Science.gov

Sample records for actual values obtained

  1. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  2. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  3. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  4. Weak values obtained in matter-wave interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponar, Stephan; Denkmayr, Tobias; Geppert, Hermann; Lemmel, Hartmut; Matzkin, Alexandre; Tollaksen, Jeff; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2015-12-01

    Weak values, introduced more than 25 years ago, underwent a metamorphosis from a theoretical curiosity to a powerful resource in photonics for exploring foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as a practical laboratory tool. Due to the tiny coherence volume of particles used in matter-wave optics, a straightforward implementation of weak measurements is not feasible. We have overcome this hurdle by developing a method to weakly measure a massive particle's spin component. A neutron optical approach is realized by utilizing neutron interferometry, where the neutron's spin is coupled weakly to its spatial degree of freedom. Here, we present how one can fully characterize the weak value of the Pauli spin operator σ̂z of neutrons by extracting its real and imaginary components, as well as its modulus. The results show good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the (spin) weak value is actually accessible for a purely quantum system of massive particles.

  5. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    SciTech Connect

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  6. New Space Value of the Solar Oblateness Obtained with PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry; Bocquier, Maxime; Momar Cisse, E.

    2014-04-01

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  7. The hotelling principle and in-ground values of oil reserves: Why the principle over-predicts actual values

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    Two articles previously published in this Journal reported that the valuation version of the Hotelling Principle over-predicts in-ground values of oil and gas reserves by a factor of approximately two. This paper shows these results are to be expected once it is understood that: (1) the Principle assumes individual operators have the effective freedom to schedule extraction rates so as to make net prices rise at the rate of discount, regardless of the course of gross (wellhead) prices; and (2) the long-prevailing system of regulating oil well spacing and extraction rates in the United States and Canada, designed to deal with the common pool problem, effectively denies operators that freedom. The discrepancy between actual in-ground values and those predicted by the Hotelling Principle suggests the benefits to be had by substituting compulsory reservoir unitization cum manager freedom for the current system of regulation.10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  9. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration using measured and calculated values of bulk surface resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently the United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends using the Penman-Monteith method for estimating ET over all other meteorological methods. The principal limitation of using the generalized form of the Penman-Monteith equation is in obtaining accurate values for the bu...

  10. Added value products for imaging remote sensing by processing actual GNSS reflectometry delay doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavulli, Domenico; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramilien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative and promising tool for remote sensing. It is based on the exploitation of GNSS signals reflected off Earth's surface as signals of opportunity to infer geophysical information of the reflecting surface. The main advantages of GNSS-R with respect dedicated sensors are: the unprecedented spatial-temporal coverage due to the availability of a great amount of transmitting satellite, e.g. GPS, Galileo, Glonass, etc…, long term GNSS mission life and cost effectiveness. In fact only a simple receiver is needed. In the last years several works demonstrated the meaningful of this technique in several Earth Observation applications. All these applications presented results obtained by using a receiver mounted on an aircraft or on a fixed platform. Moreover, space borne missions have been launched or are planned: UK-DMC, TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), NASA CYGNSS, Geros ISS. Practically, GNSS-R can be seen as a bistatic radar system where the GNSS satellites continuously transmit the L-band all-weather night-and-day signals that are reflected off a surface, called Glistening Zone (GZ), and a receiver measures the scattered microwave signals in terms of Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) or delay waveforms. These two products have been widely studied in the literature to extract compact parameters for different remote sensing applications. However, products measured in the Delay Doppler (DD) domain are not able to provide any spatial information of the scattering scene. This could represent a drawback for applications related to imaging remote sensing, e.g. target detection, sea/land and sea/ice transition, oil spill detection, etc…. To overcome these limitations some deconvolution techniques have been proposed in the state of the art aiming at the reconstruction of a radar image of the observed scene by processing the measured DDMs. These techniques have been tested on DDMs related to simulated marine scenario

  11. What do we actually mean by 'sociotechnical'? On values, boundaries and the problems of language.

    PubMed

    Klein, Lisl

    2014-03-01

    The term 'sociotechnical' was first coined in the context of industrial democracy. In comparing two projects on shipping in Esso to help define the concept, the essential categories were found to be where systems boundaries were set, and what factors were considered to be relevant 'human' characteristics. This is often discussed in terms of values. During the nineteen-sixties and seventies sociotechnical theory related to the shop-floor work system, and contingency theory to the organisation as a whole, the two levels being distinct. With the coming of information technology, this distinction became blurred; the term 'socio-structural' is proposed to describe the whole system. IT sometimes is the operating technology, it sometimes supports the operating technology, or it may sometimes be mistaken for the operating technology. This is discussed with reference to recent air accidents. PMID:23786808

  12. Comparison of IEUBK model predictions and actual blood lead values at a former battery recycling site.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, T A; Forslund, B L

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of US EPA's integrated exposureuptake biokinetic model for lead (IEUBK model) using data obtained during emergency removal operations at a former lead-acid battery recycling plant and the surrounding community. Data employed in the study include soil lead and interior dust lead, air lead levels collected at the site perimeter, drinking water lead levels at the community water main and blood lead data collected from an annual blood lead monitoring programme conducted over a four year period during the remediation activities.Geometric mean soil and dust concentrations were found to be a better predictor of blood lead than arithmetic mean data. However, weight based dust lead data were believed to be an inappropriate measure of dust lead levels. Estimates of household dust lead concentrations based upon surface loading data (μg m(-2)) yielded blood lead predictions which were more consistent with data collected in the blood lead monitoring programme. PMID:24197215

  13. Validation of Computed Tomography-based Attenuation Correction of Deviation between Theoretical and Actual Values in Four Computed Tomography Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Nobuhiro; Onishi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, we aimed to validate the accuracy of computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CTAC), using the bilinear scaling method. Methods: The measured attenuation coefficient (μm) was compared to the theoretical attenuation coefficient (μt), using four different CT scanners and an RMI 467 phantom. The effective energy of CT beam X-rays was calculated, using the aluminum half-value layer method and was used in conjunction with an attenuation coefficient map to convert the CT numbers to μm values for the photon energy of 140 keV. We measured the CT number of RMI 467 phantom for each of the four scanners and compared the μm and μt values for the effective energies of CT beam X-rays, effective atomic numbers, and physical densities. Results: The μm values for CT beam X-rays with low effective energies decreased in high construction elements, compared with CT beam X-rays of high effective energies. As the physical density increased, the μm values elevated linearly. Compared with other scanners, the μm values obtained from the scanner with CT beam X-rays of maximal effective energy increased once the effective atomic number exceeded 10.00. The μm value of soft tissue was equivalent to the μt value. However, the ratios of maximal difference between μm and μt values were 25.4% (lung tissue) and 21.5% (bone tissue), respectively. Additionally, the maximal difference in μm values was 6.0% in the bone tissue for each scanner. Conclusion: The bilinear scaling method could accurately convert CT numbers to μ values in soft tissues. PMID:27408896

  14. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  15. Describing health states. Methodologic issues in obtaining values for health states.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Thomas, H; Sutherland, H J; Tibshirani, R; Ciampi, A; Till, J E; Boyd, N F

    1984-06-01

    In health status index construction quantitative values for different states of health are frequently obtained by presenting written descriptions to raters whose values are elicited using one or more methods. In this study the authors examined the influence of several aspects of this measurement process upon the quantitative results obtained. They prepared a set of written descriptions of health states, each state being described in both a standard point-form and a narrative format. The narrative format was written in the first person singular, and listed all symptoms or problems associated with the state, whereas the point-form description included only the most severe symptom or problem. Values for these states were elicited from a group of 64 patients using two commonly employed methods, the standard gamble of Von Neumann and Morgenstern and category rating. The results indicate that the type of scenario presented to the rater and the sequence in which the methods of assessment were used had a major influence on the results. This work indicates that there is a need to examine systematically the process of obtaining quantitative values before reliance can be placed upon the results. PMID:6738144

  16. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  17. The prognostic value of non-perfusion variables obtained during vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Navkaranbir S; Singh, Siddharth; Farag, Ayman; El-Hajj, Stephanie; Heo, Jack; Iskandrian, Ami E; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established diagnostic test that provides useful prognostic data in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. In more than half of the patients referred for stress testing, vasodilator stress is used in lieu of exercise. Unlike exercise, vasodilator stress does not provide information on exercise and functional capacity, heart rate recovery, and chronotropy, and ECG changes are less frequent. These non-perfusion data provide important prognostic and patient management information. Further, event rates in patients undergoing vasodilator MPI are higher than in those undergoing exercise MPI and even in those with normal images probably due to higher pretest risk. However, there are a number of non-perfusion variables that are obtained during vasodilator stress testing, which have prognostic relevance but their use has not been well emphasized. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prognostic values of these non-perfusion data obtained during vasodilator MPI. PMID:26940574

  18. Value of obtaining renal images following brain scintigraphy with technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Spicer, M.J.; Jackson, R.E.; Byrd, B.F.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1986-08-01

    The value of adding an extra view of the kidneys immediately following brain imaging with Tc-99m glucoheptonate was investigated in a two-year retrospective study at our institution. Between October 1982 and October 1984, 561 individuals underwent Tc-99m glucoheptonate brain imaging with the added renal view. Twenty-nine of these individuals (5.2%) demonstrated renal abnormalities. The abnormal renal findings were clinically correlated in 24 of these persons. Sixteen (67%) of these 24 individuals were unaware of any renal abnormality. Useful information can be obtained from renal images incidental to brain imaging at no added expense or radiation exposure to the patient, and at a minimal cost in time to the imaging clinic.

  19. The relationship between the mean arterial blood pressure values obtained with the Peñaz non invasive method and those obtained with the invasive intraarterial.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, R; Sánchez, R; Suárez, M; Dávila, A

    1989-01-01

    It was investigated the relationship between the mean arterial pressure values obtained through the Peñaz method (non invasive) with those obtained intraarterially (invasive) in patients under balanced general anesthesia with the aim of establishing the influence of the different anesthetic stages upon such relationship. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and anesthetic maintenance with halothane and intermittent doses of fentanyl and a muscle relaxant. EKG, servo-plethysmograph, central venous and radial artery catheter, were placed in each patient thus obtaining in this manner HR, FAP, CVP and IAP readings. The relationship between finger arterial pressure and intraarterial pressure values was high in the different anesthetic stages. It was concluded that the readings obtained with the Peñaz method are not significantly affected by balanced general anesthesia. PMID:2488775

  20. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  1. Comparison of actual evaporation from water surface measured by GGI-3000 evaporimeter with values calculated by the Penman equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohu, Mojmír; Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Knozová, Grazyna

    2014-09-01

    Information about water evaporation is essential for the calculation of water balance. Evaporation, however, is a very complex physical process and it is therefore difficult to quantify. Evaporation measurements from the weather station network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute between 1968 and 2011 were performed using the evaporimeter GGI-3000. Evaporation was calculated using modified standard method based on FAO. The aim of the article was to compare the measured values and calculations. It has been found that the evaporation values from water surface calculated using the empirical equation are usually higher than the measured values by on average 0.8 mm, in extreme cases even 6.9 mm. The measured data shows higher variability than the calculated values, which means that correlations between series are not strong, the correlation coefficient being 0.7. Nevertheless the findings can be used for homogenization of series measured by the GGI-3000 evaporimeter.

  2. Mabolizable energy differences between values calculated using energy conversion factors and actual values determined by metabolic study of Korean starch foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Jinho; Kim, Hyejin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to compare the metabolizable energies of Korean starch foods by an animal metabolic study with those calculated using well-known energy conversion factors. There were 12 experimental diets (that is, 7 Korean foods, 3 Western foods, and 2 control foods): barley, brown rice, laver-rolled rice, rice mixed with vegetables and meat, seafood noodle soup, rice cake soup, rice cake in hot pepper paste, pizza, hamburger, spaghetti, basal diet, and glucose. Each diet comprised 70% basal diet and 30% experimental food. After 3 d of adaptation, a metabolic trial was performed for 4 d. The apparent metabolizable energy of pizza, hamburger, spaghetti, and rice cake soup were significantly higher than that of the basal diet group (P < 0.05). For barley, brown rice, laver-rolled rice, rice mixed with vegetables and meat, and seafood noodle soup, the differences between the actual and calculated energies were 8.7%, 13.3%, 4.5%, 17.2%, and 4.1%, respectively, and the actual energy contents were lower than those calculated using the Atwater conversion factor. The results of this study show that the energy contents of Korean foods are significantly different from those calculated using the conversion factors based on the food composition. Therefore, because Korean starch foods are considered to be calorie-rich based on calculations, their energy contents can be accurately determined only by animal experiments. PMID:24621178

  3. Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via Bromination with Pyridinium Tribromide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental bromine to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to bromine's relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…

  4. Estimation of error limits for cerebral blood flow values obtained from xenon-133 clearance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.

    1989-02-01

    I provide the theoretical basis for an error calculus for measurements of cerebral blood flow using a freely diffusible tracer substance such as xenon-133. The use of the error calculus is exemplified by a study of the effect on the error margins in measurements of gray matter blood flow from flow level, relative weight of the gray matter compartment, and use of the earliest parts of the clearance curves. The clinical value of the error calculus is illustrated by its ability to separate different sources of measurement error. As a consequence, it is possible to optimize the method for blood flow calculation from the clearance curves, depending on the type of cerebral blood flow measurement. I show that if a true picture of the regional gray matter blood flow distribution is sought, the earliest part of the clearance curves should be used. This does, however, increase the error in the estimate of the average cerebral blood flow value.

  5. Comparison of systolic blood pressure values obtained by photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff sounds.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Meir; Adar, Yair; Hoffman, Ellie; Shalom, Eran; Engelberg, Shlomo; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Bursztyn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry-the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by less than 3 mmHg. In nine examinations the SBP value measured by PPG was higher than that measured by sphygmomanometry by 5 mmHg or more. In only one examination the former was lower by 5 mmHg or more than the latter. The appearance of either the PPG pulses or the Korotkoff sounds assures that the artery under the cuff is open during systolic peak pressure. In the nine examinations mentioned above the PPG pulses were observed while Korotkoff sounds were not detected, despite the open artery during systole. In these examinations, the PPG-based technique was more reliable than sphygmomanometry. The high signal-to-noise ratio of measured PPG pulses indicates that automatic measurement of the SBP by means of automatic detection of the PPG signals is feasible. PMID:24184918

  6. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Meir; Adar, Yair; Hoffman, Ellie; Shalom, Eran; Engelberg, Shlomo; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Bursztyn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by less than 3 mmHg. In nine examinations the SBP value measured by PPG was higher than that measured by sphygmomanometry by 5 mmHg or more. In only one examination the former was lower by 5 mmHg or more than the latter. The appearance of either the PPG pulses or the Korotkoff sounds assures that the artery under the cuff is open during systolic peak pressure. In the nine examinations mentioned above the PPG pulses were observed while Korotkoff sounds were not detected, despite the open artery during systole. In these examinations, the PPG-based technique was more reliable than sphygmomanometry. The high signal-to-noise ratio of measured PPG pulses indicates that automatic measurement of the SBP by means of automatic detection of the PPG signals is feasible. PMID:24184918

  7. Prognostic Value of Preoperatively Obtained Clinical and Laboratory Data in Predicting Survival Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cuervas-Mons, Valentin; Millan, Isabel; Gavaler, Judith S.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Van Thiel, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven clinical and laboratory data and the subsequent clinical course of 93 consecutive adult patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for various chronic advanced liver diseases were analyzed retrospectively to assess the risk factors of early major bacterial infection and death after the procedure. Forty-one patients (44%) had early major bacterial infection during hospitalization for orthotopic liver transplantation. The mortality rate was 70.7% in patients with early major bacterial infection and was 7.7% in patients without early major bacterial infection (p < 0.001). Total serum bilirubin, total white blood cell count and polymorphonuclear cell count, IgG (all p < 0.05) and plasma creatinine level (p < 0.001) were higher in patients that developed early major bacterial infection than in those who did not. By step-wise discriminant analysis, the strongest risk factor for early major bacterial infection was the serum creatinine level, which achieved an accuracy of 69% for a creatinine level greater than 1.58 mg per dl. Seven variables (ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, elevated white blood and polymorphonuclear cell count, decreased helper to suppressor T cell ratio and elevated plasma creatinine and bilirubin levels) were associated with a significant increased risk for death. A step-wise discriminant analysis of these seven factors resulted in the demonstration of serum creatinine as the greatest risk factor for mortality. A preoperative serum creatinine either less than or greater than 1.72 mg per dl accurately predicts survival or death, respectively, in 79% of cases. These data suggest that the baseline preoperative serum creatinine level provides the best indication of the short-term prognosis after liver transplantation than does any other preoperatively obtained index of the patient’s status. PMID:3530947

  8. Valorization of biodiesel derived glycerol as a carbon source to obtain added-value metabolites: Focus on polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The amount of glycerol derived from the biodiesel industry is exponentially increasing. The valorization of glycerol has acquired attention and resources with an obvious economic and environmental interest. Glycerol has the potential to improve the profitability of biodiesel in a biorefinery scenario. Added-value metabolites obtained from glycerol-based fermentations are the target of multiple research studies, primarily chemicals and biopolymers. Pigments and polyunsaturated fatty acids are exceptional examples as they have market presence as nutraceuticals. Most of the studies reviewed have been based on microalgae cultures. Depending on the strain and the engineering aspects of such cultures the final yield suffers notable variations. This is an emerging field which shows great potential from the perspective of a byproduct usage and the increasing yields (value) obtained from the bioprocess. PMID:22261015

  9. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Joshua; Celler, Anna

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  10. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  11. Effects of Age and Sex on Values Obtained by RAPDx® Pupillometer, and Determined the Standard Values for Detecting Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Tsukasa; Goseki, Toshiaki; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of age and sex on the amplitude and latency scores obtained by the RAPDx® pupillometer, and to determine the standard values for detecting relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in healthy subjects. Methods The study was conducted on 84 healthy subjects (52 males, 32 females), who had no ophthalmic diseases other than refractive errors with a mean age of 32 years. The amplitude and latency scores of the males were compared to that of females and also among the different age groups. The correlations between the amplitude and latency scores and age were determined. The standard values with the 90%, 95%, and 99% prediction intervals of the measured values were also calculated. Results The differences in the amplitude and latency scores between the sexes were not significant. In addition, both scores were not significantly related with age. The mean amplitude score for all subjects with prediction intervals of 90%, 95%, and 99% was 0.02 (−0.26 to 0.30, −0.32 to 0.35, and −0.42 to 0.46, respectively); the latency score was −0.02 (−0.24 to 0.20, −0.28 to 0.25, and −0.37 to 0.33, respectively). Conclusions RAPD is not present when the absolute values of the amplitude score and latency scores, measured by the RAPDx® pupillometer, are ≤ 0.2 log units. RAPD is present when either of the values are ≥ 0.5 log units. Translational Relevance Results of this study can be used for detection of RAPD in the clinic and it will be the basic data of RAPDx® pupillometer for future research. PMID:27152248

