements in the experiments. The experiment and comparison results have shown that it is effective for us to measure the M2 of Gaussian beam using a transmissive LC-SLM whose experimental setups are simple, relatively.

  14. Targeted Mutagenesis of a Candidate T Complex Responder Gene in Mouse T Haplotypes Does Not Eliminate Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Ewulonu, U. K.; Schimenti, K.; Kuemerle, B.; Magnuson, T.; Schimenti, J.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) associated with mouse t haplotypes causes +/t males to transmit the t-bearing chromosome to nearly all their offspring. Of the several genes involved in this phenomenon, the t complex responder (Tcr(t)) locus is absolutely essential for TRD to occur. A candidate Tcr(t) gene called Tcp10b(t) was previously cloned from the genetically defined Tcr(t) region. Its location, restricted expression in testis, and a unique postmeiotic alternative splicing pattern supported the idea that Tcp10b(t) was Tcr(t). To test this hypothesis in a functional assay, ES cells were derived from a viable partial t haplotype, and the Tcp10b(t) gene was mutated by homologous recombination. Mutant mice were mated to appropriate partial t haplotypes to determine whether the targeted chromosome exhibited transmission ratios characteristic of the responder. The results demonstrated that the targeted chromosome retained full responder activity. Hence, Tcp10b(t) does not appear to be Tcr(t). These and other observations necessitate a reevaluation of genetic mapping data and the actual nature of the responder. PMID:8889539

  15. Focal ratio degradation and transmission in VIRUS-P optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Hill, Gary J.; Grupp, Frank; Kelz, Andreas; Palunas, Povilas; Roth, Martin; Fry, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have conducted extensive tests of both transmission and focal ratio degradation (FRD) on two integral field units currently in use on the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph. VIRUS-P is a prototype for the VIRUS instrument proposed for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. All tests have been conducted at an input f-ratio of F/3.65 and with an 18% central obscuration in order to simulate optical conditions on the HET. Transmission measurements were conducted with narrow-band interference filters (FWHM: 10 nm) at 10 discrete wavelengths (337 to 600 nm), while FRD tests were made at 365 nm, 400 nm and 600 nm. The influence of wavelength, end immersion, fiber type and length on both FRD and transmission is explored. Most notably, we find no wavelength dependence on FRD down to 365 nm. All fibers tested are within the VIRUS instrument specifications for both FRD and transmission. We present the details of our differential FRD testing method and explain a simple and robust technique of aligning the test bench and optical fiber axes to within +/-0.1 degrees.

  16. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lam O.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was first proposed to test for association and linkage in case-trios (affected offspring and parents); adjusting for TRD using control-trios was recommended. However, the TDT does not provide risk parameter estimates for different genetic models. A loglinear model was later proposed to provide child and maternal relative risk (RR) estimates of disease, assuming Mendelian transmission. Results from our simulation study showed that case-trios RR estimates using this model are biased in the presence of TRD; power and Type 1 error are compromised. We propose an extended loglinear model adjusting for TRD. Under this extended model, RR estimates, power and Type 1 error are correctly restored. We applied this model to an intrauterine growth restriction dataset, and showed consistent results with a previous approach that adjusted for TRD using control-trios. Our findings suggested the need to adjust for TRD in avoiding spurious results. Documenting TRD in the population is therefore essential for the correct interpretation of genetic association studies.

  17. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  18. Widespread vertical transmission and associated host sex-ratio distortion within the eukaryotic phylum Microspora.

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rebecca S.; Smith, Judith E.; Sharpe, Rosie G.; Rigaud, Thierry; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Ironside, Joseph E.; Rollinson, David; Bouchon, Didier; MacNeil, Calum; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2004-01-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and associated manipulation of host reproduction are widely reported among prokaryotic endosymbionts. Here, we present evidence for widespread use of VT and associated sex-ratio distortion in a eukaryotic phylum. The Microspora are an unusual and diverse group of eukaryotic parasites that infect all animal phyla. Following our initial description of a microsporidian that feminizes its crustacean host, we survey the diversity and distribution of VT within the Microspora. We find that vertically transmitted microsporidia are ubiquitous in the amphipod hosts sampled and that they are also diverse, with 11 species of microsporidia detected within 16 host species. We found that infections were more common in females than males, suggesting that host sex-ratio distortion occurs in five out of eight parasite species tested. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrates that VT occurs in all major lineages of the phylum Microspora and that sex-ratio distorters are found on multiple branches of the phylogenetic tree. We propose that VT is either an ancestral trait or evolves with peculiar frequency in this phylum. If the association observed here between VT and host sex-ratio distortion holds true across other host taxa, these eukaryotic parasites may join the bacterial endosymbionts in their importance as sex-ratio distorters. PMID:15315893

  19. Narrowing the critical regions for mouse t complex transmission ratio distortion factors by use of deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, M F; Schimenti, J C; Evans, E P

    2000-01-01

    Previously a deletion in mouse chromosome 17, T(22H), was shown to behave like a t allele of the t complex distorter gene Tcd1, and this was attributed to deletion of this locus. Seven further deletions are studied here, with the aim of narrowing the critical region in which Tcd1 must lie. One deletion, T(30H), together with three others, T(31H), T(33H), and T(36H), which extended more proximally, caused male sterility when heterozygous with a complete t haplotype and also enhanced transmission ratio of the partial t haplotype t(6), and this was attributed to deletion of the Tcd1 locus. The deletions T(29H), T(32H), and T(34H) that extended less proximally than T(30H) permitted male fertility when opposite a complete t haplotype. These results enabled narrowing of the critical interval for Tcd1 to between the markers D17Mit164 and D17Leh48. In addition, T(29H) and T(32H) enhanced the transmission ratio of t(6), but significantly less so than T(30H). T(34H) had no effect on transmission ratio. These results could be explained by a new distorter located between the breakpoints of T(29H) and T(34H) (between T and D17Leh66E). It is suggested that the original distorter Tcd1 in fact consists of two loci: Tcd1a, lying between D17Mit164 and D17Leh48, and Tcd1b, lying between T and D17Leh66E. PMID:10835400

  20. Speed ratio control for cars equipped with metal v-belt continuously variable transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meilan; Zhang, Bin; Wen, Jiabin

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the control effect of speed ratio change on fuel economy performance of vehicles under complex working conditions, a mixed fuzzy-PI control strategy is proposed, and a dynamic simulation model is established for the best fuel economy. Simulation and analysis are conducted using the model under different typical operating conditions. Simulation results show that the speed ratio mixed fuzzy-PI controller has a better following characteristics and higher accuracy compared to a conventional fuzzy controller. Even in the case of external disturbance, the target engine speed can still be maintained at the most economic working point. According to the proposed control strategy, road test has been done under various running situations with DEAWOOD MatizII passenger car used as an experimental sample car. The test results verify further that the model established is correct and the control strategy proposed for the speed ratio is valid, and the reasonable match between engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) is achievable.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation perpendicular to the long axis of high aspect ratio features

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, R. B.; Anciso, A.; Jones, P. J.; Glenn, A. L.; Williams, B. L.; Sridhar, S.; Arshad, S.

    2009-11-15

    A new variation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation is introduced. By thinning a tall high aspect ratio structure perpendicular to the long dimension (i.e., from the side) rather than from perpendicular to the short dimension (either the top or the bottom), it is possible to obtain a more uniformly thin TEM specimen over the entire long dimension of the structure. This article will describe the rational for this variation in specimen preparation. The necessary modifications of four different specimen preparation methods (in situ lift-out, traditional H-bar, ex situ lift-out, and tripod polishing) will be discussed and images of specimens obtained by both of these first two methods will be shown. Additional potential advantages and other applications of this specimen preparation method will be covered.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Transmission Type, Gear Count and Ratio Spread on Fuel Economy and Performance Using ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of varying the absolute and relative gear ratios of a given transmission on fuel economy and performance, considers alternative methods of selecting absolute gear ratios, examines the effect of alternative engines on the selections o...

  3. Design, manufacture and spin test of high contact ratio helicopter transmission utilizing Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folenta, Dezi; Lebo, William

    1988-01-01

    A 450 hp high ratio Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP) for a helicopter application was designed, manufactured, and spin tested under NASA contract NAS3-24539. The objective of the program was to conduct research and development work on a high contact ratio helical gear SABP to reduce weight and noise and to improve efficiency. The results accomplished include the design, manufacturing, and no-load spin testing of two prototype helicopter transmissions, rated at 450 hp with an input speed of 35,000 rpm and an output speed of 350 rpm. The weight power density ratio of these gear units is 0.33 lb hp. The measured airborne noise at 35,000 rpm input speed and light load is 94 dB at 5 ft. The high speed, high contact ratio SABP transmission appears to be significantly lighter and quieter than comtemporary helicopter transmissions. The concept of the SABP is applicable not only to high ratio helicopter type transmissions but also to other rotorcraft and aircraft propulsion systems.

  4. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  5. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budianto, A.; Tawi, K. B.; Hussein, M.; Supriyo, B.; Ariyono, S.; Che Kob, M. S.; Ezlamy Zulkifli, Mohd; K, Khairuldean A.; Daraoh, Aishah

    2012-09-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  6. A genetic map in the Mimulus guttatus species complex reveals transmission ratio distortion due to heterospecific interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, L; Kelly, A J; Morgan, E; Willis, J H

    2001-01-01

    As part of a study of the genetics of floral adaptation and speciation in the Mimulus guttatus species complex, we constructed a genetic linkage map of an interspecific cross between M. guttatus and M. nasutus. We genotyped an F(2) mapping population (N = 526) at 255 AFLP, microsatellite, and gene-based markers and derived a framework map through repeated rounds of ordering and marker elimination. The final framework map consists of 174 marker loci on 14 linkage groups with a total map length of 1780 cM Kosambi. Genome length estimates (2011-2096 cM) indicate that this map provides thorough coverage of the hybrid genome, an important consideration for QTL mapping. Nearly half of the markers in the full data set (49%) and on the framework map (48%) exhibited significant transmission ratio distortion (alpha = 0.05). We localized a minimum of 11 transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDLs) throughout the genome, 9 of which generate an excess of M. guttatus alleles and a deficit of M. nasutus alleles. This pattern indicates that the transmission ratio distortion results from particular interactions between the heterospecific genomes and suggests that substantial genetic divergence has occurred between these Mimulus species. We discuss possible causes of the unequal representation of parental genomes in the F(2) generation. PMID:11779808

  7. Optimisation of full-toroidal continuously variable transmission in conjunction with fixed ratio mechanism using particle swarm optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delkhosh, Mojtaba; Saadat Foumani, Mahmoud

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the optimisation of full-toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) in conjunction with the fixed ratio (FR) mechanism, while the optimisation objective is to minimise fuel consumption (FC) of the vehicle in the new European driving cycle. After the dynamic analysis of the power train, a computer model is developed to simulate contact between CVT elements and consequently calculate its efficiency. Then an algorithm is presented to calculate FC of the vehicle in the driving cycle. Then, an optimisation using particle swarm optimisation on the CVT geometry and FR mechanism (which is embedded between CVT and final drive) is carried out to minimise FC. It is found that by utilisation of the optimised CVT; FC will be about 11% and 8% lower, compared with the application of a five-speed manual transmission and conventional CVT, respectively. Finally, effects of the roller tilt angle and oil temperature on the FC are investigated.

  8. Genetic Linkage Mapping and Transmission Ratio Distortion in a Three-Generation Four-Founder Population of Panicum virgatum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D.; Saha, Malay C.; Bouton, Joseph H.; Lanzatella, Christina L.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  9. Genetic linkage mapping and transmission ratio distortion in a three-generation four-founder population of Panicum virgatum (L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D; Saha, Malay C; Bouton, Joseph H; Lanzatella, Christina L; Tobias, Christian M

    2014-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  10. A SULT2A1 genetic variant identified by GWAS as associated with low serum DHEAS does not impact on the actual DHEA/DHEAS ratio

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Robin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Teumer, Alexander; Kroemer, Heyo; Taylor, Angela E; Shackleton, Cedric H L; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    DHEA is the major precursor of human sex steroid synthesis and is inactivated via sulfonation to DHEAS. A previous genome-wide association study related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2637125, located near the coding region of DHEA sulfotransferase, SULT2A1, to serum DHEAS concentrations. However, the functional relevance of this SNP with regard to DHEA sulfonation is unknown. Using data from 3300 participants of the population-based cohort Study of Health in Pomerania, we identified 43 individuals being homozygote for the minor allele of the SNP rs2637125 (AA) and selected two sex- and age-matched individuals with AG and GG genotype (n=172) respectively. Steroid analysis including measurement of serum DHEA and DHEAS was carried out by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, employing steroid oxime analysis for enhancing the sensitivity of DHEA detection. We applied quantile regression models to compare median hormone levels across SULT2A1 genotypes. Median comparisons by SULT2A1 genotype (AA vs AG and GG genotypes respectively) showed no differences in the considered hormones including DHEAS, DHEA, androstenedione, as well as cortisol and cortisone concentrations. SULT2A1 genotype also had no effect on the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. Sex-stratified analyses, as well as alternative use of the SULT2A1 SNP rs182420, yielded similar negative results. Genetic variants of SULT2A1 do not appear to have an effect on individual DHEA and DHEAS concentrations or the DHEA/DHEAS ratio as a marker of DHEA sulfonation capacity. PMID:23132913

  11. Optimization of wide-angle seismic signal-to-noise ratios and P-wave transmission in Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacob, A.W.B.; Vees, R.; Braile, L.W.; Criley, E.

    1994-01-01

    In previous refraction and wide-angle reflection experiments in the Kenya Rift there were problems with poor signal-noise ratios which made good seismic interpretation difficult. Careful planning and preparation for KRISP 90 has substantially overcome these problems and produced excellent seismic sections in a difficult environment. Noise levels were minimized by working, as far as possible, at times of the day when conditions were quiet, while source signals were optimized by using dispersed charges in water where it was available and waterfilled boreholes in most cases where it was not. Seismic coupling at optimum depth in water has been found to be more than 100 times greater than it is in a borehole in dry loosely compacted material. Allowing for the source coupling, a very marked difference has been found between the observation ranges in the rift and those on the flanks, where the observation ranges are greater. These appear to indicate a significant difference in seismic transmission through the two types of crust. ?? 1994.

  12. Crosses Heterozygous for Hybrid Neurospora Translocation Strains Show Transmission Ratio Distortion Disfavoring Homokaryotic Ascospores Made Following Alternate Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Dev Ashish; Rekha, Selvam; Kasbekar, Durgadas P.

    2016-01-01

    By introgressing Neurospora crassa translocations into N. tetrasperma, we constructed heterokaryons bearing haploid nuclei of opposite mating types, and either the translocation and normal sequence chromosomes (i.e., [T + N]) or a duplication and its complementary deficiency (i.e., [Dp + Df]). The [T + N] heterokaryons result from alternate segregation of homologous centromeres, whereas adjacent-1 segregation generates [Dp + Df]. Self-cross of either heterokaryon produces [T + N] and [Dp + Df] progeny. Occasionally during N. tetrasperma ascus development, a pair of smaller homokaryotic ascospores replaces a heterokaryotic ascospore. Crosses with the Eight-spore mutant increase such replacement, and can generate asci with eight homokaryotic ascospores, either 4T + 4N from alternate segregation, or 4Dp + 4Df from adjacent-1 segregation. Crosses of some of the introgressed translocation strains with normal sequence N. tetrasperma produced more Dp than T or N homokaryotic progeny. We suggest this is due to an insufficiency for a presumptive ascospore maturation factor, which increases the chance that, in asci with > 4 viable ascospores, none properly mature. Since only four viable ascospores (Dp or [Dp + Df]) share the limiting factor following adjacent-1 segregation, whereas four to eight ascospores compete for it following alternate segregation, this would explain why Dp homokaryons outnumber T and N types, whereas the heterokaryons are not as affected. We believe that this novel form of transmission ratio distortion is caused by a Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller Incompatibility (BDMI) triggered by an N. crassa gene in the N. tetrasperma background. Heterokaryons tend not to out-cross, and crosses of Dp strains are barren, thus the BDMI impedes interspecies gene flow. PMID:27317785

  13. Crosses Heterozygous for Hybrid Neurospora Translocation Strains Show Transmission Ratio Distortion Disfavoring Homokaryotic Ascospores Made Following Alternate Segregation.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dev Ashish; Rekha, Selvam; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

