Science.gov

Sample records for actual turbine blades

  1. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  2. Blade for turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Babu, Michael (Inventor); Murdock, James R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A blade for a turbine engine having a centerline. The blade comprises: a root section extending at an angle relative to the centerline; and an airfoil section extending from the root section. The root section is directly adjacent said airfoil section. In other words, the blade is neckless. The blade is part of a rotor assembly, and is preferably a fan blade.

  3. Turbine blade damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research results and progress on the performance of bladed systems is reported the different topics discussed include: the study of turbine blade damping; forced vibrations of friction damped beam moistures in two dimensions; and a users manual for a computer program for dynamic analysis of bladed systems.

  4. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  5. The Cooling of Turbine Blades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-11

    aviation gas turbine engine , everyone has ceaselessly come up with ways of raising the temperature of gases in a turbine before combustion. The reason for...temperature of the blade concerned by approximately 200 degrees. Jet -type cooling. When the surface of a turbine blade is at a temperature which is...the blade and multiplying the drop in the temperature of the blade . Figure 3 is a cross-section diagram of a turbine blade cooled by the jet

  6. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  7. Eutectic Composite Turbine Blade Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13...composites in turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13 and the low pressure turbine blade of the...identified that appeared to have potential for application to aircraft engine turbine blade hardware. The potential benefits offered by these materials

  8. Turbine Blade Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Under contract with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, GE's Energy Systems Programs Department used a COSMIC program in assessing the problem of blade erosion in a PFB (pressurized fluid bed) environment. Data provided by this program and an associated program enabled the company engineers to determine gas velocities and the velocities of the particles striking the blades, calculations necessary for predicting blade erosion and potential damage. The assessment resulted in a new estimate for the allowable dust load for a modern heavy duty gas turbine.

  9. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  10. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute`s (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  11. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  12. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  13. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  14. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  15. Multiple piece turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D [Jupiter, FL

    2012-05-29

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, the spar including an internal cooling supply channel extending from an inlet end on a root section and ending near the tip end, and a plurality of external cooling channels formed on both side of the spar, where a middle external cooling channel is connected to the internal cooling supply channels through a row of holes located at a middle section of the channels. The spar and the shell are held together by hooks that define serpentine flow passages for the cooling air and include an upper serpentine flow circuit and a lower serpentine flow circuit. the serpentine flow circuits all discharge into a leading edge passage or a trailing edge passage.

  16. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  17. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy of ceramic turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Kinnick, R. R.; Heitman, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning photoacoustic microscopy (SPAM) is evaluated as a nondestructive technique for the detection of both surface and subsurface flaws in polycrystalline ceramics, such as those currently under consideration for the high temperature components of small vehicular and industrial gas turbine engines; the fracture strength of these brittle materials is controlled by small, 25-200 micron flaws. Attention is given to the correlation of SPAM-detected flaws with actual, fracture-controlling flaws in ceramic turbine blades.

  19. Turbine blade tip durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Spamer, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cooled turbine blade from an aircraft gas turbine engine chosen for its history of cracking was subjected to advanced analytical and life-prediction techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life-prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot section components are verified. Three dimensional heat transfer and stress analyses were applied to the turbine blade mission cycle and the results were input into advanced life-prediction theories. Shortcut analytical techniques were developed. The proposed life-prediction theories are evaluated.

  20. Turbine blade platform seal

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  1. ON THE PROBLEM OF CORRECTING TWISTED TURBINE BLADES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TURBINE BLADES , DESIGN), GAS TURBINES , STEAM TURBINES , BLADE AIRFOILS , ASPECT RATIO, FLUID DYNAMICS, SECONDARY FLOW, ANGLE OF ATTACK, INLET GUIDE VANES , CORRECTIONS, PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), OPTIMIZATION, USSR

  2. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  3. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  4. Turbine blade friction damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A lumped parameter method, implemented on a VAX 11/780 computer shows that the primary parameters affecting the performance of the friction damper of the first stage turbine of the SSME high pressure fuel pump are: the damper-blade coefficient of friction; the normal force applied to the friction interface; the amplitude of the periodic forcing function; the relative phase angle of the forcing functions for adjacent blades bridged by a damper (effectively, the engine order of the forcing function); and the amount of hysteretic damping that acts to limit the vibration amplitude of the blade in its resonance modes. The low order flexural resonance vibration modes of HPFTP blades without dampers, with production dampers, and with two types of lightweight experimental dampers were evaluated in high speed spin pit tests. Results agree with those of the analytical study in that blades fitted with production friction dampers experienced the airfoil-alone flexural resonance mode, while those without dampers or with lighter weight dampers did not. No blades fitted with dampers experienced the whole blade flexural resonance mode during high speed tests, while those without dampers did.

  5. Transonic turbine blade cascade testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Camperchioli, William P.; Lopez, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    NASA LeRC has designed and constructed a new state-of-the-art test facility. This facility, the Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade, is used to evaluate the aerodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of blade geometries for future turbine applications. The facility's capabilities make it unique: no other facility of its kind can combine the high degree of airflow turning, infinitely adjustable incidence angle, and high transonic flow rates. The facility air supply and exhaust pressures are controllable to 16.5 psia and 2 psia, respectively. The inlet air temperatures are at ambient conditions. The facility is equipped with a programmable logic controller with a capacity of 128 input/output channels. The data acquisition system is capable of scanning up to 1750 channels per sec. This paper discusses in detail the capabilities of the facility, overall facility design, instrumentation used in the facility, and the data acquisition system. Actual research data is not discussed.

  6. Blade for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-10-26

    A blade is provided for a gas turbine. The blade comprises a main body comprising a cooling fluid entrance channel; a cooling fluid collector in communication with the cooling fluid entrance channel; a plurality of side channels extending through an outer wall of the main body and communicating with the cooling fluid collector and a cooling fluid cavity; a cooling fluid exit channel communicating with the cooling fluid cavity; and a plurality of exit bores extending from the cooling fluid exit channel through the main body outer wall.

  7. Wooden wind turbine blade manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1986-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  8. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2000-01-01

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  9. Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

    PubMed

    Han, J C; Dutta, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

  10. Large, low cost composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A woven roving E-glass tape, having all of its structural fibers oriented across the tape width was used in the manufacture of the spar for a wind turbine blade. Tests of a 150 ft composite blade show that the transverse filament tape is capable of meeting structural design requirements for wind turbine blades. Composite blades can be designed for interchangeability with steel blades in the MOD-1 wind generator system. The design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of the 150 ft blade are discussed.

  11. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  12. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  13. Aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.

    1928-01-01

    The second degree nonlinear aeroelastic equations for a flexible, twisted, nonuniform wind turbine blade were developed using Hamilton's principle. The derivation of these equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity. These equations with periodic coefficients are suitable for determining the aeroelastic stability and response of large wind turbine blades. Methods for solving these equations are discussed.

  14. Blade feathering system for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, K.I.; Patrick, J.P.; Vosseller, K.F.

    1984-07-31

    A blade feathering system for wind turbines includes a feather actuator, control means operatively connected thereto and an adjustment means operatively connected to the control means for selectively varying the rate of operation of the feather actuator for feathering the wind turbine blades at a variable rate.

  15. Measurement of turbine blade temperature using pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Du, C.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents the study of application of a self-made turbine blade pyrometer to measuring rotating turbine blade temperatures in a bed testing aeroengine. The study includes the temperature measuring principle and the pyrometer system; installation and adjustment of the double ball-floating type configuration optical head which goes through four different high temperatures bulkheads; and measurement of three kinds of temperature (the average blade temperature Ta, the average peak blade temperature Tap, and the maximum peak blade temperature Tmp) for all rotor blades of the turbine first stage. The experimental data analysis reveals that the first attempt of application of this pyrometer is successful. The measurement errors in the temperature range of 550-1200 C are within + or - 1 percent of calculated blade temperatures.

  16. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  17. Uncertainties in predicting turbine blade metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effects of the hot-gas and coolant temperatures, the gas-to-blade and blade-to-coolant heat transfer coefficients, and the thermal conductances of a metal wall and a ceramic thermal-barrier coating on the prediction of local turbine-blade surface temperatures. The analysis was applied to the conditions of an advanced turbofan engine and a 1700 K, 40 atm turbine test rig, and to conditions that simulated the engine at 756 K and 15.6 atm. The results showed that with current information on boundary conditions, geometry, heat-transfer coefficients, and material thermal properties, the uncertainty in predicting and verifying local turbine-blade surface temperatures in an average engine is 98 kelvins or 7.6% of the reference metal absolute temperature for uncoated blades, and 62 kelvins or 5.7% for ceramic-thermal-barrier-coated blades.

  18. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  19. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  20. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2001-01-01

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  1. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  2. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  3. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  4. Multi-spectral pyrometer for gas turbine blade temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi

    2014-09-01

    To achieve the highest possible turbine inlet temperature requires to accurately measuring the turbine blade temperature. If the temperature of blade frequent beyond the design limits, it will seriously reduce the service life. The problem for the accuracy of the temperature measurement includes the value of the target surface emissivity is unknown and the emissivity model is variability and the thermal radiation of the high temperature environment. In this paper, the multi-spectral pyrometer is designed provided mainly for range 500-1000°, and present a model corrected in terms of the error due to the reflected radiation only base on the turbine geometry and the physical properties of the material. Under different working conditions, the method can reduce the measurement error from the reflect radiation of vanes, make measurement closer to the actual temperature of the blade and calculating the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment shows that this method has higher accuracy measurements.

  5. Flutter of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.

    1978-01-01

    The testing of Darrieus wind turbines has indicated that under certain conditions, serious vibrations of the blades can occur, involving flatwise bending, torsion, and chordwise bending. A theoretical method of predicting the aeroelastic stability of the coupled bending and torsional motion of such blades with a view to determining the cause of these vibrations, and a means of suppressing them was developed.

  6. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  7. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  8. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  9. Numerical analysis of turbine blade tip treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalaswamy, Nath S.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a turbine blade with a turning angle of 180 degrees have been computed, including blade tip treatments involving cavities. The geometry approximates a preliminary design for the GGOT (Generic Gas Oxidizer Turbine). The data presented here will be compared with experimental data to be obtained from a linear cascade using original GGOT blades. Results have been computed for a blade with 1 percent clearance, based on chord, and three different cavity sizes. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 4 x 10 exp 7. The grid contains 39,440 points with 10 spanwise planes in the tip clearance region of 5.008E-04 m. Streamline plots and velocity vectors together with velocity divergence plots reveal the general flow behavior in the clearance region. Blade tip temperature calculations suggest placement of a cavity close to the upstream side of the blade tip for reduction of overall blade tip temperature. The solutions do not account for the relative motion between the endwall and the turbine blade. The solutions obtained are generally consistent with previous work done in this area,

  10. Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y

    2017-02-16

    Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%.

  11. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corten, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    the angle of attack. The art of designing stall rotors is to make the separated area on the blades extend in such a way, that the extracted power remains precisely constant, independent of the wind speed, while the power in the wind at cut-out exceeds the maximum power of the turbine by a factor of 8. Since the stall behaviour is influenced by many parameters, this demand cannot be easily met. However, if it can be met, the advantage of stall control is its passive operation, which is reliable and cheap. Problem Definition In practical application, stall control is not very accurate and many stall-controlled turbines do not meet their specifications. Deviations of the design-power in the order of tens of percent are regular. In the nineties, the aerodynamic research on these deviations focussed on: profile aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, rotational effects on separation and pressure measurements on test turbines. However, this did not adequately solve the actual problems with stall turbines. In this thesis, we therefore formulated the following as the essential question: "Does the separated blade area really extend with the wind speed, as we predict?" To find the answer a measurement technique was required, which 1) was applicable on large commercial wind turbines, 2) could follow the dynamic changes of the stall pattern, 3) was not influenced by the centrifugal force and 4) did not disturb the flow. Such a technique was not available, therefore we decided to develop it. Stall Flag Method For this method, a few hundred indicators are fixed to the rotor blades in a special pattern. These indicators, called "stall flags" are patented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). They have a retro-reflective area which, depending on the flow direction, is or is not covered. A powerful light source in the field up to 500m behind the turbine illuminates the swept rotor area. The uncovered reflectors reflect the light to the source, where a digital video

  12. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  13. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  14. Successful Solutions to SSME/AT Development Turbine Blade Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump/Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) turbine blade development program, unique turbine blade design features were implemented to address 2nd stage turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and improve turbine robustness. Features included the addition of platform featherseal dampers, asymmetric blade tip seal segments, gold plating of the blade attachments, and airfoil tip trailing edge modifications. Development testing shows these features have eliminated turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and consequently these features are currently planned for incorporation to the flight configuration. Certification testing will begin in 1999. This presentation summarizes these features.

  15. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  16. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Burke, Arthur H. E.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Van Breugel, Sjef; Billen, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  17. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.

    2004-01-01

    An unsteady, three dimensional Navier-Stokes solution in rotating frame formulation for turbomachinery applications is presented. Casting the governing equations in a rotating frame enabled the freezing of grid motion and resulted in substantial savings in computer time. The turbine blade was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of several uncertainties in the aerodynamic, structural, material and thermal variables that govern the turbine blade. The interconnection between the computational fluid dynamics code and finite element structural analysis code was necessary to couple the thermal profiles with the structural design. The stresses and their variations were evaluated at critical points on the Turbine blade. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for stress responses due to aerodynamic, geometric, mechanical and thermal random variables.

  18. The Rene 150 directionally solidified superalloy turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboer, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Turbine blade design and analysis, preliminary Rene 150 system refinement, coating adaptation and evaluation, final Rene 150 system refinement, component-test blade production and evaluation, engine-test blade production, and engine test are discussed.

  19. Panel resonant behavior of wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-03-01

    The principal design drivers in the certification of wind turbine blades are ultimate strength, fatigue resistance, adequate tip-tower clearance, and buckling resistance. Buckling resistance is typically strongly correlated to both ultimate strength and fatigue resistance. A composite shell with spar caps forms the airfoil shape of a blade and reinforcing shear webs are placed inside the blade to stiffen the blade in the flap-wise direction. The spar caps are dimensioned and the shear webs are placed so as to add stiffness to unsupported panel regions and reduce their length. The panels are not the major flap-wise load carrying element of a blade; however, they must be designed carefully to avoid buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static testing of blades under a simulated extreme loading condition. The focus of this paper is on the use of experimental modal analysis to measure localized resonances of the blade panels. It can be shown that the resonant behavior of these panels can also provide a means to evaluate buckling resistance by means of analytical or experimental modal analysis. Further, panel resonances have use in structural health monitoring by observing changes in modal parameters associated with panel resonances, and use in improving panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. In recent modal testing of wind turbine blades, a set of panel modes were measured. This paper will report on the findings of these tests and accompanying numerical and analytical modeling efforts aimed at investigating the potential uses of panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings for the space shuttle main engine turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.; Gilmore, H. L.; Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump turbine blades experience extremely severe thermal shocks during start-up and shut-down. For instance, the high pressure fuel turbopump turbine which burns liquid hydrogen operates at approximately 1500 F, but is shut down fuel rich with turbine blades quenced in liquid hydrogen. This thermal shock is a major contributor to blade cracking. The same thermal shock cause the protective ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings to spall or flake off, leaving only the NiCrAlY bond coating which provides only a minimum thermal protection. The turbine blades are therefore life limited to about 3000 sec for want of a good thermal barrier. A suitable thermal barrier coating (TBC) is being developed for the SSME turbine blades. Various TBCs developed for the gas turbine engines were tested in a specially built turbine blade tester. This tester subjects the coated blades to thermal and pressure cycles similar to those during actual operation of the turbine. The coatings were applied using a plasma spraying techniques both under atmospheric conditions and in vacuum. Results are presented. In general vacuum plasma sprayed coatings performed much better than those sprayed under atmospheric conditions. A 50 to 50 blend of Cr2O3 and NiCrAlY, vacuum plasma sprayed on SSME turbopump turbine blades appear to provide significant improvements in coating durability and thermal protection.

  1. Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.

    2017-01-10

    A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).

  2. Turbine Blade Temperature Measurements Using Thin Film Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Claing, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The development of thin film temperature sensors is discussed. The technology for sputtering 2 micron thin film platinum versus platinum 10 percent rhodium thermocouples on alumina forming coatings was improved and extended to applications on actual turbine blades. Good adherence was found to depend upon achieving a proper morphology of the alumina surface. Problems of adapting fabrication procedures to turbine blades were uncovered, and improvements were recommended. Testing at 1250 K at one atmosphere pressure was then extended to a higher Mach No. (0.5) in combustor flow for 60 hours and 71 thermal cycles. The mean time to failure was 47 hours accumulated during 1 hour exposures in the combustor. Calibration drift was about 0.1 percent per hour, attributable to oxidation of the rhodium in the thin films. An increase in film thickness and application of a protective overcoat are recommended to reduce drift in actual engine testing.

  3. Use of the WEST-1 wind turbine simulator to predict blade fatigue load distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    To test the ability of WEST-1 to predict blade fatigue load distribution, actual wind signals were fed into the simulator and the response data were recorded and processed in the same manner as actual wind turbine data. The WEST-1 simulator was operated in a stable, unattended mode for six hours. The probability distribution of the cyclic flatwise bending moment for the blade was comparable to that for an actual wind turbine in winds with low turbulence. The input from a stationary anemometer was found to be inadequate for use in the prediction of fatigue load distribution for blade design purposes and modifications are necessary.

  4. Flutter of aircraft engine turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovsky, Josef, Jr.

    1997-11-01

    The goal of this research is to eliminate occurrences of flutter of low-pressure turbine blades in aircraft engines. Fundamental unsteady aerodynamic experiments in an annular cascade plus correlating analyses are conducted to improve the understanding of the flutter mechanism in these blades and to identify the key flutter parameters. The use of two- and three-dimensional linearized Euler methods for the calculation of the unsteady pressures due to the blade motion are validated through detailed comparison with the experimental data. Unexpected features of the steady and unsteady flows are also investigated using these computational tools. The validated computer codes are used to extend the range of the experimental data in a series of parametric studies, where the influence of mode shape, reduced frequency, and blade loading are investigated. Mode shape is identified as the most important contributor to determining the stability of a blade design. A new stability parameter is introduced to gain additional insight into the key contributors to flutter. This stability parameter is derived from the influence coefficient representation of the cascade, and includes only contributions from the reference blade and its immediate neighbors. This has the effect of retaining the most important contributions while filtering out terms of less significance. Design rules for the preliminary concept phase and procedures for the detailed analysis phase of the typical blade design process are defined. Utilization of these procedures will lead to blade designs which are free of flutter.

  5. The Development of a Hollow Blade for Exhaust Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlmann, H

    1950-01-01

    The subject of the development of German hollow turbine blades for use with internal cooling is discussed in detail. The development of a suitable blade profile from cascade theory is described. Also a discussion of the temperature distribution and stresses in a turbine blade is presented. Various methods of manufacturing hollow blades and the methods by which they are mounted in the turbine rotor are presented in detail.

  6. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6 - Computed Temperature Distribution through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    AERONAUTICS Figure 7. - Cross section of water-cooleä turbine blade showing location and size of seven coolant...Power Plants.~ Jet and~ Turbine ($) [SECTION. Turbines (I3) [CROSS DEFERENCES. Turbine blades - Thermal measurements (95350); Turbine blades ...section of water-cooled turbine blade FORG’N. TITLE: v.. ’V, ORIGINATING AGENCY. TRANSLATION. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

  7. New materials for high temperature turbines; ONERA's DS composites confronted with blade problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, H.

    1977-01-01

    ONERA's refractory DS composites were cited as materials required for use in advanced aircraft turbines, operating at high temperatures. These materials were found to be reliable in the construction of turbine blades. Requirements for a blade material in aircraft turbines operating at higher temperatures were compared with the actual performance as found in COTAC DS composite testing. The structure and properties of the more fully developed 74 and 741 types were specified. High temperature structural stability, impact of thermal and mechanical fatigue, oxidation resistance and coating capability were thoroughly evaluated. The problem of cooling passages in DS eutectic blades is also outlined.

  8. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  9. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  10. Instrumented composite turbine blade for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, Kevin E.; Watkins, Steve E.; Nicholas, James; Chandrashekhara, K.; Rovey, Joshua L.

    2012-04-01

    A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blade applications. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs have advantages that include long life in marine environments and great control over mechanical properties. Experimental strain characteristics are determined for static loads and free-vibration loads. These experiments are designed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of hydrokinetic turbine blades. Carbon/epoxy symmetric composite laminates are manufactured using an autoclave process. Four-layer composite beams, eight-layer composite beams, and two-dimensional eight-layer composite blades are instrumented for strain. Experimental results for strain measurements from electrical resistance gages are validated with theoretical characteristics obtained from in-house finite-element analysis for all sample cases. These preliminary tests on the composite samples show good correlation between experimental and finite-element strain results. A health monitoring system is proposed in which damage to a composite structure, e.g. delamination and fiber breakage, causes changes in the strain signature behavior. The system is based on embedded strain sensors and embedded motes in which strain information is demodulated for wireless transmission.

  11. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    DOEpatents

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  12. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  13. Dynamic stall on wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P; Simms, D; Scott, G; Hansen, A C

    1991-12-01

    Dynamic loads must be predicted accurately in order to estimate the fatigue life of wind turbines operating in turbulent environments. Dynamic stall contributes to increased dynamic loads during normal operation of all types of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWTs). This report illustrates how dynamic stall varies throughout the blade span of a 10 m HAWT during yawed and unyawed operating conditions. Lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients during dynamics stall are discussed. Resulting dynamic loads are presented, and the effects of dynamic stall on yaw loads are demonstrated using a yaw loads dynamic analysis (YAWDYN). 12 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Turbine blade with contoured chamfered squealer tip

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A squealer tip formed from a pressure side tip wall and a suction side tip wall extending radially outward from a tip of the turbine blade is disclosed. The pressure and suction side tip walls may be positioned along the pressure sidewall and the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, respectively. The pressure side tip wall may include a chamfered leading edge with film cooling holes having exhaust outlets positioned therein. An axially extending tip wall may be formed from at least two outer linear surfaces joined together at an intersection forming a concave axially extending tip wall. The axially extending tip wall may include a convex inner surface forming a radially outer end to an inner cavity forming a cooling system. The cooling system may include one or more film cooling holes in the axially extending tip wall proximate to the suction sidewall, which promotes increased cooling at the pressure and suction sidewalls.

  15. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1984-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  16. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, C.

    1984-08-14

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis. 8 figs.

  17. Turbine blade with tuned damping structure

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Messmann, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    A turbine blade is provided comprising: a root; an airfoil comprising an external wall extending radially from the root and having a radially outermost portion; and a damping structure. The external wall may comprise first and second side walls joined together to define an inner cavity of the airfoil. The damping structure may be positioned within the airfoil inner cavity and coupled to the airfoil so as to define a tuned mass damper.

  18. Unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Simoneau, Robert J.; Platzer, Max F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method for calculating heat transfer on turbine blades subjected to passing wakes. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows with a novel procedure to account for the movement of the stagnation point. Results are presented for a model flow and show that the procedure is numerically sound and produces results that can give good agreement with measurements provided that the turbulence model is adequate.

  19. Thermal-barrier-coated turbine blade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Hillig, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of coating TBC on a CF6-50 stage 2 high-pressure turbine blade were analyzed with respect to changes in the mean bulk temperature, cooling air requirements, and high-cycle fatigue. Localized spallation was found to have a possible deleterious effect on low-cycle fatigue life. New blade design concepts were developed to take optimum advantage of TBCs. Process and material development work and rig evaluations were undertaken which identified the most promising combination as ZrO2 containing 8 w/o Y2O3 applied by air plasma spray onto a Ni22Cr-10Al-1Y bond layer. The bond layer was applied by a low-pressure, high-velocity plasma spray process onto the base alloy. During the initial startup cycles the blades experienced localized leading edge spallation caused by foreign objects.

  20. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  1. Analyzing the dynamic response of rotating blades in small-scale wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Wan-Ying; Huang, Yu-Ting; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Loh, Kenneth J.; Kamisky, Robert J.; Nip, Danny; van Dam, Cornelis

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate modal analysis, system identification and damage detection of small-scale rotating wind turbine blades in the laboratory and in the field. Here, wind turbine blades were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages, and data acquisition was achieved using a prototype wireless sensing system. In the first portion of this study conducted in the laboratory, sensors were installed onto metallic structural elements that were fabricated to be representative of an actual wind blade. In order to control the excitation (rotation of the wind blade), a motor was used to spin the blades at controlled angular velocities. The wind turbine was installed on a shaking table for testing under rotation of turbine blades. Data measured by the sensors were recorded while the blade was operated at different speeds. On the other hand, the second part of this study utilized a small-scale wind turbine system mounted on the rooftop of a building. The main difference, as compared to the lab tests, was that the field tests relied on actual wind excitations (as opposed to a controlled motor). The raw data from both tests were analyzed using signal processing and system identification techniques for deriving the model response of the blades. The multivariate singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) and covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification method (SSI-COV) were used to identify the dynamic characteristics of the system. Damage of one turbine blade (loose bolts connection) in the lab test was also conducted. The extracted modal properties for both undamaged and damage cases under different ambient or forced excitations (earthquake loading) were compared. These tests confirmed that dynamic characterization of rotating wind turbines was feasible, and the results will guide future monitoring studies planned for larger-scale systems.

  2. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 1: Survey and perspective. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, V. C.; Gaffney, E. F.; Bach, L. J.; Stallone, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed to predict the behavior of a rotor system subjected to sudden unbalance. The technique is implemented in the Turbine Engine Transient Rotor Analysis (TETRA) computer program using the component element method. The analysis was particularly aimed toward blade-loss phenomena in gas turbine engines. A dual-rotor, casing, and pylon structure can be modeled by the computer program. Blade tip rubs, Coriolis forces, and mechanical clearances are included. The analytical system was verified by modeling and simulating actual test conditions for a rig test as well as a full-engine, blade-release demonstration.

  3. Experiments of Wind Turbine Blades with Rocket Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minowa, Masayuki; Sumi, Shinichi; Minami, Masayasu; Horii, Kenji

    This paper describes the results of the experiments of wind turbine blades with rocket triggered lightning. A number of wind power stations have been projected and planted. Lightning damage to wind turbines has been an increasing problem recently. So development on protection of wind power plants from lightning is necessary to be fully run for the future. In the experiments, the 1.8m long blade was struck by the lightning discharge triggered by rocket. For the blade kept dry inside, the very strong discharge of positive peak current 28kV, total charge 520 Coulombs, was triggered, but the breakdown did not occur through the blade into inside. Another blade polluted by salty wet inside was struck by the lightning discharge of negative peak current of 4kA with 0.5 Coulombs. The lightning was small, nevertheless, the blade was broken at the upper edge and the blade was disconnected by crack. For the protection of blade, the blade surface was covered with stainless steel plate. The blade itself was safe when the big positive lightning discharged, while most part of stainless steel cover was burned out. Supplement breakdown tests of wind turbine blade were carried out with lightning impulse voltage in laboratory. As a result, it became clear that the blade kept dry inside was an effective lightning protection of wind turbine blades.

  4. Turbine blade nonlinear structural and life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Halford, G. R.; Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of advanced structural analysis and life prediction techniques was evaluated for the life assessment of a commercial air-cooled turbine blade with a history of tip cracking. Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for the blade tip region. The computed strain-temperature history of the critical location was imposed on a uniaxial strain controlled test specimen to evaluate the validity of the structural analysis method. Experimental results indicated higher peak stresses and greater stress relaxation than the analytical predictions. Life predictions using the Strainrange Partitioning and Frequency Modified approaches predicted 1200 to 4420 cycles and 2700 cycles to crack initiation, respectively, compared to an observed life of 3000 cycles.

  5. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  6. Multiple piece turbine blade/vane

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2013-02-05

    An air cooled turbine blade or vane of a spar and shell construction with the shell made from a high temperature resistant material that must be formed from an EDM process. The shell and the spar both have a number of hooks extending in a spanwise direction and forming a contact surface that is slanted such that a contact force increases as the engaging hooks move away from one another. The slanted contact surfaces on the hooks provides for an better seal and allows for twisting between the shell and the spar while maintaining a tight fit.

  7. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  8. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  9. Structural Testing of the Blade Reliability Collaborative Effect of Defect Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.; Hughes, S.; Paquette, J.

    2015-06-08

    Two 8.3-meter (m) wind turbine blades intentionally constructed with manufacturing flaws were tested to failure at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) south of Boulder, Colorado. Two blades were tested; one blade was manufactured with a fiberglass spar cap and the second blade was manufactured with a carbon fiber spar cap. Test loading primarily consisted of flap fatigue loading of the blades, with one quasi-static ultimate load case applied to the carbon fiber spar cap blade. Results of the test program were intended to provide the full-scale test data needed for validation of model and coupon test results of the effect of defects in wind turbine blade composite materials. Testing was part of the Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The BRC seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the causes of unexpected blade failures (Paquette 2012), and to develop methods to enable blades to survive to their expected operational lifetime. Recent work in the BRC includes examining and characterizing flaws and defects known to exist in wind turbine blades from manufacturing processes (Riddle et al. 2011). Recent results from reliability databases show that wind turbine rotor blades continue to be a leading contributor to turbine downtime (Paquette 2012).

  10. Optimization and analysis of gas turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbrink, D. J.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    A gas turbine engine blade design is optimized using STAEBL. To validate the STAEBL analysis, the optimized blade design is analyzed using MARC, MHOST and BEST3D. The results show good agreement between STAEBL, MARC, and MHOST. The conclusion is that STAEBL can be used to optimize an engine blade design.

  11. Thermal stress analysis for a wood composite blade. [wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, K. C.; Harb, A.

    1984-01-01

    Heat conduction throughout the blade and the distribution of thermal stresses caused by the temperature distribution were determined for a laminated wood wind turbine blade in both the horizontal and vertical positions. Results show that blade cracking is not due to thermal stresses induced by insulation. A method and practical example of thermal stress analysis for an engineering body of orthotropic materials is presented.

  12. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-10-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed.

  13. Effect of Chord Size on Weight and Cooling Characteristics of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Schum, Eugene F; Curren, Arthur N

    1958-01-01

    An analysis has been made to determine the effect of chord size on the weight and cooling characteristics of shell-supported, air-cooled gas-turbine blades. In uncooled turbines with solid blades, the general practice has been to design turbines with high aspect ratio (small blade chord) to achieve substantial turbine weight reduction. With air-cooled blades, this study shows that turbine blade weight is affected to a much smaller degree by the size of the blade chord.

  14. Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2012-10-23

    A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

  15. Modeling the hole configuration on gas turbine blade vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Hafizan, Andi Hairul

    2015-05-01

    The performance of Gas Turbine can be improved by increasing the inlet temperature gradually. The high level temperature of component that contact with hot gases due to internal combustion in gas turbine will make possibility failure especially on turbine vane. Thus, this study aims to identify the best hole arrangement of cooling on turbine vane, and investigate the critical region for failure possibilities occur on turbine vane caused by the hot gases that considered into two parameter which are steady temperature profile and average temperature decreasing on blade. This study will implement C3X type vane in order to improve the process in turbine blades. An arrangement of two dimensional blade hole will be model Commercial software ANSYS Fluent. It is found that best arrangement and configuration between the hole shape can improve resistances in relation to thermal collapse and satisfied the blade cooling goal.

  16. Numerical study of Wavy Blade Section for Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobæk, C. M.; Hansen, M. O. L.

    2016-09-01

    The Wavy Blade concept is inspired by the unique flipper of a humpback whale, characterized by the tubercles located at the leading edge. It has been suggested that this shape may have been a result of a natural selection process, since this flipper under some circumstances can produce higher lift than a flipper having a smooth trailing edge and thus could be potentially beneficial when catching food. A thorough literature study of the Wavy Blade concept is made and followed by CFD computations of two wavy blade geometries and a comparison with their baseline S809 airfoil at conditions more relevant for modern wind turbines. The findings in the literature from geometries similar to the hump back whale flipper indicate that the aerodynamic performance can be improved at high angles of attack, but sometimes at the expense of a lower lift slope and increased drag before stall. The numerical results for a blade section based on the S809 airfoil are, however, not as promising as some of the findings reported in the literature for the whale flipper at high angles of attack. These first CFD computations using a thicker airfoil and a higher Reynolds number than the whale flipper indicate that the results may very well depend on the actual airfoil geometry and perhaps also the Reynolds number, and future studies are necessary in order to illuminate this further.

  17. Temperatures and Stresses on Hollow Blades For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmann, Erich

    1947-01-01

    The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.

  18. Microwaves Sensor for Wind Turbine Blade Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Haigh, Arthur; Soutis, Constantinos; Gibson, Andrew; Sloan, Robin

    2017-04-01

    The structural integrity of wind turbine blades can be adversely affected by their structural dynamics, temperature extremes, lightning strikes, ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and airborne particulate matter such as hailstones and sand. If subsurface delamination occurs and is undetected then this can lead to fibre breakage and catastrophic failures in composite blades. In this paper we introduce a microwave scanning technique that detects such delamination in practical blade assemblies. Using an open-ended waveguide sensor, the electromagnetic signal reflected from the composite is found to have a phase profile that can detect changes in the composite cross section. Glass fibre T-joints are scanned and the results used to detect thickness variations (e.g., the presence of the web) and delamination. Results are compared across the 18-20 GHz frequency band. The dielectric permittivity of the composite system is measured and is used to estimate the stand-off distance and operating frequency of the sensor. This is critical to the system's ability to detect damage. When the sensor is close to the surface of the structure (standoff distance ≈ 5 mm), delamination down to 0.2 mm in width could be detected.

  19. Microwaves Sensor for Wind Turbine Blade Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Haigh, Arthur; Soutis, Constantinos; Gibson, Andrew; Sloan, Robin

    2016-11-01

    The structural integrity of wind turbine blades can be adversely affected by their structural dynamics, temperature extremes, lightning strikes, ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and airborne particulate matter such as hailstones and sand. If subsurface delamination occurs and is undetected then this can lead to fibre breakage and catastrophic failures in composite blades. In this paper we introduce a microwave scanning technique that detects such delamination in practical blade assemblies. Using an open-ended waveguide sensor, the electromagnetic signal reflected from the composite is found to have a phase profile that can detect changes in the composite cross section. Glass fibre T-joints are scanned and the results used to detect thickness variations (e.g., the presence of the web) and delamination. Results are compared across the 18-20 GHz frequency band. The dielectric permittivity of the composite system is measured and is used to estimate the stand-off distance and operating frequency of the sensor. This is critical to the system's ability to detect damage. When the sensor is close to the surface of the structure (standoff distance ≈ 5 mm), delamination down to 0.2 mm in width could be detected.

  20. Unsteady flow over disc turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popiolek, Z.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    Measurements are presented of the mean and turbulence structure of the trailing vortices produced over disc turbine blades in stirred vessels. The results were obtained by ensemble-averaging the velocities measured by laser-Doppler anemometry over intervals of one degree of revolution and are compared with results obtained by ensemble-averaging over the whole 360 deg cycle. A vortical pattern was permanently present up to 20 degrees behind each blade, and was subjected to an erratic motion due to the formation of a whirlpool type of vortex in the free surface of the water. The velocities in the vortices were of the order of 0.25 of the blade tip velocity, V(tip). The measured kinetic energy of turbulence reached maxima of 0.19 V(tip)squared and the fluctuating quantities measured indicated that strong anisotropy prevails in the impeller stream. Comparison of turbulence results with those obtained by sampling over the whole 360 degrees of revolution shows that the former can be overestimated by as much as four times.