  12. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population. PMID:19660906

  13. Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  15. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liu, Ransheng; Zhang, Aixu; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI) based on measurements from computed tomography (CT) for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs). Methods Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs), maximum (MAX), average (AVG), and standard deviation (STD) of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC). Results Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001), with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106). The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001). An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001), respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction has a little higher area under the curve (AUC) than the actual one both in differentiating MIAs from PIAs (AUC 0.938 vs 0.914, P=0.263) and in distinguishing IACs from MIAs (AUC 0.812 vs 0.786, P=0.718). Conclusion p53-EI prediction of nGGOs obtained from CT measurements allows accurately estimating lesions’ pathology and invasiveness preoperatively not only from radiology

  16. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    PubMed

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l. PMID:24666778

  17. Comparison of Liquefaction Potential Index Values Obtained from Using SPT and CPT Data, A Case Study Tepebasi-Eskisehir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Sunay; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Güney, Yücel

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is inside an area which is very active regarding earthquakes, it is merely related to Turkey's geological and tectonic location on Earth. Therefore, it is very important for studies to be conducted to prevent and maximize the reduction of the risk of earthquake damage may occur. Especially, determination of the dynamic properties of the soil and the local soil conditions is the most crucial study can be done for residential areas. Water saturated sand is a soil condition, which is most negatively affected by earthquakes. This type of soil becomes liquefied during the earthquakes, loses its strength and causes significant damage. Therefore, liquefaction analysis must be done before the earthquake happens and areas at risk should be determined. Then, rehabilitation works should be applied to those areas and thus it can prevent the damage due to liquefaction. The aim of this study is to determine and compare Eskişehir/Tepebaşı in regard of liquefaction potential of new alluvial units in the district by using Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the SPT-N data. LPI values calculated by using 42 different CPT data and 53 different SPT-N data from boreholes. While liquefaction analysis is being processed, the SPT-N data was used in the method presented by Seed and Idriss (1971) and developed by Youd et al. (2001), the CPT data was used in the method developed by Wride Robertson (1998). Also, Eskişehir Fault Zone which may affect the study area have assumed that constitute the maximum horizontal ground acceleration of 0.3 g and this value was used on calculations. As earthquake magnitude in calculations, 02.20.1956 earthquake with 6.4 magnitude has been used. In result of this study both methods have been used for given area and liquefaction analysis has been done. Results of the analysis have been used to generate liquefaction risk maps in GIS environment. In addition, since groundwater levels are directly related to liquefaction, groundwater level models have been

  18. [Dose loads on and radiation risk values for cosmonauts on a mission to Mars estimated from actual Martian vehicle engineering development].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Mitrikas, V G; Petrov, V M

    2010-01-01

    The current design philosophy of a Mars orbiting vehicle, takeoff and landing systems and the transport return vehicle was taken into consideration for calculating the equivalent doses imparted to cosmonaut's organs and tissues by galactic cosmic rays, solar rays and the Earth's radiation belts, values of the total radiation risk over the lifespan following the mission and over the whole career period, and possible shortening of life expectancy. There are a number of uncertainties that should be evaluated, and radiation limits specified before setting off to Mars. PMID:20803991

  19. Stereological studies on red corpuscle size produce values different from those obtained using haematocrit- and model-based methods.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, T M; Mwamengele, G L; Self, T J; Travers, J P

    1994-02-01

    The routine methods for estimating erythrocyte size (volume and surface area) are not generally unbiased. Using geometric models introduces a bias determined by the ways in which real red blood corpuscles depart in size and shape from the simplistic ideal. Employing haematocrit and red corpuscle count to estimate mean corpuscular volume relies on an implicit assumption that erythrocytes fill three-dimensional space. However, a biconcave circular disc cannot be space-filling. The bias is positive and its magnitude depends on erythrocyte geometry and packing density within the centrifuge pellet. We have estimated the volumes, surface areas and shape factors of red blood corpuscles in normal adults (three males, three females) using transmission electron microscopy and stereology. We confirm the lack of sexual dimorphism and find that the mean corpuscular volume is 44 fl (between-subject coefficient of variation 5%), mean membrane surface area is 87 microns2 (6%) and the shape factor is 18.4 fl/fl (11%). The surface is 44% greater than that of a sphere of equal volume. The possible reasons for discrepancies with standard haematological values are discussed. On the basis of observed volumes, we predict that red blood corpuscles account for only 51% of the volume of the red column in standard haematocrit pellets. PMID:7695680

  20. Relationships between the pulmonary densitometry values obtained by CT and the forced oscillation technique parameters in patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, R; Camilo, G B; Machado, D C; Melo, P L; Carvalho, A R S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlations between pulmonary densitometry values and forced oscillation technique (FOT) parameters in patients with silicosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 36 non-smoker patients with silicosis and 20 matched control subjects who were submitted to FOT and multidetector CT (MDCT). Results: Compared with the control subjects, the MDCT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited greater total lung mass. These patients also had larger non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments, which included nodules and scarring. Compared with the control subjects, FOT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited changes in both reactive and resistive properties of the respiratory system. In these patients, there was a greater heterogeneity of the respiratory system and increased work of breathing. Significant correlations between non-aerated compartment size and FOT parameters that reflect the non-homogeneity of the respiratory system were observed. The dynamic compliance of the respiratory system was negatively correlated with non-aerated compartment size, while the impedance at 4 Hz was positively correlated with non-aerated compartment size. Conclusion: Patients with silicosis have heavier lungs. In these patients, a larger non-aerated compartment is associated with a worsening of lung function. A more significant pulmonary involvement is associated with a loss of homogeneity and increased mechanical load of the respiratory system. Advances in knowledge The findings provided by both pulmonary densitometry and FOT may add valuable information to the subjective analysis of silicosis; however, more studies are necessary to evaluate the potential use of these methods for assessing disease progression. PMID:25747897

  1. 7 CFR 356.4 - Property valued at $10,000 or less; notice of seizure administrative action to obtain forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property valued at $10,000 or less; notice of seizure administrative action to obtain forfeiture. 356.4 Section 356.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 356.3 - Property valued at greater than $10,000; notice of seizure and civil action to obtain forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property valued at greater than $10,000; notice of seizure and civil action to obtain forfeiture. 356.3 Section 356.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Ford, John C.; Olsen, Kathryn M.; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with \\text{TR}≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm-2, pixel size  =  1.98× 1.98 mm2, slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm-2 from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm-2 were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p>0.05 , paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets—0-1000 50-1000 100-1000 500-1000 and 250 and 800 μs μm-2 were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise simulation

  4. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E; Olsen, K; Groves, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  5. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  6. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  9. A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

  10. CITY OF SANTA FE V. KOMIS REVISITED: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTUAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SANTA FE BYPASS ON THE VALUE OF NEARBY REAL ESTATE

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Dr. E. J., Jr.,; Bentz, C. B.; O'Hora, T. D.; Baepler, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    The Santa Fe Bypass for transport of transuranic waste (TRU) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico has been constructed and is operational (as of 2000). This paper presents a review of actual empirical data from the sales of real estate in the Santa Fe City/County area since the filing of the City of Santa Fe v. Komis lawsuit in 1988. The data analyzed covers the time period from 1989 through the last quarter of 2001.

  11. The roles of CHPD: superior critical current density and n-value obtained in binary in situ MgB2 cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S. A.; Motaman, A.; Barua, S.; Patel, D.; Mustapic, M.; Kim, J. H.; Maeda, M.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Cicek, O.; Melisek, T.; Kopera, L.; Kario, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Runtsch, B.; Jung, A.; Dou, S. X.; Goldacker, W.; Kovac, P.

    2014-09-01

    A binary magnesium diboride (MgB2) cable has been assembled by braiding six Nb/Monel sheathed monofilament strands around a central copper stabilizer for improving the operational environment. The total critical current (Ic) of the braided cable is obtained by multiplying the Ic of six single wires, without any dissipation. In this work, various mechanical deformations, i.e., swaging, two-axial rolling, groove rolling, and cold high-pressure densification (CHPD) at 1.8 GPa have been applied to the 6-stranded cable to obtain additional densification. The highest critical current density at both 4.2 and 20 K has been achieved in this work through the CHPD treated cable due to higher filament mass density. The present results are promising in view of the cable, particularly in power applications at industrial lengths that pave the way to seeking an optimal protocol to meet a practical functionality.

  12. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction values obtained using invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and gated single-photon emission computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Nadish; Dresser, Thomas; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mayank K; Alpert, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Left ventricular ejection fraction can be measured by a variety of invasive and non-invasive cardiac techniques. This study assesses the relation of three diagnostic modalities to each other in the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction: invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on 58 patients hospitalized with chest pain, who underwent left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation using each of the aforementioned modalities within a 3-month period not interrupted by myocardial infarction or revascularization. Results: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography (0.44±0.15), two-dimensional echocardiography (0.46±0.13), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (0.37±0.10). Correlations coefficients and associated p values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001), invasive contrast left ventriculography versus gated single-photon emission computed tomography (r=0.80, p<0.0001), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that strong positive correlations exist among the three techniques studied.

  13. On the Value of Effective Parameters Obtained Under Reduced Spatial Scale Mismatch to Represent Soil Moisture - Evapotranspiration Interactions in Land Surface Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, R.; Iwema, J.; Blyth, E.; Wagener, T.; Rahman, A. S. M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture - evapotranspiration interactions have been studied in several regions characterized by distinct soil properties, land cover types, and climate. Such interactions are usually assessed with measurements representing different spatial footprint. For example, soil moisture measurements obtained from point-scale sensors or with remote sensing products are typically compared with evapotranspiration measurements obtained with eddy covariance systems. With efforts to develop hydrometeorological models capable of simulating processes at hyper-resolution (i.e., 1 sq-km), novel approaches for intermediate-scale soil moisture measurements give us new opportunities to evaluate the representation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration processes at similar spatial scales. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) in which key parameters are determined effectively based on both soil moisture and evapotranspiration measurements obtained with similar horizontal footprint. We use soil moisture data from selected sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) network in combination with co-located Ameriflux eddy covariance towers to constrain key parameters in JULES assuming their similar horizontal footprint of hundreds of meters. The COSMOS-Ameriflux sites are characterized by distinct soils, land cover types, and climate. In addition, point-scale soil moisture at each site is also used in combination with eddy covariance measurements to constrain JULES parameters, while recognizing its much smaller support volume. Each individual site is ranked based on differences in soil moisture dynamics from both point-scale and intermediate-scale measurements. Model calibration is carried out by optimizing JULES performance against (1) point-scale soil moisture only, (2) cosmic-ray soil moisture only, (3) point-scale soil moisture and surface fluxes, and (4) cosmic-ray soil moisture and surface fluxes. We then evaluate

  14. Functional behavior of vessels from pigs with von Willebrand disease. Values of platelet deposition are identical to those obtained on normal vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Badimon, L.; Badimon, J.J.; Turitto, V.T.; Rand, J.; Fuster, V.

    1989-03-01

    Vessels from normal pigs and pigs with severe von Willebrand disease were exposed for up to 30 minutes to both nonanticoagulated and heparinized blood from normal pigs in an ex vivo perfusion system. Shear rates at the vessel surface were varied over a broad physiological range, gamma w = 212 to 3380 sec-1. The deposition of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets was determined by radiometric counting. For all shear rates and exposure times investigated, the levels of platelet deposition on de-endothelialized thoracic aorta of normal and von Willebrand disease pigs were not significantly different. Thus, the functional activity of the vessels correlated with the results obtained previously by immunofluorescence. Namely, the von Willebrand factor protein in the thoracic subendothelium of normal pigs is significantly diminished or absent and is comparable to the levels observed in von Willebrand disease pigs.

  15. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendecki, Maciej J.; Bieta, Barbara; Mateuszów, Mateusz; Suszka, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio), based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise) using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2) and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98) respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  16. Petroleum and petroleum/coal blends as feedstocks in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale cokers to obtain carbons of potentially high value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escallon, Maria M.

    2008-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to understand how the chemical composition of the feedstock and reactor design affects the quality of the coke toward the formation of a needle (premium) coke. Although a lot of information has been published related to the production of the premium coke, via mesophase formation, some contradictory results have been reported because the conclusions are reached based on chemical composition of the feedstock alone or reactor design alone. A raw decant oil, EI-107, was hydrotreated to different levels giving origin to six derivatives. Based on greater differences in chemical composition between the hydrotreated decant oils and the raw decant oil, and the sample quantity, three out of six derivatives were selected to continue with the carbonization process. It was found that the quality of the coke obtained through the pyrolysis of the four decant oils using the reactor operated at atmospheric pressure and 465°C (LSCopen) is related to the chemical composition of the decant oil. The coke that displays the lowest coke quality is EI-135, which is explained by the presence of five-membered rings and biphenyls in the decant oil that are detrimental to the mesophase formation due to the loss of planarity and free rotation. Even though this decant oil has alkylbenzenes which improve the mesophase formation, it appears that the amount of these compounds is not enough to compensate the negative effect that five-membered rings and biphenyls exert on the mesophase. The next best coke in quality is EI-107. While its feedstock (EI-107) has the lowest amount of alkylbenzenes and naphthenic compounds, the decant oil EI-107 displays little or no presence of five-membered rings and biphenyls making its quality higher than coke EI-135. The cokes EI-134 and EI-138 display, respectively, the highest coke quality among the four cokes tested. Their feedstocks have the highest amount of alkylbenzenes and naphthenic compounds but an intermediate content of

  17. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  18. An equation to calculate the actual methylene middle parameter as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin

    2015-08-21

    Methylene middle parameter [Formula: see text] , the product of the methylene group's cross-sectional area ( [Formula: see text] ) and the root square of its dispersive free energy ( [Formula: see text] ), is the key parameter to calculate the dispersive surface components of solids (γs(d)) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at different temperatures. The only method reported to calculate [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature is the Dorris-Gray method. However, the conventional values of [Formula: see text] calculated by the Dorris-Gray method depend heavily on theoretical aspects. This paper establishes a novel equation calculating the actual [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature using the latest and most accurate surface parameters of seven successive n-alkanes. The obtained actual [Formula: see text] values are slightly higher those of the conventional [Formula: see text] . At 20°C, the actual [Formula: see text] generates γs(d) values less than those generated using the conventional [Formula: see text] by ∼3%, and this reduction in calculated γs(d) values increases linearly to become ∼5% at 100°C. Therefore, using the new actual [Formula: see text] seems to mitigate the discrepancy between the γs(d) values measured by IGC and those measured by the contact angle method. PMID:26187766

  19. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  20. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  1. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  2. Comparison of actual and predicted energy savings in Minnesota gas-heated single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1984-03-01

    Data available from a recent evaluation of a home energy audit program in Minnesota are sufficient to allow analysis of the actual energy savings achieved in audited homes and of the relationship between actual and predicted savings. The program, operated by Northern States Power in much of the southern half of the state, is part of Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service. NSP conducted almost 12 thousand RCS audits between April 1981 (when the progam began) and the end of 1982. The data analyzed here, available for 346 homes that obtained an NSP energy audit, include monthly natural gas bills from October 1980 through April 1983; heating degree day data matched to the gas bills; energy audit reports; and information on household demographics, structure characteristics, and recent conservation actions from mail and telephone surveys. The actual reduction in weather-adjusted natural gas use between years 1 and 3 averaged 19 MBtu across these homes (11% of preprogram consumption); the median value of the saving was 16 MBtu/year. The variation in actual saving is quite large: gas consumption increased in almost 20% of the homes, while gas consumption decreased by more than 50 MBtu/year in more than 10% of the homes. These households reported an average expenditure of almost $1600 for the retrofit measures installed in their homes; the variation in retrofit cost, while large, was not as great as the variation in actual natural gas savings.

  3. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting. PMID:26013159

  4. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    drawn from the wine water δ18O value. If water is added prior or during alcoholic fermentation, final ethanol δDn value will fall outside of the range of -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW, while wine water δ18O value may still appear valid for the wine origin. We are certain that measuring wine water δ18O alone could give wrong impression about wine origin. With the new set of ethanol δDn and wine water δ18O results obtained from genuine wine samples from different vintages and from different geographic destinations (Serbia and USA), we are more certain that EIM-IRMS® method can help in determination of geographical origin and give additional information about wine authenticity and also important information about illegal production practices (addition of sugar and/or dilution with water) in wine production. Keywords: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Wine, Authenticity, determination of origin

  5. Positioning the actual interference fringe pattern on the tooth flank in measuring gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Suping; Wang, Leijie; Liu, Shiqiao; Komori, Masaharu; Kubo, Aizoh

    2011-05-01

    In measuring form deviation of gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry, the collected interference fringe pattern (IFP) is badly distorted, in the case of shape, relative to the actual tooth flank. Meanwhile, a clear and definite mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank is indispensable for both transforming phase differences into deviation values and positioning the measurement result on the actual tooth flank. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a method using the simulation tooth image as a bridge connecting the actual tooth flank and the collected IFP. The mapping relationship between the simulation tooth image and the actual tooth flank has been obtained by ray tracing methods [Fang et al., Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6409-6415 (2010)]. This paper mainly discusses how to build the relationship between the simulation tooth image and the collected IFP by using a matching algorithm of two characteristic point sets. With the combination of the two above-mentioned assistant mapping relationships, the mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank can be built; the collected IFP can be positioned on the actual tooth flank. Finally, the proposed method is employed in a measurement of the form deviation of a gear tooth flank and the result proves the feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  7. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  8. Automating the process of obtaining signal-to-crosstalk ratio in dilated Benes networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jui-Lin; Qiao, Chunming

    1995-12-01

    Crosstalk is a major concern in optical switching networks made of 2 X 2 electro-optical switches such as Dilated Benes Networks (DBNs). One of the important performance parameters of these optical architectures is SXR (Signal-to-Crosstalk Ratio). The paper proposes ways to automate the process of obtaining crosstalk ratios and their related characteristics. This paper contains two parts. The first part is an algorithm to obtain the crosstalk ratios of each and every switch in a DBN. These results can be used to calculate the SXR of the network or to detect and locate switches with excessive crosstalk. In the second part, we present a feasible way to configure a network to obtain an approximate value of its worst-case SXR. The difference between the actual and the approximate worst-case SXR values is almost negligible, while the complexity involved in obtaining the actual worst-case SXR can be prohibitively high.