    2016-01-01

    By introgressing Neurospora crassa translocations into N. tetrasperma, we constructed heterokaryons bearing haploid nuclei of opposite mating types, and either the translocation and normal sequence chromosomes (i.e., [T + N]) or a duplication and its complementary deficiency (i.e., [Dp + Df]). The [T + N] heterokaryons result from alternate segregation of homologous centromeres, whereas adjacent-1 segregation generates [Dp + Df]. Self-cross of either heterokaryon produces [T + N] and [Dp + Df] progeny. Occasionally during N. tetrasperma ascus development, a pair of smaller homokaryotic ascospores replaces a heterokaryotic ascospore. Crosses with the Eight-spore mutant increase such replacement, and can generate asci with eight homokaryotic ascospores, either 4T + 4N from alternate segregation, or 4Dp + 4Df from adjacent-1 segregation. Crosses of some of the introgressed translocation strains with normal sequence N. tetrasperma produced more Dp than T or N homokaryotic progeny. We suggest this is due to an insufficiency for a presumptive ascospore maturation factor, which increases the chance that, in asci with > 4 viable ascospores, none properly mature. Since only four viable ascospores (Dp or [Dp + Df]) share the limiting factor following adjacent-1 segregation, whereas four to eight ascospores compete for it following alternate segregation, this would explain why Dp homokaryons outnumber T and N types, whereas the heterokaryons are not as affected. We believe that this novel form of transmission ratio distortion is caused by a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Incompatibility (BDMI) triggered by an N. crassa gene in the N. tetrasperma background. Heterokaryons tend not to out-cross, and crosses of Dp strains are barren, thus the BDMI impedes interspecies gene flow. PMID:27317785

  14. A Novel Sperm-Delivered Toxin Causes Late-Stage Embryo Lethality and Transmission Ratio Distortion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannah S.; Ailion, Michael; Li, Jialing; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Rockman, Matthew V.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary fate of an allele ordinarily depends on its contribution to host fitness. Occasionally, however, genetic elements arise that are able to gain a transmission advantage while simultaneously imposing a fitness cost on their hosts. We previously discovered one such element in C. elegans that gains a transmission advantage through a combination of paternal-effect killing and zygotic self-rescue. Here we demonstrate that this element is composed of a sperm-delivered toxin, peel-1, and an embryo-expressed antidote, zeel-1. peel-1 and zeel-1 are located adjacent to one another in the genome and co-occur in an insertion/deletion polymorphism. peel-1 encodes a novel four-pass transmembrane protein that is expressed in sperm and delivered to the embryo via specialized, sperm-specific vesicles. In the absence of zeel-1, sperm-delivered PEEL-1 causes lethal defects in muscle and epidermal tissue at the 2-fold stage of embryogenesis. zeel-1 is expressed transiently in the embryo and encodes a novel six-pass transmembrane domain fused to a domain with sequence similarity to zyg-11, a substrate-recognition subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase. zeel-1 appears to have arisen recently, during an expansion of the zyg-11 family, and the transmembrane domain of zeel-1 is required and partially sufficient for antidote activity. Although PEEL-1 and ZEEL-1 normally function in embryos, these proteins can act at other stages as well. When expressed ectopically in adults, PEEL-1 kills a variety of cell types, and ectopic expression of ZEEL-1 rescues these effects. Our results demonstrate that the tight physical linkage between two novel transmembrane proteins has facilitated their co-evolution into an element capable of promoting its own transmission to the detriment of organisms carrying it. PMID:21814493

  15. Transmission-ratio distortion through F{sub 1} females at chromosome 11 loci linked to Om in the mouse DDK syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Villena, F.P.M. de; Naumova, A.K.; Smith, M.; Verner, A.

    1996-04-01

    We determined the genotypes of >200 offspring that are survivors of matings between female reciprocal F{sub 1} hybrids (between the DDK and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains) and C57BL/6J males at markers linked to the Ovum mutant (Om) locus on chromosome 11. In contrast to the expectations of our previous genetic model to explain the {open_quotes}DDK syndrome,{close_quotes} the genotypes of these offspring do not reflect preferential survival of individuals that receive C57BL/6J alleles from the F{sub 1} females in the region of chromosome 11 to which the Om locus has been mapped. In face, we observe significant transmission-ratio distortion in favor of DDK alleles in this region. These results are also in contrast to the expectation of Wakasugi`s genetic model for the inheritance of Om, in which he proposed equal transmission of DDK and non-DDK alleles from F{sub 1} females. We propose that the results of these experiments may be explained by reduced expression of the maternal DDK Om allele or expression of the maternal DDK Om allele in only a portion of the ova of F{sub 1} females. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Transmission-Ratio Distortion and Allele Sharing in Affected Sib Pairs: A New Linkage Statistic with Reduced Bias, with Application to Chromosome 6q25.3

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Mathieu; Roslin, Nicole M.; Laprise, Catherine; Hudson, Thomas J.; Morgan, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of transmission-ratio distortion (TRD) on tests of linkage based on allele sharing in affected sib pairs. We developed and implemented a discrete-trait allele-sharing test statistic, Sad, analogous to the Spairs test statistic of Whittemore and Halpern, that evaluates an excess sharing of alleles at autosomal loci in pairs of affected siblings, as well as a lack of sharing in phenotypically discordant relative pairs, where available. Under the null hypothesis of no linkage, nuclear families with at least two affected siblings and one unaffected sibling have a contribution to Sad that is unbiased, with respect to the effects of TRD independent of the disease under study. If more distantly related unaffected individuals are studied, the bias of Sad is generally reduced compared with that of Spairs, but not completely. Moreover, Sad has higher power, in some circumstances, because of the availability of unaffected relatives, who are ignored in affected-only analyses. We discuss situations in which it may be an efficient use of resources to genotype unaffected relatives, which would give insights for promising study designs. The method is applied to a sample of pedigrees ascertained for asthma in a chromosomal region in which TRD has been reported. Results are consistent with the presence of transmission distortion in that region. PMID:15322985

  17. Control system for an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, Y.

    1987-07-21

    A system is described for controlling an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine through a clutch for driving a motor vehicle. The transmission comprises a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the driven pulley, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The system includes a pressure oil circuit having a pump for supplying pressurized oil, and a transmission ratio control valve having a spool for controlling the pressurized oil so as to move the disc of the drive pulley to change the actual transmission ratio of the transmission. The improvement in the system comprises: first means for moving the spool of the transmission ratio control valve; second means responsive to disengagement of the clutch, when speed of the vehicle is below a predetermined speed, for producing a coasting signal; third means responsive to the coasting signal for producing a drive pulley speed set signal; fourth means responsive to the drive pulley speed set signal for producing a shifting signal representing a quantity of shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in upshifting direction, and fifth means responsive to the shifting signal for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in the upshifting direction via the first means thereby decreasing the drive pulley speed.

  18. Transmission ratio distortion of molecular markers in a doubled haploid population originated from a natural hybrid between Osmunda japonica and O. lancea.

    PubMed

    Yatabe-Kakugawa, Yoko; Tsutsumi, Chie; Hirayama, Yumiko; Tsuneki, Shizuka; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    In ferns, intra-gametophytic selfing occurs as a mode of reproduction where two gametes from the same gametophyte form a completely homozygous sporophyte. Intra-gametophytic selfing is considered to be prevented by lethal or deleterious recessive genes in several diploid species. In order to investigate the modes and tempo of selection acting different developmental stages, doubled haploids obtained from intra-gametophytic selfing within isolated gametophytes of a putative F1 hybrid between Osmunda japonica and O. lancea were analyzed with EST_derived molecular markers, and the distribution pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) along linkage map was clarified. As the results, the markers with skewness were clustered in two linkage groups. For the two highly distorted regions, gametophytes and F2 population were also examined. The markers skewed towards O. japonica on a linkage group (LG_2) showed skewness also in gametophytes, and the TRD was generated in the process of spore formation or growth of gametophytes. Also, selection appeared to be operating in the gametophytic stage. The markers on other linkage group (LG_11) showed highest skewness towards O. lancea in doubled haploids, and it was suggested that the segregation of LG_11 were influenced by zygotic lethality or genotypic evaluation and that some deleterious recessive genes exist in LG_11 and reduce the viability of homozygotes with O. japonica alleles. It is very likely that a region of LG_11were responsible for the low frequencies of intra-gametophytic selfing in O. japonica. PMID:23224293

  19. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  20. Low-peak-to-average power ratio and low-complexity asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing uplink transmission scheme for long-reach passive optical network.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Qiao, Yaojun

    2015-09-01

    In this Letter, we propose a discrete Hartley transform (DHT)-spread asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DHT-S-ACO-OFDM) uplink transmission scheme in which the multiplexing/demultiplexing process also uses the DHT algorithm. By designing a simple encoding structure, the computational complexity of the transmitter can be reduced from O(Nlog(2)(N)) to O(N). At the probability of 10(-3), the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of 2-ary pulse amplitude modulation (2-PAM)-modulated DHT-S-ACO-OFDM is approximately 9.7 dB lower than that of 2-PAM-modulated conventional ACO-OFDM. To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, a 4-Gbit/s DHT-S-ACO-OFDM uplink transmission scheme with a 1∶64 way split has been experimentally implemented using 100-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) for a long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). PMID:26368705

  1. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  2. Semi-automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morscheck, T.J.; Davis, A.R.; Huggins, M.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system of the type comprising: a mechanical change gear transmission of the type comprising a transmission housing, an input shaft rotatably supported in the housing and driven by an engine through a nonpositive coupling, an output shaft rotatably supported in the housing and a plurality of selectable ratio gears selectively engageable one at a time to a first transmission element by means of positive, nonsynchronized jaw clutch assemblies for providing a plurality of manually selectable drive ratios between the input and output shafts, each of the jaw clutch assemblies comprising a first jaw clutch member rotatably associated with the first transmission element and a second jaw clutch member rotatably associated with a second transmission element, each of the first jaw clutch members axially moveable relative to the first transmission element; manually operated means for engaging and disengaging the nonpositive coupling; manually operated shifting means for engaging selected ratio gears to and disengaging selected ratio gears from the first transmission element; selection for sensing the identity of the particular ratio gear selected for manual engagement or disengagement from the first transmission element and for providing a signal; first and second rotational speed sensors for sensing the rotational speed of the first and second transmission elements and providing signals; a power synchronizer assembly selectively actuable for selectively varying the rotational speed of the second transmission element and the second jaw clutch members rotatably associated therewith; and a central processing unit semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system.

  3. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  4. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  5. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  6. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  7. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  9. Dual Mode Transmission Designs for Motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao; Yan, Hong-Sen

    This paper presents two types of the dual mode transmission for use in a motorcycle. A motorcycle transmission typically using the discrete speed ratio transmission that works by alternating the gear drive, and the continuously variable transmission (CVT) that transmits power by using the rubber V-belt. The dual mode transmission described in this paper, utilizing a V-belt drive, a fixed ratio mechanism, and a planetary gear train, can provide two operation regimes over the full speed ratio range by means engaged clutches. One is the fixed gear ratio and differential transmission system; the other is the differential and continuously variable transmission system. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency of each transmission system are analyzed. An example is employed to illustrate the design procedure. Furthermore, several available design concepts of the dual mode transmissions for motorcycle applications are proposed.

  10. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  11. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  12. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  13. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  14. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  15. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  16. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  17. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  19. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  20. Transmissible amyloid.

    PubMed

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  1. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  2. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    SciTech Connect

    Lukashevich, V. V.; Aldushchenkov, A. V.; Dallman, D.

    2011-03-15

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neutron spin rotation angle, depending on the phase of the rf field in the Ramsey cell, allows a cosine-like spectrum to be measured. This spectrum is called a phase spectrum. The phase spectra measured with polarized and unpolarized targets have a phase shift. The measurements of this phase shift with polarized and nonpolarized neutrons at a p-wave resonance enable the ratio D/C to be isolated. We also describe the algorithm for separating the ratio D/C, taking into account the influence of the fringing fields of the Ramsey coil magnet and the target magnet.

  3. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  4. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

  5. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  6. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... speed transmission ratio at vehicle speeds below 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour). S3.1... not cause the vehicle to accelerate. S3.1.3.3If the transmission shift position is in Park... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift...

  7. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... speed transmission ratio at vehicle speeds below 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour). S3.1... not cause the vehicle to accelerate. S3.1.3.3If the transmission shift position is in Park... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift...

  8. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  9. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  10. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  11. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  12. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  13. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  14. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  15. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  16. Vented transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1990-01-29

    This patent describes a vented transmission. It comprises: a housing; a rotary input to the housing; a rotary output from the housing; transmission means within the housing interconnecting the input and the output and including a hollow, rotary shaft journaled within the housing; a vent tube having a first end extending into one end of the hollow shaft and a second end in fluid communication with the exterior of the housing; a shoulder within the hollow shaft and intermediate the ends of the vent tube and defining of relatively smaller diameter section near the first end of the vent tube that is within the hollow shaft and a relatively large diameter section nearer the second end of the vent tube; at least one aperture extending through the hollow shaft from the large diameter section immediately adjacent the shoulder; and a labyrinth seal at the interface of the vent tube and the large diameter section at a location between the aperture (s) and the second end of the vent tube.

  17. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  18. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  19. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  20. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  1. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  2. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  3. System for controlling air-fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Morozumi, T.

    1982-09-14

    A system for controlling the air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine having an induction passage, an exhaust passage , a choke valve in the induction passage, an automatic choke device comprising a positive temperature coefficient (Ptc) heater and a bimetal element connected to the choke valve, a detector for detecting the concentration of a constituent of exhaust gases passing through the exhaust passage, an electronic control circuit, an on-off type electromagnetic valve actuated by the output signal from the electronic control circuit for correcting the air-fuel ratio of the air-fuel mixture supplied by an airfuel mixture supplier, and means for actuating the on-off type electromagnetic valve at a fixed duty ratio during cold engine operation. The electronic control circuit comprises a vacuum sensor for converting the amount of the induced air to an electric quantity, an engine temperature detector for converting the engine temperature to an electric quantity, a first calculating circuit for producing a proper desired air-fuel mixture ratio signal from the output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the engine temperature detector, and a second calculation circuit for producing an actual air-fuel ratio signal from output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the ptc heater. A summing circuit for summing the proper air-fuel ratio signal and the actual air-fuel ratio signal produces a pulse duty ratio correcting signal which is applied to the electronic control circuit for correcting the fixed duty ratio.

  4. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  6. Transmission access: New rules to follow

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, J.

    1995-09-01

    Throughout the past year, much attention has been paid to California`s widely publicized proposal to restructure, or deregulate, the state`s electric utility industry. At the same time, substantially less recognition has been given to congress` role in restructuring this industry at the federal level through its passage of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). FERC`s new rules require all transmission owners to establish and maintain comparability tariffs. Simply stated, comparability means that purchasers of transmission services should be able to use the transmission system for the same purposes, at the same cost, and in the same ways and time as the transmission owner uses the system. While this may appear innocuous, the comparability requirement actually imposes new and substantial accounting, pricing, and operational burdens on transmission owners.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  13. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  14. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  15. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

  16. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  17. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  18. Are presolar dust grains from novae actually from supernovae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Hoppe, P.

    2005-05-01

    Meteorites contain presolar stardust grains that formed in prior generations of stars and exhibit large isotopic anomalies reflecting the nuclear processes that occurred in their individual parent stars. RGB and AGB stars and supernovae are well established as sources of many of these grains. Novae have been proposed as sources for a few SiC and graphite grains with low 12}C/{13C and 14}N/{15N ratios and unusual Si isotopic ratios (Amari et al., ApJ, 551, 1065). We have found three SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite with C and N isotopic ratios similar to the previously-reported putative nova grains. However, the isotopic signatures of Si, Ca, Al and Ti in one of the grains (334-2) clearly indicate a supernova origin, especially excess 28Si correlated with excess 44Ca. The latter signature is attributable to in situ decay of (half-life=50yr) 44Ti. Another 13C- and 15N-rich grain (151-4) has a large 47Ti enrichment. This signature is not expected for nova nucleosynthesis. Thus, the new isotopic data raise the possibility that the grains previously reported to have formed in novae actually formed in supernovae, and that novae have not left a record in the presolar grain populations that have been so far studied. Moreover, the results in grain 334-2 indicate that supernovae contain regions highly enriched in both 13C and 15N. This is not predicted by current models but may bear on the cosmic origin of 15N. This work was funded in part by NASA.

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

  20. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  1. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  2. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  3. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work accomplished to date on the NASA/Army Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. A 23-percent weight reduction has been demonstrated for a high output reduction ratio split path transmission compared to an aggressive program goal of 25-percent. Greater than 10 dB noise reduction in the cabin is achieved by the use of high contact ratio spur and double helical gears. In addition, mean times between transmission removals have been increased by almost four fold. These performance gains have been achieved by application of advanced transmission technology concepts. Technology areas are being explored which offer high gain but at relatively high risk in such areas as composites, split power gear concepts, double helical gears, new gear materials, high speed spring clutches, and ceramic rolling element bearings.

  4. The Origin of the Ionic-Radius Ratio Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the origins of the ionic-radius ratio rules and their incorrect attribution to Linus Pauling in the chemical literature and to Victor Goldschmidt in the geochemical literature. In actual fact, the ionic-radius ratio rules were first proposed within the context of the coordination chemistry…

  5. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  6. Transmission and pto system for tractors and utility cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, K.P.