  1. Thermal stresses investigation of a gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowreesh, S.; Pravin, V. K.; Rajagopal, K.; Veena, P. H.

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of structural and thermal stress values that are produced while the turbine is operating are the key factors of study while designing the next generation gas turbines. The present study examines structural, thermal, modal analysis of the first stage rotor blade of a two stage gas turbine. The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine with optimized dump gap of the combustion chamber, since the allowable temperature on the turbine blade dependents on the hot gas temperatures from the combustion chamber. In the present paper simplified 3-D Finite Element models are developed with governing boundary conditions and solved using the commercial FEA software ANSYS. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress on the rotor blades, a detail study on mechanical and thermal stresses are estimated and evaluated with the experimental values.

  2. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  3. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  4. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOEpatents

    Linn, Rodman Ray; Koo, Eunmo

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  5. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOEpatents

    Linn, Rodman Ray [Los Alamos, NM; Koo, Eunmo [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  6. Optical pyrometer for the measurement of turbine blade surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpenel, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    An optical pyrometer with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed to allow the determination of turbine blade surface temperature distributions in studies of blade cooling. The pyrometer is based on a water cooled metallic tube with a deflecting prism placed in front of a circular aperture which receives the infrared radiation emitted by a blade surface region as it passes by the probe. Blade temperature is determined from the measurement of the intensity of the sampled radiation, and the probe may be placed between turbine stages. The temperature field is reconstructed from averaged infrared intensity signals by computer, taking into account the emissivity of the surface examined as well as parasitic reflections of radiation from adjacent blades. The pyrometer has been applied to the determination of local transport coefficients on moving blades following the cutoff of blade cooling, and has been found simpler to use than techniques employing thermocouples.

  7. Analysis of temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N B; Brown, W Byron

    1952-01-01

    The temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades determines the amount of cooling required to reduce the blade temperature to permissible values at specified locations. This report presents analytical methods for computing temperature distributions in liquid-cooled turbine blades, or in simplified shapes used to approximate sections of the blade. The individual analyses are first presented in terms of their mathematical development. By means of numerical examples, comparisons are made between simplified and more complete solutions and the effects of several variables are examined. Nondimensional charts to simplify some temperature-distribution calculations are also given.

  8. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  9. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2012-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal mechanical fatigue as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) Thermal-mechanical fatigue, (2) Oxidation/Erosion, and (3) "Other." From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L(sub 10) blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to oxidation/erosion equaled that attributed to thermal-mechanical fatigue. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were there no blade failures attributed to oxidation/erosion and thermal-mechanical fatigue, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  10. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Daniel O; Peterson, Ross H

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  11. Rotational effects on turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Govatzidakis, G.J.; Guenette, G.R.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in a smooth, rectangular passage rotating in the orthogonal mode is presented. The passage simulates one of the cooling channels found in gas turbine blades. A constant heat flux is imposed on the model with either inward or outward flow. The effects of rotation and buoyancy on the Nusselt number were quantified by systematically varying the Rotation number, Density Ratio, Reynolds number, and Buoyancy parameter. The experiment utilizes a high resolution infrared temperature measurement technique in order to measure the wall temperature distribution. The experimental results show that the rotational effects on the Nusselt number are significant and proper turbine blade design must take into account the effects of rotation, buoyancy, and flow direction. The behavior of the Nusselt number distribution depends strongly on the particular side, axial position, flow direction, and the specific range of the scaling parameters. The results show a strong coupling between buoyancy and Corollas effects throughout the passage. For outward flow, the trailing side Nusselt numbers increase with Rotation number relative to stationary values. On the leading side, the Nusselt numbers tended to decrease with rotation near the inlet and subsequently increased farther downstream in the passage. The Nusselt numbers on the side walls generally increased with rotation. For inward flow, the Nusselt numbers generally improved relative to stationary results, but increases in the Nusselt number were relatively smaller than in the case of outward flow. For outward and inward flows, increasing the density ratio generally tended to decrease Nusselt numbers on the leading and trailing sides, but the exact behavior and magnitude depended on the local axial position and specific range of Buoyancy parameters.

  12. Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batesole, W. R.

    In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

  13. Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

  14. On the test of carbon carbon composite turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Okura, A.; Tanatsugu, N.; Naruo, Y.; Tachibana, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Ueda, T.

    1993-12-31

    The research on C/C composites has reached the step of practical application of engineering materials in many countries in the world. C/C composites show high specific strength in comparison with other materials. It is important as structural materials for space vehicles and air craft. C/C composites have good thermal expansion, excellent heat impact resistance and high temperature strength, except that it has oxidation resistance. The authors have done research and development on an air turbo ramjet engine which is intended for space vehicles (ultra-high speed air craft). Carbon fiber reinforced yarn has been examined under the actual loading and rotor. The objective of this experiment is to obtain information on the environmental resistance (above 30.000 rpm, test atmosphere 70% H{sub 2}, 30% H{sub 2}O) of a ACC turbine blade. There is a difference in the fabrication method, as well as the fiber orientation and weaving method. Test results show that the fracture behavior of C/C composite turbine blade is strongly dependent on the weaving orientation of carbon fibers.

  15. Replaceable blade turbine and stationary specimen corrosion testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    A facility was constructed to provide relatively low cost testing of hot section turbine blade and vane materials under hot corrosion conditions more akin to service environments. The facility consists of a small combustor whose pressurized gas flow can be directed to either a test section consisting of three small cascaded specimens or to a partial admittance single-stage axial flow turbine. The turbine rotor contains 28 replaceable turbine blades. The combustion gases resulting from the burning of Jet A-l fuel can be seeded with measured amounts of alkali salts. This facility is described here along with preliminary corrosion test results obtained during the final checkout of the facility.

  16. The use of carbon fibers in wind turbine blade design: A SERI-8 blade example

    SciTech Connect

    ONG,CHENG-HUAT; TSAI,STEPHEN W.

    2000-03-01

    The benefit of introducing carbon fibers in a wind turbine blade was evaluated. The SERI-8 wind turbine blade was used as a baseline for study. A model of the blade strength and stiffness properties was created using the 3D-Beam code; the predicted geometry and structural properties were validated against available data and static test results. Different enhanced models, which represent different volumes of carbon fibers in the blade, were also studied for two design options: with and without bend-twist coupling. Studies indicate that hybrid blades have excellent structural properties compared to the all-glass SERI-8 blade. Recurring fabrication costs were also included in the study. The cost study highlights the importance of the labor-cost to material-cost ratio in the cost benefits and penalties of fabrication of a hybrid glass and carbon blade.

  17. Turbine blade-tip clearance excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an effort to assess the existing knowledge and plan the required experimentation in the area of turbine blade tip excitation forces is summarized. The work was carried out in three phases. The first was a literature search and evaluation, which served to highlight the state of the art and to expose the need for an articulated theoretical experimental effort to provide not only design data, but also a rational framework for their extrapolation to new configurations and regimes. The second phase was a start in this direction, in which several of the explicit or implicit assumptions contained in the usual formulations of the Alford force effect were removed and a rigorous linearized flow analysis of the behavior of a nonsymmetric actuator disc was carried out. In the third phase a preliminary design of a turbine test facility that would be used to measure both the excitation forces themselves and the flow patterns responsible for them were conducted and do so over a realistic range of dimensionless parameters.

  18. Development of a Highly Loaded Rotor Blade for Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Kiyoshi; Shikano, Yoshio; Tsubouchi, Kuniyoshi; Shibashita, Naoaki

    Turbine manufacturers have been concerned about efficient utilization of limited energy resources and prevention of environmental pollution. For steam turbine power plants, a higher efficiency gain is necessary to reduce the fuel consumption rate. Blade configurations have been studied for reductions of profile loss and endwall loss that lead to decreased steam turbine internal efficiency, by applying recent aerodynamic technologies based on advanced numerical analysis methods. This paper discusses increase of pitch-chord ratio by 14% (reduction of rotor blade numbers by 14%) and increased blade aerodynamic loading without deterioration of performance. A new rotor cascade is found which improves blade performance, especially at the root section where the reduction in the energy loss coefficient is about 40%. This rotor blade also provides lower manufacturing cost.

  19. Finite Element Analysis for Turbine Blades with Contact Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Yang, Liang; Wang, Hai-Kun; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Turbine blades are one of the key components in a typical turbofan engine, which plays an important role in flight safety. In this paper, we establish a establishes a three-dimensional finite element model of the turbine blades, then analyses the strength of the blade in complicated conditions under the joint function of temperature load, centrifugal load, and aerodynamic load. Furthermore, contact analysis of blade tenon and dovetail slot is also carried out to study the stress based on the contact elements. Finally, the Von Mises stress-strain distributions are obtained to acquire the several dangerous points and maximum Von Mises stress, which provide the basis for life prediction of turbine blade.

  20. Properties of Nickel-Based Hydrogen-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, D. P.; Warren, J. P.; Cowles, B. A.; Shoemaker, D.; Teel, J. R. J.; Pearson, D. L.; Annis, C. G. J.; Wilson, D. A.; Schwartz, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    120 page report presents data on mechanical properties of cast nickelbased alloys for turbine blades operating in hydrogen and steam at high temperatures. Tests on alloys for hydrogen-burning engines of future are described.

  1. Evaluation of the durability of composite tidal turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter; Germain, Grégory; Gaurier, Benoît; Boisseau, Amélie; Perreux, Dominique

    2013-02-28

    The long-term reliability of tidal turbines is critical if these structures are to be cost effective. Optimized design requires a combination of material durability models and structural analyses. Composites are a natural choice for turbine blades, but there are few data available to predict material behaviour under coupled environmental and cycling loading. The present study addresses this problem, by introducing a multi-level framework for turbine blade qualification. At the material scale, static and cyclic tests have been performed, both in air and in sea water. The influence of ageing in sea water on fatigue performance is then quantified, and much lower fatigue lives are measured after ageing. At a higher level, flume tank tests have been performed on three-blade tidal turbines. Strain gauging of blades has provided data to compare with numerical models.

  2. Internal coating of air cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    Six coating systems were evaluated for internal coating of decent stage (DS) eutectic high pressure turbine blades. Sequential deposition of electroless Ni by the hydrazine process, slurry Cr, and slurry Al, followed by heat treatment provided the coating composition and thickness for internal coating of DS eutectic turbine blades. Both NiCr and NiCrAl coating compositions were evaluated for strain capability and ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  3. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  4. Monitoring temperature for gas turbine blade: correction of reflection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Xiao, Yihan; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-06-01

    For a gas turbine blade working in a narrow space, the accuracy of blade temperature measurements is greatly impacted by environmental irradiation. A reflection model is established by using discrete irregular surfaces to calculate the angle factor between the blade surface and the hot adjacent parts. The model is based on the rotational angles and positions of the blades, and can correct for measurement error caused by background radiation when the blade is located at different rotational positions. This method reduces the impact of reflected radiation on the basis of the turbine's known geometry and the physical properties of the material. The experimental results show that when the blade temperature is 911.2±5 K and the vane temperature ranges from 1011.3 to 1065.8 K, the error decreases from 4.21 to 0.75%.

  5. Rocket Engine Turbine Blade Surface Pressure Distributions Experiment and Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flow fields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with miniature surface mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in two respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. A three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis was also used to blindly predict the unsteady flow field in the turbine at the design operating conditions and at +15 degrees relative incidence to the first-stage rotor. The predicted time-averaged and unsteady pressure distributions show good agreement with the experimental data. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools are contributing significantly to current Space Launch Initiative turbine airflow test and blade surface pressure prediction efforts.

  6. Crack Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Blades Based on EMD Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-yu, CUI; Ning, DING; Ming, HONG

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbine blades are both the source of power and the core technology of wind generators. After long periods of time or in some extreme conditions, cracks or damage can occur on the surface of the blades. If the wind generators continue to work at this time, the crack will expand until the blade breaks, which can lead to incalculable losses. Therefore, a crack diagnosis method based on EMD for wind turbine blades is proposed in this paper. Based on aerodynamics and fluid-structure coupling theory, an aero-elastic analysis on wind turbine blades model is first made in ANSYS Workbench. Second, based on the aero-elastic analysis and EMD method, the blade cracks are diagnosed and identified in the time and frequency domains, respectively. Finally, the blade model, strain gauge, dynamic signal acquisition and other equipment are used in an experimental study of the aero-elastic analysis and crack damage diagnosis of wind turbine blades to verify the crack diagnosis method proposed in this paper.

  7. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    A series of tests conducted on a root end section of a laminated wood wind turbine blade are reported. The blade to hub transition of the wood blade uses steel studs cast into the wood D spar with a filled epoxy. Both individual studs and a full scale, short length, root section were tested. Results indicate that the bonded stud concept is more than adequate for both the 30 year life fatigue loads and for the high wind or hurricane gust loads.

  8. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of tests conducted on a root end section of a laminated wood wind turbine blade are reported. The blade to hub transition of the wood blade uses steel studs cast into the wood D spar with a filled epoxy. Both individual studs and a full scale, short length, root section were tested. Results indicate that the bonded stud concept is more than adequate for both the 30 year life fatigue loads and for the high wind or hurricane gust loads.

  9. Stress analysis and life prediction of gas turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiung, H. C.; Dunn, A. J.; Woodling, D. R.; Loh, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A stress analysis procedure is presented for a redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blades. The analysis consists of the one-dimensional scoping analysis to support the design layout and the follow-on three-dimensional finite element analysis to confirm the blade design at operating loading conditions. Blade life is evaluated based on high-cycle fatigue and low-cycle fatigue.

  10. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  11. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  12. The effect of wake passing on turbine blade film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, James David

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstrable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094*St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  13. The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  14. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  15. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  16. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  17. An optical pyrometer to measure turbine blade surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpenel, M.; Wilhem, J.

    1985-09-01

    The development of a cooled infrared pyrometric probe, with a high spatial and temporal resolving power, made it possible to establish by pyrometric methods surface temperature charts of the mobile blades of a turbine. The use of a sensor with a 1 sec time constant yields a resulting power on the blade surface of the order of 2 sq mm. This sensor is cooled at -40 C, which ensures a good detectivity and temperature measurements above 450 C. A water cooled metallic tube, ending by a right angle deflecting prism, makes up the light guide of the pyrometer and can be inserted between the various turbine stages. The probe has been designed to withstand the pressure and temperature conditions prevailing in the turbine blade test section, and was subjected without damage to 20 bar and 2100 K. The use of this pyrometer with the expermental turbine specially designed for qualifying new blade cooling methods has shown that pyrometry involves difficulties connected to: the non-zero blade reflection coefficient (emissivity lower than 1); and the gas radiation due to the gases. The above difficulties were analyzed and solutions were proposed; in particular a correcting program for the temperatures was perfected which takes into account the blade to blade mutual reflections.

  18. SHM of wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active-sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, based on the use of piezoelectric active-sensors, used to determine the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations, frequency response functions, and time series based methods are utilized to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1m section of a 9m CX100 blade is used. Overall, these three methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrant further investigation into field deployment. A full-scale fatigue test of a CX-100 wind turbine blade is also conducted. This paper summarizes considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and practical implementation issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.

  19. Unsustainable Wind Turbine Blade Disposal Practices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Tejeda, Katerin; Turcotte, David A; Pike, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Finding ways to manage the waste from the expected high number of wind turbine blades in need of disposal is crucial to harvest wind energy in a truly sustainable manner. Landfilling is the most cost-effective disposal method in the United States, but it imposes significant environmental impacts. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes allow for some energy and/or material recovery, but they also carry potential negative externalities. This article explores the main economic and environmental issues with various wind turbine blade disposal methods. We argue for the necessity of policy intervention that encourages industry to develop better technologies to make wind turbine blade disposal sustainable, both environmentally and economically. We present some of the technological initiatives being researched, such as the use of bio-derived resins and thermoplastic composites in the manufacturing process of the blades.

  20. Turbine blades and systems with forward blowing slots

    DOEpatents

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Zalusky, Leigh; Lees, Paul

    2015-09-15

    A blade for use in a wind turbine comprises a pressure side and suction side meeting at a trailing edge and leading edge. The pressure side and suction side provide lift to the turbine blade upon the flow of air from the leading edge to the trailing edge and over the pressure side and suction side. The blade includes one or more openings at the suction side, in some cases between the leading edge and the trailing edge. The one or more openings are configured to provide a pressurized fluid towards the leading edge of the blade, in some cases at an angle between about 0.degree. and 70.degree. with respect to an axis oriented from a centerline of the blade toward the leading edge.

  1. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  2. Dynamically Adjustable Wind Turbine Blades: Adaptive Turbine Blades, Blown Wing Technology for Low-Cost Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-02

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Caitin is developing wind turbines with a control system that delivers compressed air from special slots located in the surface of its blades. The compressed air dynamically adjusts the aerodynamic performance of the blades, and can essentially be used to control lift, drag, and ultimately power. This control system has been shown to exhibit high levels of control in combination with an exceptionally fast response rate. The deployment of such a control system in modern wind turbines would lead to better management of the load on the system during peak usage, allowing larger blades to be deployed with a resulting increase in energy production.

  3. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  4. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  5. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.

  6. Aeroelastic stability and response of horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, S. B. R.; Friedmann, P. P.; Rosen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion of an isolated horizontal axis wind turbine blade are formulated. Quasi-steady blade-element strip theory was applied to derive the aerodynamic operator which includes boundary layer type gradient winds. The final equations which have periodic coefficients were solved in order to obtain the aeroelastic response and stability of large horizontal axis wind turbine blade. A new method of generating an appropriate time-dependent equilibrium position (required for the stability analysis) has been implemented. Representative steady-state responses and stability boundaries, applicable mainly to an existing blade design (NASA/-ERDA MOD-0), are presented. The results indicate that the MOD-0 configuration is a basically stable design and that blade stability is not sensitive to offsets between blade elastic axis and aerodynamic center. Blade stability appears to be sensitive to precone. The tower shadow (or wake) has a considerable effect on the flap response but leaves blade stability unchanged. Finally, it was found that non linear terms in the equations of motion can significantly affect the linearized stability boundaries, however, these terms have a negligible effect on blade response at operating conditions.

  7. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions.

  8. Effect of Leading Edge Tubercles on Marine Tidal Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Gruber, Timothy; Fredriksson, David

    2010-11-01

    This project investigated the impact that the addition of leading edge protuberances (tubercles) have on the effectiveness of marine tidal turbine blades, especially at lower flow speeds. The addition of leading edge tubercles to lifting foils has been shown, in previous research, to delay the onset of stall without significant hydrodynamic costs. The experimental results obtained utilizing three different blade designs (baseline and two tubercle modified) are compared. All blades were designed in SolidWorks and manufactured utilizing rapid prototype techniques. All tests were conducted in the 120 ft tow tank at the U.S. Naval Academy using a specifically designed experimental apparatus. Results for power coefficients are presented for a range of tip speed ratios. Cut-in velocity is also compared between the blade designs. For all test criteria, the tubercle modified blades significantly outperformed the smooth leading edge baseline design blades.

  9. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  10. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  11. Computation of the throat area of a turbine blade ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-01-01

    The throat area is a geometric parameter of the blade ring necessary to profile its blades and compute the turbine capacity. As applied to the filament flow model, the area is defined by the involute of the throat solid figure onto the plane formed by the cascade throat located on one of the cylindrical sections of the blade ring and the radius. An equation is derived for computing the area of the involute, which considers the effect of the shape of the ring's tailing outlines and the fillets at the transition from the outlines to the blade feather. Comparison of the area values for several turbines computed by the derived equation and by a more complex method based on a search for the minimum distances from the tailing edge of the blade to the suction surface of the neighboring blade in the channel revealed slight differences. The fluid-dynamic 2D analysis determined the radial boundaries of the filament bands, the parameters of the cascade that lie on a filament's cylindrical surfaces, and the flow velocity normal to the throat section of the filament. The proposed approach to computation of the throat area is common for problems of both designing and analyzing the turbine operation and allows for excluding, in practice, methodological differences in determination of the flow rate and the flow angles at the outlet of the blade ring.

  12. Effects of wake-turbine blade interactions on power production of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Maki; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In offshore wind farms, deterioration in power generation performance due to the mutual interference of flow around the wind turbines is a serious issue. To clarify the effects of wake-turbine blade interactions on the performance of wind farms, we conducted large-scale simulations of the flow around two full-scale wind turbines in a tandem-arrangement with two different spacings. The spacing between the two turbines was L/D = 1.0 and L/D = 2.0, with D being the rotor diameter. The predicted results show that vortices generated in the wake of the first turbine interfere with the blades of the second turbine and the interference becomes more intense for the case of L/D = 1.0. Thus, the power coefficient of the downstream turbine becomes lower by 80% for the case of L/D = 1.0 compared with the case of a single wind turbine.

  13. Tuned mass damper for integrally bladed turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is directed to a damper ring for damping the natural vibration of the rotor blades of an integrally bladed rocket turbine rotor. The invention consists of an integral damper ring which is fixed to the underside of the rotor blade platform of a turbine rotor. The damper ring includes integral supports which extend radially outwardly therefrom. The supports are located adjacent to the base portion and directly under each blade of the rotor. Vibration damping is accomplished by action of tuned mass damper beams attached at each end to the supports. These beams vibrate at a predetermined frequency during operation. The vibration of the beams enforce a local node of zero vibratory amplitude at the interface between the supports and the beam. The vibration of the beams create forces upon the supports which forces are transmitted through the rotor blade mounting platform to the base of each rotor blade. When these forces attain a predetermined design frequency and magnitude and are directed to the base of the rotor blades, vibration of the rotor blades is effectively counteracted.

  14. Improving Bending Moment Measurements on Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Nathan L.

    2016-03-15

    Full-scale fatigue testing of wind turbine blades is conducted using resonance test techniques where the blade plus additional masses is excited at its first resonance frequency to achieve the target loading amplitude. Because there is not a direct relationship between the force applied by an actuator and the bending moment, the blade is instrumented with strain gauges that are calibrated under static loading conditions to determine the sensitivity or relationship between strain and applied moment. Then, during dynamic loading the applied moment is calculated using the strain response of the structure. A similar procedure is also used in the field to measure in-service loads on turbine blades. Because wind turbine blades are complex twisted structures and the deflections are large, there is often significant cross-talk coupling in the sensitivity of strain gauges placed on the structure. Recent work has shown that a sensitivity matrix with nonzero cross terms must be employed to find constant results when a blade is subjected to both flap and lead-lag loading. However, even under controlled laboratory conditions, potential for errors of 3 percent or more in the measured moment exist when using the typical cross-talk matrix approach due to neglecting the influence of large deformations and torsion. This is particularly critical when considering a biaxial load as would be applied on the turbine or during a biaxial fatigue test. This presentation describes these results demonstrating errors made when performing current loads measurement practices on wind turbine blades in the lab and evaluating potential improvements using enhanced cross-talk matrix approaches and calibration procedures.

  15. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  16. Field Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter in Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.; Na, Jeong K.; Yost, William T.; Kessel, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustics techniques were used to measure fatigue in turbine blades in a power generation plant. The measurements were made in the field using a reference based measurement technique, and a reference sample previously measured in the laboratory. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter showed significant increase with fatigue in the blades, as indicated by service age and areas of increased stress. The technique shows promise for effectively measuring fatigue in field applications and predicting subsequent failures.

  17. ADAPTUBL. Adaptive Digitizing and Programming of Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.; Loucks, C.

    1994-04-01

    ADAPTUBL involves adaptively machining cast turbine blades. Due to uncontrollable warpage during solidification of cast parts, each part has unique dimensions. A structured lighting sensor, added to the workspace of a 5-axis machining center, discerns the unique geometry of each part. The processed sensor data is then used to generate the unique, 5-axis tool paths required to perform a high precision machining operation on the tip of each blade.

  18. Stress prediction in turbine blades under forced excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaraj, Amudha Varshini

    Traditional turbine blades have root attachments which are sites of fretting fatigue failures due to the frictional sliding of the blades during vibration. Newer integrally bladed rotors (IBR) eliminate the root attachment by manufacturing the rotor disk and blades as a unitized structure. IBRs eliminate sites of fretting fatigue failure but in doing so they also eliminate frictional damping that is provided by the root attachments. The absence of frictional damping leads to larger forced-response vibration amplitudes and premature highcycle fatigue failure in IBRs. Furthermore, IBRs also tend to exhibit blade vibrations in simultaneous multiple modes. Including these multi-mode vibration responses in estimating blade stress is critical for accurately estimating life of the blade. Conventional methods to estimate blade stresses during engine tests subjected to the forced-responses rely on vibration strain measurement techniques that measure surface strains using strain gauges. Frequency decomposition of these strain gauge data provides information on which modes are excited. The peak stress is computed using the measured strain amplitude for the particular mode and previously computed gauge factors. Strain measurement techniques are intrusive in nature and can only provide the response of the instrumented blade. Recently non-intrusive techniques such as blade tip timing (BTT) analysis have been used to measure the tip amplitude of the vibrating blade and this in conjunction with modal stresses obtained from finite element analysis can be used to estimate the peak stresses on the blade due to multi-mode excitation. This thesis demonstrates a timedomain stress superposition method, combined with a search over spatial and temporal coordinates to estimate the peak blade stresses that occur due to multi-mode excitation. A critical stress limit surface is also developed for use by test engineers in ground vibration tests to implement safety limits based on measured BTT

  19. Combined coating for turbine blades of high-temperature gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomytsev, P. T.; Samoilenko, V. M.

    2006-11-01

    A combined coating for protecting turbine blades of high-temperature gas turbine engines is studied. Comparative tests of coatings under laboratory conditions and of coated blades in engine operation are performed. The microstructure of the coating is studied and the concentration profiles of alloying elements are determined by the method of x-ray diffraction analysis. Tests for high-temperature strength are performed.

  20. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  1. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.

  2. Gas turbine blade with intra-span snubber

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Gary B.; Mayer, Clinton

    2014-07-29

    A gas turbine blade (10) including a hollow mid-span snubber (16). The snubber is affixed to the airfoil portion (14) of the blade by a fastener (20) passing through an opening (24) cast into the surface (22) of the blade. The opening is defined during an investment casting process by a ceramic pedestal (38) which is positioned between a ceramic core (32) and a surrounding ceramic casting shell (48). The pedestal provides mechanical support for the ceramic core during both wax and molten metal injection steps of the investment casting process.

  3. Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation

    DOEpatents

    Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay

    2014-03-25

    An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).

  4. Secondary flows in cascades of highly loaded turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Moustapha, S.H.; Paron, G.J.; Wade, J.H.T.

    1985-10-01

    Experimental measurements of the flow field in a low-speed, large-scale, annular cascade of highly loaded turbine rotor blades are presented. The blade has a turning angle of 128.5 deg, an aspect ratio of 0.88, and a Zweifel coefficient of 1. Detailed cascade tests consisted of inlet and exit flow parameter traverses, blade passage pressure distributions, and flow visualization. The results are presented in the form of contour plots and pitch-averaged radial distributions of losses and flow angles. The measurements are compared with the results obtained for the same blade section tested in a planar cascade. Distribution of the losses and flow angles revealed the presence of two large vortices that occupied a major portion of the trailing edge plane. A large high-loss core was visible in the center of the blade passage and coincided with regions of maximum flow underturning. The measured cascade secondary losses compared well with existing correlations.

  5. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-24

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  6. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J.

    2015-09-29

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  7. Utilization of localized panel resonant behavior in wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-11-01

    The shear webs and laminates of core panels of wind turbine blades must be designed to avoid panel buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static loading of a blade to failure under a simulated extreme loading condition. This paper examines an alternative means for evaluating blade buckling resistance using non-destructive modal tests or FEA. In addition, panel resonances can be utilized for structural health monitoring by observing changes in the modal parameters of these panel resonances, which are only active in a portion of the blade that is susceptible to failure. Additionally, panel resonances are considered for updating of panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. During blade modal tests conducted at Sandia Labs, a series of panel modes with increasing complexity was observed. This paper reports on the findings of these tests, describes potential ways to utilize panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design, and reports recent numerical results to evaluate panel resonances for use in blade structural health assessment.

  8. Neutrons Image Additive Manufactured Turbine Blade in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-29

    The video displays the Inconel 718 Turbine Blade made by Additive Manufacturing. First a gray scale neutron computed tomogram (CT) is displays with transparency in order to show the internal structure. Then the neutron CT is overlapped with the engineering drawing that was used to print the part and a comparison of external and internal structures is possible. This provides a map of the accuracy of the printed turbine (printing tolerance). Internal surface roughness can also be observed.

  9. Fretting Stresses in Single Crystal Superalloy Turbine Blade Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and turbine engines because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal nickel base turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Blade attachment regions are prone to fretting fatigue failures. Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are especially prone to fretting damage because the subsurface shear stresses induced by fretting action at the attachment regions can result in crystallographic initiation and crack growth along octahedral planes. Furthermore, crystallographic crack growth on octahedral planes under fretting induced mixed mode loading can be an order of magnitude faster than under pure mode I loading. This paper presents contact stress evaluation in the attachment region for single crystal turbine blades used in the NASA alternate Advanced High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP/AT) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. Blades and the attachment region are modeled using a large-scale 3D finite element (FE) model capable of accounting for contact friction, material orthotrophy, and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Contact stress analysis in the blade attachment regions is presented as a function of coefficient of friction and primary and secondary crystal orientation, Stress results are used to discuss fretting fatigue failure analysis of SSME blades. Attachment stresses are seen to reach

  10. Savonius wind turbines: Design and testing of unique blade designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Paul B.

    As the idea of implementing alternative energy systems into urbanized areas continues to gain popularity, there is a growing need to improve the efficiency of such systems. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine whether or not six unique blade designs, developed by the researcher, would lead to a more efficient vertical axis Savonius wind turbine. This report provides details regarding the study of aerodynamic forces, drag coefficients, and flow characteristics around each blade as well as information pertaining to the assembly and field testing of a turbine. The researcher began by conducting wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamic simulations on a single blade with the proposed designs. The data from these experiments was then used to calculate the driving and opposing forces and drag coefficients that would be present when each blade design is used in a fully assembled turbine. Lastly, the researcher determined the theoretical maximum efficiency of each turbine by multiplying the difference between the drag coefficients with the Betz Limit (4/27). Upon analyzing the results, the researcher discovered that the forces that were reported in the CFD analysis were more than double those measured in the wind tunnel. In addition, upon calculating the performance of each blade design when assembled into a full turbine, it was found that the turbines may not perform as well as the researcher initially expected; with only one having an efficiency of greater than 12%. However, because of the differences between the wind tunnel and CFD results, the researcher suggests that further experimentation and analysis needs to be completed to accurately justify the performance calculations.

  11. Radiation pyrometer for gas turbine blades. [in LOX turbopump engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohy, D. A.; Compton, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A turbine blade temperature measuring system for liquid oxygen turbopumps is reported. The system includes a three mode, two-input optical signal processor, interconnecting cable, and four sensor heads. Two of the heads are aperture type, while the other two are lens type. This system is applicable to a temperature range of 1400 to 2200 F.

  12. Blade pitch optimization methods for vertical-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Peter

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer an inherently simpler design than horizontal-axis machines, while their lower blade speed mitigates safety and noise concerns, potentially allowing for installation closer to populated and ecologically sensitive areas. While VAWTs do offer significant operational advantages, development has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the aerodynamics involved, further complicated by their rotating geometry. This thesis presents results from a simulation of a baseline VAWT computed using Star-CCM+, a commercial finite-volume (FVM) code. VAWT aerodynamics are shown to be dominated at low tip-speed ratios by dynamic stall phenomena and at high tip-speed ratios by wake-blade interactions. Several optimization techniques have been developed for the adjustment of blade pitch based on finite-volume simulations and streamtube models. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is evaluated and the basic architecture for a feedback control system is proposed. Implementation of variable blade pitch is shown to increase a baseline turbine's power output between 40%-100%, depending on the optimization technique, improving the turbine's competitiveness when compared with a commercially-available horizontal-axis turbine.

  13. An aerodynamic performance analysis of a perforated wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didane, D. H.; Mohd, S.; Subari, Z.; Rosly, N.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Mohd Masrom, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Wind power is one of the important renewable energy sources. Currently, many researches are focusing on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades through simulations and wind tunnel testing. In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of the perforated Eqwin blade (shell type blade) is investigated by using numerical simulation. Three types of slots namely circular, horizontal rectangular and vertical rectangular were evaluated. It was found that the optimum angle of attack for a perforated shell type blade was 12° with maximum Cl/Cd value of 6.420. In general, for all the perforated blade cases, Cl/Cd tended to decrease as the slot size increased except for the circular slot with 5 mm diameter. This was due to the disturbance of the airflow in lower side region which passed through the bigger slot size. Among the modified slots; the circular slot with diameter of 5 mm would be the best slot configuration that can be considered for blade fabrication. The Cl/Cd obtained was 6.46 which is about 5% more than the value of the reference blade. Moreover, the introduced slot would also reduce the overall weight of the blade by 1.3%.

  14. MEMS inertial sensors for load monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Aubryn M.; Martinez, Marcias J.

    2015-03-01

    Structural load monitoring of wind turbines is becoming increasingly important due increasing turbine size and offshore deployment. Rotor blades are key components that can be monitored by continuously measuring their deflection and thereby determining strain and loads on the blades. In this paper, a method is investigated for monitoring blade deformation that utilizes micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) comprising triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers and gyroscopes. This approach is demonstrated using a cantilever beam instrumented with 5 MEMS and 4 strain gauges. The measured changes in angles obtained from the MEMS are used to determine a deformation surface which is used as an input to a finite element model in order to estimate the strain throughout the beam. The results are then verified by comparison with strain gauge measurements.

  15. Dual-axis resonance testing of wind turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Scott; Musial, Walter; White, Darris

    2014-01-07

    An apparatus (100) for fatigue testing test articles (104) including wind turbine blades. The apparatus (100) includes a test stand (110) that rigidly supports an end (106) of the test article (104). An actuator assembly (120) is attached to the test article (104) and is adapted for substantially concurrently imparting first and second forcing functions in first and second directions on the test article (104), with the first and second directions being perpendicular to a longitudinal axis. A controller (130) transmits first and second sets of displacement signals (160, 164) to the actuator assembly (120) at two resonant frequencies of the test system (104). The displacement signals (160, 164) initiate the actuator assembly (120) to impart the forcing loads to concurrently oscillate the test article (104) in the first and second directions. With turbine blades, the blades (104) are resonant tested concurrently for fatigue in the flapwise and edgewise directions.

  16. Vibrational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Onur

    The goal of this research is to derive a vibration model for a vertical axis wind turbine blade. This model accommodates the affects of varying relative flow angle caused by rotating the blade in the flow field, uses a simple aerodynamic model that assumes constant wind speed and constant rotation rate, and neglects the disturbance of wind due to upstream blade or post. The blade is modeled as elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam under transverse bending and twist deflections. Kinetic and potential energy equations for a rotating blade under deflections are obtained, expressed in terms of assumed modal coordinates and then plugged into Lagrangian equations where the non-conservative forces are the lift and drag forces and moments. An aeroelastic model for lift and drag forces, approximated with third degree polynomials, on the blade are obtained assuming an airfoil under variable angle of attack and airflow magnitudes. A simplified quasi-static airfoil theory is used, in which the lift and drag coefficients are not dependent on the history of the changing angle of attack. Linear terms on the resulting equations of motion will be used to conduct a numerical analysis and simulation, where numeric specifications are modified from the Sandia-17m Darrieus wind turbine by Sandia Laboratories.