  9. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  10. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  11. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  12. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  13. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  14. Screening Mammography: Test Set Data Can Reasonably Describe Actual Clinical Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Warwick; McEntee, Mark F.; Kench, Peter L.; Reed, Warren M.; Heard, Rob; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the extent to which test set reading can represent actual clinical reporting in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics approval was granted, and informed consent was obtained from each participating screen reader. The need for informed consent with respect to the use of patient materials was waived. Two hundred mammographic examinations were selected from examinations reported by 10 individual expert screen readers, resulting in 10 reader-specific test sets. Data generated from actual clinical reports were compared with three test set conditions: clinical test set reading with prior images, laboratory test set reading with prior images, and laboratory test set reading without prior images. A further set of five expert screen readers was asked to interpret a common set of images in two identical test set conditions to establish a baseline for intraobserver variability. Confidence scores (from 1 to 4) were assigned to the respective decisions made by readers. Region-of-interest (ROI) figures of merit (FOMs) and side-specific sensitivity and specificity were described for the actual clinical reporting of each reader-specific test set and were compared with those for the three test set conditions. Agreement between pairs of readings was performed by using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. Results: Moderate or acceptable levels of agreement were evident (W = 0.69–0.73, P < .01) when describing group performance between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions that were reasonably close to the established baseline (W = 0.77, P < .01) and were lowest when prior images were excluded. Higher median values for ROI FOMs were demonstrated for the test set conditions than for the actual clinical reporting values; this was possibly linked to changes in sensitivity. Conclusion: Reasonable levels of agreement between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions can be achieved, although inflated sensitivity

  15. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  16. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  17. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  18. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  19. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  20. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  1. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  2. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  3. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  4. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  5. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  6. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  7. Global data sets - obtain the modeled global values

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-19

    ... the desired parameter.  Selecting the parameter name will bring up the data as text in a window, which you can copy and paste ... Selecting (compressed) to the right of the parameter name will allow you to save a compressed data file on your local machine. ...

  8. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  9. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  10. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  11. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  12. Comparison of Calculated Radiation Delivery Versus Actual Radiation Delivery in Military Macaws (Ara militaris).

    PubMed

    Cutler, Daniel C; Shiomitsu, Keijiro; Liu, Chin-Chi; Nevarez, Javier G

    2016-03-01

    The skin and oral cavity are common sites of neoplasia in avian species. Radiation therapy has been described for the treatment of these tumors in birds; however, its observed effectiveness has been variable. One possible explanation for this variability when radiation is used to treat the head is the unique anatomy of the avian skull, which contains an elaborate set of sinuses not found in mammalian species. To compare a calculated dose of radiation intended to be administered and the actual amount of radiation delivered to the target area of the choana in 3 adult military macaws (Ara militaris), computed tomography scans were obtained and the monitor unit was calculated to deliver 100 cGy (1Gy) by using radiation planning software. The birds received 3-4 radiation treatments each from a megavoltage radiation therapy unit. A thermoluminescent dosimetry chip (TLD) placed in the choana of the birds was used to measure the amount of ionizing radiation delivered at each treatment. The TLDs were kept in place using Play-Doh as a tissue analog. The actual dose of radiation delivered was lower than the 100-cGy calculated dose, with the 95% confidence limits of predicted bias values between 2.35 and 5.39 (radiation dose from 94.61 to 97.65 cGy). A significant difference was identified between the actual amount of radiation delivered and the calculated radiation goal (P < .001). None of the TLDs received the intended dose of 100 cGy of radiation. The results revealed that the amount of radiation delivered did not reach intended levels. Because the combination of the significance of this discrepancy and the standard dose inhomogeneity could lead to greater than 10% dose inhomogeneity, future investigation is warranted for accurate dose calculation and efficacy of radiation therapy for neoplasia at the lumen of the choana in birds. PMID:27088738

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  18. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  19. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  20. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  1. Development of a Values Inventory for Grades 1 Through 3 in Five Ethnic Groups: Preliminary Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, Joan S.; And Others

    A structured preliminary interview for children grades 1 to 3 was devised to obtain information on the kinds of situations relevant to seven hypothesized value dimensions based on the following categories of needs: 1) physiological, 2) safety, 3) love, 4) esteem, 5) aesthetic, 6) self-actualization, and, 7) aggression. A total of 23 children from…

  2. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  3. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  4. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  5. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  6. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  7. XAS and XRF investigation of an actual HAWC glass fragment obtained from the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardenne, K.; González-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Müller, N.; Christill, G.; Lemmer, D.; Praetorius, R.; Kienzler, B.; Metz, V.; Roth, G.; Geckeis, H.

    2015-05-01

    Several sections of HAWC glass rods remaining at the end of glass pouring at the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) were retained during vitrification operation in 2009-2010 and transferred to the KIT-INE shielded box line for later glass product characterization. A mm sized fragment with a contact dose rate of ∼590 μSv/h was selected for pilot XAS/XRF investigations at the INE-Beamline for actinide science at the ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The experiment was aimed at elucidating the potential of direct radionuclide speciation with an emphasis on the fission products Se and Tc in highly active nuclear materials and at assessing the possible influence of the γ-radiation field surrounding highly active samples on the beamline instrumentation. While the influence of γ-radiation turned out to be negligible, initial radionuclide speciation studies by XAFS were most promising. In addition to Se and Tc speciation, the focus of these initial investigations was on the possibility for direct actinide speciation by recording corresponding L3-edge XAFS data. The registration of high quality XANES data was possible for the actinide elements U, Np, Pu and Am, as well as for Zr.

  8. Does the orbitofrontal cortex signal value?

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Takahashi, Yuji; Liu, Tzu-Lan; McDannald, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in associative learning. Early work by Mishkin and Rolls showed that the OFC was critical for rapid changes in learned behavior, a role that was reflected in the encoding of associative information by orbitofrontal neurons. Over the years, new data—particularly neurophysiological data—have increasingly emphasized the OFC in signaling actual value. These signals have been reported to vary according to internal preferences and judgments and to even be completely independent of the sensory qualities of predictive cues, the actual rewards, and the responses required to obtain them. At the same time, increasingly sophisticated behavioral studies have shown that the OFC is often unnecessary for simple value-based behavior and instead seems critical when information about specific outcomes must be used to guide behavior and learning. Here, we review these data and suggest a theory that potentially reconciles these two ideas, value versus specific outcomes, and bodies of work on the OFC. PMID:22145878

  9. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  10. Analysis of Non-Standard Lightning Impulse Voltage for Actual Substation and Generation Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Shigemitsu; Koutou, Masanori; Yuasa, Sadayuki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Yamagiwa, Tokio

    Evaluation of lightning surge waveforms that actually enter into substations is important when investigating the test voltage of electric power equipment. The standard lightning impulse waveform (1.2/50μs) is used for factory tests. However, the actual lightning surge waveforms in actual substations are complex waveforms in which various different oscillations are superimposed. Investigation of insulation characteristics of equipment against the complex waveforms and the standard one has significant importance. We analyzed these waveforms entering actual substations with respect to the insulation characteristics of gas insulated switchigear (GIS). From the results, we defined four types of non-standard lightning impulse waveforms. Then non-standard lightning impulse voltage is generated by an equipment circuit which is consisted of an impulse generator (IG), R, L and C is analyzed with EMTP. Voltage time characteristics were evaluated from the obtained impulse voltages.

  11. An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of scientists' actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists' actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from…

  12. Professionalism of Associate Degree Nurses: The Role of Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetzer, Susan Jane

    2003-01-01

    Usable data from 304 of 1,495 associate degree nursing graduates showed that self-actualization was positively and significantly related to professional attitudes, values, and behaviors. Length and intensity of work experience were only slightly related. The need to reevaluate the induction model of professional socialization was suggested.…

  13. The Challenge to Cumulative Learning: Do Introductory Courses Actually Benefit Advanced Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Craig; Paulhus, Delroy L.; Williams, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has questioned the educational value of taking introductory courses in psychology. Study 1 confirmed the usual null to negative associations between taking introductory psychology and performance in a subsequent psychology course. Study 2 showed that, after controlling for IQ, there was actually a positive association between…

  14. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  15. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zainab Z.; Jaeel, Ali Jwied

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively. PMID:24453893

  16. Isolating the actual signal of paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. M.; Moreno, E.; Bassinot, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Signals of relative and absolute paleointensity suffer inaccuracies and contaminations that must be considered to improve our knowledge of the field variations. Climatically related changes in rock magnetic parameters are frequently suspected of influencing the signal of relative paleointensity extrated from marine sediments. High resolution measurements of climatic and magnetic parameters have been performed on two cores from the eastern China Sea and the western Caroline Basin. On both cores, magnetic parameters show a strong imprint of climatic changes but the absence of relationship between the inclination and the bulk density indicates that the directional changes do not depend on lithology. All normalization parameters yielded similar estimates of relative paleointensity (RPI), but we have noticed the persistence of climatic components in the signal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to different parameters related to climate, lithology and paleointensity has allowed to extract a "clean" magnetic signal that we refer as "principal component of paleointensity (PCP)" which is in better agreement with the Sint-2000 composite curve and provides a reliable record of relative paleointensity. The presence of climatic frequencies in RPIs most likely reflects the influence of lithology on the response of magnetization to field intensity. We suggest that PCA analysis can be very useful to approach these problems. Not only can the calculation separate overlapping climatic and magnetic signals, but it indicates what confidence should be given to the data. Incidentally, the present results emphasize the importance of carrying out detailed paleoclimatic analyses along with paleointensity studies. Many approaches have been proposed during the past 20 years for experiments of absolute paleointensity in order to reduce the duration of the experiments and increase the number of field determinations. However, this is frequently obtained to the detriment of the accuracy

  17. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  18. The Value in Value Added Depends on the Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author states that, as the contributions of the focal articles make clear, there is much to learn about how value-added models (VAMs) are actually used in a variety of settings. Indeed, it is important to remember that VAM scores are but one component of a complex evaluation system that can play out differently in different…

  19. Estimating the actual ET from a pecan farm using the OPEC energy-balance and Penman- Monteith methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Bawazir, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Accurate estimation of ET from field crops/orchards is the basis for better irrigation water management. In areas like Mesilla Valley, NM, where water is scarce, it is even more important to precisely determine the crop ET. An OPEC energy balance system was run for 117 days (June 22 October 14, 2001) in a matured pecan farm at Mesilla Valley, NM. The actual evapotranspiration (ET) from pecan orchards was determined from the surface energy balance as a residual, having measured the net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat components using the OPEC method. Since pecans are large trees, we have also examined the effect of including thermal energies stored in the air (Ga) and plant canopy (Gc), on top of the commonly used thermal energy stored in the soil (Gs), on surface energy balance, and hence ET. The results indicate that incorporating thermal energies stored in the air and canopy has a significant effect on total energy storage for shorter temporal resolutions, such as 30-minutes and an hour. Conversely, for longer temporal resolutions (e.g., diurnal and monthly averages), the effect of including thermal energies stored in the air and vegetation on total thermal energy storage is negligible. Our results also showed that the bulk of the total thermal energy storage (G = Gs + Ga + Gc) in the surface energy balance was stored in the soil (Gs). In addition, we have also determined the crop coefficient (Kc) of pecan by combining the actual ET obtained from the OPEC method and potential ET (ET0) calculated using weather data in the surrounding area. Our average pecan Kc values were comparable with the ones reported by other researchers using different methods. We conclude that the OPEC energy balance method can be used to calculate Kc values for pecan whereby farmers and extension agents use the calculated Kc values in combination with ET0 to determine the consumptive use of pecan trees.

  20. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  1. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  2. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  3. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  4. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  5. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  6. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  7. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  8. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  9. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  11. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  12. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  13. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  14. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  15. Correlation of ideal and actual shear strengths of metals with their friction properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between the ideal and actual shear strengths and friction properties of clean metals in contact with clean diamond, boron nitride, silicon carbide, manganese-zinc ferrite, and the metals themselves in vacuum is discussed. An estimate of the ideal shear strength for metals is obtained from the shear modulus, the repeat distance of atoms in the direction of shear of the metal, and the interplanar spacing of the shearing planes. The coefficient of friction for metals is shown to be correlated with both the ideal and actual shear strength of metals. The higher the strength of the metal, the lower the coefficient of friction occurs.

  16. The Values Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, Joan S.; And Others

    The inventory is designed to measure seven dimensions of value based on seven categories of needs: physiological; safety; love; esteem; aesthetic; self-actualization; and aggression. Each item was pretested and checked for validity and reliability. Two test formats, each containing 30 items, were prepared: a single picture format in which the…

  17. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  18. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  19. Estimation of Regional-Scale Actual Evapotranspiration in Okayama prefecture in Japan using Complementary Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Miura, T.

    2008-12-01

    It is important to estimate accurately a water balance in watershed for proposing a reuse of water resources and a proper settlement of water utilization. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important factor of water balance. Therefore, it is needed to estimate accurately the actual ET. The objective of this study is to estimate accurately monthly actual ET in Yoshii, Asahi, and Takahashi River watersheds in Okayama prefecture from 1999 to 2000. The monthly actual ET was calculated by a Morton and a modified Brutsaert and Stricker (B&S) method, using Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (AMeDAS) in the basin. The actual ET was estimated using land covers which were classified in 11 categories. The land covers includes the effects of albedo. The actual ET was related to the elevation at each AMeDAS station. Using this relationship, the actual ET at the 1 or 5 km grid-interval mesh in the basin was calculated, and finally, the distribution of actual ET was mapped. The monthly ET estimated by the modified B&S method were smaller than that by Morton method which showed a same tendency as the Penman potential ET (PET). The annual values of Morton"fs ET, modified B&S"fs ET, and PET were estimated as 796, 645, and 800 mm, respectively. The ET by the modified B&S was larger in hilly and mountainous areas than in settlement or city. In general, it was a reasonable result because city or settlement areas were covered with concrete and asphalt and the ET was controlled.

  20. [Assessment of actual benefits of new drugs by the Transparency Committee].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C

    2008-01-01

    When a drug has been granted a marketing authorization, if the pharmaceutical company wants it to be covered by the National Health Insurance, the company has to submit a file with all the studies concerning the drug, especially drug-drug comparative studies, to be assessed by the Transparency Committee. Drugs are assessed on two criteria: actual or expected benefit (AB) and improvement in actual benefit (IAB). Actual benefit mainly takes into account the severity of the disease concerned, the level of efficacy relative to known side effects (risk-benefit ratio), and the place the drug is intended to take in the therapeutic strategy. At the end of the assessment, AB is considered as important, moderate, poor or insufficient (to justify inclusion of the drug on the list of products to be reimbursed). After actual benefit is determined, improvement of actual benefit is assessed, comparing the estimated benefit of this drug with one of drugs with the same indication that is already reimbursed, to assess whether this drug will improve the patient's disease. This can be assessed by direct comparison (two drugs compared in the same clinical trial) or by indirect comparison (separate studies with the same design). There are four levels of added value, from I (major improvement) to IV (minor improvement). Level V represents no improvement. This second assessment is always relative to another drug. It never provides an absolute score. However, IAB is very important for pharmaceutical companies, because it is a fundamental criterion to determine the price of the drug, which is discussed with the Economic Committee of Health Products in a final phase. Actual benefit and improvement in actual benefit are allocated for each indication of a drug. PMID:18401307

  1. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  2. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  3. Value Transmission in the Family: Do Adolescents Accept the Values Their Parents Want to Transmit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barni, Daniela; Ranieri, Sonia; Scabini, Eugenia; Rosnati, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on value transmission in the family and assessed adolescents' acceptance of the values their parents want to transmit to them (socialisation values), identifying some factors that may affect the level of acceptance. Specifically, actual value agreement between parents, parental agreement as perceived by adolescents, parent-child…

  4. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  5. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  6. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  7. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  8. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Jensen, Paul A; Campbell, Donald L; Lawrence, Robert B; Myers, Warren R

    2003-01-01

    Past studies have found little or no correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). This study investigated the effect of good- and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators on protection in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry and the correlation between WPFs and FFs. Fifteen burners and welders, who wore respirators voluntarily, and chippers participated in this study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models each with three sizes, for a total of six fit-tests. Models and sizes were assigned this way to provide a wide range of FFs among study participants. Each worker donned the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for 2 days. Quantitative FFs were first obtained for each donning using the PortaCount Plus trade mark in a separate room. Without redonning the respirators, workers performed normal work for 1 to 2 hours, and WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece samples simultaneously. A second fit-test was conducted without disturbing the respirator. FFs were obtained by averaging the results from the first and second fit-tests. The resulting FFs had a geometric mean (GM) of 400 (range=10-6010) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 6.1. Of the 55 valid donnings, 43 were good fitting (FFs> or =100) and 12 were poor fitting (FFs<100). The WPFs had a GM of 920 (range=13-230,000) and a GSD of 17.8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments. PMID:14674806

  9. PERCEIVED AND ACTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A COMPARISON OF MEDICALLY AND SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Higgins, Peter DR; Waljee, Jennifer F.; Tujios, Shannan R; Saxena, Aditi; Brown, Lindsay Kennedy; Chaudhary, Meghana N; Morris, Arden M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients with chronic Ulcerative Colitis (UC) often refuse colectomy despite data indicating that it might improve quality of life. We hypothesized that perceived utility values are different for patients living with UC compared to UC patients after total proctocolectomy. Our aims were to compare the perceived utility assigned by UC patients with and without a colectomy to standardized chronic UC and post-colectomy scenarios, and to compare the utility of actual health states among groups. Methods We surveyed patients in a tertiary referral center from 3 groups including non-UC, UC patients without colectomy, and UC patients who were post-colectomy. We measured the Time-Trade-Off utilities of subjects for standardized scenarios describing moderate UC and a post-colectomy state. Among all UC patients (with and without colectomy), we measured Time-Trade-Off utility for their own health state. Results Responses were obtained from 150 patients per group (n=450). The non-UC patients regarded UC and colectomy scenarios equally (0.92), which was similar to UC patients without colectomy (0.90 and 0.91). Post-colectomy patients strongly preferred the colectomy scenario to the UC scenario (0.86 vs. 0.92, p<0.001). The median utility of UC patients without colectomy for their actual health state was higher than that of post-colectomy patients (0.96 and 0.92, p<0.05). Patients with more social support were more likely to have undergone colectomy compared with patients with little social support (OR=1.20 per dependent/supporter). Conclusions Patients living with UC prefer their actual health state to a perceived UC scenario or a post-colectomy scenario. Patients who have undergone colectomy equate the quality of life in their actual state with that in a post-colectomy scenario and prefer each to a perceived chronic UC state. Given the variety of preferences and the importance of social support, opportunities to interact with UC patients who have previously undergone

  10. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  11. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  12. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  13. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  14. Characterizing the response of galloping energy harvesters using actual wind statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we incorporate actual wind statistics into the response of galloping energy harvesters and shed light onto the influence of the wind probability distribution on the average power as compared to the deterministic scenario. Specifically, we obtain an expression for the average output power of the harvester as a function of the wind statistical averages, which are, in turn, obtained by fitting wind data using a Weibull Probability Density Function (PDF). The resulting expression is then used to demonstrate that knowledge of the actual PDF is essential for correct power predictions as well as for accurate electric load optimization. We discuss the influence of the wind direction on the average output power and show that the direction of the prevailing wind is not necessarily the ideal direction to maximize the average power.