    1987-04-21

    A tractor power transmission is described comprised of: a speed transmission housing, a first transmission shaft journalled in the housing, a hollow second transmission shaft journalled in the housing generally below and parallel to the first transmission shaft. A PTO drive shaft journalled in the housing and passing axially within the second transmission shaft and protruding forward and rearward from the second transmission shaft. A third transmission shaft is journalled in the housing parallel to the second transmission shaft. A final drive differential journalled in the housing perpendicular to the third transmission shaft, a coaxial rearward extension shaft to the PTO drive shaft journalled in the housing to provide a rear PTO drive. Gear means to drivingly connect the second and the third transmission shafts, gear means to drivingly connect the third transmission shaft and the final drive differential. A first set of intermeshing gears on the first and the second transmission shafts to drivingly connect the first and the second transmission shafts, a second set of intermeshing gears on the first transmission shaft and the PTO drive shaft PTO clutch means shiftable to drivingly connect the first transmission shaft. And PTO drive shaft through the second set of intermeshing gears at a first speed ratio when the PTO clutch means are in a first actuated state, the PTO clutch means is shiftable to drivingly connect the first transmission shaft and the PTO drive shaft through the first set of intermeshing gears at a second speed ratio. When the PTO clutch means are in a second actuated state and while the first set of intermeshing gears continues to provide a line of drive from the first transmission shaft to the second transmission shaft.

  7. LQR Controller for Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission in Reverse Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensler, Michel; Kawabe, Taketoshi; Joe, Shinichiro

    The system considered in this paper is a Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission (TCVT) system for cars. This system is unstable in reverse motion as some mechanical parts have been removed from the original one for cost reduction, and the gear ratio has to be regulated around its nominal value for car reverse motion. The control theory used here is the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) associated to a gain-scheduling technique, as the TCVT system is nonlinear according to the car speed. Moreover, as the LQR method requires the entire TCVT state vector and as the only available signal is the gear ratio, a full-order observer is designed. In order to take the other nonlinearities of the system into account, the observer is nonlinear: a diffeomorphism is then used for converting the variables provided by the nonlinear observer into the needed variables. In order to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the controller against the car speed and the torque shift disturbance phenomenon, several experiments with a test-bed and with an actual vehicle have been performed and showed the efficiency of the proposed controller.

  8. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  9. Sex ratios in pheasant research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, F.H.

    1952-01-01

    Sex ratios are of primary importance in interpretation of extensive studies of pheasant populations. They are necessary for converting crowing-cock indices to population estimates even where annual trends are to be studied in the same area. Reliability of population estimates from hunting season kill of pheasants suffers primarily from inability to estimate sex ratios accurately. Fall sex ratio is an index to production and where adult sex ratios are divergent can serve as a good check on production per hen. Age ratios of cocks cannot be interpreted directly as an index of productivity, even within the boundaries of one state, unless adult sex ratios are known. The relationship between observed and actual sex ratio varies significantly from season to season and according to the method of observation. In view of their importance in population studies and the lack of reliability of present methods, it is believed that intensive studies on techniques for obtaining sex ratios are a major need in pheasant research.

  10. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Answers for Patients . Top of Page Related Pages Transmission for Healthcare Providers Cover Your Cough Clean Hands ...

  11. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not shingles. For more information about shingles, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. [Assessment of actual benefits of new drugs by the Transparency Committee].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C

    2008-01-01

    When a drug has been granted a marketing authorization, if the pharmaceutical company wants it to be covered by the National Health Insurance, the company has to submit a file with all the studies concerning the drug, especially drug-drug comparative studies, to be assessed by the Transparency Committee. Drugs are assessed on two criteria: actual or expected benefit (AB) and improvement in actual benefit (IAB). Actual benefit mainly takes into account the severity of the disease concerned, the level of efficacy relative to known side effects (risk-benefit ratio), and the place the drug is intended to take in the therapeutic strategy. At the end of the assessment, AB is considered as important, moderate, poor or insufficient (to justify inclusion of the drug on the list of products to be reimbursed). After actual benefit is determined, improvement of actual benefit is assessed, comparing the estimated benefit of this drug with one of drugs with the same indication that is already reimbursed, to assess whether this drug will improve the patient's disease. This can be assessed by direct comparison (two drugs compared in the same clinical trial) or by indirect comparison (separate studies with the same design). There are four levels of added value, from I (major improvement) to IV (minor improvement). Level V represents no improvement. This second assessment is always relative to another drug. It never provides an absolute score. However, IAB is very important for pharmaceutical companies, because it is a fundamental criterion to determine the price of the drug, which is discussed with the Economic Committee of Health Products in a final phase. Actual benefit and improvement in actual benefit are allocated for each indication of a drug. PMID:18401307

  14. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  15. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  16. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  17. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  18. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  19. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  20. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  1. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  2. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  3. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  4. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  5. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  6. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  8. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  9. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  10. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  11. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  12. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  13. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  14. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  15. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  16. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  17. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  18. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  19. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. The potential for sexual transmission to compromise control of Ebola virus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Vinson, John E; Drake, John M; Rohani, Pejman; Park, Andrew W

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that sexual contact may give rise to transmission of Ebola virus long after infection has been cleared from blood. We develop a simple mathematical model that incorporates contact transmission and sexual transmission parametrized from data relating to the 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic. The model explores scenarios where contact transmission is reduced following infection events, capturing behaviour change, and quantifies how these actions reducing transmission may be compromised by sexual transmission in terms of increasing likelihood, size and duration of outbreaks. We characterize the extent to which sexual transmission operates in terms of the probability of initial infection resolving to sexual infectiousness and the sexual transmission rate, and relate these parameters to the overall case burden. We find that sexual transmission can have large effects on epidemic dynamics (increasing attack ratios from 25% in scenarios without sexual transmission but with contact-transmission-reducing behaviour, up to 80% in equivalent scenarios with sexual transmission). PMID:27277951

  3. [Evaluation of the actual traceability of labile blood products using medical records].

    PubMed

    Ingrand, P; Salmi, L R; Benz-Lemoine, E; Dupuis, M

    1998-12-01

    The traceability of blood products is an essential part of haemovigilance and transfusion safety. A pilot survey assessed the actual traceability by analysing transfusion information collected from medical records of a representative sample of 390 labile blood products transfused in a French university hospital. Transfusion and distribution forms were missing in 2.3% and 6.9% respectively. Availability and validity of transfusion information varied according to the nature of the expected information, elements of patients' records and types of wards. The location where the transfusion was performed was false or ambiguous in 38% of cases in surgery. Crude traceability, evaluated by the feedback of validated distribution forms, was estimated at 85.2% whereas actual traceability was estimated at 81.9% (SD 1.7%). High availability (98.7%) of at least one of the two sheets of the distribution form in medical records, or in the blood bank, revealed that a significant improvement of traceability should come from a better compliance to the rules of information transmission. The actual traceability differed significantly according to clinical services (worse in surgery) and was lower in case of autologous or absence of previous transfusion. An analysis of markers of good traceability should suggest efficient evolution of organization and information systems. This pilot study shows the relevance and feasibility of this kind of survey which could interestingly be performed on a large national representative random sample. PMID:9894331

  4. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  5. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  6. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  7. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  8. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  9. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  10. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  11. Effect of contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-01-01

    A computer simulation is presented which shows how the gear contact ratio affects the dynamic load on a spur gear transmission. The contact ratio can be affected by the tooth addendum, the pressure angle, the tooth size (diametral pitch), and the center distance. The analysis presented was performed using the NASA gear dynamics code, DANST. In the analysis, the contact ratio was varied over the range 1.20 to 2.40 by changing the length of the tooth addendum. In order to simplify the analysis, other parameters related to contact ratio were held constant. The contact ratio was found to have a significant influence on gear dynamics. Over a wide range of operating speeds, a contact ratio close to 2.0 minimized dynamic load. For low contact ratio gears (contact ratio less than 2.0), increasing the contact ratio reduced the gear dynamic load. For high contact ratio gears (contact ratio = or greater than 2.0), the selection of contact ratio should take into consideration the intended operating speeds. In general, high contact ratio gears minimized dynamic load better than low contact ratio gears.

  12. Measuring Child-Staff Ratios in Child Care Centers: Balancing Effort and Representativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Perlman, Michal; Zellman, Gail L.; Hamilton, Laura S.

    2006-01-01

    Child-staff ratios are an important quality indicator. They are often collected by observing one randomly selected classroom several times during a 2-h period on a single day. However, it is unclear whether these measures represent the ratios that children actually experience during most of their time in care. This study compared ratio data…

  13. Development of helicopter transmission seals, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    High speed helicopter transmission seal concepts were designed, fabricated and tested. The concepts were a dual element split ring seal and a circumferential seal. The tests were performed in a rig using an actual input quill assembly. The test conditions were selected to simulate transmission operation and were 230 F oil temperature, and a sliding speed of 9400 ft/min. The split ring seal exhibited gross leakage and was considered unsatisfactory, while the circumferential seal leakage was less than 1 c.c./hour; this leakage is within acceptable limits. The circumferential seal wear was only to .0005 inches during a 100 hour run (40 starts and stops). During a 40 hour contamination test (mesh silica flour) the seal total wear was a maximum of .004 inches. This wear is considered acceptable.

  14. Stress wave transmission and reflection through auxetic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    This paper establishes the effect of auxeticity on stress wave transmission and reflection. Specifically, investigation was made on wave transmission across two perfectly bonded isotropic solids in which the Poisson’s ratios ranged between -1 and 0.5. The results show that the combined use of auxetic and conventional solids at extreme Poisson’s ratio is helpful to multiply or even to eliminate stress waves, under the prescribed density and modulus relations. These results suggest the usefulness of auxetic solids as smart materials and in smart structures for effective control of stress wave transmission.

  15. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  16. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  17. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  18. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  19. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  20. On the transmissibilities of nonlinear vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Brennan, Michael J.; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    Transmissibility is a key parameter to quantify the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Under harmonic excitation, the force transmissibility of a linear vibration isolation system is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the force transmitted to the host structure and the excitation force amplitude, and the displacement transmissibility is the ratio between the displacement amplitude of the payload and that of the base. For a nonlinear vibration isolation system, the force or the displacement responses usually have more frequency components than the excitation. For a harmonic excitation, the response may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. Therefore, the amplitude ratio cannot well define the transmissibility. The root-mean-square ratio of the response to the excitation is suggested to define the transmissibility. The significance of the modified transmissibility is highlighted in a nonlinear two-stage vibration isolation system consisting of two linear spring connected linear vibration isolators with two additional horizontal linear springs. Harmonic balance method (HBM) is applied to determine the responses with the fundamental and third harmonic. Numerical simulations reveal that chaos may occur in the responses. In both cases, the modified transmissibility works while the original definition cannot be applied to chaotic response.

  1. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  2. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  3. Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

  4. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  5. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  6. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  7. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

  10. Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios centrifuged and uncentrifuged amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Railsback, K P; Haller, W S

    1978-09-01

    The literature suggests that the presence of cellular debris and sediment in amniotic fluid samples may alter the value of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratios, with a loss of as much as 75 percent of the surface-active lecithin1 and consequently a marked change in the L/S ratio. We wish to report our findings on 22 amniotic fluids obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis and analyzed with and without preliminary centrifugation. We find the L/S ratio is indeed unaltered by centrifugation. However, the actual amounts of lecithin and sphingomyelin appear to be lower in centrifuged samples. PMID:568387

  11. Rotational swashplate pulse continuously variable transmission based on helical gear axial meshing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Wenyu; Lei, Hong; Tian, E.; Liu, Ziping

    2012-11-01

    The current research on pulse continuously variable transmission(CVT) is mainly focused on reducing the pulse degree and making pulse degrees a constant value. Current research mainly confined to find out new design parameters by using the method of optimization, and reduce the pulse degree of pulse CVT and its range of variation. But the fact is that the reduction of the pulse degree is not significant. This article presents a new structure of mechanical pulse CVT—the rotational swashplate pulse CVT with driven by helical gear axial meshing. This transmission is simple and compact in structure and low in pulsatile rate (it adopts 6 guide rods), and the pulsatile degree is irrelevant to the transmission ratio. Theoretically, pulsatile rate could be reduced to zero if appropriate curved surface of the swashplate is used. Compared with the connecting rod pulse CVT, the present structure uses helical gear mechanism as transmission part and it avoids unbalanced inertial force in the former model. This paper analyzes the principle of driving of this transmission, presents its mechanical structure, and discusses its motion characteristics. Experimental prototype of this type of CVT has been manufactured. Tests for the transmission efficiency(when the rotational speed of the output shaft is the maximum) and the angular velocity of the output shaft have been carried out, and data have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the speed of the output shaft for the experimental prototype is slightly lower than the theoretical value, and the transmission efficiency of the experimental prototype is about 70%. The pulse degree of the CVT discussed in this paper is less than the existing pulse CVT of other types, and it is irrelevant to the transmission ratio of the CVT. The research provides the new idea to the CVT study.

  12. California's Hospital Fair Pricing Act reduced the prices actually paid by uninsured patients.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge

    2015-01-01

    California's Hospital Fair Pricing Act, passed in 2006, aims to protect uninsured patients from paying hospital gross charges: the full, undiscounted prices based on each hospital's chargemaster. In this study I examined how the law affects the net price actually paid by uninsured patients--a question critical for evaluating the law's impact. I found that from 2004 to 2012 the net price actually paid by uninsured patients shrank from 6 percent higher than Medicare prices to 68 percent lower than Medicare prices; the adjusted collection ratio, essentially the amount the hospital actually collected for every dollar in gross price charged, for uninsured patients dropped from 32 percent to 11 percent; and although hospitals have been increasingly less able to generate revenues from uninsured patients, they have raised the proportion of services provided to them in relation to total services provided to all patients. The substantial protection provided to uninsured patients by the California Hospital Fair Pricing Act has important implications for federal and state policy makers seeking to achieve a similar goal. States or Congress could legislate criteria determining the eligibility for discounted charges, mandate a lower price ceiling, and regulate for-profit hospitals in regard to uninsured patients. PMID:25561645

  13. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  14. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  15. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  16. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  17. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  18. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  19. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  20. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  1. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  2. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  3. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  4. Compression ratio control in reciprocating piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Doundoulakis, G.J.

    1989-08-29

    The patent describes compression ratio control for reciprocating piston engines. It comprises: a reciprocating engine crankcase; a plurality of compression/expansion cylinders rigidly attached to the crankcase; each of the cylinders including a curved surface and a cylinder head; a fuel mixture in-taken in the cylinders; a piston reciprocating along each cylinder's curved surface for providing compression/expansion to the fuel mixture; a crank mechanism including a crankshaft rotating about an axial line that is substantially equidistant from the heads, crankcheek lobes radially extending from the crankshaft, crankpins inside and in contact with crankpin bearings, axially extending between the crankcheek lobes, and crankshaft journal bearings for providing low frictional support to the crankshaft; a connecting rod for each of the cylinders connecting the piston with the crankpin; crankshaft positioning; a first transmission gear, a crankshaft gear for meshing with the transmission gear, and a slot cut on the crankcase; wherein the constraint in the displacement of the crankshaft in the horizontal sense is provided by the vertical edges of the slot, and wherein the vertical edges of the slot are preferably being curved with a radius of curvature substantially equal to the average pitch diameter of the crankshaft gear and thee first transmission gear for accurate meshing of the gears.

  5. Variable compression ratio control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1988-04-19

    In a four cycle engine that includes a crankshaft having a plural number of main shaft sections defining the crankshaft rotational axis and a plural number of crank arms defining orbital shaft sections, a plural number of combustion cylinders, a movable piston within each cylinder, each cylinder and its associated piston defining a combustion chamber, a connecting rod connecting each piston to an orbital shaft section of the crankshaft, and a plural number of stationary support walls spaced along the crankshaft axis for absorbing crankshaft forces: the improvement is described comprising means for adjustably supporting the crankshaft on the stationary walls such that the crankshaft rotational axis is adjustable along the piston-cylinder axis for the purpose of varying a resulting engine compression ratio; the adjustable support means comprising a circular cavity in each stationary wall. A circular disk swivably is seated in each cavity, each circular disk having a circular opening therethrough eccentric to the disk center. The crankshaft is arranged so that respective ones of its main shaft sections are located within respective ones of the circular openings; means for rotating each circular disk around its center so that the main shaft sections of the crankshaft are adjusted toward and away from the combustion chamber; a pinion gear on an output end of the crankshaft in axial alignment with and positioned beyond the respective ones of the main shaft sections, and a rotary output gear located about and engaged with teeth extending from the pinion gear.

  6. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  7. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  8. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  9. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  12. Modelling actual, reference and equilibrium evaporation from a temperate wet grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, H.; Agnew, C. A.

    2004-02-01

    Actual and reference evaporation from a wet grassland in Southeast England was studied over the spring and summer of 1999 (March to September) through changes in surface wetness. The Penman-Monteith (using resistance values for reference grass surface), equilibrium evaporation and Priestley-Taylor models were compared with output from the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) method. On field visits, inundation of the grazing marsh was mapped and surface soil moisture monitored in a regular grid using a capacitance probe. During the study period, the extent of flooding fell from approximately 10% to 0% and the surface soil moisture declined from over 38% to 15%. Daily averaged Bowen ratios displayed large variation but were below unity, indicating that latent energy flux was the dominant energy sink. The Penman-Monteith and equilibrium evaporation models underestimated during periods of surface inundation and overestimated when no surface water was present. Computed values of the Priestley-Taylor parameter showed daily variability, but was predictable with surface wetness such an average value of = 1.25 characterized periods of inundation, and an average values of = 0.80 represented periods of no surface water. The performance of the models in computing actual evaporation was compared with the BREB using the root-mean-square error and index of agreement. The optimal model was the Priestley-Taylor model.