  17. Energy harvesting to power sensing hardware onboard wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Clinton P; Schichting, Alexander D; Quellette, Scott; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-10-05

    Wind turbines are becoming a larger source of renewable energy in the United States. However, most of the designs are geared toward the weather conditions seen in Europe. Also, in the United States, manufacturers have been increasing the length of the turbine blades, often made of composite materials, to maximize power output. As a result of the more severe loading conditions in the United States and the material level flaws in composite structures, blade failure has been a more common occurrence in the U.S. than in Europe. Therefore, it is imperative that a structural health monitoring system be incorporated into the design of the wind turbines in order to monitor flaws before they lead to a catastrophic failure. Due to the rotation of the turbine and issues related to lightning strikes, the best way to implement a structural health monitoring system would be to use a network of wireless sensor nodes. In order to provide power to these sensor nodes, piezoelectric, thermoelectric and photovoltaic energy harvesting techniques are examined on a cross section of a CX-100 wind turbine blade in order to determine the feasibility of powering individual nodes that would compose the sensor network.

  18. Experimental investigation of turbine blade-tip excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Jaroux, Belgacem; Song, Seung Jin; Yoo, Soom-Yung; Palczynski, Taras

    1994-01-01

    Results of a program to investigate the magnitude and parametric variations of rotordynamic forces which arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects are presented. Five different unshrouded turbine configurations and one configuration shrouded with a labyrinth seal were tested with static offsets of the turbine shaft. The forces along and perpendicular to the offset were measured directly with a rotating dynometer. Exploration of casing pressure and flow velocity distributions was used to investigate the force-generating mechanisms. For unshrouded turbines, the cross-forces originate mainly from the classical Alford mechanisms while the direct forces arise mainly from a slightly skewed pressure pattern. The Alford coefficient for cross-force was found to vary between 2.4 and 4.0, while the similar direct force coefficient varied from 1.5 to 3.5. The cross-forces are found to increase substantially when the gap is reduced from 3.0 to 1.9% of blade height, probably due to viscous blade-tip effects. The forces also increase when the hub gap between stator and rotor decreases. The force coefficient decreased with operating flow coefficient. In the case of the shrouded turbine, most of the forces arise from nonuniform seal pressures. This includes about 80% for the transverse forces. The rest appears to come from uneven work extraction. Their level is about 50% higher in the shrouded case.

  19. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  20. Comparison of damping treatments for gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    1996-05-01

    High frequency vibration of gas turbine fan blades is a high cycle fatigue concern. Friction damping devices are ineffective in suppressing high frequency vibration modes and external damping treatments are plagued by creep concerns. An alternative approach is to apply viscoelastic material internally in the blades. In this paper, an analytical comparison of internal damping treatments for fan blades is presented. The fan blade is modeled as a solid, flat, cantilevered titanium plate. Internal portions are removed producing cavities that are filled with viscoelastic material. Configurations with one, two, and three cavities are modeled using the modal strain energy method in conjunction with finite element analysis to estimate damping. Results show that appreciable damping levels for high frequency modes are possible with stiff viscoelastic material. Other design criteria are also considered. Results indicate that the hydrostatic load from the viscoelastic material on the cavity walls may be a concern.

  1. Automated inspection of turbine blades: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Marron, Joseph C.; Sampson, Robert E.; Peace, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours exemplified by aircraft engine turbine blades are expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive. The logistics support of new manufacturing paradigms such as integrated product-process development (IPPD) for current and future engine technology development necessitates high speed, automated inspection of forged and cast jet engine blades, combined with a capability of retaining and retrieving metrology data for process improvements upstream (designer-level) and downstream (end-user facilities) at commercial and military installations. The paper presents the opportunities emerging from a feasibility study conducted using 3-D holographic laser radar in blade inspection. Requisite developments in computing technologies for systems integration of blade inspection in production are also discussed.

  2. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  3. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  4. Numerical simulation on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Feng, F.; He, Q. B.; Wang, N. X.

    2016-08-01

    To improve the starting performance of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) at low wind speed, and the output characteristics at high wind speed, a flexible, scalable auxiliary vane mechanism was designed and installed into the rotor of SB-VAWT in this study. This new vertical axis wind turbine is a kind of lift-to-drag combination wind turbine. The flexible blade expanded, and the driving force of the wind turbines comes mainly from drag at low rotational speed. On the other hand, the flexible blade is retracted at higher speed, and the driving force is primarily from a lift. To research the effects of the flexible, scalable auxiliary module on the performance of SB-VAWT and to find its best parameters, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical calculation was carried out. The calculation result shows that the flexible, scalable blades can automatic expand and retract with the rotational speed. The moment coefficient at low tip speed ratio increased substantially. Meanwhile, the moment coefficient has also been improved at high tip speed ratios in certain ranges.

  5. Large-area photogrammetry based testing of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poozesh, Peyman; Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Harvey, Eric; Yarala, Rahul

    2017-03-01

    An optically based sensing system that can measure the displacement and strain over essentially the entire area of a utility-scale blade leads to a measurement system that can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with traditional instrumentation. This paper evaluates the performance of conventional three dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) and three dimensional point tracking (3DPT) approaches over the surface of wind turbine blades and proposes a multi-camera measurement system using dynamic spatial data stitching. The potential advantages for the proposed approach include: (1) full-field measurement distributed over a very large area, (2) the elimination of time-consuming wiring and expensive sensors, and (3) the need for large-channel data acquisition systems. There are several challenges associated with extending the capability of a standard 3D DIC system to measure entire surface of utility scale blades to extract distributed strain, deflection, and modal parameters. This paper only tries to address some of the difficulties including: (1) assessing the accuracy of the 3D DIC system to measure full-field distributed strain and displacement over the large area, (2) understanding the geometrical constraints associated with a wind turbine testing facility (e.g. lighting, working distance, and speckle pattern size), (3) evaluating the performance of the dynamic stitching method to combine two different fields of view by extracting modal parameters from aligned point clouds, and (4) determining the feasibility of employing an output-only system identification to estimate modal parameters of a utility scale wind turbine blade from optically measured data. Within the current work, the results of an optical measurement (one stereo-vision system) performed on a large area over a 50-m utility-scale blade subjected to quasi-static and cyclic loading are presented. The blade certification and testing is typically performed using International

  6. Estimation of the efficiency of application of protective coatings on the turbine blades in a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, E. G.; Samoilenko, V. M.; Drevnyak, V. V.; Ravilov, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    The results of studying the efficiency of application of protective coatings on GTE turbine blades are presented. The efficiency of application of protective coatings in the production and repair of the blades is considered.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamic response of turbine blades with tip pin dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, S.; Berruti, T.; Cosi, L.

    2016-09-01

    Friction dampers are used to reduce vibration amplitude of turbine blades. The dynamics of these assemblies (blades + dampers) is nonlinear and the analysis is challenging from both the experimental and the numerical point of view. The study of the dynamics of blades with a tip damper is the aim of the present paper. The blades with axial-entry fir tree attachment carry a damper in a pocket between the blade covers. Pin dampers significantly affect the resonance frequency of the first blade bending mode and introduces non linearity due to friction contacts. A test rig, made of two blades held in a fixture by an hydraulic press with one damper between the blades was used for the experimental activity. Three different types of dampers (cylindrical, asymmetrical, wedge) have been experimentally investigated and experiments have shown that asymmetrical damper performs better than the others. The response of the blades with the asymmetrical damper was then simulated with a non linear code based on the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). In the analysis, both the blade and the damper are modelled with the Finite Elements and then the matrices reduced with the Craig- Bampton Component Mode Synthesis (CB-CMS), while the periodical contact forces are modelled with state-of-the-art node-to-node contact elements. Numerical analysis has shown a strong influence of the actual extent of the contact area on the dynamics of the assembly. A model updating process was necessary. In the end, the numerical predictions match very well with the experimental curves.

  8. A surface definition code for turbine blade surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S L; Oryang, D; Ho, M J

    1992-05-01

    A numerical interpolation scheme has been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of wind turbine blades. The numerical scheme consists of (1) creating the frame of the blade through the input of two or more airfoils at some specific spanwise stations and then scaling and twisting them according to the prescribed distributions of chord, thickness, and twist along the span of the blade; (2) transforming the physical coordinates of the blade frame into a computational domain that complies with the interpolation requirements; and finally (3) applying the bi-tension spline interpolation method, in the computational domain, to determine the coordinates of any point on the blade surface. Detailed descriptions of the overall approach to and philosophy of the code development are given along with the operation of the code. To show the usefulness of the bi-tension spline interpolation code developed, two examples are given, namely CARTER and MICON blade surface generation. Numerical results are presented in both graphic data forms. The solutions obtained in this work show that the computer code developed can be a powerful tool for generating the surface coordinates for any three-dimensional blade.

  9. Cast XD{trademark} gamma titanium aluminide turbine blade dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, B.; Axelsson, P.; Andersson, M.; Holmquist, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents results from engine testing of cast XD{trademark} gamma titanium aluminide turbine blade dampers. The dampers were manufactured from the XD{trademark} gamma alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Mn + 0.8vol%TiB{sub 2} using investment casting. In the engine tests reported here the new low weight titanium aluminide dampers replaced the original Ni-base superalloy dampers and the titanium aluminide dampers ability to reduce HPT-blade dynamic stresses at different excitation levels was measured. The results showed that the new damper could reduce the blade dynamic stresses with up to 50% at lower excitations. At higher excitation levels the new gamma dampers showed no improvement over Ni-dampers. To qualify the new damper for engine use endurance tests were run for a total accumulated time of 214 hours. Blades and dampers were inspected after endurance testing and the friction surfaces on blades and dampers showed only normal signs of wear while unacceptable wear marks caused by the gamma damper appeared at the contact points between blade and damper on the blade root neck. The overall appearance of the dampers was still good. They were slightly oxidized but had otherwise only normal signs of wear. Changes of the gamma dampers geometry are believed to have potential to both improve their damping characteristics at high excitation levels as well as to reduce the wear problems.

  10. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  11. Finite element based damage assessment of composite tidal turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Edward M.; Leen, Sean B.; Kennedy, Ciaran R.; Goggins, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    With significant interest growing in the ocean renewables sector, horizontal axis tidal current turbines are in a position to dominate the marketplace. The test devices that have been placed in operation so far have suffered from premature failures, caused by difficulties with structural strength prediction. The goal of this work is to develop methods of predicting the damage level in tidal turbines under their maximum operating tidal velocity. The analysis was conducted using the finite element software package Abaqus; shell models of three representative tidal turbine blades are produced. Different construction methods will affect the damage level in the blade and for this study models were developed with varying hydrofoil profiles. In order to determine the risk of failure, a user material subroutine (UMAT) was created. The UMAT uses the failure criteria designed by Alfred Puck to calculate the risk of fibre and inter-fibre failure in the blades. The results show that degradation of the stiffness is predicted for the operating conditions, having an effect on the overall tip deflection. The failure criteria applied via the UMAT form a useful tool for analysis of high risk regions within the blade designs investigated.

  12. Bonding quality evaluation of wind turbine blades by pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui-gang; Kong, De-juan; Zeng, Zhi; Tao, Ning; Zhang, Cun-lin; Feng, Li-chun

    2011-08-01

    The glue defects of the wind turbine blades which are composed of the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite plates make its strength greatly reduced, so security issues could be caused. To improve the safety of wind turbine blades, nondestructive testing technique using pulsed thermography is being investigated in this study. The results of ultrasonic C scan test were compared with the results of thermography. The current results indicated that both methods can successfully detect two gluing situations. However, the inspect specimens need to be putted in the water in the detection process by ultrasonic C scan, and the detection time lasts much longer than pulsed thermography. And in situ applications, the measured wind turbine blades are normally in the size of several tens meter, and also only one side is available for the inspection especially at the tip of blades. Thus, ultrasonic C scan of current experimental setup is not suitable for the applications in the field. Pulsed thermography is not necessary to contact with inspected specimens. The infrared results by pulsed thermography indicate that the shape and size of deficiency glue defects in the specimens show good agreement with the real situation, so it is more suitable for the inspection in the field. The preliminary results in this study indicate that pulse thermography can be used to detect glue faults of GFRP which are not too thick.

  13. Characterization of an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, MA-6000E, for turbine blade applications. [turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    Alloy MA 6000E was developed by the mechanical alloying process for turbine blade applications. The nominal composition of the experimental alloy is Ni-15CR-2Mo-4W-4.5Al- 2.5Ti-2Ta- .15Zr-.05C-.01B-1.1Y2O3. The 1000 hour rupture strength in the longitudinal direction is about 145 MPa at 1093 C and about 483 MPa at 760 C. The alloy displays normal three-stage creep behavior. Typically the creep elongation is 3.5% at 760 C and 2% at 1093 C. The alloy is notch ductile (K sub 1 = 3.5). The rupture properties of the alloy are not significantly degraded by thermal cycling or prior stress isothermal exposure. The alloy also has excellent longitudinal high and low cycle fatigue resistance. Limited testing indicates that MA 6000E posesses good off-axis mechanical properties. The transverse tensile elongation at 760 C is about 3%. The 100 hour transverse rupture strength is 331 MPa at 760 C and about 55 MPa at 1093 C.

  14. Flow characteristics on the blade channel vortex in the Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P. C.; Wang, Z. N.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Zuo, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the long-term hydraulic development of Francis turbine, the blade channel vortex phenomenon was investigated systematically from hydraulic design, experimental and numerical computation in this paper. The blade channel vortex difference between the high water head and low water head turbine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the relationship between the blade channel vortex and the operating stability of hydraulic turbine was also investigated. The results show that the phenomenon of blade channel vortex is an intrinsic property for Francis turbine under small flow rate condition, the turning-point of the blade channel vortex inception curve appears at low unit speed region, and the variation trend of the blade channel vortex inception curve is closely related to the blade inlet edge profile. In addition to, the vortex of the high water head turbine can generally be excluded from the stable operation region, while which is more different for the one of the low water head turbine.

  15. Design for the automation of composite wind turbine blade manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, M. J.; White, K. D.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    The majority of large wind turbine blades are manufactured from textile-reinforced resin-infused composites using an open mold. The placement of the textile reinforcements in the mold is traditionally accomplished by a manual process where dozens of workers hand place each dry fabric in the mold. Depending on the level of skill and experience of each worker and the relative complexity of the mold geometry, local areas may exhibit out-of-plane wrinkling and in-plane waviness. Fabric imperfections such as these can adversely impact the strength and stiffness of the blade, thereby compromising its durability in service. In an effort to reduce the variabilities associated with a manual-labor process, an automated piecewise shifting method has been proposed for fabric placement. This automated layup method saves time on the preform process and reduces variability from blade to blade. In the current research the automated shifting layup method is investigated using a robust and easy-to-use finite element modelling approach. User-defined material models utilizing a mesoscopic unit-cell modeling approach are linked with Abaqus to capture the evolution of the fabric shear stiffness and changes in the fiber orientations during the fabric-placement process. The simulation approach is demonstrated for the geometry of the trailing edge of a typical wind turbine blade. The simulation considers the mechanical behavior of the fabric and reliably predicts fabric deformation and failure zones.

  16. Oxide-dispersion-strengthened turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.; Mays, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of Project 4 was to develop a high-temperature, uncooled gas turbine blade using MA6000 alloy. The program objectives were achieved. Production scale up of the MA6000 alloy was achieved with a fair degree of tolerance to nonoptimum processing. The blade manufacturing process was also optimized. The mechanical, environmental, and physical property evaluations of MA6000 were conducted. The ultimate tensile strength, to about 704 C (130 F), is higher than DS MAR-M 247 but with a corresponding lower tensile elongation. Also, above 982 C (180 F) MA6000 tensile strength does not decrease as rapidly as MAR-M 247 because the ODS mechanism still remains active. Based on oxidation resistance and diffusional stability considerations, NiCrAlY coatings are recommended. CoCrAly coating should be applied on top of a thin NiCrAlY coating. Vibration tests, whirlpit tests, and a high-rotor-rig test were conducted to ensure successful completion of the engine test of the MA6000 TFE731 high pressure turbine blades. The results of these tests were acceptable. In production quantities, the cost of the Project 4 MA6000 blade is estimated to be about twice that of a cast DS MAR-M 247 blade.

  17. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.; Berggreen, C.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling into a blade on such important blade structural properties as bending and torsional stiffness is demonstrated.

  18. Oxide-dispersion-strengthened turbine blades. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.; Mays, J. C.; Humbert, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of Project 4 was to develop and test a high-temperature, uncooled gas turbine blade using MA6000 alloy. Production scale up of the MA6000 alloy was achieved with a fair degree of tolerance to non-optimum processing. The blade manufacturing process was also optimized. The mechanical, environmental, and physical property evaluations of MA6000 were conducted. The ultimate tensile strength, to about 704 C (1300 F), is higher than DS MAR-M 247 but with a corresponding lower tensile elongation. Also, above 982 C (1800 F) MA6000 tensile strength does not decrease as rapidly as MAR-M 247 because the ODS mechanism still remains active. Based on oxidation resistance and diffusional stability considerations, NiCrAlY coatings are recommended. CoCrAlY coating should be applied on top of a thin NiCrAlY coating if hot corrosion is expected. Vibration, whirlpit, and high-rotor-rig tests were conducted to ensure successful completion of the engine test of the MA6000 TFE731 high pressure turbine blades. Test results were acceptable. In production quantities, the cost of the Project 4 MA6000 blade is estimated to be twice that of a cast DS MAR-M 247 blade.

  19. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Project 2: Rene 150 directionally solidified superalloy turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboer, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the engine testing of Rene 150 Stage 1 high pressure turbine blades in CF6-50 core and fan engines are presented. The core engine test was conducted for 233 hours with a variety of test cycles, and the fan engine test was conducted for 1000 C cycles. Post-test analysis of the core engine test data confirmed the suitability of the Rene 150 HPT blade for fan engine testing. Post-test evaluation and analysis of the fan engine test blades included visual and dimensional inspection as well as metallographic examination of selected blades. The Rene 150 HPT blade met the target goal of this project by demonstrating increased metal temperature capability; however, the post-test analysis revealed several areas that would have to be addressed in designing a long-life Rene 150 CF6-50 HPT blade.

  20. Continuous turbine blade creep measurement based on Moiré

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi; Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin; Nieters, Edward J.; Hasz, Wayne C.; Piche, Nicole

    2012-11-01

    Moiré imaging has been used to measure creep in the airfoil section of gas turbine blades. The ability to accurately assess creep and other failure modes has become an important engineering challenge, because gas turbine manufacturers are putting in place condition-based maintenance programs. In such maintenance programs, the condition of individual components is assessed to determine their remaining lives. Using pad-print technology, a grating pattern was printed directly on a turbine blade for localized creep detection using the spacing change of moiré pattern fringes. A creep measurement prototype was assembled for this application which contained a lens, reference grating, camera and lighting module. This prototype comprised a bench-top camera system that can read moiré patterns from the turbine blade sensor at shutdown to determine creep level in individual parts by analyzing the moiré fringes. Sensitivity analyses and noise factor studies were performed to evaluate the system. Analysis software was also developed. A correlation study with strain gages was performed and the measurement results from the moiré system align well with the strain gage readings. A mechanical specimen subjected to a one cycle tensile test at high temperature to induce plastic deformation in the gage was used to evaluate the system and the result of this test exhibited good correlation to extensometer readings.

  1. A method to estimate wind turbine blade damage and to design damage-resilient blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Giovanni

    Wind turbine blades are affected by continuous impacts with airborne particles that deteriorate the blade surface and yield to a drop in output power. Based on the climatic conditions and geographic locations of a given wind farm, multiple types of particles are observed in air. The present study focuses on simulating the impact of four types of particles, namely insects, sand grains, hailstones, and rain drops with the blade surface. A numerical inviscid flowfield code, coupled with a particle position predictor code was used. Upon impact, the damaging effect to the blade surface was evaluated. Each type of particle was associated with a damage mode, which depends on the mass, size, and hardness of the particle. It was found that insects strike and adhere to the blade in a region close to the leading edge. On the other hand, it was seen that sand grains promote erosion just downstream of the leading edge, where local velocity reaches a maximum and the impact angle is shallow. Moreover, particles such as rain drops are associated with fatigue and erosion at the very leading edge and on the upper side of the blade section. Finally, hailstones promote delamination and fatigue in the composite panels of the blade surface. Photographic evidence of damaged blade surfaces was used in the present research as a comparison with the simulations performed for various types of particle and different initial conditions. Based on such observations, a theorization of the damage pattern and evolution was proposed. Finally, given a set of well-established blade section geometries, such as the Delft University and NREL S airfoil families, a comparison of airfoil damage fitness was proposed and possible means of shape optimization were discussed. The investigation of blade geometry features to mitigate damage was performed. Based on previous results, it was argued that a viable blade section optimization may be performed for the lightest and smallest particles considered in the study

  2. Niobium-Matrix-Composite High-Temperature Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Heng, Sangvavann; Harding, John T.

    1995-01-01

    High-temperture composite-material turbine blades comprising mainly niobium matrices reinforced with refractory-material fibers being developed. Of refractory fibrous materials investigated, FP-AL(2)0(3), tungsten, and polymer-based SiC fibers most promising. Blade of this type hollow and formed in nearly net shape by wrapping mesh of reinforcing refractory fibers around molybdenum mandrel, then using thermal-gradient chemical-vapor infiltration (CVI) to fill interstices with niobium. CVI process controllable and repeatable, and kinetics of both deposition and infiltration well understood.

  3. Overview on the profile measurement of turbine blade and its development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Yanguang

    2010-10-01

    Turbine machinery has an extraordinary wide range of applications in the aviation, aerospace, automotive, energy and many other industries. The turbine blade is one of the most important parts of turbine machinery, and the characteristic parameters, pressure ratio of the engine and rotating speed of the turbine are all related to the shape and size of blades. Therefore, the profile measurement of turbine blade is an essential issue in the blade machining processing, however, it is difficult and particular to establish the profile measurement of turbine blade because of its complicated shapes and space angles of the blades, and the specific stringent environmental requirements need a more appropriate measurement method to the Turbine Blade profile measurement. This paper reviews the recent research and development on the Turbine Blade profile measurement methods, which mainly describes several common and advanced measurement methods, such as the traditional coordinate measuring machines, some optical measurement methods with the characteristics of non-contact like optical theodolite, three-dimensional photography, laser interferometry, as well as the laser triangulation method studied more recently and so on. Firstly, the measuring principles, the key technical issues and the applications in the Turbine Blade profile measurement of the methods which are mentioned above are described respectively in detail, and the characteristics of those methods are analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, the scope of application and limitations of those measurement methods are summed up. Finally, some views on the current research focus and perspective trend of the Turbine Blade profile measurement technology are presented.

  4. An Investigation of Convection Cooling of Small Gas Turbine Blades Using Intermittent Cooling Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    coefficient. The application to convection cooling of gas turbine blades and vanes is demonstrated in a test facility designed to simulate the first-stage...turbine blade of the AGT 1500 gas turbine engine which powers the Army’s M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. A cylindrical test section is convectively...89 Selected Bibliography ............................................ 93 Appendix A. Test Specification

  5. Compressible Flow About Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    WIND program numerically solves exact full-potential equation for three dimensional, stead inviscid flow through isolated wind-turbine rotor. Proram automatically generates three dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves full-potential equation while fully accounting for rotating and Coriolis effects. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  6. Aeroelastic stability and response of horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, S. B. R.; Friedmann, P. P.; Rosen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion of an isolated horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade have been formulated. The analysis neglects blade-tower coupling. The final nonlinear equations have periodic coefficients. A new and convenient method of generating an appropriate time-dependent equilibrium position, required for the stability analysis, has been implemented and found to be computationally efficient. Steady-state response and stability boundaries for an existing (typical) HAWT blade are presented. Such stability boundaries have never been published in the literature. The results show that the isolated blade under study is basically stable. The tower shadow (wake) has a considerable effect on the out-of-plane response but leaves blade stability unchanged. Nonlinear terms can significantly affect linearized stability boundaries; however, they have a negligible effect on response, thus implying that a time-dependent equilibrium position (or steady-state response), based completely on the linear system, is appropriate for the type of HAWT blades under study.

  7. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

    PubMed Central

    McGugan, M.; Pereira, G.; Sørensen, B. F.; Toftegaard, H.; Branner, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  8. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    McGugan, M; Pereira, G; Sørensen, B F; Toftegaard, H; Branner, K

    2015-02-28

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind.

  9. Damage localization in a residential-sized wind turbine blade by use of the SDDLV method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, R. J.; Hansen, L. M.; Ulriksen, M. D.; Tcherniak, D.; Damkilde, L.

    2015-07-01

    The stochastic dynamic damage location vector (SDDLV) method has previously proved to facilitate effective damage localization in truss- and plate-like structures. The method is based on interrogating damage-induced changes in transfer function matrices in cases where these matrices cannot be derived explicitly due to unknown input. Instead, vectors from the kernel of the transfer function matrix change are utilized; vectors which are derived on the basis of the system and state-to-output mapping matrices from output-only state-space realizations. The idea is then to convert the kernel vectors associated with the lowest singular values into static pseudo-loads and apply these alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix. By doing so, the stresses in the potentially damaged elements will, theoretically, approach zero. The present paper demonstrates an application of the SDDLV method for localization of structural damages in a cantilevered residential-sized wind turbine blade. The blade was excited by an unmeasured multi-impulse load and the resulting dynamic response was captured through accelerometers mounted along the blade. The static pseudo-loads were applied to a finite element (FE) blade model, which was tuned against the modal parameters of the actual blade. In the experiments, an undamaged blade configuration was analysed along with different damage scenarios, hereby testing the applicability of the SDDLV method.

  10. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  11. Design and fabrication of a composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Haley, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design considerations are described which led to the combination of materials used for the MOD-I wind turbine generator rotor and to the fabrication processes which were required to accomplish it. It is noted that the design problem was to create a rotor for a 2500 kW wind turbine generator. The rotor was to consist of two blades, each with a length of 97.5 feet and a weight of less than 21,000 pounds. The spanwise frequency is 1.17-1.45 Hz, and the chordwise frequency 2.80-2.98 Hz. The design life of the blade is 30 years, or 4.35 x 10 to the 8th cycles. The structures of the spars and trailing edges are described, and the adhesive bonding system is discussed.

  12. Aeroelastically coupled blades for vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew F.

    2016-02-23

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a vertical axis wind turbine blade configured to rotate about a rotation axis. The vertical axis wind turbine blade includes at least an attachment segment, a rear swept segment, and optionally, a forward swept segment. The attachment segment is contiguous with the forward swept segment, and the forward swept segment is contiguous with the rear swept segment. The attachment segment includes a first portion of a centroid axis, the forward swept segment includes a second portion of the centroid axis, and the rear swept segment includes a third portion of the centroid axis. The second portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced ahead of the first portion of the centroid axis and the third portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced behind the first portion of the centroid axis in the direction of rotation about the rotation axis.

  13. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  14. The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.

    The impact of turbine blade surface roughness on aerodynamic performance and heat loads is well known. Over time, as the turbine blades are exposed to heat loads, the external surfaces of the blades become rough. Also, for film-cooled blades, surface degradation can have a significant impact on film-cooling effectiveness. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of surface degradation/roughness on engine performance but most investigations have modeled the rough surfaces with uniform or two-dimensional roughness patterns. The objective of the present investigation is to conduct measurements that will reveal the influence of realistic surface roughness on the near-wall behavior of the boundary layer. Measurements have been conducted at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with a laser Doppler velocimeter. A flat plate model of a turbine blade has been developed that produces a transitional boundary layer, elevated freestream turbulence and an accelerating freestream in order to simulate conditions on the suction side of a high-pressure turbine blade. Boundary layer measurements have been completed over a smooth plate model and over a model with a strip of realistic rough surface. The realistic rough surface was developed by scaling actual turbine blade surface data that was provided by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The results indicate that bypass transition occurred very early in the flow over the model and that the boundary layer remained unstable throughout the entire length of the test plate; the boundary layer thickness and momentum thickness Reynolds numbers increased over the rough patch; and the shape factor increased over the rough patch but then decreased downstream of the patch relative to the smooth plate case; in the rough patch case the flow experienced two transition reversals with laminar-like behavior achieved by the end of the test plate; streamwise turbulence

  15. Life Prediction of Turbine Blade Nickel Base Superalloy Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    different types of coatings . They are the conventional aluminide coating and the overlay coating with improved temperature capability.5 These coatings ...0.6% with a 2 min. hold in compression. Transverse cracks behaved differently in the aluminide (Codep) coated Ren6 N4+, and an example is given in...PREDICTION OF TURBINE BLADE NICKEL BASE SUPERALLOY SINGLE CRYSTALS N Dr. V. Srinivasan 0 Universal Energy Systems, Inc. 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road Dayton, Ohio

  16. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-28

    Innovation in the design and manufacturing of wind power generation components continues to be critical to achieving our national renewable energy goals. As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and Advanced Manufacturing Office are partnering with public and private organizations to apply additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, to the production of wind turbine blade molds.

  17. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Driver, Howard D.; van Breugel, Sjef; Jenkins, Thomas B.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Billen, Andrew J.; Riahi, Amir

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  18. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    ScienceCinema

    Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-08-17

    Innovation in the design and manufacturing of wind power generation components continues to be critical to achieving our national renewable energy goals. As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and Advanced Manufacturing Office are partnering with public and private organizations to apply additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, to the production of wind turbine blade molds.

  19. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  20. Straight-bladed Darrieus wind turbines - A protagonist's view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliore, P. G.

    The technology development and market penetration of Darrieus and propeller-type wind turbines is addressed. Important characteristics of competing configurations are compared, and it is claimed that aerodynamic efficiency is not a distinguishing feature. Advantages of the Darrieus machine include omni-directionality and self-limitation, but propeller types require less rotor length per unit swept area. It is argued that the straight-bladed Darrieus is much simpler than the curved-bladed and should be capable of comparable aerodynamic efficiency. Some of the problems of structural design, as well as blade induced drag losses and support-arm counter torque, diminish rapidly as machine size is increased. Taper ratio has similar beneficial effects.

  1. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  2. Mach Number Effects on Turbine Blade Transition Length Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Simon, F. F.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a Mach number correction on a model for predicting the length of transition was investigated. The transition length decreases as the turbulent spot production rate increases. Much of the data for predicting the spot production rate comes from low speed flow experiments. Recent data and analysis showed that the spot production rate is affected by Mach number. The degree of agreement between analysis and data for turbine blade heat transfer without film cooling is strongly dependent of accurately predicting the length of transition. Consequently, turbine blade heat transfer data sets were used to validate a transition length turbulence model. A method for modifying models for the length of transition to account for Mach number effects is presented. The modification was made to two transition length models. The modified models were incorporated into the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, RVCQ3D. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured midspan surface heat transfer for stator and rotor turbine blades. The results showed that accounting for Mach number effects significantly improved the agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  4. Spanwise aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Simms, D.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.

    1990-10-01

    Wind turbine performance and load predictions depend on accurate airfoil performance data. Wind tunnel test data are typically used which accurately describe two-dimensional airfoil performance characteristics. Usually these data are only available for a range of angles of attack from 0 to 15 deg, which excludes the stall characteristics. Airfoils on stall-controlled wind turbines operate in deep stall in medium to high winds. Therefore it is very important to know how the airfoil will perform in these high load conditions. Butterfield et al. have shown that three-dimensional effects and rotation of the blade modify the two-dimensional performance of the airfoil. These effects are modified to different degrees throughout the blade span. The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has conducted a series of tests to measure the spanwise variation of airfoil performance characteristics on a rotating wind turbine blade. Maximum lift coefficients were measured to be 200% greater than wind tunnel results at the 30% span. Stall characteristics were generally modified throughout the span. Lift characteristics were unmodified for low to medium angles of attack. This paper discusses these test results for four spanwise locations. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Dynamic stall of an experimental wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Cal, Raúl Bayoán; Mulleners, Karen

    2016-03-01

    To understand the complex flow phenomena over wind turbine blades during stall development, a scaled three-dimensional non-rotating blade model is designed to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade. A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation of flow behavior during the stall cycle examines the processes of stall development and flow reattachment. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and vortex detection techniques are applied to the PIV fields to quantify relevant flow characteristics such as vortex size, separation angle, and separation point throughout a dynamic pitching cycle. The behavior of the POD coefficients provides time scales for the transitional stages which are quantified and compared, revealing that transition from attached flow to full stall is delayed to higher angles of attack and occurs at a higher rate than the transition from full stall to attached flow. The instantaneous flow fields are then reconstructed using the first four POD modes to demonstrate their prominent roles throughout the stall cycle and their ability to capture the general separation behavior over the blade surface.

  6. Damage Identification of Wind Turbine Blades Using Piezoelectric Transducers

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Seong-Won; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; ...

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of active-sensing structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, which utilize piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators, for determining the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations and frequency response functions at high frequency ranges are used to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1 m section of a CX-100 blade is used. The goal of this study is to assess and compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage with a consideration given to field deployability. Overall, these methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrantmore » further investigation. This paper also summarizes the SHM results of a full-scale fatigue test of a 9 m CX-100 blade using piezoelectric active sensors. This paper outlines considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.« less

  7. Definition of a 5MW/61.5m wind turbine blade reference model.

    SciTech Connect

    Resor, Brian Ray

    2013-04-01

    A basic structural concept of the blade design that is associated with the frequently utilized %E2%80%9CNREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine%E2%80%9D is needed for studies involving blade structural design and blade structural design tools. The blade structural design documented in this report represents a concept that meets basic design criteria set forth by IEC standards for the onshore turbine. The design documented in this report is not a fully vetted blade design which is ready for manufacture. The intent of the structural concept described by this report is to provide a good starting point for more detailed and targeted investigations such as blade design optimization, blade design tool verification, blade materials and structures investigations, and blade design standards evaluation. This report documents the information used to create the current model as well as the analyses used to verify that the blade structural performance meets reasonable blade design criteria.

  8. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design

  9. Evaluation of feasibility of prestressed concrete for use in wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiblein, S.; Londahl, D. S.; Furlong, D. B.; Dreier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of the use of prestressed concrete as a material for low cost blades for wind turbines was conducted. A baseline blade design was achieved for an experimental wind turbine that met aerodynamic and structural requirements. Significant cost reductions were indicated for volume production. Casting of a model blade section showed no fabrication problems. Coupled dynamic analysis revealed that adverse rotor tower interactions can be significant with heavy rotor blades.

  10. Dynamics of an experimental two bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with blade cyclic pitch variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotenemser, K. H.; Swift, A. H. P.

    1981-01-01

    The turbine under study incorporates the combination of two features: the application of blade cyclic pitch variation; and the use of yaw angle control for rotor speed and torque regulation. Due to its emasculation by passive cyclic pitch variation the rotor can be rapidly yawed without encountering gyroscopic and aerodynamic hub moments and without noticeable out of plane excursions. The two bladed upwind rotor is vane stabilized and of very simple and rugged design. The principle was first checked out with a small scale wind tunnel model and then tested in the atmosphere with a 7.6 meter diameter experimental fully instrumented wind turbine driving a 3 phase alternator. The test results are summarized with respect to structural dynamics and yaw dynamics.

  11. Porous Ceramic Coating for Transpiration Cooling of Gas Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, M.; Suidzu, T.