  15. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  16. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.…

  17. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  18. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-02-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST.

  19. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  20. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  1. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  2. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1994-01-01

    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents. PMID:8193387

  3. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  4. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  5. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  6. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  7. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  8. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  9. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  10. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  11. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  12. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  13. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  14. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  15. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  16. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  17. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  18. Modelling actual, reference and equilibrium evaporation from a temperate wet grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, H.; Agnew, C. A.

    2004-02-01

    Actual and reference evaporation from a wet grassland in Southeast England was studied over the spring and summer of 1999 (March to September) through changes in surface wetness. The Penman-Monteith (using resistance values for reference grass surface), equilibrium evaporation and Priestley-Taylor models were compared with output from the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) method. On field visits, inundation of the grazing marsh was mapped and surface soil moisture monitored in a regular grid using a capacitance probe. During the study period, the extent of flooding fell from approximately 10% to 0% and the surface soil moisture declined from over 38% to 15%. Daily averaged Bowen ratios displayed large variation but were below unity, indicating that latent energy flux was the dominant energy sink. The Penman-Monteith and equilibrium evaporation models underestimated during periods of surface inundation and overestimated when no surface water was present. Computed values of the Priestley-Taylor parameter showed daily variability, but was predictable with surface wetness such an average value of = 1.25 characterized periods of inundation, and an average values of = 0.80 represented periods of no surface water. The performance of the models in computing actual evaporation was compared with the BREB using the root-mean-square error and index of agreement. The optimal model was the Priestley-Taylor model.

  19. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  20. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  1. An Algorithm for Critical Nodes Problem in Social Networks Based on Owen Value

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation. PMID:25006592

  2. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  5. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  6. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  8. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  9. Work Values, Early Career Difficulties, and the U.S. Economic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Sage, Rayna Amber; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine how work difficulties in the early career, and the generally deteriorating work conditions associated with the recent U.S. economic recession, shape individuals’ work values. Drawing on panel data from the Youth Development Study, we test whether individuals change their work values in response to concerns about satisfying material needs or the features of jobs that they are able to attain. Results indicate that extrinsic values are weakened in the face of unemployment, as well as reduced job security, income, and advancement. These patterns support a reinforcement and accentuation model in which workers adjust their values to emphasize what they actually obtain from the job. Intrinsic values are weakened by working in a job unrelated to one’s career plans; they are reinforced by the experience of greater intrinsic rewards and advancement opportunities. PMID:23503050

  10. The value and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Downie, R S

    1999-01-01

    A medical view on 'the value of life' can be inferred from medical accounts of the quality of life: a life has value if it embodies certain qualities. Scales have been developed to quantify quality of life. While the term 'quality of life', is used frequently in everyday discourse, perceptions of what it might actually mean differ greatly and are often incompatible. This incompatibility can be illustrated through an examination and development of the Greek myth of Sisyphus. The different models that the author explores rest on 'significant toil', 'choice', 'happiness or well-being', or 'social factors' being the prerequisite for quality of existence. These models are incommensurable and, as intangible concepts, cannot be quantified. Decision-making in medicine does not require a complex evaluation of quality of life: it consists of the doctor's offer of treatment based on the best evidence, and the patient's consent to, or refusal of, that offer. Apart from the need to obtain consent, the main ethical constraint on the doctor is equity. PMID:10472028

  11. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  12. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics. PMID:16803974

  13. Actual change and inaccurate recall contribute to posttraumatic growth following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Sean; Sheldon, Kennon M; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    People with cancer often report that they experience personal growth as a result of the disease, but such reports have unclear validity. Some suggest such growth results from Rogers's (1951) hypothesized organismic valuing process (OVP), an innate tendency for people to gravitate toward well-being; others suggest this growth may be a positive illusion resulting from temporal self-comparisons. To test these conceptualizations, the authors examined 83 individuals with Stages 0-III breast or prostate cancer. Patients completed measures of positive attributes and personal life goals before radiotherapy (Time 1) and after radiotherapy (Time 2). At Time 2, participants also attempted to recreate their Time 1 responses and completed a posttraumatic growth (PTG) measure. PTG was significantly related with actual increases (but not perceived increases) in the relative importance of intrinsic goals versus extrinsic goals and with perceived increases (but not actual increases) in positive attributes. These measures were unrelated to one another and thus explained unique variance in PTG. Data suggest that both actual change processes related to the OVP and biases in autobiographic recall may independently contribute to PTG reports. PMID:18837598

  14. 7 CFR 3555.353 - Net recovery value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net recovery value. 3555.353 Section 3555.353... value. The net recovery value of the property is determined differently for properties that have been...) Actual net recovery value. For a property that has been sold when a loss claim is filed, net...

  15. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  16. Actualization of the Hydrogeological Model of the Ojos Negros VALLEY\\'{ }s Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Gaytan, J.; Vazquez Gonzalez, R.

    2002-12-01

    A regional groundwater flow model is actualized in order to study the water table behavior in the zone of the Ojos Negros valley, which is located in the state of Baja California, Mexico. In the actualization process of the Ojos Negros valley's hydrogeological model, is used all the information proportionate for the National Commission of Water, as well as that information obtained from academic and research works achieved in the study zone, about the hydrogeological conditions that present the Ojos Negros and Real del Castillo aquifers. In addition, a groundwater flow simulator is modified and improved from the numerical point of view. The actualized simulator solves numerically the Boussinesq equation, using centrals finite-differences techniques, the "fully implicit" approximation for the temporary variation, and the iterative method of successive over relaxation. Also it counts with the structure to considering the temporary variation of the different variables and geohydrologics conditions that has influence upon the groundwater system, and with programming subroutines in MATLAB (2000) for the graphic display of results. The simulation results are appropriate for determining the phreatic surface and the flow directions in different time intervals. The phreatic surface information can be used for studying the behavior (temporary evolution) of water table in the aquifers.

  17. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-03-03

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

  18. Actual Evapotranspiration using a two source energy balance model and gridded reference ET0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Senay, G. B.; Hobbins, M.

    2013-12-01

    In an ongoing effort to provide estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) at different spatial scales from local to regional this study investigate the use of a newly under development gridded reference ET0 product. This study is conducted within the context of a USGS project aimed to provide a standardized framework for the remote sensing of ETa that can be followed in the implementation of the WaterSMART program. Most thermal remote sensing based models provide instantaneous estimates of latent heat flux which then can be extrapolated to daily ETa. In many cases extrapolation is achieved using the ETref method. At field scales reference ET0, daily and instantaneous values, are obtained from point-based/local scale measurements. When considering regional scale this local scale estimates of ET0 might not be appropriate to account for the corresponding spatial variability. This analysis provides a comparison of ETa estimates based on a two source energy balance approach using point-based and gridded reference ET0 data. The two source energy balance SEBS (Norman et al. 1995) is used to calculate surface energy fluxes and ETa. Data from Palo Verdi Irrigation District (PVID), CA is used during the analysis. The area which extends over 500 km2 covered mostly with alfalfa, cotton and vegetable crops. Ground-based hydrometeorological data including reference ET0 are provided from a nearby weather stations. CONUS wide gridded reference ET0 which being developed by NOAA using NLDAS-phase 2 weather forcing are used. Both estimates of ETa_point and ETa_NLDAS based on ground and gridded ET0 data, respectively, are compared to ground-based measurement. Preliminary results of the comparison will be presented to highlight on the potential use of such gridded ET0 data in the use of remote sensing of ETa at regional scales application. References Norman, J. M., W. P. Kustas, & K. S. Humes, 1995: A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in

  19. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  20. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  1. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  2. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  3. Thermal Performance of Cryogenic Piping Multilayer Insulation in Actual Field Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J.; Augustnynowicz, S.; Thompson, K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A standardized way of comparing the thermal performance of different pipelines in different sizes is needed. Vendor data for vacuum-insulated piping are typically given in heat leak rate per unit length (W/m) for a specific diameter pipeline. An overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is therefore proposed as a more generalized measure for thermal performance comparison and design calculation. The k(sub oafi) provides a direct correspondence to the k-values reported for insulation materials and illustrates the large difference between ideal multilayer insulation (MLI) and actual MLI performance. In this experimental research study, a section of insulated piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions, including simulated spacers and bending. Several different insulation systems were tested using a 1-meter-long cylindrical cryostat test apparatus. The simulated spacers tests showed significant degradation in the thermal performance of a given insulation system. An 18-meter-long pipeline test apparatus is now in operation at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, for conducting liquid nitrogen thermal performance tests.

  4. Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2012-11-01

    The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

  5. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  6. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing

    PubMed Central

    HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410

  7. Value Personalisation: A Base for Value Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lydia

    This study examined the impact of the Value Clarification Action Plan on the quality of values education for secondary school students. The study identified values to be modeled through teacher behavior, created an action plan for preservice teachers through the values clarification process, trained students in values personalization, helped…

  8. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  9. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  10. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions. PMID:26265050

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  12. 19 CFR 10.206 - Value content requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; (C) The actual cost of waste or spoilage, less the value of recoverable scrap; and (D) Taxes and/or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Value content requirement. 10.206 Section 10.206... Value content requirement. (a) General. An article may be eligible for duty-free treatment under...

  13. 19 CFR 10.206 - Value content requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; (C) The actual cost of waste or spoilage, less the value of recoverable scrap; and (D) Taxes and/or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Value content requirement. 10.206 Section 10.206... Value content requirement. (a) General. An article may be eligible for duty-free treatment under...

  14. 19 CFR 10.206 - Value content requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; (C) The actual cost of waste or spoilage, less the value of recoverable scrap; and (D) Taxes and/or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Value content requirement. 10.206 Section 10.206... Value content requirement. (a) General. An article may be eligible for duty-free treatment under...

  15. 19 CFR 10.206 - Value content requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; (C) The actual cost of waste or spoilage, less the value of recoverable scrap; and (D) Taxes and/or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Value content requirement. 10.206 Section 10.206... Value content requirement. (a) General. An article may be eligible for duty-free treatment under...

  16. Validity of asthma diagnoses in the Danish National Registry of Patients, including an assessment of impact of misclassification on risk estimates in an actual dataset

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Annette Østergaard; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Asthma diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP) are a misclassified measure of the actual asthma status. We quantified this misclassification and examined its impact on the results of an epidemiologic study on asthma. Study design and setting: We validated the DNRP asthma diagnoses against records of asthma diagnosed at medical examinations conducted during mandatory conscription evaluation. We had data on 22,177 male conscripts who were born from January 1st, 1977 to December 31st, 1983, in a conscription district in northern Denmark. We obtained asthma diagnoses recorded among the conscripts in the DNRP from January 1st, 1977 through December 31st, 2003. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the DNRP asthma diagnoses. We then conducted sensitivity analysis to quantify the impact of nondifferential misclassification on the rate ratios measuring the association between asthma and risks of different skin cancers. Results: The sensitivity of the DNRP for detecting an asthma diagnosis was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42–0.47), the specificity was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98–0.99) and the PPV was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.62–0.68). Both direct and inverse associations between asthma and the different types of skin cancers became more pronounced after correcting for the misclassification. Conclusion: The DNRP registered asthma diagnosis may be used to measure asthma status in epidemiologic studies seeking to estimate relative effects of asthma. Even at low values of DNRP sensitivity of asthma diagnoses were not sufficient to nullify observed relative associations in an actual dataset. The specificity of DNRP asthma diagnosis is high. PMID:20865105

  17. Is Talk ‘Cheap’? An Initial Investigation of the Equivalence of Alcohol Purchase Task Performance for Hypothetical and Actual Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Acker, John; Stojek, Monika; Murphy, James G.; MacKillop, James

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral economic alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are self-report measures of alcohol demand that assess estimated consumption at escalating levels of price. However, the relationship between estimated performance for hypothetical outcomes and choices for actual outcomes has not been determined. The present study examined both the correspondence between choices for hypothetical and actual outcomes, and the correspondence between estimated alcohol consumption and actual drinking behavior. A collateral goal of the study was to examine the effects of alcohol cues on APT performance. Methods Forty one heavy-drinking adults (56% male) participated in a human laboratory protocol comprising APTs for hypothetical and actual alcohol and money, an alcohol cue reactivity paradigm, an alcohol self-administration period, and a recovery period. Results Pearson correlations revealed very high correspondence between APT performance for hypothetical and actual alcohol (ps < .001). Estimated consumption on the APT was similarly strongly associated with actual consumption during the self-administration period (r = .87, p <.001). Exposure to alcohol cues significantly increased subjective craving and arousal, and had a trend-level effect on intensity of demand, in spite of notable ceiling effects. Associations among motivational indices were highly variable, suggesting multidimensionality. Conclusions These results suggest there may be close correspondence both between value preferences for hypothetical alcohol and actual alcohol, and between estimated consumption and actual consumption. Methodological considerations and priorities for future studies are discussed. PMID:22017303

  18. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel. PMID

  19. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  20. Plasticity characteristics obtained through hardness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Y.V.; Galanov, B.A.; Chugunova, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    A characteristic of material plasticity [delta][sub H] is proposed. [delta][sub H] is determined as a part of plastic deformation in the total deformation during indentation. The following analytic expressions for the elastic deformation [epsilon][sub e] and for the total deformation [epsilon] on the contact area indenter-specimen in the direction of loading force are obtained, [epsilon][sub e] = 1.08(1 [minus] v [minus] 2v[sup 2])H[sub V/E], [epsilon] [approx] 0.076, where H[sub V] is the Vickers hardness, E is Young's modulus, v is the Poisson ratio, and [delta][sub H] = 1 [minus] ([epsilon][sub e]/[epsilon]). The [delta][sub H] value is calculated for various crystalline materials at different temperatures and in different structural states. [delta][sub H] is consistent with the concept of plasticity established before, and to characterize the influence of temperature, alloying and strain hardening on plasticity. The necessary condition for revealing ductility at tension and bending is [delta][sub H] [>=] 0.9. [delta][sub H] can be used as a plasticity characteristic of brittle materials.

  1. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration through model coupling and data assimilation with remotely sensed land surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2009-05-01

    We report on preliminary results from the coupling of two models and satellite observations to track evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in Northern Great Plains of the USA. The approach takes advantage of high- quality microclimate and irradiance/radiance measurements in a data assimilation scheme to estimate actual ET through a stepwise simulation of foliage dynamics, corrected by remotely sensed land surface properties. We used a recently developed VegET model that uses water balance principles and phenological constraints (Senay 2008) coupled with an event driven phenology model (EDPM) to simulate canopy dynamics unfolding in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. We used NDVI derived from MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR; MCD43B4V5) to amend the outputs of the EDPM using one-dimensional Kalman filtering to achieve a better representation of changing canopy conditions. The model was trained on level 1 flux tower data from cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska and refined using similar records from Bondville, Illinois. Results from the test runs demonstrated the ability of EDPM to drive the phenological constrains of VegET with reasonable accuracy (RMSE 0.03-0.10 at Nebraska sites). Filtered and unfiltered results from the coupled model were compared with actual evapotranspiration recorded on flux towers and with tower NDVI (Wittich and Kraft 2008). Depending on vegetation type and location, Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9.

  2. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  3. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. PMID:24634058

  4. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  6. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  7. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  8. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  9. A microcomputer-based routine for obtaining mean watershed precipitation from point values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Richard A.; Mostaghimi, Saied

    1992-08-01

    An interactive microcomputer based BASIC routine for averaging precipitation over an irregularly shaped watershed is presented. Averaging methods used include the station average, Thiessen, and isohyetal methods, with the user having the option of using either inverse distance weighting schemes or punctual kriging for interpolation in the isohyetal method. The routine may be used to compare different averaging methods or to examine the effects of missing data. Data may be entered from a stored ASCII file, interactively from the keyboard from the application of the routine to a specific watershed also are presented.

  10. Implementing Management for Performance and Related Reforms to Obtain Value in Every Acquisition Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1

    2010-04-14

    04/29/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume. PMID:26592000

  12. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  13. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  14. Accuracy assessment of the axial images obtained from cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Panzarella, FK; Junqueira, JLC; Oliveira, LB; de Araújo, NS; Costa, C

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of linear measurements assessed from axial tomograms and the influence of the use of different protocols in two cone beam CT (CBCT) units. Methods A cylinder object consisting of Nylon® (Day Brazil, Sao Paulo, Brazil) with radiopaque markers was radiographically examined applying different protocols from NewTom 3GTM (Quantitative Radiology s.r.l, Verona, Veneto, Italy) and i-CATTM (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) units. Horizontal (A–B) and vertical (C–D) distances were assessed from axial tomograms and measured using a digital calliper that provided the gold standard for actual values. Results There were differences when considering acquisition protocols to each CBCT unit. Concerning all analysed protocols from i-CATTM and Newtom 3GTM, both A–B and C–D distances presented underestimated values. Measurements of the axial images obtained from NewTom 3GTM (6 inch 0.16 mm and 9 inch 0.25 mm) were similar to the ones obtained from i-CATTM (13 cm 20 s 0.3 mm, 13 cm 20 s 0.4 mm and 13 cm 40 s 0.25 mm). Conclusion The use of different protocols from CBCT machines influences linear measurements assessed from axial images. Linear distances were underestimated in both equipments. Our findings suggest that the best protocol for the i-CATTM is 13 cm 20 s 0.3 mm and for the NewTom 3GTM, the use of 6 inch or 9 inch is recommended. PMID:21831977

  15. Uncertainties in obtaining high reliability from stress-strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Matthews, William T.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in determining high statistical reliability in risk assessment of aircraft components. The potential consequences are identified of incorrectly assuming a particular statistical distribution for stress or strength data used in obtaining the high reliability values. The computation of the reliability is defined as the probability of the strength being greater than the stress over the range of stress values. This method is often referred to as the stress-strength model. A sensitivity analysis was performed involving a comparison of reliability results in order to evaluate the effects of assuming specific statistical distributions. Both known population distributions, and those that differed slightly from the known, were considered. Results showed substantial differences in reliability estimates even for almost nondetectable differences in the assumed distributions. These differences represent a potential problem in using the stress-strength model for high reliability computations, since in practice it is impossible to ever know the exact (population) distribution. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability.

  16. Are presolar dust grains from novae actually from supernovae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Hoppe, P.