  13. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  14. Thermal influence on precise gear transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Yetai; Miao, EnMing; Zhang, Xiao-rou

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate meshing of involute gears is required in precise gear transmission. However, in the working process, the heat generated in friction results in deformation of the tooth profile of the gear, radial and axial deformation of the shaft and bearing. Meanwhile, there is thermal deformation with non-similarity in the gear box that the shafts and bearings are installed on, which leads to a change of the bearing clearance, axis deflection of the shaft and the gear meshing state. As a result of all these effects, vibration and noise are generated in the transmission system, and it intensifies the possibility of damaging the parts. In this paper, mathematical physics methods and thermal elastic theory are employed to analyze the influence of tooth profiles, gear parameters (transmission ratio i, overlapping coefficients ɛ, backlash jn, etc), gear meshing, working clearance of the bearing (it relates with the initial clearance, tolerance matching, rotational speed, temperature changes, etc) and the shape of the gear box (cylindricity error, axis deflection, etc) caused by the temperature change. The result can be employed in selecting gear parameters and designing the shape of the gear tooth, bearing clearance and shell structure, and it is also helpful to the design of gear transmissions and screw transmissions.

  15. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  16. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  17. Transmission and distribution-loss analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A previous study developed a methodology for determining the losses in the various elements of an electric utility transmission and distribution system using only generally published system data. In that study the losses at the system peak and the average annual losses of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation system were calculated to illustrate the methods. Since there was little or no system loss data available at that time, the methodology of the loss calculations was not verified. The purpose of this study was to verify the methods that were proposed in the previous study. The data, estimates, assumptions, and calculation methods of the original study were checked against the actual Niagara Mohawk system data. The losses calculated in the original study were compared to the system losses derived from actual system data. Revisions to the original methods were recommended to improve the accuracy of the results. As a result of the analysis done in this study, the methods developed in the original study were revised. The revised methods provide reasonable loss calculation results for the Niagara Mohawk system. These methods along with discussions of their application are given. Also included is a description of the procedures followed to find the system losses from the actual system data. The revised loss calculation methods using the published data based on the Niagara Mohawk system data, operation, and loadings, gave reasonable results for that system, and the method may be applicable to similar systems.

  18. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  19. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  20. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  1. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  2. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  3. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  4. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  5. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  6. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  8. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  9. Actual cardiovascular disease risk and related factors: a cross-sectional study of Korean blue collar workers employed by small businesses.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Uk; Hong, Oi Saeng; Hwang, Won Ju

    2013-04-01

    Actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and related factors among blue collar workers employed by small businesses were investigated. This cross-sectional study of 238 Korean blue collar workers used surveys, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and blood sampling for lipid and glucose levels to answer the research questions. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze study data. The prevalence of actual CVD risk among blue collar workers was 32 cases per 100 workers. A multiple regression model showed that a combination of individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors explained 34% of the variance in actual CVD risk. The significant predictors of actual CVD risk included knowledge of CVD risk, risk perception, job stress, and waist-to-hip ratio. It is important for clinicians to consider all of these significant predictors of actual CVD risk when designing an intervention program to reduce CVD among Korean blue collar workers. PMID:23557345

  10. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  11. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  12. Adaptive control of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.A.; Runde, J.K.; Hunter, J.H.; Wiles, C.R.

    1991-12-10

    This patent describes a vehicular automatic transmission in which a shift from a first speed ratio to a second speed ratio is carried out through concurrent disengagement of a fluid pressure operated off-going torque transmitting device associated with the first speed ratio and engagement of a fluid pressure operated oncoming torque transmitting device associated with the second speed ratio, a method of automatically shifting the transmission. It comprises disengaging the off-going torque transmitting device by reducing its pre-shift engagement pressure, engaging the on-coming torque transmitting device by supplying it with hydraulic pressure according to a pressure command having a predetermined initial value, and thereafter initiating a closed-loop control of the pressure command based on a predefined pattern of input and output speeds chosen to yield high quality shifting, the pressure command achieving a final value upon completion of the closed-loop control; comparing a difference between the final value of the pressure command and the pressure command at the initiation of the closed-loop control with a threshold to detect an aberration; and if the difference exceeds the threshold, adjusting the predetermined initial value by an amount which is a function of the difference so that on the next shift the pressure command will have an initial value which is substantially correct for achieving the predefined pattern of input and output speeds.

  13. Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Zachary S.

    1995-06-01

    Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

  14. Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Zachary S.

    1995-01-01

    Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

  15. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  16. Recent Transmission of Tuberculosis — United States, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Courtney M.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Marks, Kala; Navin, Thomas R.; France, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that may result from recent transmission or from an infection acquired many years in the past; there is no diagnostic test to distinguish the two causes. Cases resulting from recent transmission are particularly concerning from a public health standpoint. To describe recent tuberculosis transmission in the United States, we used a field-validated plausible source-case method to estimate cases likely resulting from recent transmission during January 2011–September 2014. We classified cases as resulting from either limited or extensive recent transmission based on transmission cluster size. We used logistic regression to analyze patient characteristics associated with recent transmission. Of 26,586 genotyped cases, 14% were attributable to recent transmission, 39% of which were attributable to extensive recent transmission. The burden of cases attributed to recent transmission was geographically heterogeneous and poorly predicted by tuberculosis incidence. Extensive recent transmission was positively associated with American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9–4.4), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (aPR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.3–4.5), and black (aPR = 3.0, 95% CI 2.6–3.5) race, and homelessness (aPR = 2.3, 95% CI 2.0–2.5). Extensive recent transmission was negatively associated with foreign birth (aPR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.2–0.2). Tuberculosis control efforts should prioritize reducing transmission among higher-risk populations. PMID:27082644

  17. Recent Transmission of Tuberculosis - United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Kammerer, J Steve; Marks, Kala; Navin, Thomas R; France, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that may result from recent transmission or from an infection acquired many years in the past; there is no diagnostic test to distinguish the two causes. Cases resulting from recent transmission are particularly concerning from a public health standpoint. To describe recent tuberculosis transmission in the United States, we used a field-validated plausible source-case method to estimate cases likely resulting from recent transmission during January 2011-September 2014. We classified cases as resulting from either limited or extensive recent transmission based on transmission cluster size. We used logistic regression to analyze patient characteristics associated with recent transmission. Of 26,586 genotyped cases, 14% were attributable to recent transmission, 39% of which were attributable to extensive recent transmission. The burden of cases attributed to recent transmission was geographically heterogeneous and poorly predicted by tuberculosis incidence. Extensive recent transmission was positively associated with American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.4), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (aPR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.5), and black (aPR = 3.0, 95% CI 2.6-3.5) race, and homelessness (aPR = 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Extensive recent transmission was negatively associated with foreign birth (aPR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.2). Tuberculosis control efforts should prioritize reducing transmission among higher-risk populations. PMID:27082644

  18. Interference-Aware Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junseok; Kwon, Younggoo

    Maintaining the lowest possible transmission power in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is vulnerable to the interference fluctuations because of the bad signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR). The previous transmission power control (TPC) algorithms do not consider much for the interferences from other 2.4GHz devices, which can cause significant performance degradations in real world deployments. This paper proposes the interference-aware transmission power control (I-TPC) algorithm for WSNs. In the proposed algorithm, each node dynamically adjusts the transmission power and the received signal strength (RSS) target, hence the appropriate SINR is provided even when the wireless LAN (WLAN) interferences become strong. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous algorithms in terms of the energy and the packet reception ratio (PRR) performance in WLAN interference environments.

  19. Data transmission networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  20. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  1. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  2. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  3. Maintenance of hydrostatic transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.

    1981-10-01

    Problems in hydrostatic transmission maintenance are identified and ways of overcoming them are suggested. It is found that problems arise from lack of lubrication, impurities in the oil, and cavitation at the pump and at the motor. It is under suggested that under nonsevere operating conditions, oil and filter should be changed every year, or every 1500 to 2000 hr running time. Under severe operating conditions or in dusty environments, the interval should be every 6 months or 1000 hr.

  4. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  5. Continuously-Variable Positive-Mesh Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed transmission with continuously-variable speed ratio couples two mechanical trigonometric-function generators. Transmission is expected to handle higher loads than conventional variable-pulley drives; and, unlike variable pulley, positive traction through entire drive train with no reliance on friction to transmit power. Able to vary speed continuously through zero and into reverse. Possible applications in instrumentation where drive-train slippage cannot be tolerated.

  6. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  7. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  8. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  9. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  10. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  11. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  12. Control system for a continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a belt engaged with both the pulleys, an hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers, the hydraulic control circuit being provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement comprises: a first drain passage from the pressure regulator valve; a second drain passage from the transmission ratio control valve; a first check valve provided in the first drain passage and a second check valve provided in the second drain passage for building up supplementary low pressure in both drain passages at upstream of both the check valves; a supplementary oil passage communicating both the first and second drain passages at upstream of the check valves for supplying a part of drain oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley.

  13. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to

  14. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  15. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  16. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  17. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  18. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  19. Sound Transmission through a Cylindrical Sandwich Shell with Honeycomb Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Robinson, Jay H.; Silcox, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Sound transmission through an infinite cylindrical sandwich shell is studied in the context of the transmission of airborne sound into aircraft interiors. The cylindrical shell is immersed in fluid media and excited by an oblique incident plane sound wave. The internal and external fluids are different and there is uniform airflow in the external fluid medium. An explicit expression of transmission loss is derived in terms of modal impedance of the fluids and the shell. The results show the effects of (a) the incident angles of the plane wave; (b) the flight conditions of Mach number and altitude of the aircraft; (c) the ratios between the core thickness and the total thickness of the shell; and (d) the structural loss factors on the transmission loss. Comparisons of the transmission loss are made among different shell constructions and different shell theories.

  20. An Exploration of Professional Culture Differentials and Their Potential Impact on the Information Assurance Component of Optical Transmission Networks Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Michael Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Optical transmission networks are an integral component of the critical infrastructures for many nations. Many people believe that optical transmission networks are impenetrable. In actuality, these networks possess weaknesses that can be exploited to bring about harm. An emerging Information Assurance (IA) industry has as its goals: to…

  1. SU-E-T-417: A Method for Predicting and Correcting the Dosimetric Effect of a Radiotherapy Treatment Couch in Actual Treatment Position

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although radiation attenuation by the treatment couch can be included in the calculation of radiotherapy dose, difference between planned and actual treatment couch positions can generate significant dose discrepancies. We propose a method to predict and correct the dosimetric effect of the couch in actual treatment position. Methods: The couch transmission factor, T, varies with beam angle, G, couch lateral position, x, and vertical position, y, i.e., T=T(x,y,G). If T(x,y,G) is known for a fixed couch vertical position y=h, the transmission of central-axis beam (CAX) T(x,y,G) can be obtained by T(x,y,G)=T(x{sup +},h,G), where x{sup +}=x-(y-h)tan(G) and G is the angle between the beam and the vertical axis. Similarly, the transmission of any off-CAX point can be obtained using a similar formula. We measured CAX couch transmission at a fixed couch vertical position over the couch lateral motion range for all gantry angles by continuously scanning rotating arc beams. A 2D couch transmission correction matrix can thus be generated from T(x,h,G) for each treatment field for the actual couch position. By applying the transmission correction matrix to the planned field dose, the couch effect can be predicted and corrected. To verify this method, we measured couch transmission T(x, y=10cm, G=225°)(225°=IEC 135°) and compared to that obtained from equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225°) over the range of lateral motion with a step size of 2 cm . Results: The measured couch transmission factors T(x, y=10cm, G=225°) are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225°). The mean difference is 0.00406±0.00135. Conclusion: The couch transmission correction matrix for any couch position and beam angle can be obtained from one set of scanning measurements at a fixed couch vertical position. The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch can be predicted and corrected by applying the couch transmission correction to the planned

  2. Wireless transmission by plasmonic antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Juan M.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Rose, Aaron H.; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    Radio frequency (RF) communication is fundamental to many modern technologies. The idea of a simple rescaling of RF theory to the visible frequency range is not a direct issue, due in part to the finite conductivity in the optical range of commonly-used metals (e.g. Ag, Au). In this context, wireless communication using plasmonic antennas is a very recent concept with potential importance in an on-chip technology application. Here, we propose a plasmonic antenna system capable of wireless transmission-at-a-distance equivalent to at least four free-space wavelengths from the emitter. We demonstrate that it is possible to transmit information with maximum signal strength of -6.9 dB at three free-space wavelengths with a signal-to-noise ratio of -13 dB, good enough to be considered as an efficient wireless system. Theoretical calculations agree with our experimental results and open the possibility to future optimizations of the proposed plasmonic wireless system.

  3. Effects of Planetary Gear Ratio on Mean Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    Planetary gear transmissions are compact, high-power speed reductions which use parallel load paths. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single plane transmission, the planet gear has no size at a ratio of two. As the ratio increases, so does the size of the planets relative to the sizes of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a planetary with a fixed size, gear ratio, input speed power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the bearings and gears in the reduction. Planet bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

  4. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  5. Data Transmission Signal Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The error performances of several digital signaling methods are determined as a function of a specified signal-to-noise ratio. Results are obtained for Gaussian noise and impulse noise. Performance of a receiver for differentially encoded biphase signaling is obtained by extending the results of differential phase shift keying. The analysis presented obtains a closed-form answer through the use of some simplifying assumptions. The results give an insight into the analysis problem, however, the actual error performance may show a degradation because of the assumptions made in the analysis. Bipolar signaling decision-threshold selection is investigated. The optimum threshold depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and requires the use of an adaptive receiver.

  6. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  7. Haro15: Is it actually a low metallicity galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, Verónica; Bosch, Guillermo; Hägele, Guillermo; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Morrell, Nidia

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed study of the physical properties of the nebular material in multiple knots of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 15. Using long slit and echelle spectroscopy, obtained at Las Campanas Observatory, we study the physical conditions (electron density and temperature), ionic and total chemical abundances of several atoms, reddening and ionization structure. The latter was derived by comparing the oxygen and sulphur ionic ratios to their corresponding observed emission line ratios (the η and η' plots) in different regions of the galaxy. Applying direct and empirical methods for abundance determination, we perform a comparative analysis between these regions.

  8. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  9. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  10. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection. PMID:26612500

  11. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing

    PubMed Central

    HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410

  12. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  13. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  14. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  15. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  16. Pain pathways and transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Kitahata, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Pain has been a major concern of humankind since the ancient times, and it remains one of the most important subjects of all health care professionals. Despite the obvious overwhelming clinical importance, the major advances in its diagnosis and therapy have been made only recently. "How do the sensory apparatus of the body and system of signal transmission relate to pain of peripheral origin?" is the topic of discussion. To do this, it is important to understand what constitutes the total pain experience. It consists of: 1) signal transduction at the peripheral receptor site, 2) signal conduction along the peripheral nerve, 3) pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord, 4) pain perception at the supraspinal site, and 5) the associated sensations, emotional reactions, and effective state. The signal transmission related to pain may be modified by various analgesic agents. Specific analgesic agent has a specific site of action which may be at peripheral receptors, at peripheral nerves, at the level of the spinal cord, at supraspinal levels by activating descending inhibitory systems, or at more cephalad levels by reducing the affective component of pain. PMID:7825344

  17. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  19. Synaptic unreliability facilitates information transmission in balanced cortical populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatys, Leon A.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Synaptic unreliability is one of the major sources of biophysical noise in the brain. In the context of neural information processing, it is a central question how neural systems can afford this unreliability. Here we examine how synaptic noise affects signal transmission in cortical circuits, where excitation and inhibition are thought to be tightly balanced. Surprisingly, we find that in this balanced state synaptic response variability actually facilitates information transmission, rather than impairing it. In particular, the transmission of fast-varying signals benefits from synaptic noise, as it instantaneously increases the amount of information shared between presynaptic signal and postsynaptic current. Furthermore we show that the beneficial effect of noise is based on a very general mechanism which contrary to stochastic resonance does not reach an optimum at a finite noise level.