    2013-06-01

    A transpiration cooling system for gas turbine applications has significant benefit for reducing the amount of cooling air and increasing cooling efficiency. In this paper, the porous ceramic coating, which can infiltrate cooling gas, is developed with plasma spraying process, and the properties of the porous coating material such as permeability of cooling gas, thermal conductivity, and adhesion strength are examined. The mixture of 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia and polyester powders was employed as the coating material, in order to deposit the porous ceramic coating onto Ni-based super alloy substrate. It was shown that the porous ceramic coating has superior permeability for cooling gas. The adhesion strength of the porous coating was low only 20% compared with the thermal barrier coating utilized in current gas turbine blades. Simulation test of hot gas flow around the gas turbine blade verified remarkable reduction of the coating surface temperature by the transpiration cooling mechanism. It was concluded that the transpiration cooling system for the gas turbine could be achieved using the porous ceramic coating developed in this study.

  12. Volumetric Velocity Fields Downstream of a 2-Bladed Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troolin, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Tip vortices of axial-flow turbines are important in understanding the mean and turbulent characteristics of the wake. Volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the flow downstream of a model two-bladed turbine in air. The turbine had a diameter of 177.8 mm and was powered by a motor operating at approximately 150 rpm. The measurement volume (50 × 50 × 20 mm) was positioned approximately 5 mm downstream of the blade tip, in order to examine the tip vortex structure. The V3V system utilized three 4MP cameras with 85 mm lenses positioned in a fixed triangular frame located at a distance of 450 mm from the back of the measurement volume. The illumination source was a 200 mJ dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 7.25 Hz and illuminating 1 micron olive oil droplets as tracer particles. The particle images were then analyzed to produce volumetric vector fields. The focus was placed on visualizing the complex interaction between the turbine tip vortices. Insights on the tip vortex dynamics and three dimensional characteristics of the wake flow will be discussed.

  13. Incipient Crack Detection in Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Choi, Mijin; Jeong, Hyomi; Jang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin; Farrar, Charles R.; Ammerman, Curtt N.; Todd, Michael D.; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-08-28

    This paper presents some analysis results for incipient crack detection in a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading to failure. The blade was manufactured to standard specifications, and it underwent harmonic excitation at its first resonance using a hydraulically-actuated excitation system until reaching catastrophic failure. This work investigates the ability of an ultrasonic guided wave approach to detect incipient damage prior to the surfacing of a visible, catastrophic crack. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, which were used in an active, pitchcatch mode with guided waves over a range of excitation frequencies. The performance results in detecting incipient crack formation in the fiberglass skin of the blade is assessed over the range of frequencies in order to determine the point at which the incipient crack became detectable. Higher excitation frequencies provide consistent results for paths along the rotor blade's carbon fiber spar cap, but performance falls off with increasing excitation frequencies for paths off of the spar cap. Lower excitation frequencies provide more consistent performance across all sensor paths.

  14. Nonlinear structural and life analyses of a turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The most critical structural requirements that aircraft gas turbine engines must meet result from the diversity of extreme environmental conditions in the turbine section components. Accurate life assessment of the components under these conditions requires sound analytical tools and techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot-section components was evaluated. The extend to which a three-dimensional cyclic isoparametric finite element analysis of a hot-section component would improve the accuracy of component life predictions was assessed. At the same time, high temperature life prediction theories such as strainrange partitioning and the frequency modified approaches were applied and their efficiency judged. A stress analysis was performed on a commercial air-cooled turbine blade. The evaluation of the life prediction methods indicated that none of those studied were satisfactory.

  15. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1990-11-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  16. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  17. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1990-01-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  18. Comparison of linear and non-linear blade model predictions in Bladed to measurement data from GE 6MW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, W.; Milian Sanz, J.

    2016-09-01

    The length and flexibility of wind turbine blades are increasing over time. Typically, the dynamic response of the blades is analysed using linear models of blade deflection, enhanced by various ad-hoc non-linear correction models. For blades undergoing large deflections, the small deflection assumption inherent to linear models becomes less valid. It has previously been demonstrated that linear and nonlinear blade models can show significantly different blade response, particularly for blade torsional deflection, leading to load prediction differences. There is a need to evaluate how load predictions from these two approaches compare to measurement data from the field. In this paper, time domain simulations in turbulent wind are carried out using the aero-elastic code Bladed with linear and non-linear blade deflection models. The turbine blade load and deflection simulation results are compared to measurement data from an onshore prototype of the GE 6MW Haliade turbine, which features 73.5m long LM blades. Both linear and non-linear blade models show a good match to measurement turbine load and blade deflections. Only the blade loads differ significantly between the two models, with other turbine loads not strongly affected. The non-linear blade model gives a better match to the measured blade root flapwise damage equivalent load, suggesting that the flapwise dynamic behaviour is better captured by the non-linear blade model. Conversely, the linear blade model shows a better match to measurements in some areas such as blade edgewise damage equivalent load.

  19. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  20. Strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Weiss, George

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades, which comprises a nonuniform NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) system and a two-mass drive-train model (with gearbox). The control input is the torque created by the electrical generator. Using a strong stabilisation theorem for a class of impedance passive linear systems with bounded control and observation operators, we show that the wind turbine tower model can be strongly stabilised. The control is by static output feedback from the angular velocities of the nacelle and the generator rotor.

  1. Multi-piece wind turbine rotor blades and wind turbines incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Moroz,; Mieczyslaw, Emilian [San Diego, CA

    2008-06-03

    A multisection blade for a wind turbine includes a hub extender having a pitch bearing at one end, a skirt or fairing having a hole therethrough and configured to mount over the hub extender, and an outboard section configured to couple to the pitch bearing.

  2. Structural changes and damage of single-crystal turbine blades during life tests of an aviation gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospennikova, O. G.; Orlov, M. R.; Kolodochkina, V. G.; Nazarkin, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    The irreversible structural changes of the single-crystal ZhS32-VI nickel superalloy blades of a high-pressure turbine that occur during life tests of a gas turbine engine are studied. The main operation damages in the hottest section of the blade airfoil are found to be the fracture of the heat-resistant coating in the leading edge and the formation of thermomechanical fatigue cracks. The possibility of reconditioning repair of the blades is considered.

  3. Friction damping studies in multiple turbine blade systems by lumped mass method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, B. B.; Dominic, R. J.; Held, T. W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical studies were conducted on multiple turbine blade systems using the lumped mass method. Each blade was idealized by a two mass-two spring model whose modal values were determined from the known frequencies corresponding to the first two bending modes and the frequency corresponding to the platform lockup condition. Two friction damping models were considered namely, the blade-to-blade and the blade-damper-blade. The equations of motion derived on the basis of these models were solved by a method of harmonic balance, assuming, in effect, that under cyclic excitation the blades will exhibit cyclic response at the same frequency. The solutions for 8 blade, 16 blade, and 4 blade systems were obtained using the computer program BLADE. The levels of damping produced by the two friction damping models were compared and evaluated. The optimal values of the friction force, for which the tip amplitude of the blades had a minimum value, were determined.

  4. Mechanical characterization of composite repairs for fiberglass wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Tanveer Singh

    While in service, wind turbine blades experience various modes of loading. An example is impact loading in the form of hail or bird strikes, which might lead to localized damage or formation of cracks a few plies deep on the blade surface. One of the methods to conduct repairs on wind turbine blades that are damaged while in service is hand lay-up of the repair part after grinding out the damaged portion and some of its surrounding area. The resin used for such repairs usually differs from the parent plate resin in composition and properties such as gel time, viscosity, etc. As a result the properties of the repaired parts are not the same as that of the undamaged blades. Subsequent repetitive loading can be detrimental to weak repairs to such an extent so as to cause delamination at the parent-repair bondline causing the repairs to eventually fall off the blade. Thus the strength and toughness of the repair are of critical importance. Initial part of this work consists of an effort to increase repair strength by identifying an optimum hand layup repair resin for fiberglass wind turbine blades currently being manufactured by a global company. As delamination of the repair from the parent blade is a major concern and unidirectional glass fibers along with a polymer resin are used to manufacture blades under consideration, testing method detailed in ASTM D 5528 (Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites) was followed to determine propagation fracture toughness values of the prospective vinyl ester repair resin candidates. These values were compared to those for a base polyester repair resin used by the company. Experimental procedure and results obtained from the above mentioned testing using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens are detailed. Three new repair resins were shortlisted through mode I testing. It was also found that variation in the depth of the ground top ply of the parent part

  5. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  6. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  7. Hinged blade model dynamics for a horizontal axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, David Arthur

    This dissertation describes fundamental extensions to the hinge-spring model used to simulate the first mode of blade vibration in wind turbine dynamics. Complete equations of motion are developed while allowing for both bending of the blade perpendicular to its chord and overall motion of the rotor in azimuth and yaw. The model examines the relationship between the natural rotation frequency of the rotor o and the fundamental natural bending frequency of the blades without including the bending frequency of the tower. In the case of no yaw motion, perturbation analysis and iteration lead to analytical solutions for the bending and azimuth equations of motion that involve as little simplification of these equations as possible. The natural bending frequency is "stiffened" by the rotor rotation and is expressed as a multiple of the rotor rotation, o* o. While the bending frequency is used in models using the hinged blade, the solutions found in this work contain more detail than can be found in prior investigations. These analytical solutions reveal that the harmonics with frequencies No*o (o * + 1)o and (o* - 1)o are involved with the coupling between bending motion and azimuth motion with N = 1, 2, 3,.... Subsequent derivation of the power output for the condition of a relatively large amplitude of blade vibration predicts a noticeable contribution to power generation for the o* o response, which is verified in the data. Glauret's momentum transfer theory as extended by Wilson and Lissaman [1974] and de Vries [1979] is modified to allow for blade bending, variations of wind speed with time and position, and variations in wind direction with time. No vertical wind is considered. It is concluded that: (1) the bending frequency and linear combinations with the rotor rotation frequency provide an important contribution under at least some of the expected operating conditions of the turbine, (2) the dynamic mass imbalance produced by the effects of blade bending is not

  8. Experimental Investigation of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades in Turbojet Engine. 7: Rotor-Blade Fabrication Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A.; Esgar, Jack B.

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the cooling effectiveness of a wide variety of air-cooled turbine-blade configurations. The blades, which were tested in the turbine of a - commercial turbojet engine that was modified for this investigation by replacing two of the original blades with air-cooled blades located diametrically opposite each other, are untwisted, have no aerodynamic taper, and have essentially the same external profile. The cooling-passage configuration is different for each blade, however. The fabrication procedures were varied and often unique. The blades were fabricated using methods most suitable for obtaining a small number of blades for use in the cooling investigations and therefore not all the fabrication procedures would be directly applicable to production processes, although some of the ideas and steps might be useful. Blade shells were obtained by both casting and forming. The cast shells were either welded to the blade base or cast integrally with the base. The formed shells were attached to the base by a brazing and two welding methods. Additional surface area was supplied in the coolant passages by the addition of fins or tubes that were S-brazed. to the shell. A number of blades with special leading- and trailing-edge designs that provided added cooling to these areas were fabricated. The cooling effectiveness and purposes of the various blade configurations are discussed briefly.

  9. Modal testing of the TX-100 wind turbine blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Sarah; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Casias, Miguel; Simmermacher, Todd William; Smith, Gregory A.

    2006-05-01

    This test report covers the SNL modal test results for two nominally identical TX-100 wind turbine blades. The TX-100 blade design is unique in that it features a passive braking, force-shedding mechanism where bending and torsion are coupled to produce desirable aerodynamic characteristics. A specific aim of this test is to characterize the coupling between bending and torsional dynamics. The results of the modal tests and the subsequent analysis characterize the natural frequencies, damping, and mode shapes of the individual blades. The results of this report are expected to be used for model validation--the frequencies and mode shapes from the experimental analysis can be compared with those of a finite-element analysis. Damping values are included in the results of these tests to potentially improve the fidelity of numerical simulations, although numerical finite element models typically have no means of predicting structural damping characteristics. Thereafter, an additional objective of the test is achieved in evaluating the test to test and unit variation in the modal parameters of the two blades.

  10. Prediction of Relaminarization Effects on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Giel, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    An approach to predicting turbine blade heat transfer when turbulent flow relaminarizes due to strong favorable pressure gradients is described. Relaminarization is more likely to occur on the pressure side of a rotor blade. While stators also have strong favorable pressure gradients, the pressure surface is less likely to become turbulent at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Accounting for the effects of relaminarization for blade heat transfer can substantially reduce the predicted rotor surface heat transfer. This in turn can lead to reduced rotor cooling requirements. Two-dimensional midspan Navier-Stokes analyses were done for each of eighteen test cases using eleven different turbulence models. Results showed that including relaminarization effects generally improved the agreement with experimental data. The results of this work indicate that relatively small changes in rotor shape can be utilized to extend the likelihood of relaminarization to high Reynolds numbers. Predictions showing how rotor blade heat transfer at a high Reynolds number can be reduced through relaminarization are given.

  11. A multi-frequency fatigue testing method for wind turbine rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, M. A.; Belloni, F.; Tesauro, A.; Hanis, T.

    2017-02-01

    Rotor blades are among the most delicate components of modern wind turbines. Reliability is a crucial aspect, since blades shall ideally remain free of failure under ultra-high cycle loading conditions throughout their designated lifetime of 20-25 years. Full-scale blade tests are the most accurate means to experimentally simulate damage evolution under operating conditions, and are therefore used to demonstrate that a blade type fulfils the reliability requirements to an acceptable degree of confidence. The state-of-the-art testing method for rotor blades in industry is based on resonance excitation where typically a rotating mass excites the blade close to its first natural frequency. During operation the blade response due to external forcing is governed by a weighted combination of its eigenmodes. Current test methodologies which only utilise the lowest eigenfrequency induce a fictitious damage where additional tuning masses are required to recover the desired damage distribution. Even with the commonly adopted amplitude upscaling technique fatigue tests remain a time-consuming and costly endeavour. The application of tuning masses increases the complexity of the problem by lowering the natural frequency of the blade and therefore increasing the testing time. The novel method presented in this paper aims at shortening the duration of the state-of-the-art fatigue testing method by simultaneously exciting the blade with a combination of two or more eigenfrequencies. Taking advantage of the different shapes of the excited eigenmodes, the actual spatial damage distribution can be more realistically simulated in the tests by tuning the excitation force amplitudes rather than adding tuning masses. This implies that in portions of the blade the lowest mode is governing the damage whereas in others higher modes contribute more significantly due to their higher cycle count. A numerical feasibility study based on a publicly available large utility rotor blade is used to

  12. Niobium matrix composites for high temperature turbine blades, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Laferla, Raffaele; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating fiber-reinforced MMC (niobium matrix) turbine blades to net shape by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). A controllable, repeatable niobium infiltration process was developed, and the kinetics of both deposition and infiltration were studied. Several continuous refractory fibers (Nicalon, Nextel 440, FP-Al2O3, HPZ, and tungsten mesh) were investigated as potential reinforcements for strengthening niobium. Thermodynamic and experimental evaluation indicated FP-Al2O3 and tungsten to be the most chemically compatible with niobium, while Nicalon, FP-Al2O3, and tungsten were found to be best with regard to reinforcing capability. Finally, a protective coating for iridium was found to provide substantial oxidation protection to the niobium blade matrix.

  13. Sources of fatigue damage to passive yaw wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Laino, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Using an integrated computer analysis approach developed at the University of Utah, fatigue damage sources to passive yaw wind turbine blades have been investigated. Models of a rigid hub and teetering hub machine reveal the parameters important to the fatigue design of each type. The teetering hub proved much less susceptible to fatigue damage from normal operation loads. As a result, extreme events were critical to the teetering hub fatigue life. The rigid hub blades experienced extremely large gyroscopic load cycles induced by rapid yaw rates during normal operation. These yaw rates stem from turbulence activity which is shown to be dependent upon atmospheric stability. Investigation revealed that increasing yaw damping is an effective way of significantly reducing these gyroscopic fatigue loads.

  14. Toward an Engineering Model for the Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Wind Turbine Blades in Quasisteady Standstill and Blade Installation Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim; Skrzypiński, Witold

    2016-09-01

    The crossflow principle is one of the key elements used in engineering models for prediction of the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades in standstill or blade installation situations, where the flow direction relative to the wind turbine blade has a component in the direction of the blade span direction. In the present work, the performance of the crossflow principle is assessed on the DTU 10MW reference blade using extensive 3D CFD calculations. Analysis of the computational results shows that there is only a relatively narrow region in which the crossflow principle describes the aerodynamic loading well. In some conditions the deviation of the predicted loadings can be quite significant, having a large influence on for instance the integral aerodynamic moments around the blade centre of mass; which is very important for single blade installation applications. The main features of these deviations, however, have a systematic behaviour on all force components, which in this paper is employed to formulate the first version of an engineering correction method to the crossflow principle applicable for wind turbine blades. The new correction model improves the agreement with CFD results for the key aerodynamic loads in crossflow situations. The general validity of this model for other blade shapes should be investigated in subsequent works.

  15. Structural analysis of turbine blades using unified constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Tong, M.; Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The utility of advanced constitutive models and structural analysis methods in predicting the cyclic life of an air-cooled turbine blade is assessed. Five structural analysis methods were exercised in calculating the cyclic stress-strain response at the airfoil critical location. The methods studied were a cyclic elastic finite-element analysis, nonlinear finite-element analyses based on classical inelastic models and the unified models of Bodner and Walker, and a simplified inelastic procedure. These analyses were compared in terms of computing times and of predicted crack initiation lives using the Strainrange Partitioning method.

  16. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  17. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  18. Swept Blade Aero-Elastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-07-01

    A preprocessor for analyzing preswept wind turbines using the in-house aero-elastic tool coupled with a multibody dynamic simulator was developed. A baseline 10-kW small wind turbine with straight blades and various configurations that featured bend-torsion coupling via blade-tip sweep were investigated to study their impact on ultimate loads and fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  19. High Temperature Investigations into an Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce; Oswald, Jay J.

    2008-01-01

    System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  20. High Temperature Investigations into an Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  1. Design and analysis of small wind turbine blades with wakes similar to those of industrial scale turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A new design approach has been developed for wind turbine blades to be used in wind tunnel experiments that study wind turbine wakes. The approach allows wakes of small scale (2 m diameter) wind turbine rotors to simulate the important physics of wakes generated by a "parent" industrial scale wind turbine rotor despite the difference in size. The design approach forces the normalized normal and tangential force distributions of the small scale wind turbine blades to match those of the "parent" industrial scale wind turbine blades. The wake arises from the interaction between the flow and the blade, which imparts a momentum deficit and rotation to the flow due to the forces created by the blade on the flow. In addition, the wake dynamics and stability are affected by the load distribution across the blade. Thus, it is expected that matching normalized force distributions should result in similar wake structure. To independently assess the blades designed using this approach, the "parent" industrial scale and small scale wind turbine rotors are modeled using a free vortex wake method to study the generation and evolution of the two wakes. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.

  2. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  3. Improved stud configurations for attaching laminated wood wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadoul, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A series of bonded stud design configurations was screened on the basis of tension-tension cyclic tests to determine the structural capability of each configuration for joining a laminated wood structure (wind turbine blade) to a steel flange (wind turbine hub). Design parameters which affected the joint strength (ultimate and fatigue) were systematically varied and evaluated through appropriate testing. Two designs showing the most promise were used to fabricate addiate testing. Two designs showing the most promise were used to fabricate additional test specimens to determine ultimate strength and fatigue curves. Test results for the bonded stud designs demonstrated that joint strengths approaching the 10,000 to 12,000 psi ultimate strength and 5000 psi high cycle fatigue strength of the wood epoxy composite could be achieved.

  4. Independent Blade Pitch Controller Design for a Three-Bladed Turbine Using Disturbance Accommodating Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Wright, Alan D.; Johnson, Kathryn E.

    2016-07-29

    Two independent pitch controllers (IPCs) based on the disturbance accommodating control (DAC) algorithm are designed for the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate blade root flapwise bending loads in above-rated wind speed. One of the DAC-based IPCs is designed based on a transformed symmetrical-asymmetrical (TSA) turbine model, with wind disturbances being modeled as a collective horizontal component and an asymmetrical linear shear component. Another DAC-based IPC is designed based on a multiblade coordinate (MBC) transformed turbine model, with a horizontal component and a vertical shear component being modeled as step waveform disturbance. Both of the DAC-based IPCs are found via a regulation equation solved by Kronecker product. Actuator dynamics are considered in the design processes to compensate for actuator phase delay. The simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed DAC-based IPCs compared to a proportional-integral (PI) collective pitch controller (CPC). Improvement on rotor speed regulation and once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution load reductions has been observed in the proposed IPC designs.

  5. Independent Blade Pitch Controller Design for a Three-Bladed Turbine Using Disturbance Accommodating Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Wright, Alan D.; Johnson, Kathryn E.

    2016-08-01

    Two independent pitch controllers (IPCs) based on the disturbance accommodating control (DAC) algorithm are designed for the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate blade root flapwise bending loads in above-rated wind speed. One of the DAC-based IPCs is designed based on a transformed symmetrical-asymmetrical (TSA) turbine model, with wind disturbances being modeled as a collective horizontal component and an asymmetrical linear shear component. Another DAC-based IPC is designed based on a multiblade coordinate (MBC) transformed turbine model, with a horizontal component and a vertical shear component being modeled as step waveform disturbance. Both of the DAC-based IPCs are found via a regulation equation solved by Kronecker product. Actuator dynamics are considered in the design processes to compensate for actuator phase delay. The simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed DAC-based IPCs compared to a proportional-integral (PI) collective pitch controller (CPC). Improvement on rotor speed regulation and once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution load reductions has been observed in the proposed IPC designs.

  6. Aero-Thermo-Structural Design Optimization of Internally Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Martin, T. J.; Dennis, B. H.; Lee, E.; Han, Z.-X.

    1999-01-01

    A set of robust and computationally affordable inverse shape design and automatic constrained optimization tools have been developed for the improved performance of internally cooled gas turbine blades. The design methods are applicable to the aerodynamics, heat transfer, and thermoelasticity aspects of the turbine blade. Maximum use of the existing proven disciplinary analysis codes is possible with this design approach. Preliminary computational results demonstrate possibilities to design blades with minimized total pressure loss and maximized aerodynamic loading. At the same time, these blades are capable of sustaining significantly higher inlet hot gas temperatures while requiring remarkably lower coolant mass flow rates. These results suggest that it is possible to design internally cooled turbine blades that will cost less to manufacture, will have longer life span, and will perform as good, if not better than, film cooled turbine blades.

  7. Certification of CFD heat transfer software for turbine blade analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, William A.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate modeling of heat transfer effects is a critical component of the Turbine Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division. Being able to adequately predict and model heat flux, coolant flows, and peak temperatures are necessary for the analysis of high pressure turbine blades. To that end, the primary goal of my internship this summer will be to certify the reliability of the CFD program GlennHT for the purpose of turbine blade heat transfer analysis. GlennHT is currently in use by the engineers in the Turbine Branch who use the FORTRAN 77 version of the code for analysis. The program, however, has been updated to a FORTRAN 90 version which is more robust than the older code. In order for the new code to be distributed for use, its reliability must first be certified. Over the course of my internship I will create and run test cases using the FORTRAN 90 version of GlennHT and compare the results to older cases which are known to be accurate, If the results of the new code match those of the sample cases then the newer version will be one step closer to certification for distribution. In order to complete these it will first be necessary to become familiar with operating a number of other programs. Among them are GridPro, which is used to create a grid mesh around a blade geometry, and FieldView, whose purpose is to graphically display the results from the GlennHT program. Once enough familiarity is established with these programs to render them useful, then the work of creating and running test scenarios will begin. The work is additionally complicated by a transition in computer hardware. Most of the working computers in the Turbine Branch are Silicon Graphics machines, which will soon be replaced by LINUX PC's. My project is one of the first to make use the new PC's. The change in system architecture however, has created several software related issues which have greatly increased the time and effort investments required by the project

  8. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.

    1995-04-11

    A retainer ring is arranged to mount turbine blades to a turbine disk so that aerodynamic forces produced by a gas turbine engine are transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk to cause the turbine blades and turbine disk to rotate, but so that centrifugal forces of the turbine blades resulting from the rotation of the turbine blades and turbine disk are not transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk. 6 figures.

  9. Ceramic blade attachment system

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    A retainer ring is arranged to mount turbine blades to a turbine disk so that aerodynamic forces produced by a gas turbine engine are transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk to cause the turbine blades and turbine disk to rotate, but so that centrifugal forces of the turbine blades resulting from the rotation of the turbine blades and turbine disk are not transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk.

  10. Detecting salt deposition on a wind turbine blade using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiesh Kumar, V.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Sarathi, R.

    2013-07-01

    The study of pollution performance on a wind turbine blade due to lightning is important, as it can cause major damage to wind turbine blades. In the present work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is used to understand the influence of pollutant deposited on a wind turbine blade in an off-shore environment. A methodical experimental study was carried out by adopting IEC 60507 standards, and it was observed that the lightning discharge propagates at the interface between the pollutant and the glass fiber reinforced plastic (Material used in manufacturing of wind turbine blades). In addition, as a diagnostic condition monitoring technique, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed and demonstrated to rank the severity of pollutant on the wind turbine blades from a remote area. Optical emission spectra observed during surface discharge process induced by lightning impulse voltage is in agreement with the spectra observed during LIBS.

  11. Performance analysis of a vertical axis tidal turbine with flexible blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzaher, Mohamed Taher; Guerira, Belhi; Hadid, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a vertical axis tidal turbine with flexible blades is investigated. The focus is on analyzing the effect of flexible airfoils types and blade flexibility on turbine net output power. To this end, five different flexible airfoils (Symmetric and Non-symmetric) are employed. The results show that the use of a thick flexible symmetric airfoil can effectively increase output power compared to that achievable with a conventional rigid blade. Moreover, the use of highly flexible blades, as opposed to less flexible or rigid blades, is not recommended.

  12. Performance analysis of a vertical axis tidal turbine with flexible blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzaher, Mohamed Taher; Guerira, Belhi; Hadid, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a vertical axis tidal turbine with flexible blades is investigated. The focus is on analyzing the effect of flexible airfoils types and blade flexibility on turbine net output power. To this end, five different flexible airfoils (Symmetric and Non-symmetric) are employed. The results show that the use of a thick flexible symmetric airfoil can effectively increase output power compared to that achievable with a conventional rigid blade. Moreover, the use of highly flexible blades, as opposed to less flexible or rigid blades, is not recommended.

  13. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  14. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift. PMID:28243053

  15. Turbine blade tip and seal clearance excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Jaroux, B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical work done as Phase 3 of a program sponsored by MSFC to investigate the magnitude, origin, and parametric variations of destabilizing forces which arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects are described. The two facilities which were built for this purpose are first described. The larger one is a closed, 2 atm pressurized Freon-12 flow loop in which is installed a 1:1 replica of the SSME first stage hydrogen turbine, which can be driven by the flow, and which generates about 14 KW of power into a load-absorbing DC generator. The smaller facility is used to measure the forces on labyrinth seals of the same type as those used in our turbine tests with a shrouded turbine. The seals can be kinematically whirled and spun (independently), and the inlet swirl can be set to a variety of values. Air is the working fluid (with atmospheric discharge) and the data are real-time pressure distributions in the seal glands. The five different unshrouded turbine configurations were tested with static offsets, plus one with a shroud band and a two-ridge seal. Theoretical models of various degrees of complexity were developed to help interpreting and extrapolating the data. The notion of partial work done by the fluid leaking through the tip gaps was put on a quantitative basis by examining the leakage vortex roll-up dynamics. This was used to obtain a theory of the work loss due to a uniform gap. Perturbation and multiple scale arguments were then used to extend this to the case of an eccentric turbine. This yields an unsteady, 3-D theory which can predict the distribution of the approach flow, and its effect on work defect, cross-forces, pressure patterns, and dynamic damping. The predictions agree qualitatively with the data and exhibit the correct trends, but the cross-forces are generally under-predicted.

  16. Determination of the Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature of Platinum-Aluminide Gas Turbine Blade Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of five basic platinum- aluminide gas turbine blade coatings on a nickel-base superalloy (IN738). The results...gas turbine blade coatings on a nickel-base superalloy (IN738). The results of these tests were compared to similarly formed nickel- aluminide coatings ... aluminide coating became more widely used, it -°j.established itself as an excellent life extender for most superalloy blade materials. However, as

  17. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexander R.; Temnikova, Elena Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  18. A 100-kW metal wind turbine blade basic data, loads and stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherritt, A. W.; Gaidelis, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor loads computer program was used to define the steady state and cyclic loads acting on 60 ft long metal blades designed for the ERDA/NASA 100 kW wind turbine. Blade load and stress analysis used to support the structural design are presented. For the loading conditions examined, the metal blades are structurally adequate for use, within the normal operating range, as part of the wind turbine system.

  19. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Reshotko, Eli

    1997-01-01

    The effect of wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a turbine blade has been investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed in an annular turbine cascade with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods. Nickel thin-film gauges were used to determine local film effectiveness and Nusselt number values for various injectants, blowing ratios, and Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated by a streamwise-constant decrement of 0.094.St. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict experimental film effectiveness values. This is likely due to the inability to match actual hole exit velocity profiles and the absence of a credible turbulence model for film cooling.

  20. The effect of the number of blades on wind turbine wake - a comparison between 2-and 3-bladed rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, Franz; Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Sretran, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Due to cost benefit and weight reduction, 2-bladed wind turbines have the potential to become more important for offshore wind applications. In order to optimize the arrangement of wind turbines in wind farms and for accurate forecasts of the power production, a detailed knowledge of the wake flow is needed. In this study, three different rotors with varying number of blades and similar performance behaviour have been designed and manufactured using the 3dimensional (3D) printing technology. The performance characteristics of these rotors as well as their wake features are measured experimentally in wind tunnel tests and compared. The velocity deficit is seen to vary only insignificantly for the wakes in distances of 3D (where D is the rotor diameter), 5D and 7D behind the turbine. However, higher turbulence intensity levels are recorded in the wake of the 2-bladed rotors. This could have potential for a faster wake recovery and thus a narrower turbine spacing.

  1. Design studies for twist-coupled wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, Ulyses; Locke, James

    2004-06-01

    This study presents results obtained for four hybrid designs of the Northern Power Systems (NPS) 9.2-meter prototype version of the ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade. The ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade was designed and developed by TPI composites. The baseline design uses e-glass unidirectional fibers in combination with {+-}45-degree and random mat layers for the skin and spar cap. This project involves developing structural finite element models of the baseline design and carbon hybrid designs with and without twist-bend coupling. All designs were evaluated for a unit load condition and two extreme wind conditions. The unit load condition was used to evaluate the static deflection, twist and twist-coupling parameter. Maximum deflections and strains were determined for the extreme wind conditions. Linear and nonlinear buckling loads were determined for a tip load condition. The results indicate that carbon fibers can be used to produce twist-coupled designs with comparable deflections, strains and buckling loads to the e-glass baseline.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES

    SciTech Connect

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

  3. Infrared thermography to detect residual ceramic in gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meola, C.; Carlomagno, G. M.; di Foggia, M.; Natale, O.

    2008-06-01

    A serious problem in the production of gas turbine blades is the detection of residual ceramic cores inside the cooling passages; in fact, the presence of even small ceramic pieces affects turbine performance and may cause difficulties in successive manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to have a non-destructive technique that must be capable of detecting tiny ceramic fragments in a fast and easy way. In this perspective, the suitability of infrared thermography was investigated within cooperation between the University of Naples and the Europea Microfusioni Aerospaziali S.p.A. (EMA). Several blades of three different types were inspected revealing that in many cases infrared thermography can discover small ceramic fragments which were missed by X-ray inspection. In addition, infrared thermography allows gaining of information about other types of anomalies (e.g., surface defects) during the same testing step (by eventually changing the test parameters) and then saving time and money. The obtained results look promising in view of introducing infrared thermography among industrial instrumentation as an alternative to, or integrated with, the most currently utilized non-destructive techniques.

  4. Feasibility study on a strain based deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunghyun; Aihara, Aya; Puntsagdash, Ganbayar; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Okuma, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The bending stiffness of the wind turbine blades has decreased due to the trend of wind turbine upsizing. Consequently, the risk of blades breakage by hitting the tower has increased. In order to prevent such incidents, this study proposes a deflection monitoring system that can be installed to already operating wind turbine's blades. The monitoring system is composed of an estimation algorithm to detect blade deflection and a wireless sensor network as a hardware equipment. As for the estimation method for blade deflection, a strain-based estimation algorithm and an objective function for optimal sensor arrangement are proposed. Strain-based estimation algorithm is using a linear correlation between strain and deflections, which can be expressed in a form of a transformation matrix. The objective function includes the terms of strain sensitivity and condition number of the transformation matrix between strain and deflection. In order to calculate the objective function, a simplified experimental model of the blade is constructed by interpolating the mode shape of a blade from modal testing. The interpolation method is effective considering a practical use to operating wind turbines' blades since it is not necessary to establish a finite element model of a blade. On the other hand, a sensor network with wireless connection with an open source hardware is developed. It is installed to a 300 W scale wind turbine and vibration of the blade on operation is investigated.

  5. Interaction of turbulent length scales with wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Nieves, Sheilla N.

    Understanding the effects of free-stream turbulence (FST) and surface roughness on the flow around wind turbine blades is imperative in the quest for higher wind turbine efficiency, specially under stall conditions. While many investigations have focused on the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine airfoils, there are no studies that examine the effects of free-stream turbulence and surface roughness on the velocity field around a wind turbine airfoil. Hence, the aim of this investigation is to study the influence of high levels of FST on the flow around smooth and rough surfaces with pressure gradients. Moreover, of great importance in this study is the examination of how the length scales of turbulence and surface roughness interact in the flow over wind turbine airfoils to affect flow separation. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to analyze the overall flow around a S809 wind turbine blade. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, free-stream turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency by 82%, yielding to higher loads and fatigue on the blades. On the contrary, when the flow is separated, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (i.e., by 5%) by the presence of the free-stream turbulence. Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, under stall conditions, free-stream turbulence delays separation, and surface roughness advances separation. Interestingly, the highly non-linear interaction between free-stream turbulence and surface roughness results in the further advancement of separation. Of particular interest is the study of the region closer to the wall (i.e., the boundary layer), where the flow interacts with both the surface of the blade and the free-stream. Turbulent boundary layer experiments subject to an external favorable pressure gradient (FPG) were performed to study the influence of FST, surface roughness and external pressure gradient (present around the

  6. Test Rig for Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn; Steinetz, Bruce; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan; Melcher, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a fast-acting active clearance control system to improve turbine engine performance, reduce emissions, and increase service life. System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  7. Wind turbine composite blade manufacturing : the need for understanding defect origins, prevalence, implications and reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, Douglas S.; Riddle, Trey; Nelson, Jared

    2011-02-01

    Renewable energy is an important element in the US strategy for mitigating our dependence on non-domestic oil. Wind energy has emerged as a viable and commercially successful renewable energy source. This is the impetus for the 20% wind energy by 2030 initiative in the US. Furthermore, wind energy is important on to enable a global economy. This is the impetus for such rapid, recent growth. Wind turbine blades are a major structural element of a wind turbine blade. Wind turbine blades have near aerospace quality demands at commodity prices; often two orders of magnitude less cost than a comparable aerospace structure. Blade failures are currently as the second most critical concern for wind turbine reliability. Early blade failures typically occur at manufacturing defects. There is a need to understand how to quantify, disposition, and mitigate manufacturing defects to protect the current wind turbine fleet, and for the future. This report is an overview of the needs, approaches, and strategies for addressing the effect of defects in wind turbine blades. The overall goal is to provide the wind turbine industry with a hierarchical procedure for addressing blade manufacturing defects relative to wind turbine reliability.