    2005-05-01

    Meteorites contain presolar stardust grains that formed in prior generations of stars and exhibit large isotopic anomalies reflecting the nuclear processes that occurred in their individual parent stars. RGB and AGB stars and supernovae are well established as sources of many of these grains. Novae have been proposed as sources for a few SiC and graphite grains with low 12}C/{13C and 14}N/{15N ratios and unusual Si isotopic ratios (Amari et al., ApJ, 551, 1065). We have found three SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite with C and N isotopic ratios similar to the previously-reported putative nova grains. However, the isotopic signatures of Si, Ca, Al and Ti in one of the grains (334-2) clearly indicate a supernova origin, especially excess 28Si correlated with excess 44Ca. The latter signature is attributable to in situ decay of (half-life=50yr) 44Ti. Another 13C- and 15N-rich grain (151-4) has a large 47Ti enrichment. This signature is not expected for nova nucleosynthesis. Thus, the new isotopic data raise the possibility that the grains previously reported to have formed in novae actually formed in supernovae, and that novae have not left a record in the presolar grain populations that have been so far studied. Moreover, the results in grain 334-2 indicate that supernovae contain regions highly enriched in both 13C and 15N. This is not predicted by current models but may bear on the cosmic origin of 15N. This work was funded in part by NASA.

  17. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Miosge, Lisa A; Field, Matthew A; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C; Andrews, T Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Each person's genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation's functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  18. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Miosge, Lisa A.; Field, Matthew A.; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M.; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Andrews, T. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Each person’s genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation’s functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  19. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  20. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  1. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  2. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  3. Values for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2007-01-01

    What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

  4. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  5. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  6. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  7. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  8. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual... disqualification is employed to resolve an apparent or actual conflict of interest, the disqualified employee...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual Repayment Disclosures (a) Calculating actual...

  11. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  12. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  13. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  14. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  15. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  16. 7 CFR 400.55 - Qualification for actual production history coverage program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification for actual production history coverage... Production History § 400.55 Qualification for actual production history coverage program. (a) The approved... history is certified and T or D-Yields are not provided in the actuarial documents, (2) If actual...

  17. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH) Coverage Program is offered under the provisions contained in the following regulations: 7 CFR part 457... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program....

  18. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... individual, shall be considered as actually owned by such person for the purpose of again applying such...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Adjustment (Actual Method). 52.222-32 Section 52.222-32 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-32 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method). As prescribed in 22.407(g), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method) (DEC 2001) (a) The...

  20. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... (actual method). Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.120 - Procedure for obtaining a refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.120 Procedure for obtaining a refund. Upon failure of the... net market value of the sorghum. (d) The Board shall initiate payment of refund requests, or pay...

  2. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin. PMID:25796880

  3. A diagnostic approach to obtaining planetary boundary layer winds using satellite-derived thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belt, Carol L.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellite derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic modified Ekman wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite derived winds based on 62 predawn TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface.

  4. Haro15: Is it actually a low metallicity galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, Verónica; Bosch, Guillermo; Hägele, Guillermo; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Morrell, Nidia

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed study of the physical properties of the nebular material in multiple knots of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 15. Using long slit and echelle spectroscopy, obtained at Las Campanas Observatory, we study the physical conditions (electron density and temperature), ionic and total chemical abundances of several atoms, reddening and ionization structure. The latter was derived by comparing the oxygen and sulphur ionic ratios to their corresponding observed emission line ratios (the η and η' plots) in different regions of the galaxy. Applying direct and empirical methods for abundance determination, we perform a comparative analysis between these regions.

  5. The actual content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisenberg, W.

    1983-01-01

    First, exact definitions are supplied for the terms: position, velocity, energy, etc. (of the electron, for instance), such that they are valid also in quantum mechanics. Canonically conjugated variables are determined simultaneously only with a characteristic uncertainty. This uncertainty is the intrinsic reason for the occurrence of statistical relations in quantum mechanics. Mathematical formulation is made possible by the Dirac-Jordan theory. Beginning from the basic principles thus obtained, macroscopic processes are understood from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Several imaginary experiments are discussed to elucidate the theory.

  6. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  7. Impacts of phenology on estimation of actual evapotranspiration with VegET model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The VegET model provides spatially explicit estimation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Currently, it uses a climatology based on AVHRR NDVI image time series to modulate fluxes during growing seasons (Senay 2008). This step simplifies the model formulation, but it also introduces errors by ignoring the interannual variation in phenology. We report on a study to evaluate the effects of using an NDVI climatology in VegET rather than current season values. Using flux tower data from three sites across the US Corn Belt, we found that currently the model overestimates the duration of season. With the standard deviation of more than one week, the model results in an additional 50 to 70 mm of AET per season, which can account for about 10% of seasonal AET in drier western sites. The model showed only modest sensitivity to variation in growing season weather. This lack of sensitivity greatly decreased model accuracy during drought years: Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values dropped from about 0.7 to 0.5, depending on vegetation type. We also evaluated an alternative approach to drive the canopy component of evapotranspiration, the Event Driven Phenology Model (EDPM). The parameterization of VegET with EDPM-simulated canopy dynamics improved the correlation by 0.1 or more and reduced the RMSE on daily AET estimates by 0.3 mm. By accounting for the progress of phenology during a particular growing season, the EDPM improves AET estimation over an NDVI climatology.

  8. Experiences with Obtaining Informed Consent for Genomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roche, Myra I.; Perry, Denise L.; Scollon, Sarah R.; Tomlinson, Ashley N.; Skinner, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased utilization of genome and exome sequencing, little is known about the actual content and process of informed consent for sequencing. We addressed this by interviewing 29 genetic counselors and research coordinators experienced in obtaining informed consent for sequencing in research and clinical settings. Interviews focused on the process and content of informed consent; patients/participants’ common questions, concerns and misperceptions; and challenges to obtaining informed consent. Content analysis of transcribed interviews revealed that the main challenges to obtaining consent related to the broad scope and uncertainty of results, and patient/ participants’ unrealistic expectations about the likely number and utility of results. Interviewees modified their approach to sessions according to contextual issues surrounding the indication for testing, type of patient, and timing of testing. With experience, most interviewees structured sessions to place less emphasis on standard elements in the consent form and technological aspects of sequencing. They instead focused on addressing misperceptions and helping patients/participants develop realistic expectations about the types and implications of possible results, including secondary findings. These findings suggest that informed consent sessions should focus on key issues that may be misunderstood by patients/participants. Future research should address the extent to which various stakeholders agree on key elements of informed consent. PMID:26198374

  9. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  10. ARE (PSEUDO)BULGES IN ISOLATED GALAXIES ACTUALLY PRIMORDIAL RELICS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Blasco-Herrera, J.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Garrido, J.; Ramírez-Moreta, P.; Ruiz, J. E.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.

    2014-06-20

    We present structural parameters and (g – i) bulge/disk colors for a large sample (189) of isolated AMIGA galaxies. The structural parameters of bulges were derived from the two-dimensional bulge/disk/bar decomposition of Sloan Digital Sky Survey i-band images using GALFIT. Galaxies were separated between classical bulges (n{sub b} > 2.5) and pseudobulges (n{sub b} < 2.5), resulting in a dominant pseudobulge population (94%) with only 12 classical bulges. In the (μ {sub e})-R {sub e} plane, pseudobulges are distributed below the elliptical relation (smaller R {sub e} and fainter μ {sub e}), with the closest region to the Kormendy relation populated by those pseudobulges with larger values of B/T. We derived (g – i) bulge colors using aperture photometry and find that pseudobulges show median colors (g – i) {sub b} ∼ 1.06, while their associated disks are much bluer, (g – i) {sub d} ∼ 0.77. Moreover, 64% (113/177) of pseudobulges follow the red sequence of early-type galaxies. Bluer pseudobulges tend to be located in galaxies with the highest likelihood of tidal perturbation. The red bulge colors and low B/T values for AMIGA isolated galaxies are consistent with an early formation epoch and not much subsequent growth. Properties of bulges in isolated galaxies contrast with a picture where pseudobulges grow continuously via star formation. They also suggest that environment could be playing a role in rejuvenating the pseudobulges.

  11. Values Education through Aggadic Stories: The Didactic Rewriter as Interpreter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Didactic rewrites of aggadic stories are an important resource in values education. This study, geared primarily toward teachers involved in choosing curricular materials, investigates how the didactic rewriter actually becomes an interpreter, rather than a mere transmitter, of the original text. The personal values of the rewriters can influence…

  12. Ideas versus Labor: What Do Children Value in Artistic Creation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Vivian; Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    As scientists, we primarily award authorship, as well as legal patents, to those who generate ideas, often without formally crediting others who executed the actual experiments. However, little is known about how and when people come to value ideas. Here, we investigate whether young children also value ideas over labor. In Study 1, we found that…

  13. Values and uncertainties in climate prediction, revisited.

    PubMed

    Parker, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Philosophers continue to debate both the actual and the ideal roles of values in science. Recently, Eric Winsberg has offered a novel, model-based challenge to those who argue that the internal workings of science can and should be kept free from the influence of social values. He contends that model-based assignments of probability to hypotheses about future climate change are unavoidably influenced by social values. I raise two objections to Winsberg's argument, neither of which can wholly undermine its conclusion but each of which suggests that his argument exaggerates the influence of social values on estimates of uncertainty in climate prediction. I then show how a more traditional challenge to the value-free ideal seems tailor-made for the climate context. PMID:25051868

  14. Value Systems in International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiba, Farouk I.

    Every society has a system of values and seeks to achieve goals which it defines as desirable. To gain insight and a measure of understanding of another culture, international marketers can approach a country as a whole, seek out behavioral premises, obtain a theoretical knowledge of the culture, and learn the country's social heritage.…

  15. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  16. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Huh, Young Eun; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2010-12-10

    The consumption of a food typically leads to a decrease in its subsequent intake through habituation--a decrease in one's responsiveness to the food and motivation to obtain it. We demonstrated that habituation to a food item can occur even when its consumption is merely imagined. Five experiments showed that people who repeatedly imagined eating a food (such as cheese) many times subsequently consumed less of the imagined food than did people who repeatedly imagined eating that food fewer times, imagined eating a different food (such as candy), or did not imagine eating a food. They did so because they desired to eat it less, not because they considered it less palatable. These results suggest that mental representation alone can engender habituation to a stimulus. PMID:21148388

  17. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    PubMed

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Background Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. Objective In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. Setting General practice in The Netherlands. Method A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Main outcome measure Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Results Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Conclusion Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients. PMID:26830412

  18. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  19. Wind Plant Capacity Credit Variations: A Comparison of Results Using Multiyear Actual and Simulated Wind-Speed Data

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.

    1997-06-01

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patters. This report calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this report finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  20. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  1. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  2. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.

    2010-08-12

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  3. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning...

  4. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  5. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning...

  6. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining services. 54.615 Section 54.615 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.615 Obtaining services. (a) Selecting a provider. In selecting...

  7. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid agency... Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency must obtain notice of certification... provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the conditions of participation set forth in subpart...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  11. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  12. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  13. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  14. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  15. [Actual issues of pathogenesis of tuberculosis of male genital organs].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, P I

    2014-01-01

    Based on a survey of 467 men with genital tuberculosis, following conclusions were made. The presence of morphological signs of nonspecific prostatitis of toxic-allergic genesis in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis of the urinary and genital organs proves the possibility of primary infection of the epididymis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Primarily isolated epididymal tuberculosis was diagnosed in 21 (4,5%) patients. Tuberculous of testicles is in direct relationship to the duration of the existence of tuberculous infection in the epididymis. Bilateral tuberculous of the epididymis is always combined with tuberculosis of the prostate. Opportunity of both primary and secondary infection of the prostate gland with Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be considered as proved. 15 (3,2%) patients had initially isolated prostatic tuberculosis. Based on clinical observations, exogenous way of introduction of infection in tuberculosis of genital organs in men was not confirmed. The lymphogenous and hematogenous pathways are leading and most common pathways of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the male genitals. In patients with tuberculosis of the prostate, which is combined with a lesion of urinary organs, without involvement of scrotum in the pathological process, infection of prostate occurs by urinogenous way. Tuberculosis of the seminal vesicles is always secondary; none of the patients were initially diagnosed with isolated process. Based on the clinical manifestations of the disease and a detailed examination of the patient, it is virtually impossible to establish a particular way of infection in the male genitals. The main value of the information about the possible ways of tuberculosis infection consists of fully examination of reproductive system with histological and bacteriological verification of the diagnosis of each genital organs in each man with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:24956670

  16. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  17. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  18. When does the lightning attachment process actually begin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    High-speed video and electric field records of 43 first and 7 new-ground-termination subsequent strokes in negative lightning flashes, obtained at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida, were examined. Eighteen (36%) of these strokes exhibited faintly luminous formations (FLFs) below the downward leader tip just prior to the return stroke. All the 18 FLFs were connected to the strike object on the ground, with 14 of them being also in contact with the downward leader tip. For 11 located events showing FLFs in contact with the downward leader tip, the FLF 2-D length ranged from 51 to 200 m and the time interval between the end of exposure of the FLF frame and the return stroke onset ranged from 42 to 106 μs. We inferred that the FLFs mostly consisted of relatively low conductivity streamers, based on the following observations and estimates. (a) The rates at which the 11 FLFs were replaced by channels capable of guiding return stroke waves ranged from 0.7 × 106 m/s to 2.2 × 106 m/s, which is comparable to leader speeds in virgin air (in the same records). (b) The overwhelming majority of downward leaders continued stepping while being connected to ground via FLFs. (c) The average electric field along FLFs is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected for hot, leader-like channels. Since in all cases the FLF determined the strike point, we conclude that its inferred initiation up to a few hundreds of microseconds before the return stroke onset signified the beginning of the lightning attachment process.

  19. Mass culture of photobacteria to obtain luciferase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Rich, E., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Inoculating preheated trays containing nutrient agar with photobacteria provides a means for mass culture of aerobic microorganisms in order to obtain large quantities of luciferase. To determine optimum harvest time, growth can be monitored by automated light-detection instrumentation.

  20. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (see 41 CFR 101-26.302). Standard forms adapted for computer preparation (see 53.105) or with special... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional...

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  2. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site-specific purposes. All purchases of supplies under the Core Program must comply with the requirements...

  3. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  4. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  5. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  6. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  7. The BCI competition. III: Validating alternative approaches to actual BCI problems.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Krusienski, Dean J; Schalk, Gerwin; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Schlögl, Alois; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Millán, José del R; Schröder, Michael; Birbaumer, Niels

    2006-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system that allows its users to control external devices with brain activity. Although the proof-of-concept was given decades ago, the reliable translation of user intent into device control commands is still a major challenge. Success requires the effective interaction of two adaptive controllers: the user's brain, which produces brain activity that encodes intent, and the BCI system, which translates that activity into device control commands. In order to facilitate this interaction, many laboratories are exploring a variety of signal analysis techniques to improve the adaptation of the BCI system to the user. In the literature, many machine learning and pattern classification algorithms have been reported to give impressive results when applied to BCI data in offline analyses. However, it is more difficult to evaluate their relative value for actual online use. BCI data competitions have been organized to provide objective formal evaluations of alternative methods. Prompted by the great interest in the first two BCI Competitions, we organized the third BCI Competition to address several of the most difficult and important analysis problems in BCI research. The paper describes the data sets that were provided to the competitors and gives an overview of the results. PMID:16792282

  8. Virologic response and haematologic toxicity of boceprevir- and telaprevir-containing regimens in actual clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Butt, A. A.; Yan, P.; Shaikh, O. S.; Freiberg, M. S.; Re, V. Lo; Justice, A. C.; Sherman, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) in actual clinical settings remain unknown. We determined rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and haematologic adverse effects among persons treated with BOC- or TPV-containing regimens, compared with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG/RBV). Using an established cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), we identified those treated with a BOC- or TPV-containing regimen and HCV genotype 1-infected controls treated with PEG/RBV. We excluded those with HIV co-infection and missing HCV RNA values to determine SVR. Primary endpoints were SVR (undetectable HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after treatment completion) and haematologic toxicity (grade 3/4 anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia). We evaluated 2288 persons on BOC-, 409 on TPV-containing regimen and 6308 on PEG/RBV. Among these groups, respectively, 31%, 43% and 9% were treatment-experienced; 17%, 37% and 14% had baseline cirrhosis; 63%, 54% and 48% were genotype 1a. SVR rates among noncirrhotics were as follows: treatment naïve: 65% (BOC), 67% (TPV) and 31% (PEG/RBV); treatment experienced: 57% (BOC), 54% (TPV) and 13% (PEG/RBV); (P-value not significant for BOC vs TPV; P < 0.0001 for BOC or TPV vs PEG/RBV). Haematologic toxicities among BOC-, TPV- and PEG/RBV-treated groups were as follows: grade 3/4 anaemia 7%, 11% and 3%; grade 4 thrombocytopenia 2.2%, 5.4% and 1.7%; grade 4 neutropenia 8.2%, 5.6% and 3.4%. SVR rates are higher and closer to those reported in pivotal clinical trials among BOC- and TPV-treated persons compared with PEG/RBV-treated persons. Haematologic adverse events are frequent, but severe toxicity is uncommon. PMID:25524834

  9. Improving value with TDABC.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing: Traces the path of a patient throughout the continuum of care for a specific medical condition. Identifies the actual cost of each resource used, such as personnel, space, consumables, and equipment, in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Documents the amount of time the patient spends with each resource. Supports the ability to aggregate cost information across multiple organizations that deliver care to a patient throughout a defined episode of care. PMID:24968629

  10. Is Ecosystem-Atmosphere Observation in Long-Term Networks actually Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Science uses observations to build knowledge by testable explanations and predictions. The "scientific method" requires controlled systematic observation to examine questions, hypotheses and predictions. Thus, enquiry along the scientific method responds to questions of the type "what if …?" In contrast, long-term observation programs follow a different strategy: we commonly take great care to minimize our influence on the environment of our measurements, with the aim to maximize their external validity. We observe what we think are key variables for ecosystem-atmosphere exchange and ask questions such as "what happens next?" or "how did this happen?" This apparent deviation from the scientific method begs the question whether any explanations we come up with for the phenomena we observe are actually contributing to testable knowledge, or whether their value remains purely anecdotal. Here, we present examples to argue that, under certain conditions, data from long-term observations and observation networks can have equivalent or even higher scientific validity than controlled experiments. Internal validity is particularly enhanced if observations are combined with modeling. Long-term observations of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes identify trends and temporal scales of variability. Observation networks reveal spatial patterns and variations, and long-term observation networks combine both aspects. A necessary condition for such observations to gain validity beyond the anecdotal is the requirement that the data are comparable: a comparison of two measured values, separated in time or space, must inform us objectively whether (e.g.) one value is larger than the other. In turn, a necessary condition for the comparability of data is the compatibility of the sensors and procedures used to generate them. Compatibility ensures that we compare "apples to apples": that measurements conducted in identical conditions give the same values (within suitable uncertainty intervals

  11. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  12. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  13. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception. PMID:12705575

  14. Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie; Cammarano, Cristina; Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward…

  15. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  16. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  17. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  18. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  19. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  20. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  1. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  2. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  3. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section 285.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  4. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  5. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; phone: 301-975-4016; fax: 301-926-2884; e-mail: nvlap@nist.gov. (b) Copies of all ISO/IEC documents are..., Gaithersburg, MD. For access to the NIST campus, please contact NVLAP by phone at 301-975-4016 or by e-mail at NVLAP@nist.gov to obtain instructions for visitor registration....