  20. [Natural history of the infection for human papillomavirus: an actualization].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gerardo González; Troconis, José Núñez

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the biology and natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Most papillomavirus infections are transmitted by close contact of either skin to skin or mucosa to mucosa. Sexual intercourse is not a requirement for genital HPV infection. Digital-oral infections occur and there is evidence that digital-genital and oral-genital contacts can result in the transmission of HPV, although in a relatively low percentage. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus is a common route of infection; in fact, it is recognized that more than 80% of infants born from mothers infected with genital HPV will be positive for HPV DNA determination in the nasal-pharyngeal region and oral mucosa. Women with transient infections often develop cytological abnormalities that take place while there is active HPV replication. This occurs because productive HPV infections result in cytological abnormalities in infected epithelial cells. The strong association between the risk of HPV infection and increased immune suppression, supports a direct biological effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on the natural history of HPV. PMID:24758104

  1. The sex ratio at birth.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth. PMID:12275623

  2. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  3. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  4. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  5. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions. PMID:26265050

  6. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  7. Infrared Applications In Transmission System Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Guy; Fernandez, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Five California Utilities participated in an electric power transmission and distribution system survey in the late fall of 1987. The survey consisted of visual and Infrared (IR) inspection of 12.5-kV to 230-kV AC transmission lines and equipment. This paper summarizes the results of the survey, including a cost/benefit analysis. The participating utilities, under Western Area Power Administration's sponsorship, were the City of Lodi, City of Roseville, Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and Sierra Pacific Power Company. Three hundred miles of line and thirty substations were inspected using a helicopter and a high resolution infrared camera with visual recording capabilities. The transmission and distribution system covered a broad range of terrain; valleys, foothills, and mountains. All five utilities recognized the value of the IR inspection. The procedure gave the maintenance staff advanced notice of problem areas such as (1) loose connections on switches, (2) unbalanced lines, (3) poor splices, and (4) capacitor and transformer bank malfunction. In addition, the staff saw its potential in environmental and safety applications. The initial data shows an increased capacity carrying and reliability providing capability of about 50 KW per 100 transmission line miles. This capability increase results in a B/C ratio of about three. Other applications in transmission system surveys are worthy of study. These applications include power theft and vandalism. Also, the Utility can use technology as an effective public relations tool with customers by providing services such as roof and building envelope inspections.

  8. Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard; Moynihan, Philip; Price, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Solar-thermal-radiation concentrators in the form of transmissive diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have been proposed as alternatives to mirror-type solar concentrators now in use. In comparison with functionally equivalent mirror-type solar concentrators, the transmissive, diffractive solar concentrators would weigh and cost less, and would be subject to relaxed mechanical tolerances. A DOE concentrator would be made from a thin, flat disk or membrane of a transmissive material having a suitable index of refraction. By virtue of its thinness, the DOE concentrator would have an areal mass density significantly less than that of a functionally equivalent conventional mirror. The DOE concentrator would have a relatively wide aperture--characterized by a focal-length/aperture-diameter ratio ('f number') on the order of 1. A kinoform (a surface-relief phase hologram) of high diffractive order would be microfabricated onto one face of the disk. The kinoform (see figure) would be designed to both diffract and refract incident solar radiation onto a desired focal region, without concern for forming an image of the Sun. The high diffractive order of this kinoform (in contradistinction to the low diffractive orders of some other kinoforms) would be necessary to obtain the desired f number of 1, which, in turn, would be necessary for obtaining a desired concentration ratio of 2,500 or greater. The design process of optimizing the concentration ratio of a proposed DOE solar concentrator includes computing convolutions of the optical bandwidth of the Sun with the optical transmission of the diffractive medium. Because, as in the cases of other non-imaging, light-concentrating optics, image quality is not a design requirement, the process also includes trading image quality against concentration ratio. A baseline design for one example calls for an aperture diameter of 1 m. This baseline design would be scalable to a diameter as large as 10 m, or to a smaller diameter for a

  9. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  11. Fiber optic data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  12. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  13. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  14. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  15. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  16. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  17. Hydrological and geomorphological controls of malaria transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. W.; Macklin, M. G.; Thomas, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria risk is linked inextricably to the hydrological and geomorphological processes that form vector breeding sites. Yet environmental controls of malaria transmission are often represented by temperature and rainfall amounts, ignoring hydrological and geomorphological influences altogether. Continental-scale studies incorporate hydrology implicitly through simple minimum rainfall thresholds, while community-scale coupled hydrological and entomological models do not represent the actual diversity of the mosquito vector breeding sites. The greatest range of malaria transmission responses to environmental factors is observed at the catchment scale where seemingly contradictory associations between rainfall and malaria risk can be explained by hydrological and geomorphological processes that govern surface water body formation and persistence. This paper extends recent efforts to incorporate ecological factors into malaria-risk models, proposing that the same detailed representation be afforded to hydrological and, at longer timescales relevant for predictions of climate change impacts, geomorphological processes. We review existing representations of environmental controls of malaria and identify a range of hydrologically distinct vector breeding sites from existing literature. We illustrate the potential complexity of interactions among hydrology, geomorphology and vector breeding sites by classifying a range of water bodies observed in a catchment in East Africa. Crucially, the mechanisms driving surface water body formation and destruction must be considered explicitly if we are to produce dynamic spatial models of malaria risk at catchment scales.

  18. Hydatidosis: dynamics of transmission.

    PubMed

    Bourée, P

    2001-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a widespread zoonosis infecting a large number of animals and humans. Echinococcus granulosus has the smallest taenia adult of the cestodes but with the largest larva. Its morphologic and biologic features were identified with DNA analysis. Different strains were separated according to the intermediate hosts: sheep, cattle, pigs, horses, camels. Definitive host are canids, mostly dogs, where the worm grows to adulthood in several months. The eggs are scattered in the pasture by wind and water and are ingested by various hosts. The larvae migrate through the intestinal wall and penetrate the organs, mostly liver and lungs. The eggs survive several days outside, depending on the temperature, but numerous eggs die in nature because they cannot resist desiccation and extreme temperatures. Dissemination is accomplished by dogs. In Turkana (Kenya) the incidence of hydatidosis is high because of the close relationship between the population and dogs and the habit of leaving their dead bodies in the grasslands. In rural areas, the custom of slaughtering sheep at home, among the dogs, is an important dissemination factor. The circumstances of transmission vary according to the country. In Europe the natural life cycle of E. granulosus granulosus involves dogs as the definitive host and sheep as the intermediate host. In northern Europe E. granulosus borealis infects the canids and deer. E. granulosus canadensis infects wolves and reindeer, but there are no human cases. In the endemic Mediterranean area, sheep and dromedaries are the intermediate hosts. In South America, the life cycle of E. granulosus develops among several definitive and intermediate hosts. Hence the dynamics of transmission vary according to the countries with different hosts. PMID:11213154

  19. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  20. Analysis of optimum diameter of orbit of transmission line source in positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Muira, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is one of the most important factors to achieve quantitative measurements in positron emission tomography (PET). A transmission scan is most commonly used technique for the attenuation correction in PET. A difficulty in transmission scan is relatively long period to obtain a data with good signal-to-noise ratio. Insufficient signal-to-noise ratio of the transmission data limits that of emission data. Several approaches were reported to improve the transmission data. Those were (1) optimizing of detector threshold, (2) processing delayed coincidence sinogram before subtraction, filtering of transmission sinogram before performing attenuation correction, and (3) rejection of random and scatter coincidence by using rotating line source and information of its position. In some of these methods, additional calculation time or processing hardware is needed. The authors have estimated a relationship between ring diameter of a transmission line source and signal to noise ratio of the transmission dat. This paper aimes to analyze optimum diameter of the orbit of transmission line source in concerning to signal to noise ratio in transmission data.

  1. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  2. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  3. Evaluation of a high performance fixed-ratio traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a test program to evaluate a compact, high performance, fixed ratio traction drive are presented. This transmission, the Nasvytis Multiroller Traction Drive, is a fixed ratio, single stage planetary with two rows of stepped planet rollers. Two versions of the drive were parametrically tested back-to-back at speeds to 73,000 rpm and power levels to 180 kW (240 hp). Parametric tests were also conducted with the Nasvytis drive retrofitted to an automotive gas turbine engine. The drives exhibited good performance, with a nominal peak efficiency of 94 to 96 percent and a maximum speed loss due to creep of approximately 3.5 percent.

  4. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  5. The visual perception of distance ratios in physical space.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Adkins, Olivia C; Pedersen, Lauren E

    2016-06-01

    Past studies have consistently demonstrated that human observers cannot accurately perceive environmental distances. Even so, we obviously detect sufficient spatial information to meet the demands of everyday life. In the current experiment, ten younger adults (mean age was 21.8years) and ten older adults (mean age was 72.3years) estimated distance ratios in physical space. On any given trial, observers judged how long one distance interval was relative to another. The 18 stimulus ratios ranged from 1.0 to 9.5; the observers judged each stimulus ratio three times. The average correlation coefficient relating actual distance ratios to perceived ratios was identical (r=0.87) for both younger and older age groups. Despite this strong relationship between perception and reality, the judgments of many individual observers were inaccurate. For example, ten percent of the observers overestimated the stimulus ratios, while fifty percent underestimated the stimulus ratios. Although both under- and overestimation occurred in the current experiment, the results nevertheless demonstrate that human adults can reliably compare environmental distances in different directions. PMID:27155022

  6. Effective case/infection ratio of poliomyelitis in vaccinated populations.

    PubMed

    Bencskó, G; Ferenci, T

    2016-07-01

    Recent polio outbreaks in Syria and Ukraine, and isolation of poliovirus from asymptomatic carriers in Israel have raised concerns that polio might endanger Europe. We devised a model to calculate the time needed to detect the first case should the disease be imported into Europe, taking the effect of vaccine coverage - both from inactivated and oral polio vaccines, also considering their differences - on the length of silent transmission into account by deriving an 'effective' case/infection ratio that is applicable for vaccinated populations. Using vaccine coverage data and the newly developed model, the relationship between this ratio and vaccine coverage is derived theoretically and is also numerically determined for European countries. This shows that unnoticed transmission is longer for countries with higher vaccine coverage and a higher proportion of IPV-vaccinated individuals among those vaccinated. Assuming borderline transmission (R = 1·1), the expected time to detect the first case is between 326 days and 512 days in different countries, with the number of infected individuals between 235 and 1439. Imperfect surveillance further increases these numbers, especially the number of infected until detection. While longer silent transmission does not increase the number of clinical diseases, it can make the application of traditional outbreak response methods more complicated, among others. PMID:26830060

  7. LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Dogan, Muhammet; Koksal, Oguz Kagan

    2013-04-01

    The LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of tantalum have been calculated for the first time by the mass attenuation coefficients determined using narrow transmission geometry, primary source (241Am annular radioisotope source) and secondary source targets (Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Cu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi). The obtained results have been compared with theoretical values. They are in good agreement with each other.

  8. An Improved Formula of Fundamental Resonance Frequency of a Layered Half-Space Model Used in H/V Ratio Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Tran Thanh; Vinh, Pham Chi; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Malischewsky, Peter; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2016-08-01

    The resonance frequency of the transmission response in layered half-space model is important in the study of site effect because it is the frequency where the shake-ability of the ground is enhanced significantly. In practice, it is often determined by the H/V ratio technique in which the peak frequency of recorded H/V spectral ratio is interpreted as the resonance frequency. Despite of its importance, there has not been any formula of the resonance frequency of the layered half-space structure. In this paper, a simple approximate formula of the fundamental resonance frequency is presented after an exact formula in explicit form of the response function of vertically SH incident wave is obtained. The formula is in similar form with the one used in H/V ratio technique but it reflects several major effects of the model to the resonance frequency such as the arrangement of layers, the impedance contrast between layers and the half-space. Therefore, it could be considered as an improved formula used in H/V ratio technique. The formula also reflects the consistency between two approaches of the H/V ratio technique based on SH body waves or Rayleigh surface waves on the peak frequency under high impedance contrast condition. This formula is in explicit form and, therefore, may be used in the direct and inverse problem efficiently. A numerical illustration of the improved formula for an actual layered half-space model already investigated by H/V ratio technique is presented to demonstrate its new features and its improvement to the currently used formula.

  9. An Improved Formula of Fundamental Resonance Frequency of a Layered Half-Space Model Used in H/V Ratio Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Tran Thanh; Vinh, Pham Chi; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Malischewsky, Peter; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2016-05-01

    The resonance frequency of the transmission response in layered half-space model is important in the study of site effect because it is the frequency where the shake-ability of the ground is enhanced significantly. In practice, it is often determined by the H/V ratio technique in which the peak frequency of recorded H/V spectral ratio is interpreted as the resonance frequency. Despite of its importance, there has not been any formula of the resonance frequency of the layered half-space structure. In this paper, a simple approximate formula of the fundamental resonance frequency is presented after an exact formula in explicit form of the response function of vertically SH incident wave is obtained. The formula is in similar form with the one used in H/V ratio technique but it reflects several major effects of the model to the resonance frequency such as the arrangement of layers, the impedance contrast between layers and the half-space. Therefore, it could be considered as an improved formula used in H/V ratio technique. The formula also reflects the consistency between two approaches of the H/V ratio technique based on SH body waves or Rayleigh surface waves on the peak frequency under high impedance contrast condition. This formula is in explicit form and, therefore, may be used in the direct and inverse problem efficiently. A numerical illustration of the improved formula for an actual layered half-space model already investigated by H/V ratio technique is presented to demonstrate its new features and its improvement to the currently used formula.

  10. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  11. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  12. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  13. [Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio].

    PubMed

    Guenard, H

    1987-01-01

    The ratios of ventilatory (V) and perfusion (Q) flow rates in the lung are to a large extent responsible for the efficiency of gas exchange. In a simplified monocompartmental model of the lung, the arterial partial pressure of a given gas (Pa) is a function of several factors: the solubility of this gas in blood, its venous and inspired partial pressures and the V/Q ratio. In a multicompartemental model, the mean arterial partial pressure of the gas is a function of the individual values of Pa in each compartment as well as the distribution of V/Q ratios in the lung and the relationship between the concentration and the partial pressure of the gas. The heterogeneity of the distribution of V/Q results from those of both V and Q. Two factors are mainly responsible for this heterogeneity: the gravity and the morphometric characteristics of bronchi and vessels. V/Q ratios are partially controlled at least in low V/Q compartments since hypoxia in these compartments leads to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction. However lungs V/Q ratios range from 0.1 to 10 with a mode around 1. Age, muscular exercise, posture, accelerations, anesthesia, O2 breathing, pulmonary pathology are factors which may alter the distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3332289

  14. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  15. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  16. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  17. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. PMID:24634058

  18. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  19. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  20. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  1. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  2. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules

    1991-01-01

    A weight reduction of 23 percent, noise reduction greater than 10 dB, and almost a fourfold increase in mean time between transmission removals has been demonstrated for a helicopter gearbox having a high output reduction ratio split path gear arrangement. These performance gains have been achieved by application of advanced transmission technology concepts in areas which offer high gain but are outside of normal design practices. New technology is being developed in such areas as split power gear concepts, composites, double helical gears, new gear materials, high speed spring clutches, and ceramic rolling element bearings. The programs, when completed, will provide demonstrated component and drive arrangement technology supported by analytical tools. The work is being accomplished under a CR&D program funded by NASA/Army termed the Advanced Rotorcraft transmission (ART) program. It is expected that the ART technology will be incorporated in future rotorcraft of the 1990s and 2000s. This paper summarizes the work accomplished to date on the program by Sikorsky Aircraft.

  3. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  4. Experimental investigation and model development for a harmonic drive transmission.

    SciTech Connect

    Preissner, C.; Shu, D.; Royston, T. J.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic drive transmissions (HDTs) are compact, low-backlash, high-ratio, high-resolution rotary motion transmissions. One application to benefit from these attributes is the revolute joint robot. Engineers at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are investigating the use of this type of robot for the positioning of an x-ray detector; understanding the properties of the robot components is crucial to modeling positioner behavior. The robot bearing elements had been investigated previously, leaving the transmission as the missing component. While the benefits of HDTs are well known, the disadvantages, including fluctuating dissipation characteristics and nonlinear stiffness, are not understood as well. These characteristics can contribute uncontrolled dynamics to the overall robot performance. A dynamometer has been constructed at the APS to experimentally measure the HDT's response. Empirical torque and position data were recorded for multiple transmission load cases and input conditions. In turn, a computer model of the dynamometer HDT system was constructed to approximate the observed response.

  5. Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Jules G.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate weight, reliability, and noise. A split path gearbox was determined to be 23 percent lighter, greater than 10 dB quieter, and almost four times more reliable than the baseline two stage planetary design. Detail design studies were conducted of the chosen split path configuration, and drawings were produced of a 1/2 size gearbox consisting of a single engine path of the split path section. Fabrication and testing was then conducted on the 1/2 size gearbox. The 1/2 size gearbox testing proved that the concept of the split path gearbox with high reduction ratio double helical output gear was sound. The improvements were attributed to extensive use of composites, spring clutches, advanced high hot hardness gear steels, the split path configuration itself, high reduction ratio, double helical gearing on the output stage, elastomeric load sharing devices, and elimination of accessory drives.

  6. Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules G.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate weight, reliability, and noise. A split path gearbox was determined to be 23 percent lighter, greater than 10 dB quieter, and almost four times more reliable than the baseline two stage planetary design. Detail design studies were conducted of the chosen split path configuration, and drawings were produced of a 1/2 size gearbox consisting of a single engine path of the split path section. Fabrication and testing was then conducted on the 1/2 size gearbox. The 1/2 size gearbox testing proved that the concept of the split path gearbox with high reduction ratio double helical output gear was sound. The improvements were attributed to extensive use of composites, spring clutches, advanced high hot hardness gear steels, the split path configuration itself, high reduction ratio, double helical gearing on the output stage, elastomeric load sharing devices, and elimination of accessory drives.