  8. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  9. Reinforced wind turbine blades--an environmental life cycle evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merugula, Laura; Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2012-09-04

    A fiberglass composite reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNF) at the resin-fiber interface is being developed for potential use in wind turbine blades. An energy and midpoint impact assessment was performed to gauge impacts of scaling production to blades 40 m and longer. Higher loadings force trade-offs in energy return on investment and midpoint impacts relative to the base case while remaining superior to thermoelectric power generation in these indicators. Energy-intensive production of CNFs forces impacts disproportionate to mass contribution. The polymer nanocomposite increases a 2 MW plant's global warming potential nearly 100% per kWh electricity generated with 5% CNF by mass in the blades if no increase in electrical output is realized. The relative scale of impact must be compensated by systematic improvements whether by deployment in higher potential zones or by increased life span; the trade-offs are expected to be significantly lessened with CNF manufacturing maturity. Significant challenges are faced in evaluating emerging technologies including uncertainty in future scenarios and process scaling. Inventories available for raw materials and monte carlos analysis have been used to gain insight to impacts of this development.

  10. Automated Infrared Inspection Of Jet Engine Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantel, T.; Bowman, D.; Halase, J.; Kenue, S.; Krisher, R.; Sippel, T.

    1986-03-01

    The detection of blocked surface cooling holes in hollow jet engine turbine blades and vanes during either manufacture or overhaul can be crucial to the integrity and longevity of the parts when in service. A fully automated infrared inspection system is being established under a tri-service's Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) contract administered by the Air Force to inspect these surface cooling holes for blockages. The method consists of viewing the surface holes of the blade with a scanning infrared radiometer when heated air is flushed through the blade. As the airfoil heats up, the resultant infrared images are written directly into computer memory where image analysis is performed. The computer then makes a determination of whether or not the holes are open from the inner plenum to the exterior surface and ultimately makes an accept/reject decision based on previously programmed criteria. A semiautomatic version has already been implemented and is more cost effective and more reliable than the previous manual inspection methods.

  11. Design, fabrication, and test of a steel spar wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Viterna, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and fabrication of wind turbine blades based on 60 foot steel spars are discussed. Performance and blade load information is given and compared to analytical prediction. In addition, performance is compared to that of the original MOD-O aluminum blades. Costs for building the two blades are given, and a projection is made for the cost in mass production. Design improvements to reduce weight and improve fatigue life are suggested.

  12. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a prototype 150-foot long composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a prototype 150 foot long composite wind turbine blade is described. The design approach and material selection, compatible with low cost fabrication methods and objectives, are highlighted. The operating characteristics of the blade during rotating and nonrotating conditions are presented. The tensile, compression, and shear properties of the blade are reported. The blade fabrication, tooling, and quality assurance are discussed.

  13. Dynamic Stall on Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Reeve

    In this study the dynamics of flow over the blades of vertical axis wind turbines was investigated using a simplified periodic motion to uncover the fundamental flow physics and provide insight into the design of more efficient turbines. Time-resolved, two-dimensional velocity measurements were made with particle image velocimetry on a wing undergoing pitching and surging motion to mimic the flow on a turbine blade in a non-rotating frame. Dynamic stall prior to maximum angle of attack and a leading edge vortex development were identified in the phase-averaged flow field and captured by a simple model with five modes, including the first two harmonics of the pitch/surge frequency identified using the dynamic mode decomposition. Analysis of these modes identified vortical structures corresponding to both frequencies that led the separation and reattachment processes, while their phase relationship determined the evolution of the flow. Detailed analysis of the leading edge vortex found multiple regimes of vortex development coupled to the time-varying flow field on the airfoil. The vortex was shown to grow on the airfoil for four convection times, before shedding and causing dynamic stall in agreement with 'optimal' vortex formation theory. Vortex shedding from the trailing edge was identified from instantaneous velocity fields prior to separation. This shedding was found to be in agreement with classical Strouhal frequency scaling and was removed by phase averaging, which indicates that it is not exactly coupled to the phase of the airfoil motion. The flow field over an airfoil undergoing solely pitch motion was shown to develop similarly to the pitch/surge motion; however, flow separation took place earlier, corresponding to the earlier formation of the leading edge vortex. A similar reduced-order model to the pitch/surge case was developed, with similar vortical structures leading separation and reattachment; however, the relative phase lead of the separation mode

  14. Evaluation of directionally solidified eutectic superalloys for turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. E.; Jackson, M. R.; Walter, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys from the following systems were selected for property evaluation: (1) gamma/gamma-Mo (Ni-base, rods of Mo); (2) gamma-beta (Ni-base, lamellae or rods of (Ni, Fe/Co Al); and (3) gamma-gamma (Ni-base rods of Ni3Al gamma). The three alloys were subjected to longitudinal and transverse tensile and rupture tests from 750 C to 1100 C, longitudinal shear strength was measured at several temperatures, resistance to thermal cycling to 1150 C was determined, cyclic oxidation resistance was evaluated at 750 C and 1100 C, and each system was directionally solidified in an alumina shell mold turbine shape to evaluate mold/metal reactivity. The gamma/gamma Mo system has good rupture resistance, transverse properties and processability, and is a high potential system for turbine blades. The gamma-beta system has good physical properties and oxidation resistance, and is a potential system for turbine vanes. The gamma-gamma system has good high temperature rupture resistance and requires further exploratory research.

  15. Blade Surface Pressure Distributions in a Rocket Engine Turbine: Experimental Work With On-Blade Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flowfields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with surface-mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in three respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, two independent unsteady data acquisition systems and fundamental signal processing approaches were used. Finally, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools will contribute to future turbine programs such as those for reusable launch vehicles.

  16. Grain Selection during Directional Solidification of Aero-Engine Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongbiao

    2008-09-01

    The operating temperature of turbine blades in aero-engine engines has been demanded to increase for saving energy and increasing thrust. Turbine blades are made of nickel-base superalloys. Superalloys are a class of materials specifically developed for high temperature applications, particularly in the case of gas turbines for aero engines as well as land based power generation. Grain structure governs prolonged high temperature strength; this has formed the impetus both for alloy development as well as grain morphology, i.e. equiaxed—directional—single crystal solidification. In this paper, the evolution of grain structure and the control of crystal orientation in gas turbine blades are presented. The conditions leading to the solidification of columnar grain and single crystal blades are analysed, and techniques for producing columnar grain and single crystal blades in industry are reported.

  17. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, Thomas N; Ammerman, Curtt N; Park, Gyu Hae; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R; Atterbury, Marie K

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  18. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  19. An acoustic-array based structural health monitoring technique for wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kai; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Baqersad, Javad; Inalpolat, Murat; Heilmann, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact measurement technique for health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic beamforming techniques. The technique works by mounting an audio speaker inside a wind turbine blade and observing the sound radiated from the blade to identify damage within the structure. The main hypothesis for the structural damage detection is that the structural damage (cracks, edge splits, holes etc.) on the surface of a composite wind turbine blade results in changes in the sound radiation characteristics of the structure. Preliminary measurements were carried out on two separate test specimens, namely a composite box and a section of a wind turbine blade to validate the methodology. The rectangular shaped composite box and the turbine blade contained holes with different dimensions and line cracks. An acoustic microphone array with 62 microphones was used to measure the sound radiation from both structures when the speaker was located inside the box and also inside the blade segment. A phased array beamforming technique and CLEAN-based subtraction of point spread function from a reference (CLSPR) were employed to locate the different damage types on both the composite box and the wind turbine blade. The same experiment was repeated by using a commercially available 48-channel acoustic ring array to compare the test results. It was shown that both the acoustic beamforming and the CLSPR techniques can be used to identify the damage in the test structures with sufficiently high fidelity.

  20. Experimental wind tunnel testing of linear individual pitch control for two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Solingen, Edwin; Navalkar, Sachin; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-06-01

    In this paper Linear Individual Pitch Control (LIPC) is applied to an experimental small-scale two-bladed wind turbine. LIPC is a recently introduced Individual Pitch Control (IPC) strategy specifically intended for two-bladed wind turbines. The LIPC approach is based on a linear coordinate transformation, with the special property that only two control loops are required to potentially reduce all periodic blade loads. In this study we apply LIPC to a control-oriented small-scale two-bladed wind turbine, equipped with, among others, two high- bandwidth servomotors to regulate the blade pitch angles and strain gauges to measure the blade moments. Experimental results are presented that indicate the effectiveness of LIPC.

  1. Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics and Blade Excitations of the Radial Turbine with Pulsating Inlet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Yang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic performance, detailed unsteady flow and time-based excitations acting on blade surfaces of a radial flow turbine have been investigated with pulsation flow condition. The results show that the turbine instantaneous performance under pulsation flow condition deviates from the quasi-steady value significantly and forms obvious hysteretic loops around the quasi-steady conditions. The detailed analysis of unsteady flow shows that the characteristic of pulsation flow field in radial turbine is highly influenced by the pulsation inlet condition. The blade torque, power and loading fluctuate with the inlet pulsation wave in a pulse period. For the blade excitations, the maximum and the minimum blade excitations conform to the wave crest and wave trough of the inlet pulsation, respectively, in time-based scale. And toward blade chord direction, the maximum loading distributes along the blade leading edge until 20% chord position and decreases from the leading to trailing edge.

  2. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Kaplan Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-11-10

    Bio-indexing of hydroturbines is an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Numerical deterministic and stochastic blade strike models were developed for a 1:25-scale physical turbine model built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the original design turbine at McNary Dam and for prototype-scale original design and replacement minimum gap runner (MGR) turbines at Bonneville Dam's first powerhouse. Blade strike probabilities predicted by both models were comparable with the overall trends in blade strike probability observed in both prototype-scale live fish survival studies and physical turbine model using neutrally buoyant beads. The predictions from the stochastic model were closer to the experimental data than the predictions from the deterministic model because the stochastic model included more realistic consideration of the aspect of fish approaching to the leading edges of turbine runner blades. Therefore, the stochastic model should be the preferred method for the prediction of blade strike and injury probability for juvenile salmon and steelhead using numerical blade-strike models.

  3. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  4. Low-cost composite blades for the Mod-0A wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost approaches to the design and fabrication of blades for a two-bladed 200 kW wind turbine were identified and the applicability of the techniques to larger and smaller blades was assessed. Blade tooling was designed and fabricated. Two complete blades and a partial blade for tool tryout were built. The patented TFT process was used to wind the entire blade. This process allows rapid winding of an axially oriented composite onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The blade consists of a TFT glass-epoxy airfoil structure filament wound onto a steel root end fitting. The fitting is, in turn, bolted to a conical steel adapter section to provide for mounting attachment to the hub. Structural analysis, blade properties, and cost and weight analysis are described.

  5. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data for directionally solidified MAR-M 246 turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, V. L.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained for 11 plasma spray coated and 13 uncoated directionally solidified and single crystal MAR-M 246 blades. Blade coatings on the airfoil included several metal-oxide thermal barrier layers based on Al2O3, Cr2O3, or ZrO2. The 24 turbine blades were tested simultaneously for 3000 cycles in fluidized beds maintained at 950 and 25 C using a symmetrical 360 set thermal cycle. In 3000 cycles, only uncoated turbine blades exhibited cracking on the trailing edge near the platform; 3 of the 13 uncoated blades did not crack. Cracking occurred over the range 400 to 2750 cycles, with single crystal blades indicating the poorest thermal fatigue resistance. Oxidation of the uncoated blades was limited in 3000 cycles. All coatings indicated microscopically visible spalling at the trailing edge radius after 3000 cycles. Severe general spalling on the airfoil was observed for two multilayered coatings.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Inter-Blade Vortices in a Model Francis Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Demin; LIU, Xiaobing; ZHAO, Yongzhi

    2017-03-01

    The inter-blade vortex in a Francis turbine becomes one of the main hydraulic factors that are likely to cause blade erosion at deep part load operating conditions. However, the causes and the mechanism of inter-blade vortex are still under investigation according to present researches. Thus the causes of inter-blade vortex and the effect of different hydraulic parameters on the inter-blade vortex are investigated experimentally. The whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex is observed by a high speed camera. The test results illustrate the whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex from generation to separation and even to fading. It is observed that the inter-blade vortex becomes stronger with the decreasing of flow and head, which leads to pressure fluctuation. Meanwhile, the pressure fluctuations in the vane-less area and the draft tube section become stronger when inter-blade vortices exist in the blade channel. The turbine will be damaged if operating in the inter-blade vortex zone, so its operating range must be far away from that zone. This paper reveals the main cause of the inter-blade vortex which is the larger incidence angle between the inflow angle and the blade angle on the leading edge of the runner at deep part load operating conditions.

  7. Composite turbine blade design options for Claude (open) cycle OTEC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, T R

    1985-11-01

    Small-scale turbine rotors made from composites offer several technical advantages for a Claude (open) cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed a composite turbine rotor/disk using state-of-the-art analysis methods for large-scale (100-MW/sub e/) open cycle OTEC applications. Near-term demonstrations using conventional low-pressure turbine blade shapes with composite material would achieve feasibility and modern credibility of the open cycle OTEC power system. Application of composite blades for low-pressure turbo-machinery potentially improves the reliability of conventional metal blades affected by stress corrosion.

  8. Predicted inlet gas temperatures for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) impingement cooled turbine blade inlet gas temperatures were calculated taking into account material spanwise strength, thermal conductivity, material oxidation resistance, fiber-matrix interaction, and coolant flow. Measured values of TFRS thermal conductivities are presented. Calculations indicate that blades made of 30 volume percent fiber content TFRS having a 12,000 N-m/kg stress-to-density ratio while operating at 40 atmospheres and a 0.06 coolant flow ratio could permit a turbine blade inlet gas temperature of over 1900K. This is more than 150K greater than similar superalloy blades.

  9. JT8D-15/17 High Pressure Turbine Root Discharged Blade Performance Improvement. [engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine blade and seal were modified, using a more efficient blade cooling system, improved airfoil aerodynamics, more effective control of secondary flows, and improved blade tip sealing. Engine testing was conducted to determine the effect of these improvements on performance. The modified turbine package demonstrated significant thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements in sea level and altitude engine tests. Inspection of the improved blade and seal hardware after testing revealed no unusual wear or degradation.

  10. Cable connected active tuned mass dampers for control of in-plane vibrations of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, B.; Basu, B.

    2014-11-01

    In-plane vibrations of wind turbine blades are of concern in modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. Today's turbines with capacities of up to 7.5 MW have very large, flexible blades. As blades have grown longer the increasing flexibility has led to vibration problems. Vibration of blades can reduce the power produced by the turbine and decrease the fatigue life of the turbine. In this paper a new active control strategy is designed and implemented to control the in-plane vibration of large wind turbine blades which in general is not aerodynamically damped. A cable connected active tuned mass damper (CCATMD) system is proposed for the mitigation of in-plane blade vibration. An Euler-Lagrangian wind turbine model based on energy formulation has been developed for this purpose which considers the structural dynamics of the system and the interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations and also the interaction between the blades and the tower including the CCATMDs. The CCATMDs are located inside the blades and are controlled by an LQR controller. The turbine is subject to turbulent aerodynamic loading simulated using a modification to the classic Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory with turbulence generated from rotationally sampled spectra. The turbine is also subject to gravity loading. The effect of centrifugal stiffening of the rotating blades has also been considered. Results show that the use of the proposed new active control scheme significantly reduces the in-plane vibration of large, flexible wind turbine blades.

  11. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  12. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Ploskey, G. R.; Richmond, M. C.

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  13. Effect of Wavy Trailing Edge on 100meter Flatback Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang; Baeder, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    The flatback trailing edge design for modern 100meter wind turbine blade has been developed and proposed to make wind turbine blade to be slender and lighter. On the other hand, it will increase aerodynamic drag; consequently the increased drag diminishes turbine power generation. Thus, an aerodynamic drag reducing technique should be accompanied with the flatback trailing edge in order to prevent loss of turbine power generation. In this work, a drag mitigation design, span-wise wavy trailing edge blade, has been applied to a modern 100meter blade. The span-wise trailing edge acts as a vortex generator, and breaks up the strong span-wise coherent trailing edge vortex structure at the flatback airfoil trailing edge which is a major source of large drag. Three-dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed for real scale wind turbine blade geometries. Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with the modified laminar-turbulent transition model has been applied to obtain accurate flow field predictions. Graphical Processor Unit (GPU)-accelerated computation has been conducted to reduce computational costs of the real scale wind turbine blade simulations. To verify the structural reliability of the wavy modification of the blade a simple Eigen buckling analysis has been performed in the current study.

  14. Phased array ultrasonic approach to turbine blade attachment inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Nottingham, L.D.; Solomon, K.R.; Presson, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    In situations where particular combinations of material susceptibility, stress, steam conditions and steam chemistry come together, certain steam turbine rotors have exhibited stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on the disk side of the blade attachments, where the blades are held to the disk. Cracking has been most prevalent in multiple-hook, fir-tree attachment designs and normally occurs in the corners of the fir-tree hooks. While attempts have been made to perform ultrasonic inspection of the complex fir-tree attachment geometries, results have been mixed. False calls, poor repeatability, a general lack of resolution and lack of a meaningful sizing capability are standing issues. A unique approach to this inspection features a phased array ultrasonic test system that can both focus the ultrasonic beam and steer it to different points within the complex geometry. The focused beam leads directly to significant improvements in detection performance and resolution, as well as the ability to estimate the size of an indication. The ability to steer the beam to different points within the attachment enables comprehensive examination of all critical locations without repeatedly changing and calibrating numerous transducers. Together these features provide more rapid inspections and improved reliability.

  15. Internally coated air-cooled gas turbine blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.; Stevens, W. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ten candidate modified nickel-aluminide coatings were developed using the slip pack process. These coatings contain additives such as silicon, chromium and columbium in a nickel-aluminum coating matrix with directionally solidified MAR-M200 + Hf as the substrate alloy. Following a series of screening tests which included strain tolerance, dynamic oxidation and hot corrosion testing, the Ni-19A1-1Cb (nominal composition) coating was selected for application to the internal passages of four first-stage turbine blades. Process development results indicate that a dry pack process is suitable for internal coating application resulting in 18 percent or less reduction in air flow. Coating uniformity, based on coated air-cooled blades, was within + or - 20 percent. Test results show that the presence of additives (silicon, chromium or columbium) appeared to improve significantly the ductility of the NiA1 matrix. However, the environmental resistance of these modified nickel-aluminides were generally inferior to the simple aluminides.

  16. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that moderate turbulence levels can nearly double turbine blade stagnation region heat transfer. Data have also shown that heat transfer is strongly affected by the scale of turbulence as well as its level. In addition to the stagnation region, turbulence is often seen to increase pressure surface heat transfer. This is especially evident at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Vane and rotor stagnation region, and vane pressure surface heat transfer augmentation is often seen in a pre-transition environment. Accurate predictions of transition and relaminarization are critical to accurately predicting blade surface heat transfer. An approach is described which incorporates the effects of both turbulence level and scale into a CFD analysis. The model is derived from experimental data for cylindrical and elliptical leadng edges. Results using this model are compared to experimental data for both vane and rotor geometries. The comparisons are made to illustrate that using a model which includes the effects of turbulence length scale improves agreement with data, and to illustrate where improvements in the modeling are needed.

  17. Optimization of Turbine Blade Design for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei

    1998-01-01

    To facilitate design optimization of turbine blade shape for reusable launching vehicles, appropriate techniques need to be developed to process and estimate the characteristics of the design variables and the response of the output with respect to the variations of the design variables. The purpose of this report is to offer insight into developing appropriate techniques for supporting such design and optimization needs. Neural network and polynomial-based techniques are applied to process aerodynamic data obtained from computational simulations for flows around a two-dimensional airfoil and a generic three- dimensional wing/blade. For the two-dimensional airfoil, a two-layered radial-basis network is designed and trained. The performances of two different design functions for radial-basis networks, one based on the accuracy requirement, whereas the other one based on the limit on the network size. While the number of neurons needed to satisfactorily reproduce the information depends on the size of the data, the neural network technique is shown to be more accurate for large data set (up to 765 simulations have been used) than the polynomial-based response surface method. For the three-dimensional wing/blade case, smaller aerodynamic data sets (between 9 to 25 simulations) are considered, and both the neural network and the polynomial-based response surface techniques improve their performance as the data size increases. It is found while the relative performance of two different network types, a radial-basis network and a back-propagation network, depends on the number of input data, the number of iterations required for radial-basis network is less than that for the back-propagation network.

  18. CFD evaluation of added damping due to fluid flow over a hydroelectric turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, J. P.; Giroux, A. M.; Etienne, S.; Gosselin, F. P.

    2016-11-01

    To estimate structural fatigue, vibrational response to realistic spectrum of excitations and associated equivalent damping are of paramount importance. In this paper, an approach to quantify flow-induced damping of a relatively heavy fluid on a vibrating hydraulic turbine blade using numerical simulations is presented. First, mode shapes and frequencies of the immersed structure are obtained by modal analysis using the finite element method. Then, forced oscillatory modal motion is prescribed on the structural boundary of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow simulations. Damping is finally computed as the normalized work done by the resulting fluid load on the structure. Validation is achieved by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data for a steel hydrofoil oscillating in flowing water. For this case, the linear increase in the damping ratio with the flow velocity is reproduced within 10% of the experimental values. Application of the method to an actual hydroelectric propeller turbine blade yields a fluid damping value of around 15% of critical damping for its first vibration mode.

  19. Rotor loading on a three-bladed wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Rasmussen, Flemming

    For a well designed and adjusted horizontal axis wind turbine, the turbulence in the wind is one of the primary sources of cyclic loading. Wind turbulence not only causes blade loads, but is responsible for the major part of the cyclic rotor loads which are transferred through the rotor shaft. In order to predict the cyclic part of the primary structural rotor loads, the thrust, the yaw and the tilt moment, a model was developed. The model works in the frequency domain and uses the standard engineering representation of turbulence in terms of a coherence function and a power spectrum. The model which accounts for the rotational sampling of the turbulent wind field, shows good agreement with the results of testing programs on wind turbines which are tested at The Test Station for Windmills at Risoe National Laboratory. The comparison is made in terms of both the frequency content of the turbulence induced loads as well as the associated fatigue damage. A parametric study demonstrates the effect of the tower bending and tower torsion flexibility on the magnitude of the cyclic rotor loads.

  20. Blade design and operating experience on the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Two 60 foot long aluminum wind turbine blades were operated for over 3000 hours on the MOD-OA wind turbine. The first signs of blade structural damage were observed after 400 hours of operation. Details of the blade design, loads, cost, structural damage, and repair are discussed.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF A MOBILE OSCILLATORY FATIGUE OPERATOR FOR WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo, P.E.; Cotrell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory testing of wind turbine blades is required to meet wind turbine design standards, reduce machine cost, and reduce the technical and fi nancial risks of deploying mass-produced wind turbine models. Fatigue testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is currently conducted using Universal Resonance Excitation (UREX) technology. In a UREX test, the blade is mounted to a rigid stand and hydraulic exciters mounted to the blade are used to excite the blade to its resonant frequency. A drawback to UREX technology is that mounting hydraulic systems to the blade is diffi cult and requires a relatively long set-up period. An alternative testing technology called the Mobile Oscillatory Fatigue Operator (MOFO) has been analyzed. The MOFO uses an oscillating blade test-stand rather than a rigid stand, avoiding the need to place hydraulic systems on the blade. The MOFO will be demonstrated by converting an existing test-stand at the NWTC to an oscillating stand that can test blades up to 25 m in length. To obtain the loads necessary to design the MOFO, the system motion is modeled using rigid body and lumped mass dynamics models. Preliminary modeling indicates the existing stand can be converted to a MOFO relatively easily. However, the blade dynamic models suggest that blade bending moment distributions are signifi cantly different for UREX and MOFO testing; more sophisticated models are required to assess the implication of this difference on the accuracy of the test.

  2. Tungsten fiber reinforced FeCralY: A first generation composite turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Tungsten-fiber/FeCrAlY (W/FeCrAlY) was identified as a promising aircraft engine, first generation, turbine blade composite material. Based on available data, W/FeCrAlY should have the stress-rupture, creep, tensile, fatigue, and impact strengths required for turbine blades operating from 1250 to 1370 K. It should also have adequate oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling damage resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. Concepts for potentially low cost blade fabrication were developed. These concepts were used to design a first stage JT9D convection cooled turbine blade having a calculated 50 K use-temperature advantage over the directionally solidified superalloy blade.

  3. Reliable Crack Detection in Turbine Blades Using Thermosonics: AN Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolu, G.; Gachagan, A.; Pierce, G.; Harvey, G.

    2010-02-01

    Excitation generated by ultrasonic horns typically used in thermosonics (or Sonic IR) is non-reproducible, raising concerns that cracks in some locations can be missed. This paper presents an empirical study on the thermosonic inspection of turbine blades. The objective is to assess the reliability of thermosonics as an NDT screening method for findings crack in turbine blades. First, a study was carried out to establish the operating parameters that generated the highest possible temperature rise from a crack. Next, a repeatability study was conducted to measure consistency of results in 300 tests, which showed 100% repeatability. Finally, 60 cracked blades were inspected, with the known cracks in 57 blades detected. These results show the potential of thermosonics as a reliable NDT screening method for finding cracks in turbine blades.

  4. Turbulence spectrum observed by a fast-rotating wind-turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The spectrum of turbulence encountered by a point on a fast-rotating wind turbine blade is shown to be possibly quite different from that measured by a stationary anemometer. The physically reasonable expectations are supported quantitatively by experiments using Pacific Northwest Laboratory's vertical-plane anemometer array. The measurements indicate that the blade encounters energy densities in two regions of the turbulence spectrum much different than those seen by stationary anemometers. For typical turbine types and wind conditions, the spectral energy redistribution phenomenon may be significant only for turbine blade diameters larger than 10 m. The spectral shift should also affect gust statistics for rotting blades; the duration of gusts that are smaller than the diameter of the disk of blade rotation will decrease. Correspondingly, the rise rate will increase by a factor of about ten.

  5. Approach to the fatigue analysis of vertical-axis wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Veers, P.S.

    1981-09-01

    A cursory analysis of the stress history of wind turbine blades indicates that a single stress level at each wind speed does not adequately describe the blade stress history. A statistical description is required. Blade stress data collected from the DOE/ALCOA Low Cost experimental turbines indicate that the Rayleigh probability density function adequately describes the distribution of vibratory stresses at each wind speed. The Rayleigh probability density function allows the distribution of vibratory stresses to be described by the RMS of the stress vs. time signal. With the RMS stress level described for all wind speeds, the complete stress history of the turbine blades is known. Miner's linear cumulative damage rule is used as a basis for summing the fatigue damage over all operating conditions. An analytical expression is derived to predict blade fatigue life.

  6. Paths of Improving the Technological Process of Manufacture of GTE Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.; Bolotov, M. A.; Pronichev, N. D.

    2016-08-01

    The article provides an analysis of the problems at manufacture of blades of the turbine of gas-turbine engines and power stations is provided in article, and also paths of perfecting of technological process of manufacture of blades are offered. The analysis of the main systems of basing of blades in the course of machining and the control methods of the processed blades existing at the enterprises with the indication of merits and demerits is carried out. In work criteria in the form of the mathematical models of a spatial distribution of an allowance considering the uniform distribution of an allowance on a feather profile are developed. The considered methods allow to reduce percent of release of marriage and to reduce labor input when polishing path part of a feather of blades of the turbine.

  7. Tower and rotor blade vibration test results for a 100-kilowatt wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shapton, W. R.; Brown, D.

    1976-01-01

    The predominant natural frequencies and mode shapes for the tower and the rotor blades of the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine were determined. The tests on the tower and the blades were conducted both before and after the rotor blades and the rotating machinery were installed on top of the tower. The tower and each blade were instrumented with an accelerometer and impacted by an instrumented mass. The tower and blade structure was analyzed by means of NASTRAN, and computed values agree with the test data.

  8. Measurement of transient strain and surface temperature on simulated turbine blades using noncontacting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Pollack, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    Noncontacting techniques were used to measure strain and temperature in thermally cycled simulated turbine blades. An electro-optical extensometer was used to measure the displacement between parallel targets mounted on the leading edge of the blades throughout a complete heating and cooling cycle. An infrared photographic pyrometry method was used to measure blade steady state surface temperature. The blade was cyclically heated and cooled by moving it into and out of a Mach 1 hot-gas stream. Transient leading edge strain and steady state surface temperature distributions are presented for blades of three different configurations.

  9. Novel Image Analysis Method for Blade Aerodynamic Performance on Operational Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swytink-Binnema, Nigel; Johnson, David A.

    2014-06-01

    Tuft flow visualisation has been used to study aerodynamic stall on wind turbine blades for several decades. In recent years, advances in the processing power of personal computers have made digital image processing vastly more accessible. In this paper, therefore, a novel method is presented to digitally analyse tuft flow visualisation on the blade of an operating wind turbine. Examination of the outboard 40% of the blade of a 10 m diameter wind turbine revealed stalled flow in wind speeds from 5m/s to 20m/s. The region of stall at those speeds increased from 5% to 40% of the coverage area of the tufts. This increase in the amount of stalled flow is expected for stall-regulated wind turbines. Overall, the results are very promising and demonstrate potential for a wide range of aerodynamics applications including real-time blade stall determination and classical wind tunnel aerodynamics studies.

  10. Response of a wind turbine blade to seismic and turbulent wind excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, R. C. Y.

    The purpose was to investigate the dynamic behavior of a wind turbine blade under seismic and turbulent wind excitations. Toward this goal a procedure was developed in which the Markov process theory and its stochastic differential equation are used to obtain equations for statistical moments of blade response variables. Such equations then can be used to determine certain moment stability conditions for any given set of parameters and moment responses if the system is stable. The results show that for a constant rpm wind turbine generator the uncoupled flapping, coupled flap lagging and coupled flap lag torsion of a wind turbine blade are very stable under normal operating conditions, and that torsion has little influence on the dynamic behavior of flapping and leadlagging motions. If the system is stable, the effect of turbulence on moment responses is greater than that of an earthquake, therefore, turbulence is likely the main cause for structural fatigue of wind turbine blades.

  11. Development of Repair and Reprocess Coatings for Air-Cooled Nickel Alloy Turbine Blades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NICKEL ALLOYS , METAL COATINGS, GAS TURBINE BLADES, MAINTENANCE, PROCESSING, ABRASIVE BLASTING, MATERIALS, REMOVAL, SUBSTRATES, SLURRY COATING...NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, OXIDATION, CORROSION, AIR COOLED, RUPTURE, CREEP, STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, EROSION, SPALLATION, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), COBALT ALLOYS , DIFFUSION.

  12. Analysis of Fretting Fatigue Strength of Integral Shroud Blade for Steam Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Tomii, Masayuki; Ohyama, Hiroharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    To improve the reliability and the thermal efficiency of LP (Low Pressure) end blades of steam turbine, new standard series of LP end blades have been developed. The new LP end blades are characterized by the ISB (Integral Shroud Blade) structure. In the ISB structure, blades are continuously coupled by blade untwist due to centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed. One of the probable failure modes of the ISB structure seems to be fretting fatigue, because the ISB utilizes friction damping between adjacent shrouds and stubs. Therefore, in order to design a blade with high reliability, the design procedure for evaluating the fretting fatigue strength was established by the model test and the nonlinear contact analysis. This paper presents the practical design method for predicting the fretting fatigue strength of the ISB structure, and the some applications are explained.

  13. Resonant Vibrations Resulting from the Re-Engineering of a Constant-Speed 2-Bladed Turbine to a Variable-Speed 3-Bladed Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Wright, A. D.; Finersh, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    The CART3 (Controls Advanced Research Turbine, 3-bladed) at the National Wind Technology Center has recently been converted from a 2-bladed constant speed machine to a 3-bladed variable speed machine designed specically for controls research. The purpose of this conversion was to develop an advanced controls field-testing platform which has the more typical 3-bladed configuration. A result of this conversion was the emergence of several resonant vibrations, some of which initially prevented operation of the turbine until they could be explained and resolved. In this paper, the investigations into these vibrations are presented as 'lessons-learned'. Additionally, a frequency-domain technique called waterfall plotting is discussed and its usefulness in this research is illustrated.

  14. Long-period gratings for selective monitoring of loads on a wind turbine blade.

    PubMed

    Glavind, L; Buggy, S; Canning, J; Gao, S; Cook, K; Luo, Y; Peng, G D; Skipper, B F; Kristensen, M

    2014-06-20

    An optical fiber sensor based on long-period gratings (LPG) for selective measurements of flap- and edge-wise bending of a wind turbine blade is presented. Two consecutive LPGs separated by 40 mm interfere to improve resolution and reduce noise in a D-shaped fiber. The mode profile of the device was characterized experimentally to provide a model describing the mode couplings. The sensor was tested on a wind turbine blade.

  15. 100-kW hingeless metal wind turbine blade design, analysis and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donham, R. E.; Schmidt, J.; Linscott, B. S.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication and analysis of aluminum wind turbine rotor blades is discussed. The blades are designed to meet criteria established for a 100-kilowatt wind turbine generator operating between 8 and 60-mile-per-hour speeds at 40 revolutions per minute. The design wind speed is 18 miles per hour. Two rotor blades are used on a new facility which includes a hingeless hub and its shaft, gearbox, generator and tower. Experience shows that, for stopped rotors, safe wind speeds are strongly dependent on blade torsional and bending rigidities which the basic D spar structural blade design provides. The 0.25-inch-thick nose skin is brake/bump formed to provide the basic 'D' spar structure for the tapered, twisted blades. Adequate margins for flutter and divergence are predicted from the use of existing, correlated stopped rotor and helicopter rotor analysis programs.

  16. Modal analysis and SHM investigation of CX-100 wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Krystal E; Marinone, Timothy; Schultz, Ryan A; Farinholt, Kevin R; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents the dynamic characterization of a CX-100 wind turbine blade using modal testing. Obtaining a thorough dynamic characterization of turbine blades is important because they are complex structures, making them very difficult to accurately model without supplementing with experimental data. The results of this dynamic characterization can be used to validate a numerical model and understand the effect of structural damage on the performance of the blades. Also covered is an exploration into Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques employed on the blade surface to detect changes in the blade dynamic properties. SHM design parameters such as traveling distance of the wave were examined . Results obtained during modal and SHM testing will provide a baseline for future work in blade damage detection and mitigation.

  17. Development of Ultrasonic Surface Wave Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffner, C.; Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.

    2011-06-01

    To increase the power generating capacity of a wind turbine composite turbine blade manufacturers have been increasing the size of blades. Current utility-scale windmills are equipped with blades ranging from 40 m (130 ft) to 90 m (300 ft) in their sweep diameter. The increased blade size brings greater structural and safety demands. Recent blade recalls and field failures highlights the market need for sensors capable of part quality inspections on manufacturing line and for structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites in service. An ultrasonic surface wave sensor technology based on interdigitization transduction (IDT) has been developed that can inspect and detect defects in the composite blades. The current work covers the design, fabrication, and characterization of the IDT sensors. The sensor characterization, coverage area, and detection capability for a variety of defects such as impact, cracking and delamination will be discussed.