  6. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  7. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  8. A Search for Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  9. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  10. A Researcher's Dilemma: A Comparison of Estimated versus Actual College G.P.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Nelson, Gena C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared college student reported grade point averages (GPA) with actual GPA as recorded at the Registrar's Office to determine the accuracy of student reported GPA. Results indicated that, on average, students reported slightly higher GPA than their actual GPA. Additionally, females were virtually as accurate as males and students with…

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... work. For each labor classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined... classification, the difference between the actual wage and benefit rates (combined) paid and the wage and...

  12. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  13. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. 73.735-904 Section 73.735-904 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest....

  14. Self-Actualizations and Experience with Zen Meditation: Is a Learning Period Necessary for Meditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, William C.; Becker, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the practice of Zen meditation and a measure of self-actualization in experienced (N=36) and inexperienced (N=34) meditator groups. Analysis of data showed that a learning period (or selection period) exists for Zen meditation during which there is no increase in group self-actualization. (LLL)

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Actual Expense § 301-11.300 When...

  17. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile home, but may be eligible for a payment for moving personal property from the mobile home. (b... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  18. 26 CFR 1.544-6 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive ownership as actual ownership. 1.544... ownership as actual ownership. (a) General rules. (1) Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of... reason of the application of the option rule provided in section 544(a)(3) shall be considered...

  19. 26 CFR 1.318-4 - Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership as actual ownership... Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions. (a) In general. Section 318(a)(5)(A) provides that... B are beneficiaries of a trust and the trust has an option to buy stock from A, B is...

  20. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual owner. When...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6041-5 - Information as to actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information as to actual owner. 1.6041-5 Section 1.6041-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6041-5 Information as to actual...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations... information and procedures you must use to determine the actual HAP loss from your leather finishing operation. By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the actual HAP loss in pounds from your...

  7. Evaluating Empathy in Interviewing: Comparing Self-Report with Actual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamburrino, Marijo B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared medical students' self-assessments of patient interview behavior with external ratings of actual interviews. Focus was on behaviors reflecting empathy. Results suggest the self-report questionnaire is not an adequate measure of actual interviewing skills. (MSE)

  8. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 1206.180 Section 1206.180 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing...

  9. 27 CFR 19.35 - Application of effective tax rate (Actual).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax rate (Actual). 19.35 Section 19.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Rates § 19.35 Application of effective tax rate (Actual). Any proprietor who does not apply effective... tax rate for each batch of distilled spirits in the processing account on which credit against tax...

  10. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  11. Perceived and actual environmental benefits of the Los Angeles urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; McCarthy, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a widespread movement to plant more trees and increase canopy cover in cities throughout the United States, in order to enhance ecosystem services provided by urban forests. The city of Los Angeles has been engaged in a widespread tree planting program with the goal of increasing tree cover, particularly in low income neighborhoods. However, the Los Angeles urban forest is almost entirely non-native, located predominately in former semi-arid shrublands and grasslands. We used multiple approaches to evaluate environmental costs and benefits of urban trees in Los Angeles, both as they are perceived by local residents, as well as actual physical impacts of urban tree processes on the environment. We conducted an internet survey of attitudes and preferences for specific tree functional types, ecosystem services, and potential costs. We also directly measured urban forest structure and function including species and functional biodiversity, transpiration, basal area increments, hydraulic architecture, and leaf gas exchange. We translated these processes into categories of ecosystem services and costs such as water use, latent heat fluxes, water use efficiency, growth rates, sensitivity to drought stress, and aesthetic traits (flowering, fruiting, etc.). We found that provision of shade by urban trees is highly valued by local residents, and in fact, the urban forest has a significant impact on surface temperatures. Aesthetics benefits are also commonly cited as desirable traits. Although aesthetic and other cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify, we found spatial patterns in aesthetic traits influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Local residents seemed less concerned about the water use of irrigated urban trees, but we found significant rates of transpiration in urban trees and forest plots depending on species that may be important in the local hydrologic budget, which is increasingly constrained by water shortages. There was

  12. Technique of estimation of actual strength of a gas pipeline section at its deformation in landslide action zone

    SciTech Connect

    Tcherni, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The technique is given which permits determination of stress and strain state (SSS) and estimation of actual strength of a section of a buried main gas pipeline (GP) in the case of its deformation in a landslide action zone. The technique is based on the use of three-dimensional coordinates of axial points of the deformed GP section. These coordinates are received by a full-scale survey. The deformed axis of the surveyed GP section is described by the polynomial. The unknown coefficients of the polynomial can be determined from the boundary conditions at points of connection with contiguous undeformed sections as well as by use of minimization methods in mathematical processing of full-scale survey results. The resulting form of GP section`s axis allows one to determine curvatures and, accordingly, bending moments along all the length of the considered section. The influence of soil resistance to longitudinal displacements of a pipeline is used to determine longitudinal forces. Resulting values of bending moments and axial forces as well as the known value of internal pressure are used to analyze all necessary components of an actual SSS of pipeline section and to estimate its strength by elastic analysis.

  13. Evaluation of SEBS for estimation of actual evapotranspiration using ASTER satellite data for irrigation areas of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2013-05-01

    Spatial knowledge of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is of prime interest for environmental applications, such as optimizing irrigation water use, irrigation system performance, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies, and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent drought in Australia and concerns about climate change have highlighted the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food production. This study deals with the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) algorithm based on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area, located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. We have used 12 ASTER scenes covering the time period of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2009 for estimating the actual ET over the study area. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the ASTER-derived actual ET values for the study area. The derived ET value over the study area is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error is 0.89 and the mean absolute percentage difference is 2.87 %, which demonstrate the reasonability of SEBS ET estimation for the study area.

  14. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  15. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  16. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  17. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  18. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  19. Values Clarification in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines the theory and development of Values Clarification and explores its possible applications to English as a foreign language (EFL). The five basic types of Values Clarification exercises are discussed: (1) interviewing, (2) rank-ordering, (3) forced choice, (4) values continuum, and (5) sentence completion. The theory and…

  20. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  1. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  2. How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

  3. Boundary Value Technique for Initial Value Problems Based on Adams-Type Second Derivative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jator, S. N.; Sahi, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a family of second derivative Adams-type methods (SDAMs) of order up to 2k + 2 ("k" is the step number) for initial value problems. The methods are constructed through a continuous approximation of the SDAM which is obtained by multistep collocation. The continuous approximation is used to obtain initial value methods,…

  4. How to obtain confirmation for revalidation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-07-27

    Rationale and key points This is the seventh in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. This article focuses on obtaining confirmation for revalidation. » Revalidation is a mandatory process for nurses and midwives, enabling them to demonstrate their ability to practise safely and effectively. » Confirmation provides assurance that nurses and midwives have met the requirements of revalidation. » Confirmation does not involve making judgements about whether a nurse or midwife is fit to practise. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can obtain confirmation for revalidation. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The information that nurses and midwives are required to collect to meet the revalidation requirements. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27461327

  5. Processing to obtain high-purity gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Renato G.

    2003-03-01

    Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. This article describes how ultra-purification techniques can be employed to reduce the undesirable impurities to the low ppb range. The various procedures described give an idea as to the extent of work needed to obtain and prepare high-purity gallium for electronic application.

  6. Value, a nursing outcome.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sharon H

    2013-01-01

    This era of health care reform calls for the ability of hospitals to provide quality patient care while managing costs. Nursing practice is a key determinant of patient care quality and associated costs, or simply put, creating value. The value of nursing has been addressed by multiple qualified authors, yet there is no clear, consistent meaning of the term. Researchers and authors have developed some theoretical foundation for the concept of value, which evolved into important research questions that establish value as an important outcome that is sensitive to nursing practice. The opportunity to attend 2 sessions at the Harvard Business School on health care value has prompted the need for nursing to adapt to common thinking on health care value and establish its meaning for the nursing profession. This report summarizes the nursing literature on value, reflects on the executive education, and proposes direction for nursing leaders in education and practice. PMID:23454991

  7. FOREX Trades: Can the Takens Algorithm Help to Obtain Steady Profit at Investment Reallocations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. Yu.; Tribelsky, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    We report our preliminary results of application of the Takens algorithm to build a FOREX trade strategy, resulting in a steady long-time gain for a trader. The actual historical rates for pair EUR vs. USD are used. The values of various parameters of the problem including the "stop loss" and "take profit" thresholds are optimized to provide the maximal gain during the training period. Then, these values are employed for trades. We have succeeded to get the steady gain, if the spread is neglected. It proves that the FOREX market is predictable.

  8. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  9. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity. PMID:25672324

  10. Reference Crop Evapotranspiration obtained from the geostationary satellite MSG (METEOSAT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Lorite, I. J.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.

    2012-04-01

    Among others, the scope of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT geostationary Satellites MSG data related to land, land-atmosphere interactions and biophysical applications. This is achieved by developing techniques, products and algorithms that will allow an effective use of MSG data, if needed, combined with data from numerical weather prediction models (e.g., ECMWF). Although directly designed to improve the observation of meteorological systems, the spectral characteristics, time resolution and area coverage offered by MSG allow for their use in a broad spectrum of other applications, for instance in agro- and hydrometeorology. This study concerns a method to determine how much water is needed for irrigation. Note that this is complementary to the actual evapotranspiration LSA SAF product. The objective of this study is to present a novel semi-empirical method to determine the Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ET0) from the down-welling shortwave radiation and air temperature obtained through LSF SAF. ET0 is defined in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage report 56 (FAO56) and it is used to determine water requirements of agricultural crops in irrigated regions. It is evaluated with a special version of the Penman-Monteith equation (PM_FAO56) using data of a weather station installed over non-stressed grass. Such stations are expensive and very labor consuming. We developed our method for semi-arid regions where appropriate weather stations needed for FAO56 ET0 are missing. This concerns huge areas in the world. High-quality FAO-grass station near Cordoba, Spain were used, where, besides all input for PM-FAO56, independent lysimeter data are collected. In addition, it will be shown that significant errors in ET0 can occur if meteorological gathered over dry terrain will be used as input of PM-FAO56. For this purpose data sets obtained in different semi-arid regions will be analyzed.

  11. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  12. Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a “balancing and weighing” strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a “fight-and-flight” strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses. PMID:21483767

  13. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  14. The nonrelativistic limit of (central-extended) Poincare group and some consequences for quantum actualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ardenghi, Juan S.; Castagnino, M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2009-10-15

    The nonrelativistic limit of the centrally extended Poincare group is considered and their consequences in the modal Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed [O. Lombardi and M. Castagnino, Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys 39, 380 (2008); J. Phys, Conf. Ser. 128, 012014 (2008)]. Through the assumption that in quantum field theory the Casimir operators of the Poincare group actualize, the nonrelativistic limit of the latter group yields to the actualization of the Casimir operators of the Galilei group, which is in agreement with the actualization rule of previous versions of modal Hamiltonian interpretation [Ardenghi et al., Found. Phys. (submitted)].

  15. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  16. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  17. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    PubMed Central

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, and is the intervention feasible? If the information is true, will it require me to change my practice? If the answer to all three questions is yes, then the information is a common POEM (patient oriented evidence that matters), capable of improving the lives of your patients and must be evaluated for validity. Conclusions based on results of well designed clinical trials are more likely to be valid than those drawn from observations based on experience in clinical practice. Both members of the team, clinicians and experts, must take responsibility for their respective roles. PMID:9099121

  18. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  19. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  20. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  1. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  2. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  3. Time Use by Special Educators and How It Is Valued

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Dana Pomykal; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Dyer, Nicole; Davis, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent federal legislation is affecting how special educators assess students, select curricula, document growth, teach, and consult--in short, how they spend their time during a school day. This study empirically measured special educators' use of time over the course of several weeks. It compared actual time use with its perceived value by both…

  4. Significance of the actual nonlinear slope geometry for catastrophic failure in submarine landslides

    PubMed Central

    Puzrin, Alexander M.; Gray, Thomas E.; Hill, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple approach to slope stability analysis of naturally occurring, mild nonlinear slopes is proposed through extension of shear band propagation (SBP) theory. An initial weak zone appears in the steepest part of the slope where the combined action of gravity and seismic loads overcomes the degraded peak shear resistance of the soil. If the length of this steepest part is larger than the critical length, the shear band will propagate into the quasi-stable parts of the slope, where the gravitational and seismically induced shear stresses are smaller than the peak but larger than the residual shear strength of the soil. Growth of a shear band is strongly dependent on the shape of the slope, seismic parameters and the strength of soil and less dependent on the slope inclination and the sensitivity of clay. For the slope surface with faster changing inclination, the criterion is more sensitive to the changes of the parameters. Accounting for the actual nonlinear slope geometry eliminates the main challenge of the SBP approach—determination of the length of the initial weak zone, because the slope geometry can be readily obtained from submarine site investigations. It also helps to identify conditions for the early arrest of the shear band, before failure in the sliding layer or a change in loading or excess pore water pressures occurs. The difference in the size of a landslide predicted by limiting equilibrium and SBP approaches can reach orders of magnitude, potentially providing an explanation for the immense dimensions of many observed submarine landslides that may be caused by local factors acting over a limited portion of the slope. PMID:25792958

  5. Obtaining railpad properties via dynamic mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; de Man, A.; Woldekidan, M. F.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose combining dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the time-temperature superposition principle to determine various railpad dynamic properties. Having accurate information regarding the dynamic properties of a railpad is a fundamental requirement for designing tracks and understanding track deterioration. By testing three different railpad types, we demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of railpads over a wide frequency range can be successfully obtained under different preloads and temperatures if time-temperature superposition can be applied. To investigate railpad aging, worn railpads taken from a mainline in the Netherlands are tested. In this case, worn railpads are softer and possess a lower damping capacity than new railpads. In addition to performing these measurements, a Prony series material model is proposed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of railpads. The Prony series model is in good agreement with the measurements. Measured railpad dynamic properties and the corresponding Prony series numerical model provide valuable information for track design and modeling.

  6. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  7. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  8. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  9. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  10. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  11. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  12. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  13. Prediction of Self-Actualization in Male Participants in a Group Conducted by Female Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to predict which male Ss (high or low authoritarian personality) would reflect higher self-actualization scores when exposed to a 16-hour marathon group conducted by female leaders. (Author/RK)

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly SO2... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions...

  15. Teaching Values through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghammer, Gretta

    One dramatic technique to aid students in their discovery of values and value systems is "theatre-in-education" (TIE), a theatre event that takes place in schools, with actors working through roles for and with children. TIE aims to fuse education and theatre by having team members function as both teachers and actors, and the audiences of young…

  16. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  17. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  18. Weak Value Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2011-03-28

    I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.

  19. The Values Manifesto Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euvrard, George

    2006-01-01

    South Africa and Namibia, two countries building young democracies, face the task of transforming their public education systems to support the values articulated in their new constitutions. This article describes a project designed to incorporate these values into schools. A group of 50 Namibian teachers, who were enrolled in the author's…

  20. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  1. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  2. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  3. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  4. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  5. Selected Papers on Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, C. Robert, Ed.

    This document contains papers and reports read at the August 1968, meeting of the Continuing Interest Group on Values, a subgroup of the National Conference of Professors of Educational Administration, held at the State University of New York at Albany. Included are three papers by C. Robert Blackmon; the first considers values as education's most…

  6. Values Clarification Through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strugala, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to using values clarification exercises in a college freshman composition or a high school English class is presented in this brief article. AUTHOR'S COMMENT (excerpt): Since the integration of writing and thinking is vital in the development of writing abilities, the values clarification experience is a natural bridge for students to…

  7. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  8. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  9. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  10. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  11. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  12. Interpretation of bootstrap values in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesemüller, Bernhard; Rothe, Hartmut

    2006-06-01

    Bootstrap Analysis is a common tool in cladistics, and consequently many authors tend to believe that it could be close to a test of monophyly. In fact, it is only a procedure to calculate the redundancy of a certain character pattern among taxa. To demonstrate this, we set up a study with questionable data: Four skulls of great apes and humans were digitally photographed, and the pixels' brightness values were simply transformed to a one-zero-matrix, which was then used to calculate a Wagner tree with PHYLIP. As a rule, the higher the resolution of the photos is, the higher are the bootstrap values of supported taxa (and the lower are the bootstrap values of non-supported data). Redundancy of intertaxic information might indeed be an indicator of phylogenetic relationship, but can also be due to other reasons, like functional-adaptive needs in morphology, or semantic needs in a DNA-code. As a result, we tend to believe that high bootstrap values are actually less important than low ones. It is safer, based on a low bootstrap value, to claim that a certain taxon is not well supported by certain data. Therefore, we recommend discussions of low bootstrap values in future publications. PMID:16850767

  13. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  14. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  15. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  16. Comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012-TEC values of GPS-TEC values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atıcı, Ramazan; Saǧır, Selçuk

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012 Total Electron Content (TEC) values of Total Electron Content (TEC) values obtained from Ankara station (39,7 N; 32,76 E) of Global Position System (GPS) of Turkey on equinox and solstice days of 2009 year. For all days, it is observed that GPS-TEC values are greater than IRI-2012-TEC values, while IRI-PLUS-TEC values are very close to GPS-TEC values. When GPS-TEC values for both equinoxes are compared, it is seen that TEC values on September equinox are greater than one on March equinox. However, it is observed that GPS-TEC values on June solstice are greater than one on December solstice. Also, the relationship between GPS-TEC values and geomagnetic indexes is investigated.

  17. Demonstration of a SREX flowsheet for the partitioning of strontium and lead from actual ICPP sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Olson, L.G.; Todd, T.A.