  7. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  8. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  9. Variable speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, W.S.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes a variable speed transmission for transmitting rotational forces between a first shaft and a second shaft wherein a sprocket is mounted on the first shaft and a variable effective diameter pulley, having opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces, is mounted on the second shaft, an endless chain-belt assembly for transmitting rotational forces. The assembly has side edges thereon, comprising: a first portion defining the edges of the chain-belt assembly and having a plurality of links defining a surface corresponding to the opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces on the pulley; and a second portion intermediate of the first portion having a plurality of links for engaging the teeth on the sprocket, the links being joined by a plurality of pins extending transverse to the links; and a flexible shield mounted over the links and retained relative thereto by the pins wherein the flexible shield surrounds the links of the second portion of the chain-belt assembly and retains lubrication for the second portion and to prevent same for communicating to the first portion of the chain-belt assembly.

  10. Transmission of digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  11. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  12. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  13. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  14. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Miosge, Lisa A; Field, Matthew A; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C; Andrews, T Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Each person's genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation's functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  15. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Miosge, Lisa A.; Field, Matthew A.; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M.; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Andrews, T. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Each person’s genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation’s functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  16. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  17. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  18. Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    de Bergh, C

    1995-03-01

    Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

  19. A broadband toolbox for scanning microwave microscopy transmission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibello, Andrea; Sardi, Giovanni Maria; Capoccia, Giovanni; Proietti, Emanuela; Marcelli, Romolo; Kasper, Manuel; Gramse, Georg; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present in detail the design, both electromagnetic and mechanical, the fabrication, and the test of the first prototype of a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) suitable for a two-port transmission measurement, recording, and processing the high frequency transmission scattering parameter S21 passing through the investigated sample. The S21 toolbox is composed by a microwave emitter, placed below the sample, which excites an electromagnetic wave passing through the sample under test, and is collected by the cantilever used as the detector, electrically matched for high frequency measurements. This prototype enhances the actual capability of the instrument for a sub-surface imaging at the nanoscale. Moreover, it allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the material under test obtained through the measurement of the reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) parameters at the same time. The SMM operates between 1 GHz and 20 GHz, current limit for the microwave matching of the cantilever, and the high frequency signal is recorded by means of a two-port Vector Network Analyzer, using both contact and no-contact modes of operation, the latter, especially minded for a fully nondestructive and topography-free characterization. This tool is an upgrade of the already established setup for the reflection mode S11 measurement. Actually, the proposed setup is able to give richer information in terms of scattering parameters, including amplitude and phase measurements, by means of the two-port arrangement.

  20. A broadband toolbox for scanning microwave microscopy transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Lucibello, Andrea; Sardi, Giovanni Maria; Capoccia, Giovanni; Proietti, Emanuela; Marcelli, Romolo; Kasper, Manuel; Gramse, Georg; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present in detail the design, both electromagnetic and mechanical, the fabrication, and the test of the first prototype of a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) suitable for a two-port transmission measurement, recording, and processing the high frequency transmission scattering parameter S21 passing through the investigated sample. The S21 toolbox is composed by a microwave emitter, placed below the sample, which excites an electromagnetic wave passing through the sample under test, and is collected by the cantilever used as the detector, electrically matched for high frequency measurements. This prototype enhances the actual capability of the instrument for a sub-surface imaging at the nanoscale. Moreover, it allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the material under test obtained through the measurement of the reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) parameters at the same time. The SMM operates between 1 GHz and 20 GHz, current limit for the microwave matching of the cantilever, and the high frequency signal is recorded by means of a two-port Vector Network Analyzer, using both contact and no-contact modes of operation, the latter, especially minded for a fully nondestructive and topography-free characterization. This tool is an upgrade of the already established setup for the reflection mode S11 measurement. Actually, the proposed setup is able to give richer information in terms of scattering parameters, including amplitude and phase measurements, by means of the two-port arrangement. PMID:27250429

  1. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  2. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  3. Device for adapting continuously variable transmissions to infinitely variable transmissions with forward-neutral-reverse capabilities

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Donald F.; Purvis, James W.; Miller, A. Keith

    1997-01-01

    An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.

  4. Value Transmission in the Family: Do Adolescents Accept the Values Their Parents Want to Transmit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barni, Daniela; Ranieri, Sonia; Scabini, Eugenia; Rosnati, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on value transmission in the family and assessed adolescents' acceptance of the values their parents want to transmit to them (socialisation values), identifying some factors that may affect the level of acceptance. Specifically, actual value agreement between parents, parental agreement as perceived by adolescents, parent-child…

  5. The Intergenerational Transmission of Values in National and Immigrant Families: The Role of Zeitgeist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Paul; Berry, John; Sabatier, Colette; Sam, David

    2009-01-01

    Correspondence in value orientation between parents and their offspring may be due to actual transmission processes between generations, but it may also be due to influences from the general value context in society that are common to parents and their offspring. This common value context is referred to as Zeitgeist. The present study deals with…

  6. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  7. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual... disqualification is employed to resolve an apparent or actual conflict of interest, the disqualified employee...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual Repayment Disclosures (a) Calculating actual...

  9. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  10. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  11. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  12. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  13. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  14. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification for actual production history coverage... Production History § 400.55 Qualification for actual production history coverage program. (a) The approved... history is certified and T or D-Yields are not provided in the actuarial documents, (2) If actual...

  15. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  16. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... individual, shall be considered as actually owned by such person for the purpose of again applying such...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Adjustment (Actual Method). 52.222-32 Section 52.222-32 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-32 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method). As prescribed in 22.407(g), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method) (DEC 2001) (a) The...

  18. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... (actual method). Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  19. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  20. On the Road to Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banziger, George; Wagner, Anne Marie; Watts, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    For the College of Mt. Saint Joseph (Ohio) to remain financially sound and to inform decisions about resources and academic programs, college leaders needed to understand instructional costs: costs per credit hour; how these vary by department, program; and meaningful ratios of revenues to costs. A system of differential analysis was developed to…

  1. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  2. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  3. Estimation of quality factors by energy ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong-Jun; Cao, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Qu, Ying-Ming; Yuan, Dian; Yang, Jin-Hao; Shao, Guan-Ming

    2015-03-01

    The quality factor Q, which reflects the energy attenuation of seismic waves in subsurface media, is a diagnostic tool for hydrocarbon detection and reservoir characterization. In this paper, we propose a new Q extraction method based on the energy ratio before and after the wavelet attenuation, named the energy-ratio method (ERM). The proposed method uses multipoint signal data in the time domain to estimate the wavelet energy without invoking the source wavelet spectrum, which is necessary in conventional Q extraction methods, and is applicable to any source wavelet spectrum; however, it requires high-precision seismic data. Forward zero-offset VSP modeling suggests that the ERM can be used for reliable Q inversion after nonintrinsic attenuation (geometric dispersion, reflection, and transmission loss) compensation. The application to real zero-offset VSP data shows that the Q values extracted by the ERM and spectral ratio methods are identical, which proves the reliability of the new method.

  4. Effect of advanced component technology on helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the NASA/Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) 500 hp advanced technology transmission (ATT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The ATT was a retrofit of the OH-58C helicopter 236 kW (317 hp) main rotor transmission, upgraded to 373 kW (500 hp), with a design goal of retaining long life with a minimum increase in cost, weight, and size. Vibration, strain, efficiency, deflection, and temperature experiments were performed and the results were compared to previous experiments on the OH-58A, OH-58C, and UH-60A transmissions. The high-contact-ratio gears and the cantilevered-mounted, flexible ring gear of the ATT reduced vibration compared to that of the OH-58C. The ATT flexible ring gear improved planetary load sharing compared to that of the rigid ring gear of the UH-60A transmission. The ATT mechanical efficiency was lower than that of the OH-58A transmission, probably due to the high-contact-ratio planetary gears.

  5. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  6. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I.; Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  7. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  8. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  9. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, Dr C., Prof; Wong, Y. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications.

  10. Decoupling of Getting Up Detection Device Using Ultrasonic Radar by Changing Duty Ratio of Transmission Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yo; Tanaka, Kanya; Haruyama, Kazuo; Wakasa, Yuji; Akashi, Takuya

    The decline in the quality of patient's safety control is a problem, because the number of caretakers is reduced by the acceleration of demographic aging in an elder care facility. Especially, the detection of getting up from the bed is very important for preventing patients from falling and wandering unbreakable. In our previous study, we have developed the getting up detection device with an ultrasonic radar, which is safe, cheap, and break-proof. However, if there are many patients in a ward, it is difficult to use some ultrasonic radars. The reason is that if some ultrasonic radars, which have the same frequency, are used in same ward, the ultrasonic signals are coherent with each other. To solve this problem, we propose a novel incoherent method. This method is achieved by improving the software in the device at a low cost.

  11. New High Aspect-Ratio Titania Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Eugen; Richter, Christiaan; Menon, Latika

    2007-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotubes show great promise in photocatalytic, gas sensing, biological, and other applications. Techniques for the fabrication of titania nanotubes include electrodeposition in polymer molds starting from alumina templates, anodization of titanium in fluoride containing solutions, and hydrothermal treatment of nano- and micropowders. We have developed a new synthesis route for the production of new ultra-high aspect-ratio (over 1000:1) titania nanotubes by anodization in chloride containing acid solutions. The fabrication process occurs rapidly, in a fraction of the time when compared with other methods such as anodization in the highly toxic fluoride-containing electrolytes. We have demonstrated nanotubes with diameters as small as 25 nm, and lengths of up to 50 μm, and we have produced them with varying carbon content through the addition of organic acids in the electrolyte. This opens up new possibilities for many advanced applications of such nanotubes. Various synthesis conditions (pH, chloride content, electrolyte nature), and their influence on morphology, composition, and crystalline structure will be presented. Preliminary results on photocatalytic and transmission properties will also be discussed.

  12. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  13. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  14. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  15. Vehicular speed change gear having a continuously variable transmission connected in series with a stepped gear transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, T.

    1987-06-23

    A vehicular speed change gear is described for a vehicle having an engine provided with a crankshaft, a driving wheel, and a power transmission system which operatively connects the crankshaft and driving wheel together comprising: a stepless V-belt transmission and a stepped gear transmission disposed in series in the power transmission system; the stepped gear transmission including a low forward speed gear train and a high-forward speed gear train for selectively providing forward low and high speed transmission ratios respectively; and a clutch disposed between the crankshaft and the stepless V-belt transmission for operative connection between the stepless V-belt transmission including a driving V-pulley coupled through the clutch to the crankshaft and has a fixed pulley half-body and a movable-pulley half-body is capable of moving back and forth against the fixed pulley half-body; a driven V-pulley coupled to the stepped gear transmission and having a fixed pulley half-body and a movable pulley half-body capable of moving back and forth against the fixed pulley half-body; and a V-belt stretched between the driving and driven V-pulleys. A first control valve positioned in the driving V-pulley is for controlling movement of pulley half-body of V-pulley and a second control valve positioned for controlling movement. The first and second control valves are both operatively coupled through an interlocking mechanism for operatively connecting the movable pulley half-body of the driving V-pulley and interlocking mechanism is adapted to decrease and increase an effective radius of the driven V-pulley equivalently and simultaneously in accordance with the respective amount of increase and decrease in an effective radius of the driving V-pulley.

  16. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustín; Contigiani, Marta S.

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

  17. High Performance Bianisotropic Metasurfaces: Asymmetric Transmission of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Carl; Zhang, Cheng; Ray, Vishva; Guo, L. Jay; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    It is experimentally shown that bianisotropic metasurfaces allow for extreme polarization control of light with high performance. A metasurface providing asymmetric transmission (i.e., polarization conversion) of circularly polarized light is reported at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. The experimental transmittance and extinction ratio are 50% and 20:1, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous optical structures exhibiting asymmetric transmission. The metasurface consists of patterned gold sheets that are spaced at a subwavelength distance from each other. The same design and fabrication processes can be used in the future to completely control the phase, amplitude, and polarization of light.

  18. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  19. Geometry of operator cross ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikin, M I

    2006-02-28

    The operator cross ratio, which is meaningful, in particular, for the infinite-dimensional Sato Grassmannian is defined and investigated. Its homological interpretation is presented. A matrix and operator analogue of the Schwartzian differential operator is introduced and its relation to linear Hamiltonian systems and Riccati's equation is established. The aim of these constructions is application to the KP-hierarchy (the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy)

  20. Multimedia Transmission Over Cognitive Radio Channels Under Sensing Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chuang; Ozcan, Gozde; Gursoy, M. Cenk; Velipasalar, Senem

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies the performance of hierarchical modulation-based multimedia transmission in cognitive radio (CR) systems with imperfect channel sensing results under constraints on both transmit and interference power levels. Unequal error protection (UEP) of data transmission using hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (HQAM) is considered in which high priority (HP) data is protected more than low priority (LP) data. In this setting, closed-form bit error rate (BER) expressions for HP data and LP data are derived in Nakagami-$m$ fading channels in the presence of sensing errors. Subsequently, the optimal power control that minimizes weighted sum of average BERs of HP bits and LP bits or its upper bound subject to peak/average transmit power and average interference power constraints is derived and a low-complexity power control algorithm is proposed. Power levels are determined in three different scenarios, depending on the availability of perfect channel side information (CSI) of the transmission and interference links, statistical CSI of both links, or perfect CSI of the transmission link and imperfect CSI of the interference link. The impact of imperfect channel sensing decisions on the error rate performance of cognitive transmissions is also evaluated. In addition, tradeoffs between the number of retransmissions, the severity of fading, and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) quality are analyzed numerically. Moreover, performance comparisons of multimedia transmission with conventional quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and HQAM, and the proposed power control strategies are carried out in terms of the received data quality and number of retransmissions.

  1. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-04-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques.

  2. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

  3. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  4. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  5. Extreme Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the extreme-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  6. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes.

    PubMed

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and reinforces civic returns to education. Our findings are in line with the proposals of civic virtue theorists or grass movements who suggest that citizenship education should be included in the compulsory school curricula since, if not, families or local communities will only transmit their particular view of the world. PMID:27386393

  7. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Transmission of Information: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, George R.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the basic principles underlying the transmission of information, including analog and digital modulation, limitations to communications, configurations of communications networks, optical fiber cables, and earth satellites. Six references are cited. (FM)

  9. Modeling the Transmission of Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

  10. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  11. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  12. Early HAART Initiation May Not Reduce Actual Reproduction Number and Prevalence of MSM Infection: Perspectives from Coupled within- and between-Host Modelling Studies of Chinese MSM Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodan; Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Peng, Zhihang; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Having a thorough understanding of the infectivity of HIV, time of initiating treatment and emergence of drug resistant virus variants is crucial in mitigating HIV infection. There are many challenges to evaluating the long-term effect of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on disease transmission at the population level. We proposed an individual based model by coupling within-host dynamics and between-host dynamics and conduct stochastic simulation in the group of men who have sex with men (MSM). The mean actual reproduction number is estimated to be 3.6320 (95% confidence interval: [3.46, 3.80]) for MSM group without treatment. Stochastic simulations show that given relatively high (low) level of drug efficacy after emergence of drug resistant variants, early initiation of treatment leads to a less (greater) actual reproduction number, lower (higher) prevalence and less (more) incidences, compared to late initiation of treatment. This implies early initiation of HAART may not always lower the actual reproduction number and prevalence of infection, depending on the level of treatment efficacy after emergence of drug resistant virus variants, frequency of high-risk behaviors and etc. This finding strongly suggests early initiation of HAART should be implemented with great care especially in the settings where the effective drugs are limited. Coupling within-host dynamics with between-host dynamics can provide critical information about impact of HAART on disease transmission and thus help to assist treatment strategy design and HIV/AIDS prevention and control. PMID:26930406

  13. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  14. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calendar year (actual or estimated) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 Current assets 2 A.R. Sch. 100, L. 18 $ $ $ 2 Net... Intangibles 2 A.R. Sch. 100, L. 32 6 Current liabilities 2 A.R. Sch. 101, L. 13 7 Long-term debt 2 A.R. Sch... Current ratio (2 decimals) L. 1÷L. 6 22 Ratio net income or loss to operating revenue (2 decimals) L....

  16. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calendar year (actual or estimated) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 Current assets 2 A.R. Sch. 100, L. 18 $ $ $ 2 Net... Intangibles 2 A.R. Sch. 100, L. 32 6 Current liabilities 2 A.R. Sch. 101, L. 13 7 Long-term debt 2 A.R. Sch... Current ratio (2 decimals) L. 1÷L. 6 22 Ratio net income or loss to operating revenue (2 decimals) L....

  17. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  18. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  19. 76 FR 66229 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standards are intended to ensure that the transmission system is planned and...

  20. Investigation of photoelectron spectroscopy. [for obtaining branching ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of obtaining true and meaningful branching ratios from the photoelectron spectra is investigated. The problem consists of understanding the transmission of an electron energy analyzer for electrons with different energies, understanding the effects of using partially polarized radiation from different vacuum monochromators, and in understanding the effects of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from different orbitals. An analysis of the degree of polarization of monochromatic radiation and of the problem of varying angular distributions led to the construction of a cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer set at the special angle of 54 deg 44 min so that no discrimination would occur for electrons of different angular distributions. With the analyzer properly calibrated for transmission of electrons of different energies, data were taken at several wavelengths and for several atmospheric gases.