  18. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  19. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Losses in Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Lake, James P.; King, Paul I.; Ashpis, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data and numerical simulations of low-pressure turbines have shown that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the turbine efficiency. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that the performance of low-pressure turbine blades is a strong function of the Reynolds number. In the current investigation, experiments and simulations have been performed to study the behavior of a low-pressure turbine blade at several Reynolds numbers. Both the predicted and experimental results indicate increased cascade losses as the Reynolds number is reduced to the values associated with aircraft cruise conditions. In addition, both sets of data show that tripping the boundary layer helps reduce the losses at lower Reynolds numbers. Overall, the predicted aerodynamic and performance results exhibit fair agreement with experimental data.

  20. Statistical analysis of 59 inspected SSME HPFTP turbine blades (uncracked and cracked)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, John T.

    1987-01-01

    The numerical results of statistical analysis of the test data of Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump second-stage turbine blades, including some with cracks are presented. Several statistical methods use the test data to determine the application of differences in frequency variations between the uncracked and cracked blades.

  1. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C. F.; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally. PMID:26274964

  2. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1981-01-01

    Low cost approaches for production of 60 ft long glass fiber/resin composite rotor blades for the MOD-OA wind turbine were identified and evaluated. The most cost-effective configuration was selected for detailed design. Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated for testing to confirm physical and mechanical properties of the composite blade materials, to develop and evaluate blade fabrication techniques and processes, and to confirm the structural adequacy of the root end joint. Full-scale blade tooling was constructed and a partial blade for tool and process tryout was built. Then two full scale blades were fabricated and delivered to NASA-LeRC for installation on a MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico for operational testing. Each blade was 60 ft. long with 4.5 ft. chord at root end and 2575 lbs weight including metal hub adapter. The selected blade configuration was a three cell design constructed using a resin impregnated glass fiber tape winding process that allows rapid wrapping of primarily axially oriented fibers onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The ring winder/transverse filament tape process combination was used for the first time on this program to produce entire rotor blade structures. This approach permitted the complete blade to be wound on stationary mandrels, an improvement which alleviated some of the tooling and process problems encountered on previous composite blade programs.

  3. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  4. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  5. Design, fabrication, and test of a composite material wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gustafson, R. E.; More, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic design, structural design, fabrication, and structural testing is described for a 60 foot long filament wound, fiberglass/epoxy resin matrix wind turbine rotor blade for a 125 foot diameter, 100 kW wind energy conversion system. One blade was fabricated which met all aerodynamic shape requirements and was structurally capable of operating under all specified design conditions. The feasibility of filament winding large rotor blades was demonstrated.

  6. Thermal-stress analysis for wood composite blade. [horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, K. C.; Harb, A.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal-stress induced by solar insolation on a wood composite blade of a Mod-OA wind turbine was investigated. The temperature distribution throughout the blade (a heat conduction problem) was analyzed and the thermal-stress distribution of the blades caused by the temperature distribution (a thermal-stress analysis problem) was then determined. The computer programs used for both problems are included along with output examples.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Flow in an Annular Cascade of Turbine Nozzle Blades of Constant Discharge Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, Milton G; Rohlik, Harold E; Monroe, Daniel E

    1952-01-01

    The experimental performance of turbine nozzle blades designed for a constant discharge angle was investigated at discharge hub Mach numbers of 1.18, 1.31, and 1.41. Flow characteristics are presented in terms of energy losses, angle gradients, and secondary flow effects. Blade efficiency decreased from 0.983 to 0.978 with increasing Mach number in the range investigated while angle variations in the loss regions became very large, indicating poorer blade performance than efficiency implies.

  8. Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils/Blades and Wind Farm Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaomin

    Shape optimization is widely used in the design of wind turbine blades. In this dissertation, a numerical optimization method called Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to address the shape optimization of wind turbine airfoils and blades. In recent years, the airfoil sections with blunt trailing edge (called flatback airfoils) have been proposed for the inboard regions of large wind-turbine blades because they provide several structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. The FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils are thick airfoils widely used for wind turbine blade application. They have several advantages in meeting the intrinsic requirements for wind turbines in terms of design point, off-design capabilities and structural properties. This research employ both single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (SOGA and MOGA) for shape optimization of Flatback, FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils to achieve maximum lift and/or maximum lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and a three equation k-kl-o turbulence model. The optimization methodology is validated by an optimization study of subsonic and transonic airfoils (NACA0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils). In this dissertation, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and lambda and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated

  9. Heat Transfer and Pressure Distributions on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azad, Gm S.; Han, Je-Chin; Teng, Shuye; Boyle, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and static pressure distributions are experimentally investigated on a gas turbine blade tip in a five-bladed stationary linear cascade. The blade is a 2-dimensional model of a first stage gas turbine rotor blade with a blade tip profile of a GE-E(sup 3) aircraft gas turbine engine rotor blade. The flow condition in the test cascade corresponds to an overall pressure ratio of 1.32 and exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 1.1 x 10(exp 6). The middle 3-blade has a variable tip gap clearance. All measurements are made at three different tip gap clearances of about 1%, 1.5%, and 2.5% of the blade span. Heat transfer measurements are also made at two different turbulence intensity levels of 6.1 % and 9.7% at the cascade inlet. Static pressure measurements are made in the mid-span and the near-tip regions as well as on the shroud surface, opposite the blade tip surface. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on the plane tip surface are measured using a transient liquid crystal technique. Results show various regions of high and low heat transfer coefficient on the tip surface. Tip clearance has a significant influence on local tip beat transfer coefficient distribution. Heat transfer coefficient also increases about 15-20% along the leakage flow path at higher turbulence intensity level of 9.7% over 6.1 %.

  10. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Lark, R.F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    A contract was awarded to Gougeon Brothers, Inc., by NASA Lewis Research Center, under Department of Energy sponsorship, for the development and fabrication of two 60-foot, low-cost wood composite blades for service on a 200-kW Mod-0A wind turbine machine. The contractural effort consisted of blade design and analysis and fabrication phases. This report provides a brief summary of the design and analysis phase, and an indepth review of the blade fabrication phase. The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load takeoff studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the newest Mod-0A wind turbine test facility at Kukuku, Hawaii called Makini Huila (wind wheel) by the Hawaiians. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an 18-month period (nearly 8000 h) prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades were taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit. The remainder of the blade, including the embedded portion of the fractured stud, and the entire wood structure was found to be in excellent condition. All of the remaining studs, with the exception of four studs that showed an onset of corrosion, were also in excellent condition. The failed stud, as well as four of the corroded studs were successfully replaced with new studs. The blade is currently in a service-ready condition.

  11. Performance of a steel spar wind turbine blade on the Mod-0 100 kW experimental wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Sullivan, T. L.; Viterna, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and loading of a large wind rotor, 38.4 m in diameter and composed of two low-cost steel spar blades were examined. Two blades were fabricated at Lewis Research Center and successfully operated on the Mod-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook. The blades were operated on a tower on which the natural bending frequency were altered by placing the tower on a leaf-spring apparatus. It was found that neither blade performance nor loading were affected significantly by this tower softening technique. Rotor performance exceeded prediction while blade loads were found to be in reasonable agreement with those predicted. Seventy-five hours of operation over a five month period resulted in no deterioration in the blade.

  12. Design and fabrication of composite blades for the Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.; Gunsallus, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    The design, tooling, fabrication, quality control, and testing phases carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes are discussed as well as the lightning protection system installed in the blades. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production.

  13. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Hydro Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-11-30

    BioIndex testing of hydro-turbines is sought as an analog to the hydraulic index testing conducted on hydro-turbines to optimize their power production efficiency. In BioIndex testing the goal is to identify those operations within the range identified by Index testing where the survival of fish passing through the turbine is maximized. BioIndex testing includes the immediate tailrace region as well as the turbine environment between a turbine's intake trashracks and the exit of its draft tube. The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of Energy have been evaluating a variety of means, such as numerical and physical turbine models, to investigate the quality of flow through a hydro-turbine and other aspects of the turbine environment that determine its safety for fish. The goal is to use these tools to develop hypotheses identifying turbine operations and predictions of their biological performance that can be tested at prototype scales. Acceptance of hypotheses would be the means for validation of new operating rules for the turbine tested that would be in place when fish were passing through the turbines. The overall goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of numerical blade strike models as a tool to aid development of testable hypotheses for bioIndexing. Evaluation of the performance of numerical blade strike models is accomplished by comparing predictions of fish mortality resulting from strike by turbine runner blades with observations made using live test fish at mainstem Columbia River Dams and with other predictions of blade strike made using observations of beads passing through a 1:25 scale physical turbine model.

  14. Process/health monitoring for wind turbine blade by using FBG sensors with multiplexing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, S. H.; Kageyama, K.; Murayama, H.; Uzawa, K.; Ohsawa, I.; Kanai, M.; Igawa, H.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we applied fiber Bragg grating sensors to conduct process/health monitoring of wind turbine blade manufactured by VaRTM. In this study, we used a long gauge FBG (about 100mm) based optical frequency domain reflectometory (OFDR) and 8 FBGs on a single fiber based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Resin flow front and resin cure were detected during VaRTM. After manufacturing, structural health monitoring was conducted with the blades. These sensors with multiplexing techniques were able to monitor VaRTM process and wind turbine blade successfully.

  15. Effect of Manufacturing-Induced Defects on Reliability of Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Julie; Niezrecki, Christopher; Sherwood, James; Avitabile, Peter; Rumsey, Mark; Hughes, Scott; Nolet, Stephen; et al.

    2012-08-31

    In support of DOE's efforts on developing affordable, reliable domestic wind power, this ARRA project brought together a strong, complementary team from academia (University of Massachusetts Lowell), two DOE laboratories (NREL and Sandia), and a major wind turbine blade manufacturer (TPI) to address one of the key issues affecting wind power cost and reliability manufacturing-induced defects in the blades. The complexity of this problem required the assembled team's expertise in materials specifically textile and composite structures finite element modeling, composites manufacturing, mechanical characterization, structural dynamics, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and structural health monitoring (SHM), sensors, and wind turbine blade testing. This final report summarizes the results of this project.

  16. Eddy-Current Inspection of Cracking in Land-Based Gas Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, H.; Ogata, T.

    2004-02-01

    There has been a growing need in the electric utility industry to assess the remaining life of blades in gas turbines. It is quite important to nondestructively comprehend the depths of surface-breaking cracks in blades. Flexible eddy current array probes have been developed to overcome the major limitations of existing eddy current inspection systems. The use of an array of sensors allows cracks of all lengths to be detected and will ultimately allow real time data imaging to provide rapid inspection and easy interpretation. For this study using eddy current techniques, crack detection equipment has been developed and applied to gas turbine Stage 1 blades for field use.

  17. Development of a Noninterference Technique for Measurement of Turbine Engine Compressor Blade Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    TECHNIQUE FOR MEASUREMENT OF TURBINE ENGINE COMPRESSOR BLADE STRESS 7 A U T H O R ( s ) P . E. M c C a r t y a n d J . W. Thompson , J r...e a e a ~ and tdentJ~ by b|ock numbe~ A noninterference technique for measuring stress in compressor blades of turbine engines is being developed...43 4 AEDC-TR-79-78 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Compressor rotor blades in turbojet engines are subjected to

  18. Fatigue life variability and reliability analysis of a wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veers, P. S.; Sutherland, H. J.; Ashwill, T. D.

    Wind turbines must withstand harsh environments that induce many stress cycles into their components. A numerical analysis package is used to illustrate the sobering variability in predicted fatigue life with relatively small changes in inputs. The variability of the input parameters is modeled to obtain estimates of the fatigue reliability of the turbine blades.

  19. Experimental-Calculation Investigations of the Cooled Blades of the GTE-65 Gas-Turbine Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.; Zolotogorov, M. S.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Egorov, I. N.; Lebedev, A. S.; Krivonosova, V. V.; Sundukov, Yu. M.

    2008-01-01

    Results obtained from experimental investigations of the cooled blades of a high-temperature turbine on the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association's hot-test rig are presented. A comparison between calculated and experimental data is given.

  20. STS-55 MS3 Harris holds turbine blade sample at SL-D2 Rack 8 Werkstofflabor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, wearing gloves, holds turbine blade sample and examines it in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (Material Sciences Laboratory). Harris is working at the Furnace for Turbine-blade geometry specimens to process special metallic alloys and cast them in the shape of turbine blades. SL-D2 is the German-managed payload aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  1. Investigation of a Cermet Gas-turbine-blade Material of Titanium Carbide Infiltrated with Hastalloy C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1955-01-01

    A cermet composition was investigated as a potential material for gas-turbine blades. Blades of HS-21 alloy were also operated in the engine simultaneously to provide a basis of comparison. The cermet blades survived as long as approximately 312-1/2 hours at about 1500 degrees F with an average midspan centrifugal stress of approximately 11,500 psi. The alloy blade midspan stress was about 15,300 psi. Because of extensive damage to both types of blade due to external causes, a reliable comparison of operating lives could not be made. The cermet blades tended to fail in the airfoil rather than in the base, although the base was the usual location of failure in a prior study of cold-pressed and sintered cermets of other compositions with the same blade shape.

  2. Study on the Pressure Pulsation inside Runner with Splitter Blades in Ultra-High Head Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Zhang, S. P.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.

    2014-03-01

    Runners with splitter blades were used widely for the high efficiency and stability. In this paper, the unsteady simulation of an ultra-high head turbine at the best efficiency point, 50% and 75% discharge points were established, to analyze the pressure pulsation in the vaneless space, rotating domain and the draft tube. First of all, runners with different length splitter blades and without splitter blades were compared to learn the efficiency and the pressure distribution on the blade surface. And then the amplitude of the pressure pulsation was analysed. The peak efficiency of the runner with splitter blades is remarkably higher than that of the corresponding impeller without splitter blades. And the efficiency of the turbine is the highest when the length ratio of the splitter blades is 0.75 times the main blades. The pressure pulsation characteristics were also influenced, because the amplitudes of the pulsation induced by the RSI phenomenon were changed as a result of more blades. At last, the best design plan of the length of the splitter blades (length ratio=0.825) was obtained, which improved the pressure pulsation characteristics without significant prejudice to the efficiency.

  3. Structural Health Monitoring on Turbine Engines Using Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Clem, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The ability to monitor the structural health of the rotating components, especially in the hot sections of turbine engines, is of major interest to aero community in improving engine safety and reliability. The use of instrumentation for these applications remains very challenging. It requires sensors and techniques that are highly accurate, are able to operate in a high temperature environment, and can detect minute changes and hidden flaws before catastrophic events occur. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken a lead role in the investigation of new sensor technologies and techniques for the in situ structural health monitoring of gas turbine engines. As part of this effort, microwave sensor technology has been investigated as a means of making high temperature non-contact blade tip clearance, blade tip timing, and blade vibration measurements for use in gas turbine engines. This paper presents a summary of key results and findings obtained from the evaluation of two different types of microwave sensors that have been investigated for use possible in structural health monitoring applications. The first is a microwave blade tip clearance sensor that has been evaluated on a large scale Axial Vane Fan, a subscale Turbofan, and more recently on sub-scale turbine engine like disks. The second is a novel microwave based blade vibration sensor that was also used in parallel with the microwave blade tip clearance sensors on the experiments with the sub-scale turbine engine disks.

  4. Structural health monitoring on turbine engines using microwave blade tip clearance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woike, Mark; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Clem, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    The ability to monitor the structural health of the rotating components, especially in the hot sections of turbine engines, is of major interest to the aero community in improving engine safety and reliability. The use of instrumentation for these applications remains very challenging. It requires sensors and techniques that are highly accurate, are able to operate in a high temperature environment, and can detect minute changes and hidden flaws before catastrophic events occur. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken a lead role in the investigation of new sensor technologies and techniques for the in situ structural health monitoring of gas turbine engines. As part of this effort, microwave sensor technology has been investigated as a means of making high temperature non-contact blade tip clearance, blade tip timing, and blade vibration measurements for use in gas turbine engines. This paper presents a summary of key results and findings obtained from the evaluation of two different types of microwave sensors that have been investigated for possible use in structural health monitoring applications. The first is a microwave blade tip clearance sensor that has been evaluated on a large scale Axial Vane Fan, a subscale Turbofan, and more recently on sub-scale turbine engine like disks. The second is a novel microwave based blade vibration sensor that was also used in parallel with the microwave blade tip clearance sensors on the same experiments with the sub-scale turbine engine disks.

  5. The effect of blade pitch in the rotor hydrodynamics of a cross-flow turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoano, Miguel; Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    In this work we will show how the hydrodynamics of the rotor of a straight-bladed Cross-Flow Turbine (CFT) are affected by the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), and the blade pitch angle imposed to the rotor. The CFT model used in experiments consists of a three-bladed (NACA-0015) vertical axis turbine with a chord (c) to rotor diameter (D) ratio of 0.16. Planar Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used, with the laser sheet aiming at the mid-span of the blades, illuminating the inner part of the rotor and the near wake of the turbine. Tests were made by forcing the rotation of the turbine with a DC motor, which provided precise control of the TSR, while being towed in a still-water tank at a constant Reynolds number of 61000. A range of TSRs from 0.7 to 2.3 were covered for different blade pitches, ranging from 8° toe-in to 16° toe-out. The interaction between the blades in the rotor will be discussed by examining dimensionless phase-averaged vorticity fields in the inner part of the rotor and mean velocity fields in the near wake of the turbine. Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Grant BES-2013-065366 and project DPI2015-71645-P.

  6. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  7. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  8. Computational investigation of flow control by means of tubercles on Darrieus wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevinç, K.; Özdamar, G.; Şentürk, U.; Özdamar, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents the current status of the computational study of the boundary layer control of a vertical axis wind turbine blade by modifying the blade geometry for use in wind energy conversion. The control method is a passive method which comprises the implementation of the tubercle geometry of a humpback whale flipper onto the leading edge of the blades. The baseline design is an H-type, three-bladed Darrieus turbine with a NACA 0015 cross-section. Finite-volume based software ANSYS Fluent was used in the simulations. Using the optimum control parameters for a NACA 634-021 profile given by Johari et al. (2006), turbine blades were modified. Three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent simulations for the blade were conducted to look for a possible improvement on the performance. The flow structure on the blades was investigated and flow phenomena such as separation and stall were examined to understand their impact on the overall performance. For a tip speed ratio of 2.12, good agreement was obtained in the validation of the baseline model with a relative error in time- averaged power coefficient of 1.05%. Modified turbine simulations with a less expensive but less accurate turbulence model yielded a decrease in power coefficient. Results are shown comparatively.

  9. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Cermet Turbine Stator Blades for Use at Elevated Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.; Johnston, James R.

    1959-01-01

    The suitability of cermets for turbine stator blades of a modified turbojet engine was determined at an average turbine-inlet-gas temperature of 2000 F. Such an increase in temperature would yield a premium in thrust from a service engine. Because the cermet blades require no cooling, all the available compressor bleed air could be used to cool a turbine made from conventional ductile alloys. Cermet blades were first run in 100-hour endurance tests at normal gas temperatures in order to evaluate two methods for mounting them. The elevated gas-temperature test was then run using the method of support considered best for high-temperature operation. After 52 hours at 2000 F, one of the group of four cermet blades fractured probably because of end loads resulting from thermal distortion of the spacer band of the nozzle diaphragm. Improved design of a service engine would preclude this cause of premature failure.

  11. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  12. Vortex-induced vibration effect on fatigue life estimate of turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. L.; Leung, R. C. K.; So, R. M. C.

    2007-11-01

    An analysis of a turbine blade fatigue life that includes the physics of fluid-structure interaction on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) life estimate of turbine blades is carried out. The rotor wake excitation is modeled by rows of Karman vortices superimposed on an inviscid uniform flow. The vortex-induced vibration problem is modeled by a linear cascade composed of five turbine blades and the coupled Euler and structural dynamics equations are numerically solved using a time-marching boundary element technique. The analysis can be applied to any blade geometries; it is not limited to the blade geometry considered here. Two major design parameters have been identified; the ratio of blade spacing to blade chord length s/ c of the stator, and the normalized frequency parameter c/ d which is related to the wake passing frequency of the rotor. For a rigid cascade, it is found that aerodynamic resonance prevails at the resonant c/ d values corresponding to an isolated blade while s/ c is responsible for the level of the aerodynamic response. If the central blades were elastic, the parameter s/ c plays a different role in the fluid-structure interaction problem. With a c/ d that could lead to structural resonance for an isolated blade, changing s/ c would stabilize the aerodynamic and structural response of the elastic blade in a cascade. On the contrary, an improper choice of s/ c might turn the elastic blade response into structural resonance even though the oncoming c/ d is non-resonant. The results of the nonlinear effects of c/ d and s/ c could be used together with the Campbell diagram to obtain an improved HCF design of rotor-stator pair.

  13. Developing a passive load reduction blade for the DTU 10 MW reference turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vaal, J. B.; Nygaard, T. A.; Stenbro, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a passive load reduction blade for the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine, using the aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis tool 3DFloat. Passive load reduction is achieved by introducing sweep to the path of the blade elastic axis, so that out-of-plane bending deflections result in load alleviating torsional deformations of the blade. Swept blades are designed to yield similar annual energy production as a rotor with a reference straight blade. This is achieved by modifying the aerodynamic twist distribution for swept blades based on non-linear blade deflection under steady state loads. The passive load reduction capability of a blade design is evaluated by running a selection of fatigue- and extreme load cases with the analysis tool 3DFloat and determining equivalent fatigue loads, fatigue damage and extreme loads at the blade root and tower base. The influence of sweep on the flutter speed of a blade design is also investigated. A large number of blade designs are evaluated by varying the parameters defining the sweep path of a blade's elastic axis. Results show that a moderate amount of sweep can effectively reduce equivalent fatigue damage and extreme loads, without significantly reducing the flutter speed, or compromising annual energy production.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Blade Lean and Sweep affecting Secondary Flows in an Axial Expansion Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neipp, A.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    Based on an axial expansion turbine used for energy recovery from working fluids an automated CFD-flow optimization was performed to increase the turbine efficiency without narrowing the operating range. The optimization results showed that even small changes in the optimization target had a significant influence on the lean and sweep of the new blade designs. The resulting blade shapes were extraordinary. The lean and sweep resembled more that of thermal turbomachinery than hydraulic machinery. It became clear that the special blade shapes were a result of the very low aspect ratio of the turbine and the resulting large influence of secondary flows. The blade lean and sweep induce secondary flow structures which are of decisive importance for the turbine performance. The simulation results showed that positive compound lean increases the efficiency and positive compound sweep improves the cavitation behavior of the investigated axial expansion turbine. However the complexity of the occurring secondary flows make an universally valid statement on the effect of blade lean and sweep on the flow behavior of an axial turbine impossible.

  15. Finite-element impact response of debonded composite turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates on the transient behavior of debonded composite pretwisted rotating shallow conical shells which could be idealized as turbine blades subjected to low velocity normal impact using finite-element method. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and the moderate rotational speeds are considered neglecting the Coriolis effect. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the impact parameters. The time-dependent equations are solved by using Newmark's time integration scheme. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects of triggering parameters like angle of twist, rotational speed, laminate configuration and location of debonding considering low velocity normal impact at the center of eight-layered graphite-epoxy composite cantilevered conical shells with bending stiff ([0o2/{±} 30o]s), torsion stiff ([45°/-45°/-45°/45°]s) and cross-ply ([0°/90°/0°/90°]s) laminate configurations.

  16. Leading edge film cooling effects on turbine blade heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    An existing three dimensional Navier-Stokes code, modified to include film cooling considerations, has been used to study the effect of spanwise pitch of shower-head holes and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a film-cooled turbine vane. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. It is found that with the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio fixed, reducing P, the spanwise pitch for shower-head holes, from 7.5 d to 3.0 d, where d is the hole diameter, increases the average effectiveness considerably over the blade surface. However, when P/d= 7.5, increasing the coolant mass flow increases the effectiveness on the pressure surface but reduces it on the suction surface due to coolant jet lift-off. For P/d = 4.5 or 3.0, such an anomaly does not occur within the range of coolant to mainstream mass flow ratios analyzed. In all cases, adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are highly three-dimensional.

  17. Flow control in low pressure turbine blades using plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakumar, Karthik

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study of plasma flow control actuators for flow separation control in low pressure turbine (LPT) blades is presented. The actuator arrangement consists of two copper strips separated by a dielectric medium with an input voltage of approximately 5kV and a frequency input varying from 3-5 kHz, creating a region of plasma used for boundary layer flow control. The effect of varying waveform on control efficacy is investigated using sine, square and saw tooth waveforms. The impact of duty cycle and forcing frequency on both displacement and momentum thickness are also examined. Boundary layer measurements are carried out using PIV while measurements of the wake downstream are performed using a 7-hole probe for Reynolds number ranging from 30,000 to 50,000. Separation is fully controlled in most configurations and boundary layer parameters reveal that the actuator entrains the free-stream flow at the actuator location and creates a region of high turbulence, essentially behaving similar to an active boundary layer trip. A small region of reversed flow near the surface indicates the presence of cross-stream vortical structures. The use of plasma synthetic jet actuators flow LPT flow control is also discussed.

  18. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  19. Local Mass and Heat Transfer on a Turbine Blade Tip

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, P.; Goldstein, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Locmore » al mass and heat transfer measurements on a simulated high-pressure turbine blade-tip surface are conducted in a linear cascade with a nonmoving tip endwall, using a naphthalene sublimation technique. The effects of tip clearance (0.86–6.90% of chord) are investigated at various exit Reynolds numbers (4–7 × 10 5 ) and turbulence intensities (0.2 and 12.0%). The mass transfer on the tip surface is significant along its pressure edge at the smallest tip clearance. At the two largest tip clearances, the separation bubble on the tip surface can cover the whole width of the tip on the second half of the tip surface. The average mass-transfer rate is highest at a tip clearance of 1.72% of chord. The average mass-transfer rate on the tip surface is four and six times as high as on the suction and the pressure surface, respectively. A high mainstream turbulence level of 12.0% reduces average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface, while the higher mainstream Reynolds number generates higher local and average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface.« less

  20. Combined wind turbine fatigue and ultimate load reduction by individual blade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Leithead, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    If each blade of the wind turbine has individual pitch actuator, there is possibility of employing the pitch system to mitigate structural loads through advanced control methods. Previously, considerable reduction of blade lifetime equivalent fatigue loads has been achieved by Individual Blade Control (IBC) and in addition, it has also been shown the potential in blade ultimate loads reduction. However, both fatigue and ultimate loads impact on the design and life of wind turbine blades. In this paper, the design and application of IBC that concurrently reduce both blade fatigue and ultimate loads is investigated. The contributions of blade load spectral components, which are 1P, 2P and edgewise mode from blade in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending moments, are firstly explored. Four different control options for reducing various combinations of these load components are compared. In response to the different spectral peaks of both fatigue and ultimate loads, the controller has been designed so that it can act on different frequency components which vary with wind speed. The performance of the IBC controller on fatigue and ultimate load reduction is assessed by simulating a 5MW exemplar wind turbine. Simulation results show that with a proper selection of controlling inputs at different wind speed, the use of a single combined IBC can achieve satisfactory reduction on both fatigue and ultimate loads.

  1. Construction of low-cost, Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Lark, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbines is described. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycomb-cored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The blades have completed nearly 8000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections at NASA-Lewis showed that the wood composite structure remains in excellent condition.

  2. Automated eddy current inspection of Space Shuttle APU turbine wheel blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jay L.; Rowland, Stephen N.; Stolte, Jeffrey S.; Salkowski, Charles

    1991-01-01

    An automated inspection system based on eddy current testing (ET) techniques has been developed to inspect turbine wheel blades on the APU used in NASA's Space Transportation system. The APU is a hydrazine-powered gas turbine with a 15-cm diameter Rene 41 turbine wheel, which has 123 first-stage blades and 123 second-stage blades. The flaw detection capability of the ET system is verified through comparison with fluorescent penetrant test results. Results of the comparison indicate that ET is capable of inspecting surfaces with very restrictive geometries. The ET capability requires development of probes with extremely small coils to allow inspection within 0.4 mm of the blade root and the leading and trailing edges of the blade and within a height restriction of less than 1 mm. The color 2D presentation of the ET data provided crack-growth pattern and length information similar to those found with visual techniques. It also provided visual clues to minimize geometry effects such as generated from blade edges, a neighoring blade, and changes in the blade thickness.

  3. Estimation of turbine blade natural frequencies from casing pressure and vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Gareth L.; Randall, Robert B.

    2013-04-01

    Non-contact measurement of gas turbine rotor blade vibration is a non-trivial task, with no method available which achieves this aim without some significant draw-backs . This paper presents a truly non-contact method to estimate rotor blade natural frequencies from casing vibration measurements at a single engine operating speed. An analytical model is derived to simulate the internal casing pressure in a turbine engine including the effects of blade vibration on this pressure signal. It is shown that the internal pressure inside a turbine contains measureable information about the rotor blade natural frequencies and in-turn the casing vibration response also contains this information. The results presented herein show the residual, pressure and casing vibration, spectrum can be used to determine the rotor blade natural frequencies with validation provided for the analytical model by experimental measurements on a simplified test rig. A simulated blade fault in one of the rotor blades is introduced with successful estimation of the simulated faulty blade natural frequency.

  4. Dynamic stall analysis of horizontal-axis-wind-turbine blades using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Mohamed A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Morgan, El-Sayed I.

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic stall has been widely known to significantly affect the performance of the wind turbines. In this paper, aerodynamic simulation of the unsteady low-speed flow past two-dimensional wind turbine blade profiles, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), will be performed. The aerodynamic simulation will be performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The governing equations used in the simulations are the Unsteady-Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The unsteady separated turbulent flow around an oscillating airfoil pitching in a sinusoidal pattern in the regime of low Reynolds number is investigated numerically. The investigation employs the URANS approach with the most suitable turbulence model. The development of the light dynamic stall of the blades under consideration is studied. The S809 blade profile is simulated at different mean wind speeds. Moreover, the S826 blade profile is also considered for analysis of wind turbine blade which is the most suitable blade profile for the wind conditions in Egypt over the site of Gulf of El-Zayt. In order to find the best oscillating frequency, different oscillating frequencies are studied. The best frequency can then be used for the blade pitch controller. The comparisons with the experimental results showed that the used CFD code can accurately predict the blade profile unsteady aerodynamic loads.

  5. Evaluation of Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Blades with Shells of "Poroloy" Wire Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Hadley T.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate the durability and permeability of a group of transpiration-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades. The porous shells were formed from a woven-wire material. The blades were fabricated by a contractor for the Bureau of Aeronautics. The results of permeability tests indicated that the shell material exhibited large random variations in local permeability, which result in excessive coolant flows and very nonuniform cooling. For this reason no heat-transfer evaluations were made because any results would have been inconclusive. Four blades were investigated for structural soundness in a turbo-jet engine operating at a turbine-inlet temperature of approximately 1670 deg F and a turbine tip speed of approximately 1305 feet per second. The maximum temperature of the porous-shell material was approximately 1050 deg F. Inspection of the first two blades after 10 minutes of engine operation revealed that the tips of both of the blades had failed. For the second pair of blades, an improved tip cap was provided by the use of built-up weld extending from strut tip to shell. One of these blades was then operated for 33 hours without failure, and was found to be in good condition at the end of this time. The second blade of this second pair failed within the first 10 minutes of operation because of a poor bond between shell and strut lands.

  6. Evaluation of service-induced damage and restoration of cast turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, C.; Persson, P.O. )

    1993-08-01

    Conventionally cast turbine blades of Inconel 713C, from a military gas turbine aircraft engine, have been investigated with regard to service-induced microstructural damage and residual creep life time. For cast turbine blades, service life is defined by statistical values. The statistical methods can prove to be uneconomical, because safe limits must be stated with regard to the statistical probability that some blades will have higher damage than normal. An alternative approach is to determine the service-induced microstructural damage on each blade, or a representative number of blades, to better optimize blade usage. Ways to use service-induced [gamma][prime] rafting and void formation as quantified microstructural damage parameters in a service lifetime prediction model are suggested. The damage parameters were quantified, in blades with different service exposure levels, and correlated to remaining creep life evaluated from creep test specimens taken from different positions of serviced blades. Results from tests with different rejuvenation treatments, including hot isostatic pressing and/or heat treatment, are discussed briefly.

  7. Calculating the reflected radiation error between turbine blades and vanes based on double contour integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chi; Li, Dong; Gao, Shan; Daniel, Ketui

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamic) simulation and experimental results for the reflected radiation error from turbine vanes when measuring turbine blade's temperature using a pyrometer. In the paper, an accurate reflection model based on discrete irregular surfaces is established. Double contour integral method is used to calculate view factor between the irregular surfaces. Calculated reflected radiation error was found to change with relative position between blades and vanes as temperature distribution of vanes and blades was simulated using CFD. Simulation results indicated that when the vanes suction surface temperature ranged from 860 K to 1060 K and the blades pressure surface average temperature is 805 K, pyrometer measurement error can reach up to 6.35%. Experimental results show that the maximum pyrometer absolute error of three different targets on the blade decreases from 6.52%, 4.15% and 1.35% to 0.89%, 0.82% and 0.69% respectively after error correction.

  8. Analysis of the causes of fracture of turbine blades in a gas-compressor unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalko, V. G.; Novgorodov, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    The problems of the fatigue life of gas-compressor unit blades are discussed. In particular, the results of fractographic investigation are used to formulate the specific features of fracture of stamped lowpressure turbine blades made of an EI893 alloy, which exhibit the maximum number of damages in a five-year period. In 80% cases, fracture begins with the formation of a brittle zone in the leading edge of a blade airfoil because of the resonance phenomena caused by a break in the stiffness of the blade-turbine disk joint. This conclusion is supported by pronounced traces of fretting corrosion in the contact surfaces of the joint of a failed blade and a disk.

  9. Trends in the Design, Manufacture and Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veers, Paul S.; Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J.; Laird, Daniel L.; Lobitz, Donald W.; Griffin, Dayton A.; Mandell, John F.; Musial, Walter D.; Jackson, Kevin; Zuteck, Michael; Miravete, Antonio; Tsai, Stephen W.; Richmond, James L.

    2003-07-01

    Wind turbine blades continue to be the target of technological improvements by the use of better designs, materials, manufacturing, analysis and testing. As the size of turbines has grown over the past decade, designers have restrained the associated growth in blade weight to less than would have been possible through simple scaling-up of past approaches. These past improvements are briefly summarized. Manufacturing trends and design drivers are presented, as are the ways these design drivers have changed. Issues related to blade material choices are described, first for the currently dominant glass fibre technology and then for the potential use of carbon fibres. Some possible directions for future blade design options are presented, namely new planforms, aerofoils and aeroelastic tailoring. The significant improvement in sophistication of stress analysis and full-scale blade testing are also discussed.

  10. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  11. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades : SE 265 Final Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, W. C.; Jacobs, Laura D.; Rutherford, A. C.; Puckett, Anthony

    2006-03-23

    ACME Wind Turbine Corporation has contacted our dynamic analysis firm regarding structural health monitoring of their wind turbine blades. ACME has had several failures in previous years. Examples are shown in Figure 1. These failures have resulted in economic loss for the company due to down time of the turbines (lost revenue) and repair costs. Blade failures can occur in several modes, which may depend on the type of construction and load history. Cracking and delamination are some typical modes of blade failure. ACME warranties its turbines and wishes to decrease the number of blade failures they have to repair and replace. The company wishes to implement a real time structural health monitoring system in order to better understand when blade replacement is necessary. Because of warranty costs incurred to date, ACME is interested in either changing the warranty period for the blades in question or predicting imminent failure before it occurs. ACME's current practice is to increase the number of physical inspections when blades are approaching the end of their fatigue lives. Implementation of an in situ monitoring system would eliminate or greatly reduce the need for such physical inspections. Another benefit of such a monitoring system is that the life of any given component could be extended since real conditions would be monitored. The SHM system designed for ACME must be able to operate while the wind turbine is in service. This means that wireless communication options will likely be implemented. Because blade failures occur due to cyclic stresses in the blade material, the sensing system will focus on monitoring strain at various points.