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr and Pb from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Previous countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process with simulated waste resulted in 99.98% removal of Sr and 99.9% removal of Pb. Based on the results of these studies, a demonstration of the SREX flowsheet was performed. The demonstration consisted of (1) countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process using simulated sodium-bearing waste spiked with {sup 85}Sr and (2) countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process using actual waste from tank WM-183. All testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0. 15 M 4`,4`(5)-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L{reg_sign}), a 2.0 MHNO{sub 3} scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.1 M ammonium citrate strip section for the removal of Pb from the SREX solvent, and a 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} equilibration section. The behavior of {sup 90}Sr, Pb, Na, K, Hg, H{sup +}, the actinides, and numerous other non-radioactive elements was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted and selectively stripped Sr and Ph from the SBW simulant and the actual tank waste. For the testing with actual tank waste (WM - 183), removal efficiencies of 99.995 % and >94% were obtained for {sup 90}Sr and Pb, respectively.

  18. Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image

  19. Current pediatric rheumatology fellowship training in the United States: what fellows actually do

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric Rheumatology (PR) training in the US has existed since the 1970’s. In the early 1990’s, the training was formalized into a three year training program by the American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Pediatrics (ABP). Programs have been evaluated every 5 years by the ACGME to remain credentialed and graduates had to pass a written exam to be certified. There has been no report yet that details not just what training fellows should receive in the 32 US PR training programs but what training the trainees are actually receiving. Methods After a literature search, a survey was constructed by the authors, then reviewed and revised with the help members of the Executive Committee of the Rheumatology Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) using the Delphi technique. IRB approval was obtained from the AAP and Nationwide Children’s Hospital. The list of fellows was obtained from the ABP and the survey sent out to 81 current fellows or fellows just having finished. One repeat e-mail was sent out. Results Forty-seven fellows returned the survey by e-mail (58%) with the majority being 3rd year fellows or fellows who had completed their training. The demographics were as expected with females > males and Caucasians> > non-Caucasians. Training appeared quite appropriate in the number of ½ day continuity clinics per week (1–2, 71%), number of patients per clinic (4–5, 60%), inpatient exposure (2–4 inpatients per week, 40%; 5 or greater, 33%), and weekday/weekend call. Fellows attended more didactic activities than required, had ample time for research (54% 21-60/hours per week), and had multiple teaching opportunities. Seventy-seven percent of the trainees presented abstracts at national meetings, 41% had publication. Disease exposure was excellent and joint injection experience sufficient. Conclusions Most US PR training programs as a whole provide an appropriate training by current

  20. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  1. Evaluating the performance of reference evapotranspiration equations with scintillometer measurements under Mediterranean climate and effects on olive grove actual evapotranspiration estimated with FAO-56 water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minacapilli, Mario; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The concept of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is widely used to support water resource management in agriculture and for irrigation scheduling, especially under arid and semi-arid conditions. The Penman-Monteith standardized formulations, as suggested by ASCE and FAO-56 papers, are generally applied for accurate estimations of ETo, at hourly and daily scale. When detailed meteorological information are not available, several alternative and simplified equations, using a limited number of variables, have been proposed (Blaney-Criddle, Hargreaves-Samani, Turc, Makkinen and Pristley-Taylor). In this paper, scintillometer measurements collected for six month in 2005, on an experimental plot under "reference" conditions, were used to validate different ETo equations at hourly and daily scale. Experimental plot is located in a typical agricultural Mediterranean environment (Sicily, Italy), where olive groves is the dominant crop. As proved by other researches, the comparison confirmed the best agreement between estimated and measured fluxes corresponds to FAO-56 Penman-Monteith standardized equation, that was characterized by both the lowest average error and the minimum bias. However, the analysis also evidenced a quite good performance of Pristley-Taylor equation, that can be considered as a valid alternative to the more sophisticated Penman-Monteith method. The different ETo series, obtained by the considered simplified equations, were then used as input in the FAO-56 water balance model, in order to evaluate, for olive groves, the errors on estimated actual evapotranspiration ET. To this aim soil and crop model input parameters were settled by considering previous experimental researches already used to calibrate and validate the FAO-56 water balance model on olive groves, for the same study area. Also in this case, assuming as the true values of ET those obtained using the water balance coupled with Penman-Monteith ETo input values, the Priestley-Taylor equation

  2. First results obtained by RUNJOB campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, E.; Apanasenko, A. V.; Berezovskaya, V. A.; Fujii, M.; Fukuda, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hashimoto, G.; Ichimura, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopenkin, V.; Kuramata, S.; Lapshin, V. I.; Managadze, A. K.; Matsutani, H.; Misnikova, N. P.; Misu, T.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nakamura, A.; Namiki, M.; Nanjo, H.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Ogura, K.; Ohta, S.; Oshuev, D. S.; Publichencko, P. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Sazhina, G. P.; Semba, H.; Shibata, T.; Shiota, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Taran, V. M.; Watanabe, Z.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yashin, I. V.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zayarnaya, I. S.; Runjob Collaboration ( Russia-Nippon Joint Balloon-Program)

    We report experimental results obtained by using a wide-gap type emulsion chamber flown in the first Japanese-Russo joint balloon project, called RUNJOB ( RUssia- Nippon JOint Balloon-program). Two balloons were launched from Kamchatka in July 1995, and both were recovered successfully near the Volga River. The exposure time was 130 hours for the first flight and 168 hours for the second. The mean ceiling altitude, in both flights, was 32 km corresponding to 10 g/cm 2. Total area of the emulsion chamber was 0.8 m 2, and the thickness 0.385 and 2.28 collision m.f.p.'s for vertically incident proton- and iron-primaries, respectively. We detected 381 showers using Fuji-#200-type X-ray film; of these 174 showers were due to atmospheric secondary γ-rays, and the rest 207 came from nuclear components. The energy range covers 20˜200 TeV for proton-primary, 3˜30 TeV/nucleon for helium-primary, and 0.7˜5 TeV/nucleon for iron-primary. We give the energy spectra for various elements (proton, helium, …, iron) as well as the all-particle spectrum and the average mass of the cosmic-ray primaries.

  3. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  4. Do Employers Value the Bachelor's Degree Too Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The debate over the value of a college education appears to be settled, not only do employers value employees with a bachelor's degree, they may actually value them too much. This author believes that there is a dramatic credentials gap in the American workforce between the education levels employers are requesting in job postings and the…

  5. Crisis in Values. 1970 White House Conference on Children, Report of Forum 4. (Working Copy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    Traditionally-expressed American values include health, personal dignity, freedom of choice, respect for the rights and humanity of others, the right to love and be loved. A big gap exists, in many instances, between values professed and values actually lived in pursuit of "success." Our children know this, and the result has been a sense of…

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Values in National and Immigrant Families: The Role of Zeitgeist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Paul; Berry, John; Sabatier, Colette; Sam, David

    2009-01-01

    Correspondence in value orientation between parents and their offspring may be due to actual transmission processes between generations, but it may also be due to influences from the general value context in society that are common to parents and their offspring. This common value context is referred to as Zeitgeist. The present study deals with…

  7. Pozzolan Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Kaolinite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Aleksandra A.

    2011-12-01

    Pozzolans are supplementary materials added to Portland cement in order to increase the mechanical strength and durability of concrete structures. A number of thermal, mechanical and chemical methods have been used to activate the reactive potential of pozzolanic materials. The aim of the study is to obtain pozzolana, from Serbian kaolinite clay by mechanochemical treatment. Kaolinite clay Garaši was subjected to mechanical treatment during different times of milling. The changes were monitored using particle size distribution (PSD) analyses, thermal methods [thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA)] and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The pozzolanic activity was determined using Chapelle method. Milling withing 20 min influences particle size decrease and after that time continuous increase. XDR analysis indicates gradual decrease of cristallinity with prolonged milling time. The higher values for pozzolanic activitie, expressed through consumption of gCa(OH)2 per gPozzolana are 0.78 and 0.77, and they were obtained for milling times 20 and 40 min, respectively. The values are comparable with commercial pozzolan—metakaolin. The results indicates that milling has caused the disintegration of particles and the consequent formation of new active surfaces in addition to changes in its physico-chemical properties that decrease its crystallinity (through amorphization) and increase it reactivity.

  8. Electronically Nonadiabatic Dynamics via Semiclassical Initial Value Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.

    2008-12-11

    In the late 1970's Meyer and Miller (MM) [J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3214 (1979)] presented a classical Hamiltonian corresponding to a finite set of electronic states of a molecular system (i.e., the various potential energy surfaces and their couplings), so that classical trajectory simulations could be carried out treating the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) in an equivalent dynamical framework (i.e., by classical mechanics), thereby describing non-adiabatic dynamics in a more unified manner. Much later Stock and Thoss (ST) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 578 (1997)] showed that the MM model is actually not a 'model', but rather a 'representation' of the nuclear-electronic system; i.e., were the MMST nuclear-electronic Hamiltonian taken as a Hamiltonian operator and used in the Schroedinger equation, the exact (quantum) nuclear-electronic dynamics would be obtained. In recent years various initial value representations (IVRs) of semiclassical (SC) theory have been used with the MMST Hamiltonian to describe electronically non-adiabatic processes. Of special interest is the fact that though the classical trajectories generated by the MMST Hamiltonian (and which are the 'input' for an SC-IVR treatment) are 'Ehrenfest trajectories', when they are used within the SC-IVR framework the nuclear motion emerges from regions of non-adiabaticity on one potential energy surface (PES) or another, and not on an average PES as in the traditional Ehrenfest model. Examples are presented to illustrate and (hopefully) illuminate this behavior.

  9. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  10. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  11. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  12. Balancing Price and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodigan, David L.

    1987-01-01

    In Carleton College's attempts to find a technique for measuring prospective students' perceptions of college price and educational quality, it discovered that student attitudes about educational value were reflected in the relationship between those two dimensions. (MSE)

  13. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  14. Obtaining Efficacy and Aptitude Measures from the ACID Profiles of Post-Secondary Students with and without Severe Scholastic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slemon, Jill C.; Shafrir, Uri

    This study investigated how obtaining predicted and actual scores on aptitude tests can provide crucial information regarding personal beliefs about ability. The ACID profile of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (WAIS-R) was used to collect the subjective and objective scores of 92 college students with severe scholastic deficits…

  15. Methods of obtaining meaningful information from disperse media holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.

    1997-05-01

    The problem of nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters, both aerosols and water suspension, is actual for biology, medicine, and environmental control. Among the methods of optical investigations and diagnostics of light scattering media the holographic method plays a special role. A hologram of scattering volume allows us to reproduce the optical wave field to obtain information on the parameters of microparticles: size, shape, and spatial position. Usually this is done by analysis of the particle images reconstructed from the hologram. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of holographic methods are analyzed in this paper. These estimations demonstrate a possibility to use the above methods for investigation of media in biomedical science and clinical practice. A lot of micro-organisms and other living particles are transparent or semitransparent ones. In this case the reconstructed image of the particle will show a spot formed due to light focusing by the particle in addition to its cross section. This circumstance allowed us to propose a method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles, that, in turn, can provide identification of the particles type. The development of this method is presented. To make measurement of the size-distribution of particles one can do this simultaneously with the reconstruction of scattering optical field from the hologram. In this case a small angle optical meter (for example, focusing lens) can be placed just behind the illuminated hologram. The reconstructed field is composed of the initial one and its conjugate. Each of these components as well as interference between them can bear an additional information on the medium. The possibility of extraction of this information is also discussed.

  16. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  17. Evaluation of birth defect histories obtained through maternal interviews.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, S A; Mulinare, J; Khoury, M J; Maloney, E K

    1990-01-01

    Etiologic studies of birth defects often use family history information provided by parents of patients. The validity of this information has not been adequately assessed. Using data from the Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control study, we evaluated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of mothers' responses regarding the presence of birth defects in their offspring. A total of 4929 mothers of infants with major structural defects ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and a total of 3,029 mothers of normal infants were asked whether their babies had had a birth defect or a health problem diagnosed during the first year of life. Interviewers and coders of maternal responses were blinded to the case-control status of infants. Sensitivity (the proportion of case mothers who gave responses that could be coded as denoting a major birth defect) was 61%. Specificity (the proportion of control mothers who gave responses that could not be coded as denoting a major birth defect) was 98%. The positive predictive value (the proportion of mothers who gave a major-birth-defect response who in fact had babies with major birth defects) was estimated as 47%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value varied by maternal sociodemographic factors such as race and education, as well as by type of defect. These results suggest that family history data obtained through maternal interviews should be cautiously interpreted and, if not properly validated, may alter estimates of recurrence risks. PMID:2309699

  18. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-03-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  19. BREEAM Excellent: Business Value Vs Employee Morale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nova; Arif, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    BREEAM is gaining popularity in the UK. Similar green building standards have gained popularity worldwide. However, it is important that we analyse the actual value added to a business by having a BREEAM rated facility. It is also important to analyze the impact on employee performance of such a facility. This paper presents a case study of a BREEAM excellent rated building with impact on the morale and performance of the employees. The data for the paper was collected using semi-structured interviews of a group of employees who work at this facility located in Glasgow. The results suggest that it is important to highlight the tangible benefits and value added through the implementation of the BREEAM standard.

  20. Education and Decision Making at the Time of Triptan Prescribing: Patient Expectations vs Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Paul G.; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Lettich, Alyssa; Wells, Rebecca E.; Robertson, Carrie E.; Mullin, Kathleen; Charleston, Larry; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimizing patient satisfaction with their medical care and maximizing patient adherence with treatment plans requires an understanding of patient preferences regarding education and their role in decision making when treatments are prescribed. Objective To assess the congruence between patient expectations and actual practice regarding education and decision making at the time a triptan is prescribed. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional survey was performed by headache fellow members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium at their respective tertiary care headache clinics. Migraine patients who were new patients to the headache clinic and who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years) completed questionnaires that assessed the education they received and their role in decision making at the time a triptan was first prescribed as well as their desire for education and participation in decision making when a triptan is prescribed. Results Consistent with patient preference, most participants received the majority of their education about the triptan from the prescriber's office (70.2%). In descending rank order, participants most desired to be informed about how to decide if a triptan should be taken, when during the course of migraine a triptan should be taken, possible side effects, cost, and how to obtain refills. Regarding side effects, most participants preferred to receive education about the most common side effects of a triptan rather than addressing all possible side effects. Regarding triptan dosing, participants desired to be informed in descending order of importance about taking other medications with triptans, how many doses can be taken for each migraine, how many doses can be taken each week/month, what to do if the triptan does not work, and the triptan mechanism of action. The vast majority of

  1. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  2. Influence Of Runout On The Surface Roughness Obtained In Side Milling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Rojas, H.; Buj Corral, I.; Vivancos Calvet, J.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper a numerical model was used to predict the surface roughness of parts machined by contour milling processes, taking into account the runout of the tool as differences in the tool edge radii. The computational model allows determining the value of both average roughness Ra and peak-to-valley roughness Rt, and is based on the geometric tool-part intersection. 8000 runs were performed for each fz value using a random runout in each run in order to get simulated roughness values. Several graphics were obtained with the maximum and minimum value of average roughness Ra and of peak-to-valley roughness Rt for each value of feed per tooth and per turn fz, as well as the theoretical or geometric upper and lower reference limits. In addition, frequency histograms were obtained for Ra and Rt. For low feed values, the median of the roughness values is quite similar to the upper limit, which corresponds to the effect of one tool teeth having a higher radius than other radii. For higher feed values, the median of the roughness values remains between the lower and the upper limit. It was observed that the obtained values of average roughness Ra and peak-to-valley roughness Rt do not follow a normal distribution even though the values of the radii were randomly taken according to a normal law.

  3. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    densities were approximately 20% to 30% of that called by ASHRAE 62.1. Formaldehyde was the most important contaminant of concern in retail stores investigated. Both stores exceeded the most conservative health guideline for formaldehyde (OEHHA TWA REL = 7.3 ppb). This study found that source removal and reducing the emission rate, as demonstrated in retail stores sampled in this study, is a viable strategy to meet the health guideline. Total volatile compound were present in retail stores at low concentrations well below health guidelines suggested by Molhave (1700microg /m 2) and Bridges (1000 microg /m2). Based on these results and through mass--balance modeling, different ventilation rate reduction scenarios were proposed, and for these scenarios the differences in energy consumption were estimated. Findings of all phases of this desertion have contributed to understanding (a) the trade-off between energy savings and ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality, and (b) the trade-off between energy savings and resets of indoor air temperature that do not compromise thermal comfort. Two models for retail stores were built and calibrated and validated against actual utility bills. Energy simulation results indicated that by lowering the ventilation rates from measured and minimum references would reduce natural gas energy use by estimated values of 6% to 19%. Also, this study found that the electrical cooling energy consumption was not significantly sensitive to different ventilation rates. However, increasing indoor air temperature by 3°C in summer had a significant effect on the energy savings. In winter, both energy savings strategies, ventilation reduction and decrease in set points, had a significant effect on natural gas consumption. Specially, when the indoor air temperature 21°C was decreased to 19.4°C with the same amount of ventilation rate of Molhaves guideline for both cases. Interestingly, the temperature of 23.8°C (75°F), which is the

  4. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2001-03-01

    Local and mean convective heat transfer from a rotating TGV brake disc model in the actual environment and submitted to an air flow parallel to the disc surface is studied experimentally in this paper. The experimental technique is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disc combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local convective heat transfer coefficient from the disc surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. These tests were carried out for rotational speed (omega) between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88500 and 545000) so as to obtain laminar and turbulent flow on the disc, and for air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153000).

  5. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  6. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  7. Demystifying values assessment.

    PubMed

    Raffaele, R

    1996-01-01

    The current climate of networking and restructuring among healthcare providers calls for measurable methods to assess an organization's adherence to its fundamental values. In response to that need, the SSM Health Care System (SSMHCS) prepared a guide to assessing values integration. This innovation tool has proven to be adaptable for many uses: it helps organizations examine the compatibility of potential partners' values, as well as their own progress toward integration of their stated mission, values, and philosophy. The guide outlines 10 key areas that serve to focus and define the values assessment: Vision. Serving the poor. Serving the community. Continuous quality improvement. Employment practices. Role of leaders. Stewardship Advocacy. Wellness. Church. The guide includes a discussion of the significance of each of these key areas: the implications of including each area; and key indicators, or standards statements, for assessment. Users' response to the guide has been overwhelmingly positive. This guide should provide valuable systemwide data and identify areas of strength or needed growth. PMID:10161797

  8. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites

  9. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.A.; Doukas, M.P.; Kelly, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cook Inlet volcanoes that experienced an eruption between 1989 and 2006 had mean gas emission rates that were roughly an order of magnitude higher than at volcanoes where unrest stalled. For the six events studied, mean emission rates for eruptions were ~13,000 t/d CO2 and 5200 t/d SO2, but only ~1200 t/d CO2 and 500 t/d SO2 for non-eruptive events (‘failed eruptions’). Statistical analysis suggests degassing thresholds for eruption on the order of 1500 and 1000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively. Emission rates greater than 4000 and 2000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively, almost exclusively resulted during eruptive events (the only exception being two measurements at Fourpeaked). While this analysis could suggest that unerupted magmas have lower pre-eruptive volatile contents, we favor the explanations that either the amount of magma feeding actual eruptions is larger than that driving failed eruptions, or that magmas from failed eruptions experience less decompression such that the majority of H2O remains dissolved and thus insufficient permeability is produced to release the trapped volatile phase (or both). In the majority of unrest and eruption sequences, increases in CO2 emission relative to SO2 emission were observed early in the sequence. With time, all events converged to a common molar value of C/S between 0.5 and 2. These geochemical trends argue for roughly similar decompression histories until shallow levels are reached beneath the edifice (i.e., from 20–35 to ~4–6 km) and perhaps roughly similar initial volatile contents in all cases. Early elevated CO2 levels that we find at these high-latitude, andesitic arc volcanoes have also been observed at mid-latitude, relatively snow-free, basaltic volcanoes such as Stromboli and Etna. Typically such patterns are attributed to injection and decompression of deep (CO2-rich) magma into a shallower chamber and open system degassing prior to eruption. Here we argue that the C/S trends probably represent

  10. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  11. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  12. Evaluation of actual and estimated hydraulic conductivity of sands with different gradation and shape.