  1. Horizontal transmission of a parasite is influenced by infected host phenotype and density.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K E; Hughes, W O H

    2015-02-01

    Transmission is a key determinant of parasite fitness, and understanding the dynamics of transmission is fundamental to the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. Successful transmission is often reliant on contact between infected individuals and susceptible hosts. The social insects consist of aggregated groups of genetically similar hosts, making them particularly vulnerable to parasite transmission. Here we investigate how the ratio of infected to susceptible individuals impacts parasite transmission, using the honey bee, Apis mellifera and its microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae. We used 2 types of infected hosts found simultaneously in colonies; sterile female workers and sexual males. We found a higher ratio of infected to susceptible individuals in groups resulted in a greater proportion of susceptibles becoming infected, but this effect was non-linear and interestingly, the ratio also affected the spore production of infected individuals. The transmission level was much greater in an experiment where the infected individuals were drones than in an experiment where they were workers, suggesting drones may act as intracolonial 'superspreaders'. Understanding the subtleties of transmission and how it is influenced by the phenotype of the infected/susceptible individuals is important for understanding pathogen transmission at population level, and for optimum targeting of parasite control strategies. PMID:25111753

  2. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  3. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  4. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver.

    PubMed

    French, David M; Hoff, Brad W; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique. PMID:23277977

  5. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  6. The design and analysis of single flank transmission error testor for loaded gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, D. R.; Bassett, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Due to geometrical imperfections in gears and finite tooth stiffnesses, the motion transmitted from an input gear shaft to an output gear shaft will not have conjugate action. In order to strengthen the understanding of transmission error and to verify mathematical models of gear transmission error, a test stand that will measure the transmission error of a gear pair at operating loads, but at reduced speeds would be desirable. This document describes the design and development of a loaded transmission error tester. For a gear box with a gear ratio of one, few tooth meshing combinations will occur during a single test. In order to observe the effects of different tooth mesh combinations and to increase the ability to load test gear pairs with higher gear ratios, the system was designed around a gear box with a gear ratio of two.

  7. The Effect of Swelling Ratio on the Coulter Underestimation of Hydrogel Microsphere Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Michael; Cherukupalli, Abhimanyu; Medini, Michael; Falkowski, Ron

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the diameters of porous particles are underestimated by Coulter measurements. This phenomenon has also been observed in hydrogel particles, but not characterized. Since the Coulter principle uses the displacement of electrolyte to determine particle size, electrolyte contained within the swelled hydrogel microparticles results in an underestimate of actual particle diameters. The increased use of hydrogel microspheres in biomedical applications has led to the increased application of the Coulter principle to evaluate the size distribution of microparticles. A relationship between the swelling ratio of the particles and their reported Coulter diameters will permit calculation of the actual diameters of these particles. Using polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel microspheres, we determined a correction factor that relates the polymer swelling ratio and the reported Coulter diameters to their actual size. PMID:26414785

  8. Control system for an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position and a neutral position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc. It also has a belt engaged with both the pulleys, a hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers. The hydraulic control circuit is provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement described here comprises: a lubricating oil circuit provided in the hydraulic control circuit for supplying lubricating oil to the drive and driven pulleys; a passage for supplying a part of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley; a check valve provided in the passage for preventing the reverse flow of the lubricating oil; and a select position detecting valve for enabling the supply of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber at the selection of the neutral position.

  9. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh‐field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal‐to‐noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh‐field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non‐uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non‐uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject‐tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  10. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V; Malik, Shaihan J

    2016-09-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh-field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non-uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non-uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject-tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  11. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  12. Acoustic asymmetric transmission based on time-dependent dynamical scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Yang; Ni, Xu; Xu, Ye-Long; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Ze-Guo; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic asymmetric transmission device exhibiting unidirectional transmission property for acoustic waves is extremely desirable in many practical scenarios. Such a unique property may be realized in various configurations utilizing acoustic Zeeman effects in moving media as well as frequency-conversion in passive nonlinear acoustic systems and in active acoustic systems. Here we demonstrate a new acoustic frequency conversion process in a time-varying system, consisting of a rotating blade and the surrounding air. The scattered acoustic waves from this time-varying system experience frequency shifts, which are linearly dependent on the blade’s rotating frequency. Such scattering mechanism can be well described theoretically by an acoustic linear time-varying perturbation theory. Combining such time-varying scattering effects with highly efficient acoustic filtering, we successfully develop a tunable acoustic unidirectional device with 20 dB power transmission contrast ratio between two counter propagation directions at audible frequencies. PMID:26038886

  13. Companding transform based SPM compensation in coherent optical OFDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate a mitigation of fiber nonlinearity based on μ-law companding transform in coherent optical OFDM transmissions. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) increases fiber nonlinear impairments caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber. The μ-law companding modifies amplitude profile of OFDM signal with time domain signal processing, which reduces high PAPR of OFDM signal. The effects of companding parameter on noise enhancement and PAPR variation are presented. The impacts of companding transform on system performances are evaluated in a single polarization system as well as polarization multiplexed system. The resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), dispersion map of transmission link, and launch power tolerance are also considered. The results of bit-error-rate (BER) measurements show that the μ-law companding improves OSNR margin over 5.5 dB after transmission of 1,040 km over SMF. PMID:22274091

  14. Determining anisotropic transmissivity using a simplified Papadopulos method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Hsieh, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The straight-line method presented by Papadopulos requires a minimum of three observation wells for determining the transmissivity tensor of a homogeneous and anisotropic aquifer. A simplification of this method was developed for fractured aquifers where the principal directions of the transmissivity tensor are known prior to implementation, such as when fracture patterns on outcropping portions of the aquifer may be used to infer the principal directions. This new method assumes that observation wells are drilled along the two principal directions from the pumped well, thus reducing the required number of observation wells to two. This method was applied for an aquifer test in the fractured Navajo Sandstone of southwestern Utah and yielded minimum and maximum principal transmissivity values of 70 and 1800 m 2/d, respectively, indicating an anisotropy ratio of ???24 to 1.

  15. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  16. Determination of LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of wolfram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Saritas, Nuriye

    2014-04-01

    The LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of wolfram have been measured by two different methods. In the first method the mass attenuation coefficients have been obtained by narrow beam transmission geometry to calculate the LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor. In the latter these parameters have been derived from the LIII subshell X-ray production and the photoionization cross sections of the LIII subshell and higher subshells determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and narrow beam transmission geometry, respectively. The results obtained by both methods have been compared with theoretical and experimental values. They are in good agreement with each other.

  17. Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

  18. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Yi E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Ying E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-11-30

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (Q{sub L}) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  19. Design of Gear Drives With High Gear Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Vecchiato, Daniele; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    A three part paper to describe the results of several gear drive types with a high gear ratio is presented. A single stage planetary gear train with double helical gears is described with methods to reduce transmission errors and improve load distribution by regulating backlash during assembly. A new arrangement for face gear is also described. This new mechanism can perform rotations between axes that are collinear and intersected. Finally the design and simulation of an isostatic planetary gear train is presented. Conditions that can lead to noise and vibration of the planetary gear drive are described.

  20. Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.

    PubMed

    Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W

    2014-04-25

    Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity. PMID:24674643

  1. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  2. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders. PMID:25872683

  3. All optical OFDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lim, Seong-Jin; Kserawi, Malaz

    2011-12-01

    All-optical OFDM data transmission opens up a new realm of advanced optical transmission at extreme data rates, as subcarriers are multiplexed and demultiplexed by all optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT). This paper reviews the principles of all optical OFDM transmission and its system application techniques, providing the generic ideas and the practical implementation issues to achieve 100Gbps or higher data rates with a spectral efficiency of 1 bps/Hz or better. This paper also include discussions on all-optical OFDM implementation variants such as an AWG-based OFDM multiplexer and demultiplexer, a receiver design without optical sampling, a transmitter design with frequency-locked cw lasers, an OFDM cyclic prefix designs, and a chromatic dispersion mitigation technique.

  4. How learn the branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2014-10-01

    Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).

  5. Advanced high area ratio nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Progress was made in two areas during the past year. First, performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the SSME nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. Second, the PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

  6. Advanced high area ratio nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. The PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

  7. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  8. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  9. Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

  10. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  11. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  12. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  13. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  14. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  15. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  16. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  17. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  18. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  19. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  20. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  1. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  2. Advanced coding techniques for few mode transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Chigo; van Uden, Roy; Chen, Haoshuo; de Waardt, Huug; Koonen, Ton

    2015-01-26

    We experimentally verify the advantage of employing advanced coding schemes such as space-time coding and 4 dimensional modulation formats to enhance the transmission performance of a 3-mode transmission system. The performance gain of space-time block codes for extending the optical signal-to-noise ratio tolerance in multiple-input multiple-output optical coherent spatial division multiplexing transmission systems with respect to single-mode transmission performance are evaluated. By exploiting the spatial diversity that few-mode-fibers offer, with respect to single mode fiber back-to-back performance, significant OSNR gains of 3.2, 4.1, 4.9, and 6.8 dB at the hard-decision forward error correcting limit are demonstrated for DP-QPSK 8, 16 and 32 QAM, respectively. Furthermore, by employing 4D constellations, 6 × 28Gbaud 128 set partitioned quadrature amplitude modulation is shown to outperform conventional 8 QAM transmission performance, whilst carrying an additional 0.5 bit/symbol. PMID:25835899

  3. Cooled-turbine aerodynamic performance prediction from reduced primary to coolant total-temperature-ratio results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The prediction of the cooled aerodynamic performance, for both stators and turbines, at actual primary to coolant inlet total temperature ratios from the results obtained at a reduced total temperature ratio is described. Theoretical and available experimental results were compared for convection film and transpiration cooled stator vanes and for a film cooled, single stage core turbine. For these tests the total temperature ratio varied from near 1.0 to about 2.7. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was, in general, reasonable.

  4. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  5. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  6. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    PubMed

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  7. Automating the process of obtaining signal-to-crosstalk ratio in dilated Benes networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jui-Lin; Qiao, Chunming

    1995-12-01

    Crosstalk is a major concern in optical switching networks made of 2 X 2 electro-optical switches such as Dilated Benes Networks (DBNs). One of the important performance parameters of these optical architectures is SXR (Signal-to-Crosstalk Ratio). The paper proposes ways to automate the process of obtaining crosstalk ratios and their related characteristics. This paper contains two parts. The first part is an algorithm to obtain the crosstalk ratios of each and every switch in a DBN. These results can be used to calculate the SXR of the network or to detect and locate switches with excessive crosstalk. In the second part, we present a feasible way to configure a network to obtain an approximate value of its worst-case SXR. The difference between the actual and the approximate worst-case SXR values is almost negligible, while the complexity involved in obtaining the actual worst-case SXR can be prohibitively high.

  8. Design parameters of stainless steel plates for maximizing high frequency ultrasound wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Mark; Leong, Thomas; Swiergon, Piotr; Juliano, Pablo; Knoerzer, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This work validated, in a higher frequency range, the theoretical predictions made by Boyle around 1930, which state that the optimal transmission of sound pressure through a metal plate occurs when the plate thickness equals a multiple of half the wavelength of the sound wave. Several reactor design parameters influencing the transmission of high frequency ultrasonic waves through a stainless steel plate were examined. The transmission properties of steel plates of various thicknesses (1-7 mm) were studied for frequencies ranging from 400 kHz to 2 MHz and at different distances between plates and transducers. It was shown that transmission of sound pressure through a steel plate showed high dependence of the thickness of the plate to the frequency of the sound wave (thickness ratio). Maximum sound pressure transmission of ∼ 60% of the incident pressure was observed when the ratio of the plate thickness to the applied frequency was a multiple of a half wavelength (2 MHz, 6mm stainless steel plate). In contrast, minimal sound pressure transmission (∼ 10-20%) was measured for thickness ratios that were not a multiple of a half wavelength. Furthermore, the attenuation of the sound pressure in the transmission region was also investigated. As expected, it was confirmed that higher frequencies have more pronounced sound pressure attenuation than lower frequencies. The spatial distribution of the sound pressure transmitted through the plate characterized by sonochemiluminescence measurements using luminol emission, supports the validity of the pressure measurements in this study. PMID:25637292

  9. A Researcher's Dilemma: A Comparison of Estimated versus Actual College G.P.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Nelson, Gena C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared college student reported grade point averages (GPA) with actual GPA as recorded at the Registrar's Office to determine the accuracy of student reported GPA. Results indicated that, on average, students reported slightly higher GPA than their actual GPA. Additionally, females were virtually as accurate as males and students with…

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... work. For each labor classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined... classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined) paid and the wage and...

  11. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  12. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. 73.735-904 Section 73.735-904 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest....

  13. Self-Actualizations and Experience with Zen Meditation: Is a Learning Period Necessary for Meditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, William C.; Becker, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the practice of Zen meditation and a measure of self-actualization in experienced (N=36) and inexperienced (N=34) meditator groups. Analysis of data showed that a learning period (or selection period) exists for Zen meditation during which there is no increase in group self-actualization. (LLL)

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  16. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile home, but may be eligible for a payment for moving personal property from the mobile home. (b... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... reason of the application of the option rule provided in section 544(a)(3) shall be considered...

  18. 26 CFR 1.318-4 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership as actual ownership... Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions. (a) In general. Section 318(a)(5)(A) provides that... B are beneficiaries of a trust and the trust has an option to buy stock from A, B is...

  19. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  20. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual owner. When...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations... information and procedures you must use to determine the actual HAP loss from your leather finishing operation. By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the actual HAP loss in pounds from your...

  7. Evaluating Empathy in Interviewing: Comparing Self-Report with Actual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamburrino, Marijo B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared medical students' self-assessments of patient interview behavior with external ratings of actual interviews. Focus was on behaviors reflecting empathy. Results suggest the self-report questionnaire is not an adequate measure of actual interviewing skills. (MSE)

  8. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 1206.180 Section 1206.180 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing...

  9. 27 CFR 19.35 - Application of effective tax rate (Actual).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax rate (Actual). 19.35 Section 19.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Rates § 19.35 Application of effective tax rate (Actual). Any proprietor who does not apply effective... tax rate for each batch of distilled spirits in the processing account on which credit against tax...

  10. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  11. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  12. Nonceramic insulators for transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M. . High Voltage Transmission Research Center); Hall, J.F. ); Karady, G. ); Rendowden, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Progress in development of nonceramic transmission lines insulator technology is reviewed. The results of a survey to utilities in the United States are presented to indicate the range of applications, distribution by voltage class, appraisal of performance, and failure modes. Concerns expressed by utility representatives at a recent workshop are described and future research and standardization needs are presented.

  13. Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning

    SciTech Connect

    Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

  14. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  15. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  16. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  17. Geographical transmission of economic events

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

  18. Variable expansion ratio reaction engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.

    1987-11-24

    A variable expansion ratio reaction rocket engine for producing a mainstream of hot combustion gases is described comprising: a reaction chamber including a thrust nozzle portion formed by converging and diverging wall portions in which the diverging portion terminates in a gas discharge and through which the combustion gases pass; a nozzle throat section at the juncture of the convergent-divergent wall portions; rows of circumferentially and axially spaced injection ports formed within the wall portions and communicating therethrough and into the reaction chamber; fluid conduit means in communication with the injection ports; at least one high pressure pump in communication with the fluid conduit means; a fluid containing storage tank including a conduit in communication with the high pressure pump; and means for selectively controlling a flow of fluid out of the tank, through the pump and to the fluid conduit means and the injection ports for controlling a cross-sectional area of the mainstream combustion gases passing through the thrust nozzle.

  19. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  20. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  1. Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human β-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49) had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49) there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011). In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed. PMID:18817577

  2. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.

    1991-01-29

    This paper describes an engagement mechanism. It comprises: a hollow shaft; an engagement outer rotatably mounted about the shaft and including an outer race; an engagement inner about the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative thereto. The engagement inner including an inner race having central depressions with two inclined surfaces extending upwardly and outwardly in opposite directions from each the central depression; wedging elements between the inner race and the outer race; a cage between the inner race and the outer race, the cage retaining the wedging elements and being angularly movable relative to the inclined surfaces to selectively couple the engagement outer and the engagement inner through the wedging elements with either of the two inclined surfaces, the cage having a firs actuator portion; an actuator mounted in the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative to the engagement inner. The actuator including a second actuator portion selectively engaging the first actuator portion to angularly displace the cage relative to the inclined surfaces for alignment of the wedging elements with the central depressions and selectively disengaging the first actuator portion to allow movement of the cage for movement of the wedging elements along the inclined surfaces to engage the outer race.