  12. A comparison between 2-and 3-bladed wind turbine rotors with focus on wake characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, Franz; Adaramola, Muyiwa Samuel; Sætran, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Due to cost benefit and weight reduction, 2-bladed wind turbines have the potential to become more important for offshore wind applications. In order to optimize the arrangement of wind turbines in wind farms and for accurate forecasts of the power production, a detailed knowledge of the wake flow is needed. In the presented study, three different rotors with varying number of blades and similar performance behavior have been designed and manufactured using the 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The performance characteristics of these rotors as well as their wake features are measured experimentally in wind tunnel tests and compared. The velocity deficit is seen to vary only insignificantly for the wakes in distances of 3D (where D is the rotor diameter), 5D and 7D behind the turbine. However, higher turbulence intensity levels are recorded in the wake of the 2-bladed rotors. This could have potential for a faster wake recovery and thus a narrower turbine spacing.

  13. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  14. Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2005-09-29

    Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Report Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC) has performed a conceptual design study concerning aeroelastic tailoring of small wind turbine blades. The primary objectives were to evaluate ways that blade/rotor geometry could be used to enable cost-of-energy reductions by enhancing energy capture while constraining or mitigating blade costs, system loads, and related component costs. This work builds on insights developed in ongoing adaptive-blade programs but with a focus on application to small turbine systems with isotropic blade material properties and with combined blade sweep and pre-bending/pre-curving to achieve the desired twist coupling. Specific goals of this project are to: (A) Evaluate and quantify the extent to which rotor geometry can be used to realize load-mitigating small wind turbine rotors. Primary aspects of the load mitigation are: (1) Improved overspeed safety affected by blades twisting toward stall in response to speed increases. (2) Reduced fatigue loading affected by blade twisting toward feather in response to turbulent gusts. (B) Illustrate trade-offs and design sensitivities for this concept. (C) Provide the technical basis for small wind turbine manufacturers to evaluate this concept and commercialize if the technology appears favorable. The SolidWorks code was used to rapidly develop solid models of blade with varying shapes and material properties. Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed using the COSMOS code modeling with tip-loads and centripetal accelerations. This tool set was used to investigate the potential for aeroelastic tailoring with combined planform sweep and pre-curve. An extensive matrix of design variables was investigated, including aerodynamic design, magnitude and shape of planform sweep, magnitude and shape of blade pre-curve, material stiffness, and rotor diameter. The FEA simulations resulted in substantial insights into the structural

  15. Turbine blade root design concept promises superior alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, O. D.

    1966-01-01

    Blade-to-hub mounting concept assures excellent alignment integrity and results in elimination of some welding problems associated with designs. With this design, if rework is required, blade removal and replacement may be readily accomplished without damage to blade positioning media on the wheel hub.

  16. Axial-Loading Circumferential Dovetail Turbine-Blade Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Martin J.; Ward, Steven D.; Eskridge, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    In new configuration, retaining ring holds base of blades in circumferential dovetail slot. Blades inserted axially via loading slots into circumferential dovetail slot. Ring placed over loading slots and fastened with split ring held by arm of disk. Blades less likely to be shaken loose during operation.

  17. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  18. NREL Wind Turbine Blade Structural Testing of the Modular Wind Energy MW45 Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-354

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was a purely funds-in CRADA with Modular Wind Energy (MWE). MWE had a need to perform full-scale testing of a 45-m wind turbine blade. NREL/NWTC provided the capabilities, facilities, and equipment to test this large-scale MWE wind turbine blade. Full-scale testing is required to demonstrate the ability of the wind turbine blade to withstand static design load cases and demonstrate the fatigue durability. Structural testing is also necessary to meet international blade testing certification requirements. Through this CRADA, MWE would obtain test results necessary for product development and certification, and NREL would benefit by working with an industrial partner to better understand the unique test requirements for wind turbine blades with advanced structural designs.

  19. Two-dimensional cascade test of a highly loaded, low-solidity, tandem airfoil turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Stabe, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A tip region section of a low-solidity tandem airfoil blade for a turbine rotor was tested in a two-dimensional cascade tunnel at solidities of 0.736 and 0.912. Blade surface static pressures and blade exit total and static pressure and flow angle were surveyed. Blade surface velocities, wake shapes, and kinetic energy losses were analyzed and compared with values for 1.852 solidity tandem airfoil blading.

  20. Design and evaluation of low-cost laminated wood composite blades for intermediate size wind turbines: Blade design, fabrication concept, and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Gaugeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zueck, M.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a program to reduce wind turbine costs, an evaluation was conducted of a laminated wood composite blade for the Mod-OA 200 kW wind turbine. The effort included the design and fabrication concept for the blade, together with cost and load analyses. The blade structure is composed of laminated Douglas fir veneers for the primary spar and nose sections, and honeycomb cored plywood panels for the trailing edges sections. The attachment of the wood blade to the rotor hub was through load takeoff studs bonded into the blade root. Tests were conducted on specimens of the key structural components to verify the feasibility of the concept. It is concluded that the proposed wood composite blade design and fabrication concept is suitable for Mod-OA size turbines (125-ft diameter rotor) at a cost that is very competitive with other methods of manufacture.

  1. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  2. Simulations of Blade Angle Effects on EGAT-Micro Hydro Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuantong, Weerapon; Taechajedcadarungsri, Sirivit

    2010-06-01

    Following the feasibility study of design phase of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) in-house micro hydro bulb turbine at Huai Kum Dam drainage pipeline from the reservoir for irrigation, the simulation of blade angle effects had been performed. In this case study, the turbine was designed at the average head of 21 m and water flow rate of 0.424 m3/s. The simulation was conducted in order to study of the effects of blade angle on the fluid flow for this specific case. The LES turbulence model under the practical condition of unsteady flow and incompressible fluid at Huai Kum Dam was investigated. The rotating blades effect the change in pressure and momentum which depend on head and flow rate of fluid. The research studied pressure and velocity of fluid flow on blades solving the pre-design for the improvement of hydro turbine efficiency. The computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the pressure and velocity distributions on blades of hydro bulb turbine which consists of five-blade runner and rotates at 980 rpm by using Fluent Software. The model was set at the blade twist angle of 25o and blade camber angle of 32o and then adjusted the guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o respectively for comparing the maximum and minimum pressure on both sides of the blades as well as the corresponding efficiency. The results have shown that by setting guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o, the maximum pressure, located at the leading edge of pressure side, are 213 kPa, 217 kPa and 207 kPa and the minimum pressure, located at the leading edge of suction side are -473 kPa, -465 kPa, and -581 kPa respectively. The flow profiles of pressure, velocity and stream line showed the guidelines of better blade angle comparisons. The maximum efficiency of hydro bulb turbine found in this study was 67.8% at blade angle of 32o and guide vane of 60o. This case study will be further investigated on the blade design for the improvement of the turbine efficiency

  3. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  4. Optimization of a Turbine Blade Trailing Edge using Large Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blonigan, Patrick; Talnikar, Chaitanya; Bodart, Julien; Pierce, Brian; Bose, Sanjeeb; Wang, Qiqi

    2014-11-01

    As for many turbomachinery components, heat transfer and pressure loss are the key quantities influencing the design of turbine blades. To compute correct heat transfer and pressure loss data, flow features such as boundary layer transition and flow separation must be captured accurately. While traditional Computation Fluid Dynamics models such as Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) struggle to capture these features accurately, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is able to. This talk discusses an optimization study of a turbine blade trailing edge. The design of turbine blades involves two classical competing objectives: minimizing pressure loss and minimizing heat transfer to the blade. This trade-off is especially apparent for the design of the blade's trailing edge. The study was conducted using a novel Bayesian optimization technique developed by the authors. The optimization algorithm is combined with a massively parallel LES solver and the results for a number of trailing edge designs including the optimal geometry will be presented and their implications for turbine blade design will be discussed.

  5. Dynamic stall development in the near-root region of a model wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Cal, Raul Bayoan; Mulleners, Karen

    2014-11-01

    The dynamic behavior of atmospheric flows create highly variable operational conditions which affect the life expectancy of the turbine components and the power output of the turbine. To gain insight into the unsteady aerodynamics of wind turbine blades, wind tunnel experiments were conducted with a scaled three-dimensional NREL 5MW wind turbine blade model in the 2.2 m × 1.8 m cross-section closed loop wind tunnel DLR in Göttingen. The development of dynamic stall in response to a sudden change in the blades angle of attack are studied by means of time-resolved stereoscopic PIV in span-wisely distributed planes capturing the suction side of the blade. The change in angle of attack was obtained by varying the blade pitch angle to simulate a sudden change in wind speed or pitch angle regulation. Resulting time scales associated with flow separation and reattachment are determined at different radial positions ranging from r / R = 0 . 19 to r / R = 0 . 38 . The influence of the three-dimensionality of the blade geometry on the corresponding aerodynamic effects is captured by analyzing the radial flow component in neighboring measurement fields during stall development.

  6. Transient behaviour of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennekers, R.

    1984-08-01

    In order to lower compulsive forces and loads during operation, a single-blade wind turbine with a flapping degree of freedom of the rotor within an 11.5-deg range is designed. The downwind-positioned rotor operates within a rotational frequency range of 0.55 to 0.84 Hz, which is above the first tower bending eigenfrequency of 0.46 Hz. The turbine is characterized by the electromechanical pitch/yaw control, active rotor speed control, 23-m long all-composite shell blade, and designed wind speed of 10 m/s. Among other concerns of the study are the control systems, depicted diagrammically, aerodynamic acceleration of the turbine, and gust response. The turbine is rated at 370 kW, with annual energy production of 1,300,000 kW h. The design is a 1:3-scale test version of a 5.4-MW turbine.

  7. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  8. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  9. Uncertainty Analysis in Fatigue Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Blades Using Bayesian Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Li, Jing; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates Bayesian model selection for fatigue life estimation of gas turbine blades considering model uncertainty and parameter uncertainty. Fatigue life estimation of gas turbine blades is a critical issue for the operation and health management of modern aircraft engines. Since lots of life prediction models have been presented to predict the fatigue life of gas turbine blades, model uncertainty and model selection among these models have consequently become an important issue in the lifecycle management of turbine blades. In this paper, fatigue life estimation is carried out by considering model uncertainty and parameter uncertainty simultaneously. It is formulated as the joint posterior distribution of a fatigue life prediction model and its model parameters using Bayesian inference method. Bayes factor is incorporated to implement the model selection with the quantified model uncertainty. Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is used to facilitate the calculation. A pictorial framework and a step-by-step procedure of the Bayesian inference method for fatigue life estimation considering model uncertainty are presented. Fatigue life estimation of a gas turbine blade is implemented to demonstrate the proposed method.

  10. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  11. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-08-14

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade.

  12. The role of free stream turbulence and blade surface conditions on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor Hugo

    Wind turbines operate within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) which gives rise to turbulence among other flow phenomena. There are several factors that contribute to turbulent flow: The operation of wind turbines in two layers of the atmosphere, the surface layer and the mixed layer. These layers often have unstable wind conditions due to the daily heating and cooling of the atmosphere which creates turbulent thermals. In addition, wind turbines often operate in the wake of upstream turbines such as in wind farms; where turbulence generated by the rotor can be compounded if the turbines are not sited properly. Although turbulent flow conditions are known to affect performance, i.e. power output and lifespan of the turbine, the flow mechanisms by which atmospheric turbulence and other external conditions (such as blade debris contamination) adversely impact wind turbines are not known in enough detail to address these issues. The main objectives of the current investigation are thus two-fold: (i) to understand the interaction of the turbulent integral length scales and surface roughness on the blade and its effect on aerodynamic performance, and (ii) to develop and apply flow control (both passive and active) techniques to alleviate some of the adverse fluid dynamics phenomena caused by the atmosphere (i.e. blade contamination) and restore some of the aerodynamic performance loss. In order to satisfy the objectives of the investigation, a 2-D blade model based on the S809 airfoil for horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) applications was manufactured and tested at the Johns Hopkins University Corrsin Stanley Wind Tunnel facility. Additional levels of free stream turbulence with an intensity of 6.14% and integral length scale of about 0.321 m was introduced into the flow via an active grid. The free stream velocity was 10 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number based on blade chord of Rec ≃ 2.08x105. Debris contamination on the blade was modeled as surface roughness

  13. Integrated approach for stress based lifing of aero gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Abdullahi Obonyegba

    In order to analyse the turbine blade life, the damage due to the combined thermal and mechanical loads should be adequately accounted for. This is more challenging when detailed component geometry is limited. Therefore, a compromise between the level of geometric detail and the complexity of the lifing method to be implemented would be necessary. This research focuses on how the life assessment of aero engine turbine blades can be done, considering the balance between available design inputs and adequate level of fidelity. Accordingly, the thesis contributes to developing a generic turbine blade lifing method that is based on the engine thermodynamic cycle; as well as integrating critical design/technological factors and operational parameters that influence the aero engine blade life. To this end, thermo-mechanical fatigue was identified as the critical damage phenomenon driving the life of the turbine blade.. The developed approach integrates software tools and numerical models created using the minimum design information typically available at the early design stages. Using finite element analysis of an idealised blade geometry, the approach captures relevant impacts of thermal gradients and thermal stresses that contribute to the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage on the gas turbine blade. The blade life is evaluated using the Neu/Sehitoglu thermo-mechanical fatigue model that considers damage accumulation due to fatigue, oxidation, and creep. The leading edge is examined as a critical part of the blade to estimate the damage severity for different design factors and operational parameters. The outputs of the research can be used to better understand how the environment and the operating conditions of the aircraft affect the blade life consumption and therefore what is the impact on the maintenance cost and the availability of the propulsion system. This research also finds that the environmental (oxidation) effect drives the blade life and the blade coolant

  14. Investigation of HP Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbofan Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Thomas, Johny; Srinivasan, K.; Nandi, Vaishakhi; Bhatt, R. Raghavendra

    2017-04-01

    Failure of a high pressure (HP) turbine blade in a military turbofan engine is investigated to determine the root cause of failure. Forensic and metallurgical investigations are carried out on the affected blades. The loss of coating and the presence of heavily oxidized intergranular fracture features including substrate material aging and airfoil curling in the trailing edge of a representative blade indicate that the coating is not providing adequate oxidation protection and the blade material substrate is not suitable for the application at hand. Coating spallation followed by substrate oxidation and aging leading to intergranular cracking and localized trailing edge curling is the root cause of the blade failure. The remaining portion of the blade fracture surface showed ductile overload features in the final failure. The damage observed in downstream components is due to secondary effects.

  15. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Lundstrom, Troy; LeBlanc, Bruce; Hughes, Scott; Desmond, Michael; Beattie, Alan; Rumsey, Mark; Klute, Sandra M.; Pedrazzani, Renee; Werlink, Rudy; Newman, John

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-optic strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.

  16. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    DOE PAGES

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; ...

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-opticmore » strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.« less

  17. Iterative tuning of feedforward IPC for two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, SP; van Solingen, E.; van Wingerden, JW; Beerens, J.

    2016-09-01

    At present, the cost of offshore wind energy does not meet the level of onshore wind and fossil-based energy sources. One way to extend the turbine lifetime, and thus reduce cost, is by reduction of the fatigue loads of blades and other turbine parts using Individual Pitch Control (IPC). This type of control, which is generally implemented by feedback control using the MultiBlade Coordinate transformation on blade load measurement signals, is capable of mitigating the most dominant periodic loads. The main goal of this article is to develop a self-optimizing feedforward IPC strategy for a two-bladed wind turbine to reduce actuator duty cycle and reduce the dependency on blade load measurement signals. The approach uses blade load measurement data only initially for tuning of the feedforward controller, which is scheduled on the rotor azimuth angle and wind speed. The feedforward strategy will be compared to the feedback implementation in terms of load alleviation capabilities and actuator duty cycle. Results show that the implementation is capable of learning the optimal feedforward IPC controller in constant and turbulent wind conditions, to alleviate the pitch actuator duty cycle, and to considerably reduce harmonic fatigue loads without the need for blade load measurement signals after tuning.

  18. Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James

    2011-01-01

    Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. The weekend effect or DeskTop Spallation (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond coat are reported. Cut sections were intermittently oxidized at 1100, 1150, and 1200 C and monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that embrittle the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

  19. Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. "The weekend effect" or "DeskTop Spallation" (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that 'embrittle' the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  1. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-01-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  2. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  3. Effect of the number of blades and solidity on the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delafin, PL; Nishino, T.; Wang, L.; Kolios, A.

    2016-09-01

    Two, three and four bladed ϕ-shape Vertical Axis Wind Turbines are simulated using a free-wake vortex model. Two versions of the three and four bladed turbines are considered, one having the same chord length as the two-bladed turbine and the other having the same solidity as the two-bladed turbine. Results of the two-bladed turbine are validated against published experimental data of power coefficient and instantaneous torque. The effect of solidity on the power coefficient is presented and the instantaneous torque, thrust and lateral force of the two-, three- and four-bladed turbines are compared for the same solidity. It is found that increasing the number of blades from two to three significantly reduces the torque, thrust and lateral force ripples. Adding a fourth blade further reduces the ripples except for the torque at low tip speed ratio. This work aims to help choosing the number of blades during the design phase of a vertical axis wind turbine.

  4. Unsteady Turbine Blade and Tip Heat Transfer Due to Wake Passing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Heidmann, James; Fabian, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The geometry and the flow conditions of the first stage turbine blade of GE s E3 engine have been used to obtain the unsteady three-dimensional blade and tip heat transfer. The isothermal wall boundary condition was used. The effect of the upstream wake of the first stage vane was of interest and was simulated by provision of a gust type boundary condition upstream of the blades. A one blade periodic domain was used. The consequence of this choice was explored in a preliminary study which showed little difference in the time mean heat transfer between 1:1 and 2:3 vane/blade domains. The full three-dimensional computations are of the blade having a clearance gap of 2 percent the span. Comparison between the time averaged unsteady and steady heat transfer is provided. It is shown that there is a significant difference between the steady and time mean of unsteady blade heat transfer in localized regions. The differences on the suction side of the blade in the near hub and near tip regions were found to be rather significant. Steady analysis underestimated the blade heat transfer by as much as 20 percent as compared to the time average obtained from the unsteady analysis. As for the blade tip, the steady analysis and the unsteady analysis gave results to within 2 percent.

  5. Model-based fault detection of blade pitch system in floating wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Gao, Z.; Moan, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a model-based scheme for fault detection of a blade pitch system in floating wind turbines. A blade pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be detected at the early stage to prevent failures. To detect faults of blade pitch actuators and sensors, an appropriate observer should be designed to estimate the states of the system. Residuals are generated by a Kalman filter and a threshold based on H optimization, and linear matrix inequality (LMI) is used for residual evaluation. The proposed method is demonstrated in a case study that bias and fixed output in pitch sensors and stuck in pitch actuators. The simulation results show that the proposed method detects different realistic fault scenarios of wind turbines under the stochastic external winds.

  6. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  7. Evaluation of urethane for feasibility of use in wind turbine blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Ross, R. S.; Fertis, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was conducted of the use of cast urethane as a possible material for low-cost blades for wind turbines. Specimen test data are presented for ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, flexural strain, creep, and fatigue properties of a number of urethane formulations. Data are also included for a large-scale urethane blade section composed of cast symmetrical half-profiles tested as a cantilever beam. Based on these results, an analysis was conducted of a full-scale blade design of cast urethane that meets the design specifications of the rotor blades for the NASA/DOE experimental 100-kW MOD-0 wind turbine. Because of the low value of elastic modulus for urethane (around 457 000 psi), the design loads would have to be carried by metal reinforcement. Considerations for further evaluation are noted.

  8. The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanov, V. M.; Kurakin, A. A.; Rusetskii, Iu. A.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades was studied theoretically, considering a 'channel'-type blade design with permeable profiled skin. The turbined design included radial internal channels for the supply of a coolant from a manifold to different sections of the blade surface. The algorithm developed for calculating the heat-transfer coefficients was applied to four test regimes. The following subroutines were used in the calculation program (in Fortran-IV): (1) for calculating the loss of pressure of the flow of coolant in the metering orifices, (2) for calculating the parameters of the coolant in the flow core, (3) for calculating the accompanying thermal problem, and (4) for calculating the parameters of the dynamic boundary layers. With the number of blade channels not exceeding 12-15, full calculation of heat transfer at the outer and inner surfaces of the permeable skin takes 10-15 min.

  9. Fundamental mechanisms that influence the estimate of heat transfer to gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the heat transfer from the gas to stationary (vanes) or rotating blades poses a major uncertainty due to the complexity of the heat transfer processes. The gas flow through these blade rows is three dimensional with complex secondary viscous flow patterns that interact with the endwalls and blade surfaces. In addition, upstream disturbances, stagnation flow, curvature effects, and flow acceleration complicate the thermal transport mechanisms in the boundary layers. Some of these fundamental heat transfer effects are discussed. The chief purpose of the discussion is to acquaint those in the heat transfer community, not directly involved in gas turbines, of the seriousness of the problem and to recommend some basic research that would improve the capability for predicting gas-side heat transfer on turbine blades and vanes.

  10. Design of horizontal-axis wind turbine using blade element momentum method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobonea, Andreea; Pricop, Mihai Victor

    2013-10-01

    The study of mathematical models applied to wind turbine design in recent years, principally in electrical energy generation, has become significant due to the increasing use of renewable energy sources with low environmental impact. Thus, this paper shows an alternative mathematical scheme for the wind turbine design, based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) Theory. The results from the BEM method are greatly dependent on the precision of the lift and drag coefficients. The basic of BEM method assumes the blade can be analyzed as a number of independent element in spanwise direction. The induced velocity at each element is determined by performing the momentum balance for a control volume containing the blade element. The aerodynamic forces on the element are calculated using the lift and drag coefficient from the empirical two-dimensional wind tunnel test data at the geometric angle of attack (AOA) of the blade element relative to the local flow velocity.

  11. Incidence loss for fan turbine rotor blade in two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Moffitt, T. P.; Stabe, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of incidence angle on the aerodynamic performance of a fan turbine rotor blade was investigated experimentally in a two dimensional cascade. The test covered a range of incidence angles from -15 deg to 10 deg and exit ideal critical velocity ratios from 0.75 to 0.95. The principal measurements were blade-surface static pressures and cross-channel survey of exit total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle. Flow adjacent to surfaces was examined using a visualization technique. The results of the investigation include blade-surface velocity distribution and overall kinetic energy loss coefficients for the incidence angles and exit velocity ratios tested. The measured losses are compared with those from a reference core turbine rotor blade and also with two common analytical methods of predicting incidence loss.

  12. The application of non-destructive techniques to the testing of a wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.; Beattie, A.; Hansche, B.; Musial, W.; Allread, J.; Johnson, J.; Summers, M.

    1994-06-01

    NonDestructive Testing (NDT), also called NonDestructive Evaluation (NDE), is commonly used to monitor structures before, during, and after testing. This paper reports on the use of two NDT techniques to monitor the behavior of a typical wind turbine blade during a quasi-static test-to-failure. The two NDT techniques used were acoustic emission and coherent optical. The former monitors the acoustic energy produced by the blade as it is loaded. The latter uses electron shearography to measure the differences in surface displacements between two load states. Typical results are presented to demonstrate the ability of these two techniques to locate and monitor both high damage regions and flaws in the blade structure. Furthermore, this experiment highlights the limitations in the techniques that must be addressed before one or both can be transferred, with a high probability of success, to the inspection and monitoring of turbine blades during the manufacturing process and under normal operating conditions.

  13. Characterization of a nine-meter sensor-equipped wind turbine blade using a laser measuring device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nine-meter turbine blade was prepared for an experiment to examine the movement and fatigue patterns during operation on a 115 kW turbine. The blade, equipped with surface mounted fiber optic strain gauges, foil strain gauges, single, and triple axis accelerometers was placed on a calibration fixt...

  14. Review of status and potential of tungsten-wire: Superalloy composites for advanced gas turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The current status of development of refractory-wire-superalloy composites and the potential for their application to turbine blades in land-based power generation and advanced aircraft engines are reviewed. The data indicate that refractory-wire-superalloy composites have application as turbine blades at temperatures of 2200 F and above.

  15. Analytical determination of local surface heat-transfer coefficients for cooled turbine blades from measured metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Esgar, Jack B

    1950-01-01

    Analytical methods are presented for the determination of local values of outside and inside heat-transfer coefficients and effective gas temperatures by use of turbine-blade-temperature measurements. The methods are derived for a number of configurations that can be applied to typical cooled-turbine-blade shapes as well as to other types of heat-transfer apparatus.

  16. Recent results from data analysis of dynamic stall on wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Simms, D.; Huyer, S.

    1992-01-01

    Wind turbines are subjected to dynamic loading from a variety of different sources. Wind shear and turbulence cause time-varying inflow that results in unsteady airloads. Tower shadow, upwind turbine wakes, and yaw angles also introduce unsteady inflow to wind turbine rotors. Wind turbine designers must predict these loads accurately in order to adequately design blades, hubs, and the remaining support structure to achieve a 30-year life. Structural analysts have not been able to predict mean or dynamic loads accurately enough to predict the fatigue life of major wind turbine components with confidence. Part of the problem is due to uncertainty in the stochastic wind environments as mentioned earlier. Another important part of the problem is the lack of basic knowledge of rotary wing airfoil stall performance. There is mounting evidence that dynamic stall may be related to dynamic loads that are greater than predictions. This paper describes some results of investigations of unsteady aerodynamic loads measured on a wind turbine blade. The objective of the investigation is to understand the steady and unsteady stall behavior of wind turbine blades. 13 refs.

  17. Combined Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Blades Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, Awate; Tabakoff, Widen; Swar, Rohan; Shin, Dongyun; Woggon, Nthanial; Miller, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the erosion of thermal barrier coated (TBC) blade surfaces by alumina particles ingestion in a single stage turbine. In the experimental investigation, tests of particle surface interactions were performed in specially designed tunnels to determine the erosion rates and particle restitution characteristics under different impact conditions. The experimental results show that the erosion rates increase with increased impingement angle, impact velocity and temperature. In the computational simulations, an Euler-Lagrangian two stage approach is used in obtaining numerical solutions to the three-dimensional compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the particles equations of motion in each blade passage reference frame. User defined functions (UDF) were developed to represent experimentally-based correlations for particle surface interaction models which were employed in the three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations to determine the particle rebound characteristics after each surface impact. The experimentally based erosion UDF model was used to predict the TBC erosion rates on the turbine blade surfaces based on the computed statistical data of the particles impact locations, velocities and angles relative to the blade surface. Computational results are presented for the predicted TBC blade erosion in a single stage commercial APU turbine, for a NASA designed automotive turbine, and for the NASA turbine scaled for modern rotorcraft operating conditions. The erosion patterns in the turbines are discussed for uniform particle ingestion and for particle ingestion concentrated in the inner and outer 5 percent of the stator blade span representing the flow cooling the combustor liner.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    and Michael Walock 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1120-1120-99 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...some preliminary work toward a project that seeks to develop a shape memory alloy actuator for rotor and stator blades in aircraft turbine engines that...case with 2 pairs of actuated blades is presented as a proof-of-concept. Immediate future work will involve altering the case setups for CFD

  19. Fatigue Test Design: Scenarios for Biaxial Fatigue Testing of a 60-Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Current practice in commercial certification of wind turbine blades is to perform separate flap and lead-lag fatigue tests. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching and evaluating biaxial fatigue testing techniques and demonstrating various options, typically on smaller-scale test articles at the National Wind Technology Center. This report evaluates some of these biaxial fatigue options in the context of application to a multimegawatt blade certification test program at the Wind Technology Testing Center in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

  20. Effect of blade profile on the performance of a large-scale Wells turbine for wave-energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, Manabu; Thakker, Ajit; Abdulhadi, Rahil; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of rotor blade profile on the performance of the Wells turbine operated at high Reynolds number. In the study, four kinds of blade profile were selected with regard to the blade profile of the Wells turbine. The types of blade profile are as follows: NACA0020, NACA0015, CA9, and HSIM 15-262123-1576. In order to determine the optimum rotor blade profile of the turbine, experimental investigations have been performed for two solidities by model testing and numerical simulation. As a result, it has been concluded that a suitable choice, namely the preferable rotor geometry, is the blade profile of NACA0015. Furthermore, it has been found that the critical Reynolds number of the turbine is around 4×105.

  1. Evaluation Method of Gas Turbine Blades Covering Integrity by IR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Jo; Choi, Choul-Jun; Kim, Jae-Yeol

    Key parts of the main equipment in a gas turbine may likely be damaged due to operation under high temperature, high pressure, high-speed rotation, etc. Accordingly, the cost for maintenance increases and the damaged parts may cause generation to stop. The surface of a blade is thermal-sprayed, using powder with main compositions such as Ni, Cr, Al, etc, in order to inhibit hot oxidation. Conventional regular maintenance of the coating layer of a blade is made by FPI (Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection) and MTP (Magnetic Particle Testing). Such methods, however, are complicated and take a long time and also require high cost. In this study, defect diagnostics were tested on the coating layer of an industrial gas turbine blade, using an infrared thermography camera. Since the infrared thermography method can check a temperature distribution by means of non-contact on a wide range of areas, it can advantageously save expense and time as compared to conventional test methods. For the infrared thermography method, however, thermo-load must be applied onto a tested specimen and it is difficult to quantify the measured data. To solve the problems, this paper includes description about producing a specimen of a gas turbine blade (bucket), applying thermo-load onto the produced specimen, photographing thermography images by an infrared thermography camera, analyzing the thermography images, and pre-testing to analyze defects on the coating layer of the gas turbine blade.

  2. Analysis of aerodynamic load on straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Kawabata, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kazuma

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a wind tunnel experiment for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) depending on several values of tip speed ratio. In the present study, the wind turbine is a four-bladed VAWT. The test airfoil of blade is symmetry airfoil (NACA0021) with 32 pressure ports used for the pressure measurements on blade surface. Based on the pressure distributions which are acted on the surface of rotor blade measured during rotation by multiport pressure-scanner mounted on a hub, the power, tangential force, lift and drag coefficients which are obtained by pressure distribution are discussed as a function of azimuthally position. And then, the loads which are applied to the entire wind turbine are compared with the experiment data of pressure distribution. As a result, it is clarified that aerodynamic forces take maximum value when the blade is moving to upstream side, and become small and smooth at downstream side. The power and torque coefficients which are based on the pressure distribution are larger than that by torque meter.

  3. Fluid-structure coupling for wind turbine blade analysis using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, Bastian; Herraez, Ivan; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are designed increasingly large and flexible. This structural flexibility represents a problem for the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), which is used for accurate load calculations and detailed investigations of rotor aerodynamics. As the blade geometries within CFD simulations are considered stiff, the effect of blade deformation caused by aerodynamic loads cannot be captured by the common CFD approach. Coupling the flow solver with a structural solver can overcome this restriction and enables the investigation of flexible wind turbine blades. For this purpose, a new Finite Element (FE) solver was implemented into the open source CFD code OpenFOAM. Using a beam element formulation based on the Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT), the structural model can capture geometric non-linearities such as large deformations. Coupled with CFD solvers of the OpenFOAM package, the new framework represents a powerful tool for aerodynamic investigations. In this work, we investigated the aerodynamic performance of a state of the art wind turbine. For different wind speeds, aerodynamic key parameters are evaluated and compared for both, rigid and flexible blade geometries. The present work is funded within the framework of the joint project Smart Blades (0325601D) by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under decision of the German Federal Parliament.

  4. Complementary Aerodynamic Performance Datasets for Variable Speed Power Turbine Blade Section from Two Independent Transonic Turbine Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Welch, Gerard E.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.; Long, Jonathon A.

    2015-01-01

    Two independent experimental studies were conducted in linear cascades on a scaled, two-dimensional mid-span section of a representative Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) blade. The purpose of these studies was to assess the aerodynamic performance of the VSPT blade over large Reynolds number and incidence angle ranges. The influence of inlet turbulence intensity was also investigated. The tests were carried out in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and at the University of North Dakota (UND) High Speed Compressible Flow Wind Tunnel Facility. A large database was developed by acquiring total pressure and exit angle surveys and blade loading data for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. Data were acquired over six flow conditions with exit isentropic Reynolds number ranging from 0.05×106 to 2.12×106 and at exit Mach numbers of 0.72 (design) and 0.35. Flow conditions were examined within the respective facility constraints. The survey data were integrated to determine average exit total-pressure and flow angle. UND also acquired blade surface heat transfer data at two flow conditions across the entire incidence angle range aimed at quantifying transitional flow behavior on the blade. Comparisons of the aerodynamic datasets were made for three "match point" conditions. The blade loading data at the match point conditions show good agreement between the facilities. This report shows comparisons of other data and highlights the unique contributions of the two facilities. The datasets are being used to advance understanding of the aerodynamic challenges associated with maintaining efficient power turbine operation over a wide shaft-speed range.

  5. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order to increase the Annual Energy Production (AEP) under realistic conditions. The present analysis was carried out in several steps: (1) The clean two dimensional airfoil characteristics were first modified to emulate the effect of all possible combinations of VG's (1% high at suction side x/c=0.2-0.25) and two Leading Edge Roughness (LER) values along the whole blade span. (2) The combinations from Step 1, including the clean case were subsequently modified to take into account three dimensional effects. (3) BEM computations were carried out to determine the aerodynamic rotor performance using each of the datasets from Step 2 along the whole blade span for all wind speeds in the turbine control scheme. (4) Employing the assumption of radial independence between sections of the blades, and using the results of the BEM computations described in Step 3, it is possible to determine for each radial position independently whether it is beneficial to install VG's in the smooth and LER cases, respectively. The results indicated that surface roughness that corresponds to degradation of the power curve may to some extent be mitigated by installation of VG's. The present results also indicated that the optimal VG configuration in terms of maximizing AEP depends on the degree of severity of the LER. This is because, depending on the condition of blade surface, installation of VG's on an incorrect blade span or installation of VG's too far out on the blade may cause loss in AEP. The results also indicated that the worse condition of the blade surface, the more gain may be obtained from the installation of VG's.

  6. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicable in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.

  7. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    DOE PAGES

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; ...

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicablemore » in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.« less

  8. Dynamic analysis method for prevention of failure in the first-stage low-pressure turbine blade with two-finger root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Yong; Jung, Yong-Keun; Park, Jong-Jin; Kang, Yong-Ho

    2002-05-01

    Failures of turbine blades are identified as the leading causes of unplanned outages for steam turbine. Accidents of low-pressure turbine blade occupied more than 70 percent in turbine components. Therefore, the prevention of failures for low pressure turbine blades is certainly needed. The procedure is illustrated by the case study. This procedure is used to guide, and support the plant manager's decisions to avoid a costly, unplanned outage. In this study, we are trying to find factors of failures in LP turbine blade and to make three steps to approach the solution of blade failure. First step is to measure natural frequency in mockup test and to compare it with nozzle passing frequency. Second step is to use FEM and to calculate the natural frequencies of 7 blades and 10 blades per group in BLADE code. Third step is to find natural frequencies of grouped blade off the nozzle passing frequency.