    PubMed

    Cabalar, Ali Firat; Akbulut, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of sands with different gradation and grain shape were estimated experimentally at a relative density (Dr) of about 40 % and a 22 ± 2 °C of constant temperature. Narli Sand (NS) with 0.67 of sphericity (S) and 0.72 of roundness (R), and Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) with 0.55 of S and 0.15 of R values were artificially graded into sixteen different grain-size fractions (4.75-2, 2-1.18, 1.18-0.6, 0.6-0.425, 0.425-0.3, 0.3-0.075, 4.75-0.075, 2-0.075, 1.18-0.075, 0.6-0.075, 0.425-0.075, 4.75-0.6, 2-0.6, 4.75-0.425, 2-0.425, 1.18-0.425 mm). Hydraulic conductivities of the NS estimated by use of constant head test ranged from 1.61 to 0.01 cm/s, whilst those of the CSS estimated by the same test ranged from 2.45 to 0.012 cm/s. It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity values of the NS are lower than those of the CSS samples, which is likely to be the result of differences in shape, particularly in R values. The results clearly demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity can be significantly influenced by grading characteristics (d10, d20, d30, d50, d60, cu, cc, n, Io). Furthermore, comparisons between results obtained in the present study and hydraulic conductivity estimated with other formulas available in the literature were made. The comparisons indicated that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity changes based on the gradation and shape properties of the sands tested. PMID:27390660

  13. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  14. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  15. Surface energy balance and actual evapotranspiration of the transboundary Indus Basin estimated from satellite measurements and the ETLook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Cheema, M. J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Miltenburg, I. J.; Pelgrum, H.

    2012-11-01

    The surface energy fluxes and related evapotranspiration processes across the Indus Basin were estimated for the hydrological year 2007 using satellite measurements. The new ETLook remote sensing model (version 1) infers information on actual Evaporation (E) and actual Transpiration (T) from combined optical and passive microwave sensors, which can observe the land-surface even under persistent overcast conditions. A two-layer Penman-Monteith equation was applied for quantifying soil and canopy evaporation. The novelty of the paper is the computation of E and T across a vast area (116.2 million ha) by using public domain microwave data that can be applied under all weather conditions, and for which no advanced input data are required. The average net radiation for the basin was estimated as being 112 Wm-2. The basin average sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes were estimated to be 80, 32, and 0 Wm-2, respectively. The average evapotranspiration (ET) and evaporative fraction were 1.2 mm d-1 and 0.28, respectively. The basin wide ET was 496 ± 16.8 km3 yr-1. Monte Carlo analysis have indicated 3.4% error at 95% confidence interval for a dominant land use class. Results compared well with previously conducted soil moisture, lysimeter and Bowen ratio measurements at field scale (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.45 mm d-1; RE = -11.5% for annual ET). ET results were also compared against earlier remote sensing and modeling studies for various regions and provinces in Pakistan (R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 0.29 mmd-1; RE = 6.5% for annual ET). The water balance for all irrigated areas together as one total system in Pakistan and India (26.02 million ha) show a total ET value that is congruent with the ET value from the ETLook surface energy balance computations. An unpublished validation of the same ETLook model for 23 jurisdictional areas covering the entire Australian continent showed satisfactory results given the quality of the watershed data and the diverging physiographic and climatic

  16. Differences in science students' view of ideal and actual role behavior according to success and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauchak, Don; Peterson, Ken

    Information about how success and gender affect students' views of ideal and actual classroom role behavior can help both researchers and teachers better understand classroom components such as achievement and curriculum. A 20-item double Q sort was used to measure differences in perceptions of high school science students according to letter grades and gender. Individual Q sort item rankings of 160 students were tested for significant differences according to letter grade received; item ratings were compared according to gender for 215 students. Differences in perception according to success were found for both ideal and actual behavior; 8 and 5 items, respectively, out of each 20-item sort were found to be significant at the p = < 0.05 level. No such overall patterns of difference in view were found between boys and girls, although three ideal student items and one actual self-report item were found to be significantly different at the p = < 0.05 level.

  17. Actual and Simulated Weightlessness Inhibit Osteogenesis in Long Bone Metaphysis by Different Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness and simulated weightlessness inhibit the rate of periosteal bone formation in long bones. Formation of preosteoblasts is suppressed in periodontal ligament (PDL) of maxillary molars, which suggests a generalized block in osteoblast histogenesis. Growth in length of long bones is decreased by simulated weightlessness, but there are no reliable data on the influence of actual weightlessness on metaphyseal growth. The nuclear size assay for assessing relative numbers of osteoblast precursor cells was utilized in the primary spongiosa of growing long bones subjected to actual and simulated weightlessness. It is found that: (1) Actual weightlessness decreases total number of osteogenic cells and inhibits differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells, (2) Simulated weightlessness suppresses only osteoblast differentation; and (3) The nuclear morphometric assay is an effective means of assessing osteogenic activity in the growing metaphysis or long bones.

  18. Preferred-actual learning environment spaces and earth science outcomes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components: content, method, and assessment with both student-centered and teacher-centered scales embedded. Findings suggest that preferred-actual space (PASmatch) between posttreatment perceptions and pretreatment preferences accounted for a more substantial and statistically significant amount of learning outcomes in terms of students' attitudes toward the subject matter with greater than large effect size, concerning practical significance in the actual earth science classroom. These findings suggest that earth science instruction in the secondary schools should bridge the gap between students' preferred/perceived learning environment with the aim to enhance their learning outcomes.

  19. Scaled-up dual anode/cathode microbial fuel cell stack for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    An, Byung-Min; Heo, Yoon; Maitlo, Hubdar-Ali; Park, Joo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop the scale-up microbial fuel cell technology for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment, dual anode/cathode MFC stacks connected in series to achieve any desired current, treatment capacity, and volume capacity. However, after feeding actual wastewater into the MFC, maximum power density decreased while the corresponding internal resistance increased. With continuous electricity production, a stack of eight MFCs in series achieved 96.05% of COD removal and 97.30% of ammonia removal at a flow rate of 15.98L/d (HRT 12h). The scaled-up dual anode/cathode MFC stack system in this research was demonstrated to treat actual ETA wastewater with the added benefit of harvesting electricity energy. PMID:26888335

  20. Value of Information spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  1. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  2. Values in action.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve." PMID:10168661

  3. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  4. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  5. Controls over spatial and temporal variations in annual actual evapotranspiration in snow-free California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Allison Marie

    Actual evapotranspiration (Eta) is one of the largest components of the hydrologic budget and accounts for a majority of water lost from a watershed. It is primarily controlled by soil water availability, which is largely controlled by rainfall, and atmospheric demand (potential evapotranspiration). Consequently, Eta is sensitive to changes in meteorologic conditions. Understanding the relationship between Et a and controlling meteorologic variables across time and space is important for future predictions of Eta under a changing climate, especially in California where demand for surface and groundwater is high. A regression modeling approach was used to (1) determine the relative control of rainfall, rainfall intensity, and potential evapotranspiration (Etp) over annual and long-term mean annual Eta across watersheds in western California, and (2) quantify the sensitivity of watershed annual Eta to changes in these variables. Annual Eta data for 20 snow-free California watersheds was derived using the water balance method for hydrologic years 1982-2011. Independent variables examined in this study were annual rainfall, rainfall intensity, and potential evapotranspiration. These quantities were obtained or calculated from daily PRISM rainfall and temperature datasets. Results indicated that rainfall was the dominant control over variations in mean annual Eta across the study region (Adj. R2 0.935) and was the primary control over interannual variations in Et a for 15 out of 17 study watersheds. Rainfall intensity was a significant but weaker predictor of mean annual Eta (adj. R2 0.833) and was a significant predictor of annual variations in Eta for 12 out of 17 watersheds. A weak relationship between Etp and Eta was observed across the study region (adj. R2 = 0.660) and the relationship was found to be negative. Etp was a significant, though weak, predictor of annual Eta for 8 out of 17 watersheds. The amount of variance in annual Eta explained by rainfall

  6. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and potential crop evapotranspiration according to FAO (ETc-FAO) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (Western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (<8%) on monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETc-FAO, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter, ETc-FAO, and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvesting management and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for high precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data show significant differences compared to the precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16% higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contributes 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total difference. Larger differences are also recorded for snow and sleet situations. During snowfall, the

  7. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-05-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and evapotranspiration calculated with the full-form Penman-Monteith equation (ETPM) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in the literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (< 8%) on a monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETPM, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvest and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for the high-precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data differ significantly from precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16 % higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. After a correction of the tipping bucket measurements by the method of Richter (1995) this amount was reduced to 3%. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket, in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contribute 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total

  8. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  9. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  10. R-values

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K

    2009-03-03

    I'll try to keep this short and simple. R{sub LANL} = (beta cpm of X{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of X on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U)/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U). As I understand it, the above equation is the historical (as well as current) way of determining R-values using data from beta counting at LANL. The ratio in the denominator, a little 'r', is the 'baseline' or 'calibration' value for a specific beta detector. Over time, if the detector 'drifts' one would see a variation in this 'r' during a thermal calibration measurement. This baseline is what LANL likes to track to monitor specific detector performance - this is not relevant to LLNL where gamma detection is used for determining R-values. LANL states that uncertainty is only dependent upon the count statistics for the isotopes measured. If one tries to convert this to an atom basis, the uncertainties will increase due to the incorporation of the uncertainties in the nuclear data used to convert the cpm to atoms. LLNL switched to gamma detection methods in the 1970s thus replacing our beta counting effort. The equation below is how we have since determined R-values. The numerator ratios atom values of isotopes that are determined by measuring gamma cpm (usually? using several peaks per isotope) and then converting to particle decay in dpm using detector efficiency for each peak and the appropriate branch ratio for each gamma emission. Isotope decay is then converted to atoms using specific activity, mass or volume?, and Avogadro's number. The denominator is simply the ratio of published, cumulative fission product chain yields for isotopes produced in a thermal irradiation on 235U - values of England & Ryder are used by LLNL for the NTNF program. Uncertainties in LLNL R-values are dependent upon gamma counting statistics as well as the nuclear data for each isotope. R{sub LLNL} = (Atoms of X{sub exp

  11. 2014-2015 Tritium values in small and shallow aquifers in northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, Manuela; Mussi, Mario; Ronchetti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tritium data relating to actual rainfall in north of Italy and in particular in the northern Apennines are rare or missing. The reasons of this lack of data frequently depends on the high cost of analysis and the necessity of high amount of water to perform the analysis itself. In order to obtain these data a valid alternative can be analyze the amount of Tritium in unconfined, shallow and small aquifer not affect by human activities (such as sewage). Recent studies, applied to the hydrogeology of the Po plain or of the Apennine slopes, highlight, in rainfall water recharging shallow aquifer, tritium values ranging between 6 T.U. and 12 T.U., higher than those detected in other and different areas of Italy or of the South Europe. The aim of this paper is to highlight first results of tritium analyses performed on spring draining shallow aquifers in northern Apennines, characterized by the absence of human activities. The peculiarity of sampling point (spring are characterized by small and well defined catchment areas as well small differences between the infiltration/recharge elevation and the spring elevation) makes results representative of mean tritium value of rainfall recharge in the studied area. In detail, during 2014-2015 three springs located at different elevation in Secchia Valley have been sampled and analyzed. Tritium analyses performed on a total of 5 samples highlight the following results: the maximum value (5.0±0.7 T.U.) is detected in water collected in November whereas the minimum value ( 3.7±0.6 T.U.) is obtained in May. Therefore a mean annual value of 4.2±0.7 T.U. in the studied area have been highlighted.

  12. Are Noachian-age ridged plains (Nplr) actually Early Hesperian in age?. [Mars volcanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; Doudnikoff, C. E.; Mongeon, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nplr ridged plains studied are quite thin (less than 150 m, with some less than 90 m) based on the smallest surviving craters from the different preserved crater retention surfaces. The thinness of the Nplr ridged plains permits craters from older surfaces to show through, leading to a greater total crater count than actually applies to the ridged-plains component of those surfaces. It is found that the ridged-plains mapped as Noachian-age Nplr actually resurfaced older Noachian cratered terrain in the Early Hesperian, creating crater retention surfaces of N(1) equals (25,000 +/- 3000) in the Memnonia and Argyre regions.

  13. Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2003-10-30

    The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). Tests described in this document address the capability of manganese oxide treatment to remove Rs, Pu, and Np from actual high-level waste containing elevated concentrations of Pu. Additionally, tests investigate MST (using two unique batches) performance with the same waste for direct comparison to the manganese oxide performance.

  14. Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-03-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography poses a number of challenges, one of which is the production of a defect-free mask. To observe the defects on an EUV mask in a quantitative phase image, we have developed a microcoherent EUV scatterometry microscope. The intensity and phase images of the defects are reconstructed using ptychography. We observe four actual defects on an EUV blank mask using the microscope. The reconstructed shapes of the actual defects correspond well to those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our microscope should therefore function as an essential review tool in characterizing defects.

  15. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  16. Values and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John A.

    Science and technology are in trouble today. And the world of people and of other living things is in trouble because of them. This seven-part book provides an introduction to the origin and nature of these troubles. Major areas considered in the first six parts are: (1) values; (2) science and technology in an ideal world (examining growth of…

  17. Gender and Job Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers distinct differences and a few similarities between men and women concerning values and expectations associated with employment. Women attach greater importance to intrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards. Earlier research suggested significant gender differences regarding extrinsic rewards; however, this category revealed no…

  18. Valuing Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2006-01-01

    It is not enough to declare that differentiated instruction is going to be the order of the day. It also is not enough to call in a consultant and have teachers listen to a presentation about product, process, and assessment paradigms. Differentiated instruction is a practice that grows out of certain values that are important in the way school…

  19. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  20. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  1. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  2. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  3. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  4. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  5. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  6. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  7. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual...

  8. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual...

  9. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual...

  10. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual...

  11. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual...

  12. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  13. Science, Policy, and the Transparency of Values

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opposing groups of scientists have recently engaged in a heated dispute over a preliminary European Commission (EC) report on its regulatory policy for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition to the scientific issues at stake, a central question has been how scientists can maintain their objectivity when informing policy makers. Objectives: Drawing from current ethical, conceptual, and empirical studies of objectivity and conflicts of interest in scientific research, we propose guiding principles for communicating scientific findings in a manner that promotes objectivity, public trust, and policy relevance. Discussion: Both conceptual and empirical studies of scientific reasoning have shown that it is unrealistic to prevent policy-relevant scientific research from being influenced by value judgments. Conceptually, the current dispute over the EC report illustrates how scientists are forced to make value judgments about appropriate standards of evidence when informing public policy. Empirical studies provide further evidence that scientists are unavoidably influenced by a variety of potentially subconscious financial, social, political, and personal interests and values. Conclusions: When scientific evidence is inconclusive and major regulatory decisions are at stake, it is unrealistic to think that values can be excluded from scientific reasoning. Thus, efforts to suppress or hide interests or values may actually damage scientific objectivity and public trust, whereas a willingness to bring implicit interests and values into the open may be the best path to promoting good science and policy. Citation: Elliott KC, Resnik DB. 2014. Science, policy, and the transparency of values. Environ Health Perspect 122:647–650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408107 PMID:24667564

  14. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products. PMID:26124070

  15. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

  16. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  17. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  18. Analysis of design control values for TEP

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) Performance Requirements Report (USITER-13201-TD0005-R00), date May 29, 2007 defined feed sources for TEP quantities and approximate flow rate of gases from these individual sources. In addition, the report identified the approximate periods of time (during Burn and Dwell, 'Silent Shift', etc.) that these gases would be transferred to TEP. This report did not take into account the detailed, time dependent, sequencing options for receiving gases from these feed sources. Sequencing is critical in defining the actual design basis values (flow rates, etc.) for TEP. This report analyzes the time dependent sequencing of feed flows to TEP and defines the ,design basis values. This analysis is based on the values presented in the TEP Performance Requirements Report (TEP PRR), and indicates that the ITER Burn and Dwell, Silent Shift Following 16 hours of Burn and Dwell, Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC), and Silent Shift following 100 hours of GDC scenarios are the limiting scenarios from which the design basis values will be defined.

  19. Parameters of human motor unit twitches obtained by intramuscular microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Elek, J M; Kossev, A; Dengler, R; Schubert, M; Wohlfahrt, K; Wolf, W

    1992-01-01

    Intramuscular microstimulation of motor axons was used to study twitch responses of 209 motor units (MUs) in the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) of 20 normal subjects. Twitch peak force (TF), maximum rate of rise of force (MRRF), contraction time (CT) and one-half relaxation time (HRT) were determined. The distributions of TF (mean 16.0 mN, median 10.3 mN) and MRRF (mean 0.88 N s-1, median 0.66 N s-1) were skewed to the right with the majority of the values lying in the lower ranges, whereas CT (mean 63 ms, median 62 ms) and HRT (mean 61 ms, median 58 ms) were approximately normally distributed. TF was significantly correlated with MRRF, but not with CT in contrast with studies of cat gastrocnemius muscle. TF values were similar to those obtained by spike-triggered averaging in the same muscle. The method proved to be reliable and appropriate for use in patients. Examples of MU twitch parameters from three patients with chronic partial denervation of the FDI are described. PMID:1483052

  20. Certification Change versus Actual Behavior Change in Teenage Suicide Rates, 1955-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gist, Richard; Welch, Q. B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined national data on firearm suicides and accidental deaths for 15- through 19-year-olds from 1955-1979. Considered improved accuracy in determination and certification of suicide in equivocal firearm deaths, actual increases in rate of firearm suicides, or combination. Data support hypothesis of certification changes as primary factor…