  3. Transmission of the BSE agent to mice in the absence of detectable abnormal prion protein.

    PubMed

    Lasmézas, C I; Deslys, J P; Robain, O; Jaegly, A; Beringue, V; Peyrin, J M; Fournier, J G; Hauw, J J; Rossier, J; Dormont, D

    1997-01-17

    The agent responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is thought to be a malfolded, protease-resistant version (PrPres) of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP). The interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to mice was studied. Although all of the mice injected with homogenate from BSE-infected cattle brain exhibited neurological symptoms and neuronal death, more than 55 percent had no detectable PrPres. During serial passage, PrPres appeared after the agent became adapted to the new host. Thus, PrPres may be involved in species adaptation, but a further unidentified agent may actually transmit BSE. PMID:8994041

  4. Gear ratio optimization and shift control of 2-speed I-AMT in electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bingzhao; Liang, Qiong; Xiang, Yu; Guo, Lulu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Connecting a 2-speed transmission with the drive motor improves the dynamic and economic performance of electric passenger vehicles. A novel 2-speed I-AMT (Inverse Automated Manual Transmission) is studied, and the dry clutch is located at the rear of the transmission so that the traction interruption of traditional AMT can be cancelled. After the gear ratios are optimized using Dynamic Programming, gear shift control is addressed, and smooth shift process without torque hole is achieved through feed-forward and feed-back control of the clutch and the motor. Finally the proposed electric vehicle (EV) is compared with an EV with fixed-ratio gear box, and it is shown that the 2-speed AMT with a rear-mounted dry clutch has much better performance in terms of acceleration time, maximum speed and energy economy. The effect of clutch friction loss during shifting on the energy efficiency of the whole driving range is analyzed as well.

  5. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Frédéric M; Allen, Linda J S; Prendeville, Holly R; Hajimorad, M Reza; Jeger, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, or a vector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which reproduction through seed is obligatory. A semi-discrete model with pollen, seed, and vector transmission is formulated to investigate these questions. We assume vector and pollen transmission rates are frequency-dependent and density-dependent, respectively. An ecological stability analysis is performed for the semi-discrete model and used to inform an evolutionary study of trade-offs between pollen and seed versus vector transmission. Evolutionary dynamics critically depend on the shape of the trade-off functions. Assuming a trade-off between pollen and vector transmission, evolution either leads to an evolutionarily stable mix of pollen and vector transmission (concave trade-off) or there is evolutionary bi-stability (convex trade-off); the presence of pollen transmission may prevent evolution of vector transmission. Considering a trade-off between seed and vector transmission, evolutionary branching and the subsequent coexistence of pollen-borne and vector-borne strains is possible. This study contributes to the theory behind the diversity of plant-virus transmission patterns observed in nature. PMID:26908348

  6. Hydraulic control system for vehicular automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.A.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a hydraulic control system for the automatic transmission of a vehicle wherein the transmission includes a plurality of torque transfer devices which can be engaged and disengaged in response to fluid pressure provided by a pump, the sequence of engagement and disengagement of the torque transfer devices being determined by a pre-programmed, on-board computer so as to provide a neutral, reverse, and a plurality of forward drive ratios, the control system interconnected between the pump and the torque transfer devices. It comprises conduits; fluid operated relay valves interconnected in a cascaded arrangement by the conduits, particular relay valves having outputs connected to effect the operational status of specific torque transfer devices; solenoid valves; each solenoid valve having an electrical control input, a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an electrical control input; a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an inlet and an outlet; the pressure regulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump at the regulating valve inlet; the regulating valve outlet connected to the fluid pressure inlets of the solenoid valves; the electrical input of each solenoid valve connected to receive a control input from the computer and the outlet of each solenoid valve connected to actuate one of the relay valves; a single, pulse width, pressure modulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump and providing a modulated output pressure; and, a control valve having first and second inlets; the first inlet of the control valve receiving modulated pressure from the modulating valve; the second inlet of the control valve receiving line pressure from the pump.

  7. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  8. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  9. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  10. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  11. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  12. Unpacking the great transmission debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The debate about the wisdom of sending interstellar transmissions is well-known to those involved in SETI, and frustrating for many. Its tendency towards intractability is a result of multiple factors, including: different models of the scientist's role as citizen and/or leader; disparate ideas about society's readiness to cope with frontier science; variable political substrates, particularly ideas concerning individual freedom and state control; competing ideologies of globalization; and the perceived relative risks and benefits of contact. (Variations in the latter, i.e. assessments of the risks and benefits of contact, derive partly from different thinking styles, including tolerance for risk, and partly from inferences based upon episodes of biological and cultural contact on Earth.) Unpacking the debate into its components may be of use to those debating policy about SETI transmissions, or at the very least, help keep in focus what, precisely, the perennial arguments are really about.

  13. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  14. Cultural transmission of social essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

  15. 77 FR 61592 - American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel Energy Services Inc,. Northern States Power Company, a Wisconsin Corporation, Northern..., American Transmission Company LLC (ATC), by its corporate manager, ATC Management Inc....

  16. Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T.; Marnay, C.

    1999-09-01

    The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally are

  17. Efficiency Evaluation of Lightning Fault Inspection in 66kV Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomomi; Yamaguchi, Setsuo

    Transmission line must be immediately inspected when it was struck by lightning. It is necessary to find and change the damaged part promptly in case the damage is serious. Such case, however, is actually hardly seen due to the fact that the lightning protection system is well designed recently. Therefore, it is important to compare the data of past lightnings and of the transmission line, and make criteria for deciding more precisely in which case the actual inspection should be carried out. The criteria would be as follows: (1) Insulator voltage exceeds critical voltage. (2) Arc current and arc duration exceed characteristic of insulator destruction. (3) Accident phase exceeds 3 line ground fault. (4) Tower foot resistance is up to 10ohm or more. (5) Lightning current is positive characteristic. By using this criteria, the number of lightning fault inspection was reduced by 34%.

  18. High efficiency ground data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is demonstrated that state-of-the-art communications technology can be implemented and reliably operated on a global basis to increase the transmission rates and efficiencies on circuits with bandwidths greater than the typical speech channel. Optimization is affected by optimum clock recovery procedures, multilevel pulse amplitude modulation, single sideband amplitude modulation, transversal filter equalizers, data scrambling, and active compensation for phase instability.

  19. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  20. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2002-12-05

    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  1. Jitter in digital transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trischitta, Patrick R.; Varma, Eve L.

    Theoretical, design, and applications aspects of jitter in digital telecommunication systems are discussed, with an emphasis on fiber-optic systems. Chapters are devoted to jitter introduced by line regenerators, jitter accumulation in cascaded regenerators, the effect of jitter on transmission quality, jitter introduced by digital multiplexes, jitter tolerance and transfer in digital multiplexes, jitter accumulation in digital networks, wander, and network jitter standards. Diagrams; graphs; and a glossary of symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations are provided.

  2. The nonrelativistic limit of (central-extended) Poincare group and some consequences for quantum actualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ardenghi, Juan S.; Castagnino, M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2009-10-15

    The nonrelativistic limit of the centrally extended Poincare group is considered and their consequences in the modal Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed [O. Lombardi and M. Castagnino, Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys 39, 380 (2008); J. Phys, Conf. Ser. 128, 012014 (2008)]. Through the assumption that in quantum field theory the Casimir operators of the Poincare group actualize, the nonrelativistic limit of the latter group yields to the actualization of the Casimir operators of the Galilei group, which is in agreement with the actualization rule of previous versions of modal Hamiltonian interpretation [Ardenghi et al., Found. Phys. (submitted)].

  3. Electrochromic variable transmission optical combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Russell S.; Wood, Michael V.; Radmard, Bijan; Mahmud, Ken; Schuler, Peter; Sotzing, Gregory A.; Seshadri, Venkataraman; Mino, Warren; Padilla, Javier; Otero, Tobibio F.

    2005-05-01

    Complementary coloring conducting polymer based electrochromic devices have been designed, fabricated and tested for possible application as a variable attenuation combiner element for a see-through head mounted display or a variable trasnsmissive sand wind dust goggle lens. Electrochromic cells fabricated on both glass and polycarbonate substrates have been demonstrated to meet closely the desired goals of low power consumption, wide transmission range, fast switching speeds and long lifetime. Photopic transmissions of 34% in colored state and 67% in bleached state were achieved in a reproducible manner. The measured switching times are 0.6 sec (colored to bleached state) and 1.9 sec (bleached to colored state). The life cycle testing showed stability up to 92,000 switches. The measured power consumption of the fabricated devices was < 1 mW/cm . The electrochromic technology design effort has identified processes for obtaining the optimum layer thickness and selecting polymers and gel electrolytes necessary to obtain the widest transmission range, fastest switching speed and longest lifetime. Early environmental testing has been performed by subjecting prototype electrochromic cells to temperatures varying from -30°C to + 40°C with the results reported herein. Follow on work includes further optimization of electronic drive schemes as well as field testing of electrochromic lens equipped sand, wind dust goggles.

  4. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  5. Transmission laser welding of plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Paul A.; Jones, I. A.; Kennish, Y.

    2003-03-01

    The use of lasers for welding plastics was demonstrated in the early 1970s. However, it was not until late in the 1990s that production applications started to be considered widely. This followed the broad realization that by selection of a suitable combination of radiation wavelength and plastics additives, to control light transmission and absorption, heat could be generated at the joint of a pre-assembled part without melting its outer surfaces. It is of added benefit that the window of transmission for an unpigmented and unfilled plastic typically covers the wavelengths delivered by small and cost effective diode lasers. Recent developments in the transmission laser welding process for plastics are discussed, including methods for the generation of welds between two clear plastics, application of similar techniques to the joining of thermoplastic textiles and new equipment, able to heat a complete joint and assist in the sealing of assemblies where the joint surfaces are not particuarly smooth. An analytical heat flow model for the welding of clear plastics is shown in use for selecting process parameters.

  6. Transmission loss in manatee habitats.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Miller, James H

    2006-10-01

    The Florida manatee is regularly exposed to high volumes of vessel traffic and other human-related noise because of its coastal distribution. Quantifying specific aspects of the manatee's acoustic environment will allow for a better understanding of how these animals respond to both natural and human-induced changes in their environment. Transmission loss measurements were made in 24 sampling sites that were chosen based on the frequency of manatee presence. The Monterey-Miami Parabolic Equation model was used to relate environmental parameters to transmission loss in two extremely shallow water environments: seagrass beds and dredged habitats. Model accuracy was verified by field tests at all modeled sites. Results indicated that high-use grassbeds have higher levels of transmission loss for frequencies above 2 kHz compared to low-use sites of equal food species composition and density. This also happens to be the range of most efficient sound propagation inside the grassbed habitat and includes the dominant frequencies of manatee vocalizations. The acoustic environment may play a more important role in manatee grassbed selection than seagrass coverage or species composition, as linear regression analysis showed no significant correlation between usage and either total grass coverage, individual species coverage, or aerial pattern. PMID:17069327

  7. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  8. Systematic error of lidar profiles caused by a polarization-dependent receiver transmission: quantification and error correction scheme.

    PubMed

    Mattis, Ina; Tesche, Matthias; Grein, Matthias; Freudenthaler, Volker; Müller, Detlef

    2009-05-10

    Signals of many types of aerosol lidars can be affected with a significant systematic error, if depolarizing scatterers are present in the atmosphere. That error is caused by a polarization-dependent receiver transmission. In this contribution we present an estimation of the magnitude of this systematic error. We show that lidar signals can be biased by more than 20%, if linearly polarized laser light is emitted, if both polarization components of the backscattered light are measured with a single detection channel, and if the receiver transmissions for these two polarization components differ by more than 50%. This signal bias increases with increasing ratio between the two transmission values (transmission ratio) or with the volume depolarization ratio of the scatterers. The resulting error of the particle backscatter coefficient increases with decreasing backscatter ratio. If the particle backscatter coefficients are to have an accuracy better than 5%, the transmission ratio has to be in the range between 0.85 and 1.15. We present a method to correct the measured signals for this bias. We demonstrate an experimental method for the determination of the transmission ratio. We use collocated measurements of a lidar system strongly affected by this signal bias and an unbiased reference system to verify the applicability of the correction scheme. The errors in the case of no correction are illustrated with example measurements of fresh Saharan dust. PMID:19424398

  9. Poisson`s ratio and crustal seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.I.

    1996-02-10

    This report discusses the use of Poisson`s ratio to place constraints on continental crustal composition. A summary of Poisson`s ratios for many common rock formations is also included with emphasis on igneous and metamorphic rock properties.

  10. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Primary Reserve, Equity, and Net Income ratios, as described under paragraph (b) of this section; (2..., and Net Income ratios are defined under appendix A for proprietary institutions, and under appendix...

  11. Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

    1988-01-01

    High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

  12. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  13. Harmonic Ratios: A quantification of step to step symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Roche, J.L; Lowry, K.A; Vanswearingen, J.M; Brach, J.S; Redfern, M.S

    2013-01-01

    The harmonic ratio (HR), derived from Fourier analysis of trunk accelerations, has been described in various ways as a measure of walking smoothness, walking rhythmicity, or dynamic stability. There is increasing interest in applying the HR technique to investigate the impact of various pathologies on locomotion; however, explanation of the method has been limited. The aim hereis to present a clear description of the mathematical basis of HRs and an understanding of their interpretation. We present harmonic theory, the interpretation of the HR using sinusoidal signals, and an exampleusing actual trunk accelerations and harmonic analyses during limb-loading conditions. We suggest that the HR method may be better defined, not as a measure of rhythmicity or stability, but as a measure of step-to-step symmetry within a stride. PMID:23317758

  14. A study of the transmission characteristics of suppressor nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Salikuddin, M.; Burrin, R. H.; Plumbee, H. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The internal noise radiation characteristics for a single stream 12 lobe 24 tube suppressor nozzle, and for a dual stream 36 chute suppressor nozzle were investigated. An equivalent single round conical nozzle and an equivalent coannular nozzle system were also tested to provide a reference for the two suppressors. The technique utilized a high voltage spark discharge as a noise source within the test duct which permitted separation of the incident, reflected and transmitted signals in the time domain. These signals were then Fourier transformed to obtain the nozzle transmission coefficient and the power transfer function. These transmission parameters for the 12 lobe, 24 tube suppressor nozzle and the reference conical nozzle are presented as a function of jet Mach number, duct Mach number polar angle and temperature. Effects of simulated forward flight are also considered for this nozzle. For the dual stream, 36 chute suppressor, the transmission parameters are presented as a function of velocity ratios and temperature ratios. Possible data for the equivalent coaxial nozzle is also presented. Jet noise suppression by these nozzles is also discussed.

  15. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  16. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  17. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector with two surface dielectric gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    2016-02-01

    The transmission behaviour of a distributed Bragg reector (DBR) with surface dielectric gratings on top and bottom is studied. The transmission shows a comb-like spectrum in the DBR band gap, which is explained in the Fano picture. The number density of the transmission peaks increases with increasing number of cells of the DBR, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum to the corresponding average free spectral range, being only few percent for both transversal electric and magnetic waves, is almost invariant. The transmission peaks can be narrower than 0.1 nm and are fully separated from each other in certain wavebands. We further prove that the transmission combs are robust against randomness in the heights of the DBR layers. Therefore, the proposed structure is a candidate for an ultra-narrow-band multichannel filter or polarizer.

  18. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector with two surface dielectric gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The transmission behaviour of a distributed Bragg reector (DBR) with surface dielectric gratings on top and bottom is studied. The transmission shows a comb-like spectrum in the DBR band gap, which is explained in the Fano picture. The number density of the transmission peaks increases with increasing number of cells of the DBR, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum to the corresponding average free spectral range, being only few percent for both transversal electric and magnetic waves, is almost invariant. The transmission peaks can be narrower than 0.1 nm and are fully separated from each other in certain wavebands. We further prove that the transmission combs are robust against randomness in the heights of the DBR layers. Therefore, the proposed structure is a candidate for an ultra-narrow-band multichannel filter or polarizer. PMID:26893069

  19. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector with two surface dielectric gratings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The transmission behaviour of a distributed Bragg reector (DBR) with surface dielectric gratings on top and bottom is studied. The transmission shows a comb-like spectrum in the DBR band gap, which is explained in the Fano picture. The number density of the transmission peaks increases with increasing number of cells of the DBR, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum to the corresponding average free spectral range, being only few percent for both transversal electric and magnetic waves, is almost invariant. The transmission peaks can be narrower than 0.1 nm and are fully separated from each other in certain wavebands. We further prove that the transmission combs are robust against randomness in the heights of the DBR layers. Therefore, the proposed structure is a candidate for an ultra-narrow-band multichannel filter or polarizer. PMID:26893069

  20. Anomalous infrared transmission of indium tin oxide thin films on two-dimensional nanosphere arrays.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hang; Zhou, Yuqin; Zhou, Yurong

    2016-04-15

    The excitation of surface plasmons was studied by nano-structural indium tin oxide (ITO) films in the infrared range using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). We investigated the effect of the diameter of silica spheres, thickness of ITO film, and ordering degree of the mask plate on the transmission spectra of structural ITO films by experiments and simulations. Increasing the diameter of silica spheres makes the transmission valley blueshift, while increasing the thickness of ITO film leads the transmission valley redshift. The transmission valley corresponds to the absorption band which results from the excitation of surface plasmons. The ordering degree and the surface coverage ratios of mask plate affect the transmission feature directly. An excitation of local surface plasmons may exist on the undulated ITO surface. PMID:27082363