  9. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  10. Digital system for dynamic turbine engine blade displacement measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a technique for measuring blade tip displacements which employs optical probes and an array of microcomputers. A system directly digitizing a minimum of a 2048-point time-deflection history for each of the three measurement locations on each blade is described.

  11. Fiberglass Composite Blades for the 4 MW - WTS-4 Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussolari, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design and fabrication of composite blades for the WTS-4, a four-megawatt horizontal-axis wind turbine, is discussed. The blade consists of a two-cell, monolithic structure of filament-wound, fiberglass/epoxy composite. Filament winding is a low-cost process which can produce a blade with an aerodynamically efficient airfoil and planform with nonlinear twist to achieve high performance in terms of energy capture. Its retention provides a redundant attachment for long, durable life and safety. Advanced tooling concepts and as sophisticated computer control is used to achieve the unique filament-wound shape.

  12. Nonlinear Equations of Equilibrium for Elastic Helicopter or Wind Turbine Blades Undergoing Moderate Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1978-01-01

    A set of nonlinear equations of equilibrium for an elastic wind turbine or helicopter blades are presented. These equations are derived for the case of small strains and moderate rotations (slopes). The derivation includes several assumptions which are carefully stated. For the convenience of potential users the equations are developed with respect to two different systems of coordinates, the undeformed and the deformed coordinates of the blade. Furthermore, the loads acting on the blade are given in a general form so as to make them suitable for a variety of applications. The equations obtained in the study are compared with those obtained in previous studies.

  13. Flow measurement in base cooling air passages of a rotating turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The operational performance is decribed of a shaft-mounted system for measuring the air mass flow rate in the base cooling passages of a rotating turbine blade. Shaft speeds of 0 to 9000 rpm, air mass flow rates of 0.0035 to 0.039 kg/sec (0.0077 to 0.085 lbm/sec), and blade air temperatures of 300 to 385 K (80 to 233 F) were measured. Comparisons of individual rotating blade flows and corresponding stationary supply orifice flows agreed to within 10 percent.

  14. Chordwise pressure measurements on a blade of Mod-2 Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure measurements covering a range of wind velocities were made at one span location on a blade of the Mod-2 Wind Turbine. The data show the existence of higher pressure coefficients than would be expected from wind tunnel data. These high pressure coefficients may be the result of three-dimensional flow over the blade that delays flow separations. Data is presented showing the repetitiveness and abrupt changes in the pressure distribution that occurs as the blade rotates. Calculated values of suction and flap coefficients are also presented.

  15. Numerical investigation of heat transfer on film-cooled turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Ginibre, P; Lefebvre, M; Liamis, N

    2001-05-01

    The accurate heat transfer prediction of film-cooled blades is a key issue for the aerothermal turbine design. For this purpose, advanced numerical methods have been developed at Snecma Moteurs. The goal of this paper is the assessment of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, based on the ONERA CANARI-COMET code, devoted to the steady aerothermal computations of film-cooled blades. The code uses a multidomain approach to discretize the blade to blade channel with overlapping structured meshes for the injection holes. The turbulence closure is done by means of either Michel mixing length model or Spalart-Allmaras one transport equation model. Computations of thin 3D slices of three film-cooled nozzle guide vane blades with multiple injections are performed. Aerothermal predictions are compared to experiments carried out by the von Karman Institute. The behavior of the turbulence models is discussed, and velocity and temperature injection profiles are investigated.

  16. Blade technology program for large wind turbines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muser, D.

    1984-10-01

    A research program for the development and construction of rotor blades is presented. The project includes investigation and design of blade concepts, compilation of materials properties of fiber reinforced plastics, and manufacturing and testing of critical blade sections. The following parts are produced and tested to check the manufacturing technology: element for load introduction, shell section in sandwich-spar technology, filament-wound D-spar in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy, and filament-wound D-spar with rear profile box in tube-winding technology. It is shown that the carbon and glass fiber reinforced plastics blade with wound D-spar is optimum. This blade has the lowest mass that can be economically manufactured by automatic filament winding.

  17. Aerodynamic investigation of an air-cooled axial-flow turbine. Part 2: Rotor blade tip-clearance effects on overall turbine performance and internal gas flow conditions: Experimental results and prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Takahara, K.; Nouse, H.; Mimura, F.; Inoue, S.; Usui, H.

    1977-01-01

    Total turbine blade performance was investigated while changing the blade tip clearance in three ways. The internal flow at the moving blade outlet point was measured. Experimental results were compared with various theoretical methods. Increased blade clearance leads to decreased turbine efficiency.

  18. A 100-kW wind turbine blade dynamics analysis, weight-balance, and structural test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of dynamic analyses, weight and balance tests, static stiffness tests, and structural vibration tests on the 60-foot-long metal blades for the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine are presented. The metal blades are shown to be free from structural or dynamic resonance at the wind turbine design speed. Aeroelastic instabilities are unlikely to occur within the normal operating range of the wind turbine.

  19. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, N. K.; Swanson, G.

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal nickel turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493, PWA 1484, RENE' N-5 and CMSX-4. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades are complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. Fatigue life estimation of single crystal turbine blades represents an important aspect of durability assessment. It is therefore of practical interest to develop effective fatigue failure criteria for single crystal nickel alloys and to investigate the effects of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientation on fatigue life. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude /Delta(sub tau)(sub max))] on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data considerably for PWA 1493 at 1200 F in air. Additionally, single crystal turbine blades used in the alternate advanced high-pressure fuel turbopump (AHPFTP/AT) are modeled using a large-scale three-dimensional finite element model. This finite element model is capable of accounting for material orthotrophy and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Effects of variation in crystal orientation on blade stress response are studied based on 297

  20. Aerodynamic Measurements of an Incidence Tolerant Blade in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the recent facility modifications to NASA s Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and aerodynamic measurements on the VSPT incidence-tolerant blade are presented. This work supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Details of the modifications are described. An incidence-tolerant blade was developed under an RTPAS study contract and tested in the cascade to look at the effects of large incidence angle and Reynolds number variations. Recent test results are presented which include midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements obtained at three inlet angles representing the cruise, take-off, and maximum incidence flight mission points. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with exit Reynolds numbers varying from 2.12 106 to 2.12 105 and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.72 and 0.35. Three-dimensional flowfield measurements were also acquired at the cruise and take-off points. The flowfield measurements were acquired using a five-hole and three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  1. Digital system for dynamic turbine engine blade displacement measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation concept for measuring blade tip displacements which employs optical probes and an array of micro-computers is presented. The system represents a hitherto unknown instrumentation capability for the acquisition and direct digitization of deflection data concurrently from all of the blade tips of an operational engine rotor undergoing flutter or forced vibration. System measurements are made using optical transducers which are fixed to the case. Measurements made in this way are the equivalent of those obtained by placing three surface-normal displacement transducers at three positions on each blade of an operational rotor.

  2. Guidelines for reducing dynamic loads in two-bladed teetering-hub downwind wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A D; Bir, G S; Butterfield, C D

    1995-06-01

    A major goal of the federal Wind Energy Program is the rapid development and validation of structural models to determine loads and response for a wide variety of different wind turbine configurations operating under extreme conditions. Such codes are crucial to the successful design of future advanced wind turbines. In previous papers the authors described steps they took to develop a model of a two-bladed teetering-hub downwind wind turbine using ADAMS{reg_sign} (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems), as well as comparison of model predictions to test data. In this paper they show the use of this analytical model to study the influence of various turbine parameters on predicted system loads. They concentrate their study on turbine response in the frequency range of six to ten times the rotor rotational frequency (6P to 10P). Their goal is to identify the most important parameters which influence the response of this type of machine in this frequency range and give turbine designers some general design guidelines for designing two-bladed teetering-hub machines to be less susceptible to vibration. They study the effects of such parameters as blade edgewise and flapwise stiffness, tower top stiffness, blade tip-brake mass, low-speed shaft stiffness, nacelle mass momenta of inertia, and rotor speed. They show which parameters can be varied in order to make the turbine less responsive to such atmospheric inputs as wind shear and tower shadow. They then give designers a set of design guidelines in order to show how these machines can be designed to be less responsive to these inputs.

  3. Wind turbine blade fatigue tests: lessons learned and application to SHM system development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Jeong, Hyomi; Jang, JaeKyung; Park, Gyu Hae; Todd, Michael D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Ammerman, Curtt N.

    2012-06-28

    This paper presents experimental results of several structural health monitoring (SHM) methods applied to a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. It underwent harmonic excitation at its first natural frequency using a hydraulically actuated resonant excitation system. The blade was initially excited at 25% of its design load, and then with steadily increasing loads until it failed. Various data were collected between and during fatigue loading sessions. The data were measured over multiple frequency ranges using a variety of acquisition equipment, including off-the-shelf systems and specially designed hardware developed by the authors. Modal response, diffuse wave-field transfer functions, and ultrasonic guided wave methods were applied to assess the condition of the wind turbine blade. The piezoelectric sensors themselves were also monitored using a sensor diagnostics procedure. This paper summarizes experimental procedures and results, focusing particularly on fatigue crack detection, and concludes with considerations for implementing such damage identification systems, which will be used as a guideline for future SHM system development for operating wind turbine blades.

  4. Investigation of the tip leakage flow at turbine rotor blades with squealer cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andreas; König, Jörg; Czarske, Jürgen; Rakenius, Clemens; Schmid, Gregor; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter

    2013-02-01

    Understanding of the tip leakage flow (TLF) in turbine rotors is one key aspect in the design for improving the efficiency of turbines. This requires measurements and simulations of the TLF, especially when investigating new rotor blade designs with blade tip treatments. However, flow measurements in the tip gap of a rotating machine are highly challenging because of the small gap size of about 1 mm and the high unsteadiness of the flow requiring a high temporal resolution of about 10 μs. For this purpose, an optimized non-intrusive measurement concept based on frequency modulated Doppler global velocimetry is presented, which fulfills the requirements. Three component velocity fields of the TLF were obtained in a turbine test rig at a blade passing frequency of 930 Hz. The rotor blades were equipped with a squealer tip, and the TLF in the squealer cavity region was successfully measured. The measurement agrees well with calculated results showing gradients in the tip gap above the squealer cavity. Furthermore, the development of the tip clearance vortex was resolved at the suction side of the blades.

  5. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Analysis of Single-Crystal, Nickel-Based Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. R.; Arakere, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue-induced failures in turbine and turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single-crystal nickel turbine blades are used because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities. Single-crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant and complicating factor. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems is presented for single-crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion greatly reduces the scatter in uniaxial fatigue data for PWA 1493 at 1,200 F in air. Additionally, single-crystal turbine blades used in the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump/alternate turbopump are modeled using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. This model accounts for material orthotrophy and crystal orientation. Fatigue life of the blade tip is computed using FE stress results and the failure criterion that was developed. Stress analysis results in the blade attachment region are also presented. Results demonstrate that control of crystallographic orientation has the potential to significantly increase a component's resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  6. Effect of Elevated Free Stream Turbulence on the Hydrodynamic Performance of a Tidal Turbine Blade Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, Ashwin; Lawrence, Angela; Banerjee, Arindam

    2016-11-01

    The effects of elevated freestream turbulence (FST) on the performance of a tidal turbine blade is studied using laboratory experiments. Of interest for the current investigation is elevated levels of FST in the range of 6-24% that is prevalent in deployment sites of tidal turbines. A constant chord, no twist blade section (SG6043) is tested at an operating Reynolds number of 1.5x105 and at angles of attack ranging from -90o to +90o. The parameter space encompasses the entire operational range of a tidal turbine that includes flow reversal. Multiple levels of controlled FST are achieved using an active grid type turbulence generator placed at the entrance to the water tunnel test section. The hydrodynamic loads experienced by the blade section are measured using a 3-axis load cell; a Stereo-PIV technique is used to analyze the flow field around the blade. The results indicate that elevated levels of FST cause a delay in flow separation when compared to the case of a laminar freestream. Furthermore, the lift to drag ratio of the blade is considerably altered depending on the level of FST and angle of attack tested.

  7. Introduction to boundary-layer theory. [viscous friction loss calculation for turbine blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The pressure ratio across a turbine provides a certain amount of ideal energy that is available to the turbine for producing work. The portion of the ideal energy that is not converted to work is considered to be a loss. One of the more important and difficult aspects of turbine design is the prediction of the losses. The primary cause of losses is the boundary layer that develops on the blade and end wall surfaces. Boundary-layer theory is used to calculate the parameters needed to estimate viscous (friction) losses.

  8. Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Huyer, S

    1993-04-01

    The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.

  9. Study of Low Reynolds Number Effects on the Losses in Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical experiments have been performed to study the models available for low Reynolds number flows, and to quantify the Reynolds number dependence of low-pressure turbine cascades and stages. The predicted aerodynamic results exhibit good agreement with design data.

  10. Development and application of a dynamic stall model for rotating wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B. F.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, T. G.

    2014-06-01

    In unsteady conditions of wind turbines, both the dynamic stall phenomenon and the three-dimensional (3D) rotational effect affect the rotor aerodynamics. The dynamic stall mechanism for rotating wind turbine blades is first investigated. Through the comparison of the aerodynamic data between the rotating blade and the two-dimensional (2D) airfoil, the normal force slope in the attached flow and the separation point expression in the separated flow are modified in the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) dynamic stall model for rotating NREL wind turbine blades. The modified model is validated by the comparison between the calculation results and the experimental results of the lift and drag coefficients at different radial positions. Both the hysteresis loop shapes and the calculation values are closer to the experiment than the 2D dynamic stall model. The present dynamic stall model is then coupled to a free vortex wake model. The coupled model is used to calculate the unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the low speed shaft torque of the NREL wind turbine in a yawed condition. The accuracy is greatly improved by the corrections presented in the paper.

  11. Fatigue testing of low-cost fiberglass composite wind turbine blade materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, K. E.; Bennett, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The static and fatigue behavior of transverse filament tape (TFT) fiberglass/epoxy and TFT/polyester composites was established by the testing of specimens cut from panels fabricated by a filament winding process used for the construction of large experimental wind turbine blades.

  12. Flow Coefficients for Orifices in Base of Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, Patrick L.; Prasse, Ernst I.

    1953-01-01

    Static tests on a segment of a transpiration-cooled turbine rotor blade with a wire-cloth shell were conducted to determine the flow coefficients associated with some representative metering orifices. Average flow coefficients from 0.96 to 0.79 were obtained for orifices of 0.031 to 0.102 inch diameter.

  13. Turbine blade metal temperature measurement with a sputtered thin film chromel-alumel thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Mazaris, G. A.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for fabricating Chromel and Alumel thin film thermocouples was developed. Turbine blade metal temperatures measured with the thin film thermocouple installation were compared with those of a reference sheathed (wire) thermocouple. Good agreement was obtained, and the results are encouraging.

  14. Impingement flow heat transfer measurements of turbine blades using a jet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantreuren, Kenneth W.

    1994-08-01

    The requirement for increased gas turbine engine performance has led to the use of much higher turbine entry temperature (TET). The higher temperatures require active cooling of the turbine blade using compressor bleed air. Arrays of impinging jets are one method currently used to reduce the blade temperature on the midspan and leading edge. Air flows through small holes in a blade insert and is directed on the inside surface of a turbine blade to reduce local surface temperature. The engine situation was represented by a 10-20 times scale model tested in the internal cooling transient facility at the University of Oxford. The geometry chosen was for a widely spaced array with a jet spacing of 8d and a plate thickness to jet diameter of 1.2. Experiments were accomplished for a range of impingement plate to target surface spacings, z/d, (1, 2 and 4) and jet Reynolds numbers, Re(sub j), (10,000 - 40,000) with both staggered and inline array hole configurations. The transient liquid crystal technique, both peak intensity narrowband and hue temperature history wideband, enabled the determination of heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature. For the first time, local detail of heat transfer on the target surface as well as observation of the crossflow influence on the jet at the target surface are possible. A large variation in heat transfer exists between the stagnation point and channel passage between jets (2-4 times) which was unknown in previous experiments.

  15. Development and Analysis of a Swept Blade Aeroelastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Preus, R.; Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department-of-Energy-funded Competitiveness Improvement Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed new capabilities for aeroelastic modeling of precurved and preswept blades for small wind turbines. This presentation covers the quest for optimized rotors, computer-aided engineering tools, a case study, and summary of the results.

  16. Analysis of a Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Benudhar; Satpathy, R. K.; Panigrahi, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with failure analysis of a low-pressure turbine blade of a straight flow turbojet engine. The blade is made of a wrought precipitation hardened Nickel base superalloy with oxidation-resistant diffusion aluminizing coating. The failure mode is found to be fatigue with multiple cracks inside the blade having crack origin at metal carbides. In addition to the damage in the coating, carbide banding has been observed in few blades. Carbide banding may be defined as inclusions in the form of highly elongated along deformation direction. The size, shape and banding of carbides and their location critically affect the failure of blades. Carbon content needs to be optimized to reduce interdendritic segregation and thereby provide improved fatigue and stress rupture life. Hence, optimization of size, shape and distribution of carbides in the billet and forging parameters during manufacturing of blade play a vital role to eliminate/reduce extent of banding. Reference micrographs as acceptance criteria are essential for evaluation of raw material and blade. There is a need to define the acceptance criteria for carbide bandings and introduce more sensitive ultrasonic check during billet and on finished blade inspection.

  17. Design and validation of a high-lift low-pressure turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuilling, Mark Wayne

    This dissertation is a design and validation study of the high-lift low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade designated L2F. High-lift LPTs offer the promise of reducing the blade count in modern gas turbine engines. Decreasing the blade count can reduce development and maintenance costs and the weight of the engine, but care must be taken in order to maintain turbine section performance with fewer blades. For an equivalent amount of work extracted, lower blade counts increase blade loading in the LPT section. The high-lift LPT presented herein allows 38% fewer blades with a Zweifel loading coefficient of 1.59 and maintains the same inlet and outlet blade metal angles of conventional geometries in service today while providing an improved low-Reynolds number characteristic. The computational design method utilizes the Turbine Design and Analysis System (TDAAS) developed by John Clark of the Air Force Research Laboratory. TDAAS integrates several government-funded design utilities including airfoil and grid generation capability with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver into a single, menu-driven, Matlab-based system. Transition modeling is achieved with the recently developed model of Praisner and Clark, and this study validates the use of the model for design purposes outside of the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) design system where they were created. Turbulence modeling is achieved with the Baldwin and Lomax zero-equation model. The experimental validation consists of testing the front-loaded L2F along with a previously designed, mid-loaded blade (L1M) in a linear turbine cascade in a low-speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds numbers at 3.3% freestream turbulence. Hot-wire anemometry and pressure measurements elucidate these comparisons, while a shear and stress sensitive film (S3F) also helps describe the flow in areas of interest. S3F can provide all 3 components of stress on a surface in a single measurement, and these tests extend the operational envelope of the

  18. Modeling the dynamic behavior of turbine runner blades during transients using indirect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diagne, I.; Gagnon, M.; Tahan, A.

    2016-11-01

    Turbine start-up transients are induced by the wicket gates opening sequence and generate high amplitude stress cycles. These stress cycles have a detrimental effect leading to faster crack growth in the runner blades. Using a series of direct measurements taken on a prototype runner in order to find the optimal start-up parameters exposes both the runner and the instrumentation to a series of successive damaging transient events during the optimization process. To solve this, finding sensors strongly correlated to strain gauges and whose signals can be easily obtained to identify a model to predict the strain, instead of directly measuring it, would reduce the risk, cost and downtime associated with a measurement campaign. This paper shows that turbine shaft torsion measurements is highly correlated to the strain at a runner blade hotspot, and we demonstrate that the ARMAX model can be used to represent the dynamic system in order to minimize the strain on blades.

  19. Nonlinear Aeroelastic Equations of Motion of Twisted, Nonuniform, Flexible Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.

    1980-01-01

    The second-degree nonlinear equations of motion for a flexible, twisted, nonuniform, horizontal axis wind turbine blade were developed using Hamilton's principle. A mathematical ordering scheme which was consistent with the assumption of a slender beam was used to discard some higher-order elastic and inertial terms in the second-degree nonlinear equations. The blade aerodynamic loading which was employed accounted for both wind shear and tower shadow and was obtained from strip theory based on a quasi-steady approximation of two-dimensional, incompressible, unsteady, airfoil theory. The resulting equations had periodic coefficients and were suitable for determining the aeroelastic stability and response of large horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  20. Three-dimensional unstructured grid Euler method applied to turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Oh J.; Hah, Chunill

    1993-01-01

    Flow through a turbine annular cascade is calculated using a three-dimensional Euler method based on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The equations are integrated in time using an explicit Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. The inviscid flux terms are discretized using a cell-centered finite-volume formulation with upwind flux-difference splitting. The tetrahedral meshes around the turbine blade are generated using an advancing-front technique with forced geometric periodicity between the blades. Good agreement is obtained between the present calculation and the experiment for both surface pressure distribution and flow behavior in the passage between the blades, demonstrating the capability of the present methodology for turbomachinery flow applications.

  1. Design and wind tunnel experimentation of a variable blade drag type vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Samuel; Bahr, Behnam

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to propose a novel efficiency boosting design feature in a drag type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), explore practicality through design and fabrication, and test the viability of the design through wind tunnel experiments. Using adaptive control surface design and an improved blade shape can be very useful in harnessing the wind's energy in low wind speed areas. The new design is based on a series of smaller blade elements to make any shape, which changes to reduce a negative resistance as it rotates and thus maximizing the useful torque. As such, these blades were designed into a modified Savonius wind turbine with the goal of improving upon the power coefficient produced by a more conventional design. The experiment yielded some positive observations with regard to starting characteristics. Torque and angular velocity data was recorded for both the conventional configuration and the newly built configuration and the torque and power coefficient results were compared.

  2. Local fatigue behavior in tapered areas of large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin Raeis Hosseiny, Seyed; Jakobsen, Johnny

    2016-07-01

    Thickness transitions in load carrying elements lead to improved geometries and efficient material utilization. However, these transitions may introduce localized areas with high stress concentrations and may act as crack initiators that could potentially cause delamination and further catastrophic failure of an entire blade structure. The local strength degradation under an ultimate static loading, subsequent to several years of fatigue, is predicted for an offshore wind turbine blade. Fatigue failure indexes of different damage modes are calculated using a sub-modeling approach. Multi axial stresses are accounted for using a developed failure criterion with residual strengths instead of the virgin strengths. Damage initiation is predicted by including available Wohler curve data of E-Glass fabrics and epoxy matrix into multi-axial fatigue failure criteria. As a result of this study, proper knock-down factors for ply-drop effects in wind turbine blades under multi-axial static and fatigue loadings can be obtained.

  3. Application of piezoelectric active-sensors for SHM of wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Taylor, Stuart G.; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R

    2010-10-04

    The goal of this study is to characterize the dynamic response of a CX-100 wind blade and the design parameters of SHM techniques as they apply to wind turbine blades, and to investigate the performance of high-frequency active-sensing SHM techniques, including lamb wave and frequency response functions, as a way to monitor the health of a wind turbine blade. The results of the dynamic characterization will be used to validate a numerical model and understand the effect of structural damage on the performance of the blades. The focus of SHM study is to assess and compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage, with a special consideration given to field deployability. For experiments, a 9-m CX-100 blade was used. Overall, the methods yielded sufficient damage detection to warrant further investigation into field deployment. This paper also summarizes the SHM results of a full-scale fatigue test of 9-m CX-100 blade using piezoelectric active-sensors.

  4. Detailed measurements in the SSME high pressure fuel turbine with smooth rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Susan T.

    1993-07-01

    Several tests of the Rocketdyne configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) Turbine have been completed in the Turbine Test Equipment (TTE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests involved using scaled performance parameters and model measurements to predict the performance of the turbine. The overall performance has been the primary objective of the tests to date, but more detailed measurements are also of interest. During the most recent test of the Rocketdyne configuration of the HPFTP turbine with smooth rotor blades, several different measurement techniques were used to study the turbine inlet and exit velocity profiles, boundary layer thicknesses, turbulence intensities, etc. Data has been obtained using various hot film probes and three-hole cobra probes. Laser Velocimeter measurements were also made. The test plan and test data will be presented and discussed as well as lessons learned on how to obtain the various types of data.

  5. Simulation of the Effects of Cooling Techniques on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Vince; Fatuzzo, Marco

    Increases in the performance demands of turbo machinery has stimulated the development many new technologies over the last half century. With applications that spread beyond marine, aviation, and power generation, improvements in gas turbine technologies provide a vast impact. High temperatures within the combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine are known to cause an increase in thermal efficiency and power produced by the engine. However, since operating temperatures of these engines reach above 1000 K within the turbine section, the need for advances in material science and cooling techniques to produce functioning engines under these high thermal and dynamic stresses is crucial. As with all research and development, costs related to the production of prototypes can be reduced through the use of computational simulations. By making use of Ansys Simulation Software, the effects of turbine cooling techniques were analyzed. Simulation of the Effects of Cooling Techniques on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer.

  6. Wind Turbine Blade Test Definition of the DeWind DW90 Rotor Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-326

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was developed as a funds-in CRADA with DeWind to assess the suitability of facilities and equipment at the NWTC for performing certification blade testing on wind turbine blades made from advanced materials. DeWind produces a wind turbine blade which includes the use of high-strength and stiffness materials. NREL and DeWind had a mutual interest in defining the necessary facilities, equipment, and test methods for testing large wind turbine blades which incorporate advanced materials and adaptive structures, as the demands on test equipment and infrastructure are greater than current capabilities. Work under this CRADA would enable DeWind to verify domestic capability for certification-class static and fatigue testing, while NREL would be able to identify and develop specialized test capabilities based on the test requirements.

  7. Nonlinear analysis for high-temperature multilayered fiber composite structures. M.S. Thesis; [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A unique upward-integrated top-down-structured approach is presented for nonlinear analysis of high-temperature multilayered fiber composite structures. Based on this approach, a special purpose computer code was developed (nonlinear COBSTRAN) which is specifically tailored for the nonlinear analysis of tungsten-fiber-reinforced superalloy (TFRS) composite turbine blade/vane components of gas turbine engines. Special features of this computational capability include accounting of; micro- and macro-heterogeneity, nonlinear (stess-temperature-time dependent) and anisotropic material behavior, and fiber degradation. A demonstration problem is presented to mainfest the utility of the upward-integrated top-down-structured approach, in general, and to illustrate the present capability represented by the nonlinear COBSTRAN code. Preliminary results indicate that nonlinear COBSTRAN provides the means for relating the local nonlinear and anisotropic material behavior of the composite constituents to the global response of the turbine blade/vane structure.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Hollow Turbine Blades for Expandable Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, W C; Morse, C R

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using hollow turbine blades in engines designed for short service life. Airfoils were fabricated from sheet material and techniques of welding and brazing attachment were investigated. The airfoils were not intended to be cooled. A principal objective was the reduction of strategic material requirements primarily as a function of direct weight reduction. The materials considered were in the density range of 0.28 to 0.31 pound per cubic inch. Three materials were used for airfoils: N-155, Inconel-X and L-605. These were attached to J47 turbine blade bases and operated to destruction at maximum service conditions of turbine speed and temperature. It was found that L-605 airfoils brazed to suitable bases satisfied the requirements for expendable engines. Service life varied from 11 to 40 hours.

  9. Development of a Wave Energy -Responsive Self-Actuated Blade Articulation Mechanism for an OWC Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Francis A. Di Bella

    2010-06-01

    The Phase I SBIR effort completed the feasibility design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of a self-actuated blade articulation mechanism that uses a torsion bar and a lightweight airfoil to affect the articulation of the Wells airfoil. The articulation is affected only by the air stream incident on the airfoil. The self-actuating blade eliminates the complex and costly linkage mechanism that is now needed to perform this function on either a variable pitch Wells-type or Dennis-Auld air turbine. Using the results reported by independent researchers, the projected improvement in the Wells-type turbine efficiency is 20-40%, in addition to an increase in the operating air flow range by 50-100%, therefore enabling a smaller or slower single turbine to be used.

  10. In situ repair welding of steam turbine shroud for replacing a cracked blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, S. K.; Das, C. R.; Ramasubbu, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Ray, S. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2002-06-01

    A root-cracked blade in a high-pressure steam turbine of a nuclear power plant had to be replaced with a new blade by cutting the shroud to remove the cracked blade. This necessitated in situ welding of a new shroud piece with the existing shroud after the blade replacement. The in situ welding of the shroud, a 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel with tempered martensite microstructure, was carried out using gastungsten arc welding and 316L austenitic stainless steel filler metal followed by localized postweld heat treatment at 873 K for 1 h using a specially designed electrical resistance-heating furnace. Mock-up trials were carried out to ensure that sound welds could be made under the constraints present during the in situ repair welding operation. In situ metallography of the repair weld after postweld heat treatment confirmed the adequate tempering of the martensitic structure in the heat-affected zone. Metallurgical investigations carried out in the laboratory on a shroud test-piece that had been welded using the same procedure as employed in the field confirmed the success of the in situ repair operation. The alternate option available was replacing the cracked blade and the shroud piece to which it is riveted with a new one, reducing the height of all the blades attached to the shroud by machining, riveting the blades with reduced height to the new shroud, and, finally, dynamic balancing of the entire turbine after completion of the repair. This option is both time-consuming and expensive. Hence, the successful completion of this repair welding resulted in enormous savings both in terms of reducing the downtime of the plant and the cost of the repair. The turbine has been put back into service and has been operating satisfactorily since December 2000.

  11. Damage detection method for wind turbine blades based on dynamics analysis and mode shape difference curvature information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Liang, Ming; Xiang, Jiawei

    2014-10-01

    Blades are among the key components of wind turbines. Blade damage is one of the most common types of structural defects and can cause catastrophic structural failure. Therefore, it is highly desirable to detect and diagnose blade damage as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a method for blade damage detection and diagnosis. This method incorporates finite element method (FEM) for dynamics analysis (modal analysis and response analysis) and the mode shape difference curvature (MSDC) information for damage detection/diagnosis. Finite element models of wind turbine blades have been built and modified via frequency comparison with experimental data and the formula for the model updating technique. Our numerical simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed technique can detect the spatial locations of damages for wind turbine blades. Changes in natural frequencies and modes for smaller size blades with damage are found to occur at lower frequencies and lower modes than in the larger sized blade case. The relationship between modal parameters and damage information (location, size) is very complicated especially for larger size blades. Moreover, structure and dynamic characters for larger size blades are different from those for smaller sized blades. Therefore, dynamic response analysis for a larger sized wind turbine blade with a multi-layer composite material based on aerodynamic loads’ (including lift forces and drag forces) calculation has been carried out and improved the efficiency and precision to damage detection by combining (MSDC) information. This method provides a low cost and efficient non-destructive tool for wind turbine blade condition monitoring.

  12. Effects of geometry and materials on low cycle fatigue life of turbine blades in LOX/hydrogen rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. M.; Gross, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an advanced turbine blade test program aimed at improving turbine blade low cycle fatigue (LCF) life. A total of 21 blades were tested in a blade thermal tester. The blades were made of MAR-M-246(Hf)DS and PWA-1480SC in six different geometries. The test results show that the PWA-1480SC material improved life by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 over the current MAR-M-246(Hf)DS. The geometry changes yielded life improvements as high as 20 times the baseline blade made of PWA-1480SC and 34 times the baseline MAR-M-246DS blade.

  13. Measurement of aeroacoustic noise generated on wind turbine blades modified by trailing edge brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asheim, Michael J.

    As wind technology becomes a larger portion of the energy production picture, the problematic interactions between the machines and society will continue to become more pronounced. Of these problems, wind turbine noise is one of the most important to the future of wind turbine development. This study looks at the effect trailing edge brushes mounted on the 2 bladed Controls Advance Research Turbine (CART 2), located at the National Wind Technology Center, have on the overall acoustic and aerodynamic performance of the blades. The use of trailing edge brushes reduced the aeroacoustic noise by 1.0 to 5.0 dB over the baseline blade, depending on wind speed. This acoustic performance comes at a cost to the aerodynamic performance of the blades. The aerodynamic performance indicators, such as turbine power and root bending moments show that increased drag due to the brushes is the main contributor to the reduction in power production. An economic analysis also investigated how to best use noise mitigation devices to optimize acoustic, power performance and loads of a 600 kW baseline turbine, such as the CART 2. The analysis shows that the use of up a noise mitigation device of 4 dB is best used by increasing the rotor diameter and the power rating of the machine, from a 43.3 m diameter, 600 kW machine to a 68.8 m diameter, 886.7 kW machine. This increase resulted in an annual energy production increase of 414% when using a Rayleigh wind distribution with at a mean annual wind speed of 8.5 m/s. This is a reduction of cost of energy from 0.0463 per kWh to 0.0422 kWh. This reduction in energy production costs helps to explain the continuing trend of turbine machine growth in both rotor diameter and power rating.

  14. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  15. Cyclic structural analyses of anisotropic turbine blades for reusable space propulsion systems. [ssme fuel turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderscheid, J. M.; Kaufman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades for reusable space propulsion systems are subject to severe thermomechanical loading cycles that result in large inelastic strains and very short lives. These components require the use of anisotropic high-temperature alloys to meet the safety and durability requirements of such systems. To assess the effects on blade life of material anisotropy, cyclic structural analyses are being performed for the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the space shuttle main engine. The blade alloy is directionally solidified MAR-M 246 alloy. The analyses are based on a typical test stand engine cycle. Stress-strain histories at the airfoil critical location are computed using the MARC nonlinear finite-element computer code. The MARC solutions are compared to cyclic response predictions from a simplified structural analysis procedure developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  17. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Villanueva, Hector; Brønnum, Niels F.; Kruse, Emil K.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean, but also that the loads are almost neutral when vortex generators are installed if there is leading edge roughness on the blades. Finally, it was shown that there was a good agreement between the measurements and the predictions from the design tool.

  18. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, Douglas S.; Rossel, Scott M.

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  19. Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Bir, G. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the structural design of a tidal composite blade. The structural design is preceded by two steps: hydrodynamic design and determination of extreme loads. The hydrodynamic design provides the chord and twist distributions along the blade length that result in optimal performance of the tidal turbine over its lifetime. The extreme loads, i.e. the extreme flap and edgewise loads that the blade would likely encounter over its lifetime, are associated with extreme tidal flow conditions and are obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Given the blade external shape and the extreme loads, we use a laminate-theory-based structural design to determine the optimal layout of composite laminas such that the ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria are satisfied at all points in the blade. The structural design approach allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. In addition, certain fabrication criteria are imposed, for example, each composite laminate must be an integral multiple of its constituent ply thickness. In the present effort, the structural design uses only static extreme loads; dynamic-loads-based fatigue design will be addressed in the future. Following the blade design, we compute the distributed structural properties, i.e. flap stiffness, edgewise stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Such properties are required by hydro-elastic codes to model the tidal current turbine and to perform modal, stability, loads, and response analyses.

  20. Stacking optimization of compressor blades of gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheu, Tsu-Chien

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is presented to obtain optimal designs of axial compressor blades with structural design constraints. Coefficients of the polynomials defining the circumferential tilting angles and the axial leaning distances of the airfoil cross sections from the initial design geometry are used as design variables. The compressor blades are modeled by 20-node solid elements. An efficient finite element method is developed for modal analysis and sensitivity analysis with respect to the design variables. Based on this information, a sequential linear programming method is applied to calculate the required change of geometry for the desired structural design constraints.