Science.gov

Sample records for actual water level

  1. Vietnam Veteran Levels of Combat: Perceived and Actual Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, William; Hutchinson, Roger L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not a relationship exists between levels of combat experienced by Vietnam veterans and later perceptions of violence, violent attitudes, or violent behavior. Comparison groups included: (1) heavy combat Vietnam veterans; (2) light combat Vietnam veterans; (3) no combat Vietnam veterans; and…

  2. Fenton's treatment of actual agriculture runoff water containing herbicides.

    PubMed

    Sangami, Sanjeev; Manu, Basavaraju

    2017-01-01

    This research was to study the efficiency of the Fenton's treatment process for the removal of three herbicides, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), ametryn and dicamba from the sugarcane field runoff water. The treatment process was designed with the Taguchi approach by varying the four factors such as H2O2/COD (1-3.5), H2O2/Fe(2+) (5-50), pH (2-5) and reaction time (30-240 min) as independent variables. Influence of these parameters on chemical oxygen demand (COD), ametryn, dicamba and 2,4-D removal efficiencies (dependent variables) were investigated by performing signal to noise ratio and other statistical analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be H2O2/COD: 2.125, H2O2/Fe(2+): 27.5, pH: 3.5 and reaction time of 135 min for removal efficiencies of 100% for ametryn, 95.42% for dicamba, 88.2% for 2,4-D and with 75% of overall COD removal efficiencies. However, the percentage contribution of H2O2/COD ratio was observed to be significant among all four independent variables and were 44.16%, 67.57%, 51.85% and 50.66% for %COD, ametryn, dicamba and 2,4-D removal efficiencies, respectively. The maximum removal of herbicides was observed with the H2O2 dosage of 5.44 mM and Fe(2+) dosage of 0.12 mM at pH 3.5.

  3. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  4. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  5. The dynamic role of root-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Katul, Gabriel

    The relationship between actual ( Eact) and potential ( Ep) transpiration above a grass-covered forest clearing was investigated numerically and experimentally from simultaneous measurements of soil moisture content profiles, mean meteorological conditions, turbulent heat and water vapor fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer, and soil hydraulic properties for two drying periods. The relationship between Eact/ Ep was found to be approximately constant and insensitive to variability in near-surface soil moisture content. To explore this near-constant Eact/ Ep, a model that relates potential and actual transpiration and accounts for root-uptake efficiency, potential transpiration rate, and root-density distribution was proposed and field-tested. The total amount of water consumed by the root system was integrated and compared with eddy-correlation latent heat flux measurements (field scale) and total water storage changes (local scale). Model calculations suggested that the deeper and more efficient roots are primarily responsible for the total water loss within the root zone when the near-surface soil layer approaches their wilting point.

  6. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Reid A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-06-27

    The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution.

  7. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  8. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, L.A.; Rapko, B.M.; Poloski, A.P.; Peterson, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Southwest Washington State. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate, which can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, and boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, but is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Chromium, which makes up a much smaller amount ({approx}3%) of the sludge, must also be removed because there is a low tolerance for chromium in the HLW immobilization process. In this work, the coupled dissolution kinetics of aluminum and chromium species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford HLW samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a model that provides a basis for predicting dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. (authors)

  9. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites

  10. Writing at the Graduate Level: What Tasks Do Professors Actually Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amy; Bikowski, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of writing tasks in graduate courses at a large, American university. The study investigates writing tasks across the curriculum and draws implications for curriculum design in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Using actual course syllabi for task analysis, the researchers analyzed 200 course syllabi from 20…

  11. Methodology to Analyse the actual and the future effect of water scarcity on the available water resources in Meguellil watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, I.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Shabou, M.; Zribi, M.; Ben Issa, N.; chakroun, H.; Galafassi, D.; Rathwell, K.; Hoff, H.; Pizzigalli, C.

    2012-04-01

    Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage, and it is in the arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development, that the problems of water scarcity are most acute. The Merguellil watershed, situated in the center of Tunisia, represents exactly this state of fact where the agriculture is the main consumer with about 80% of the total water resources because of the continuous increase and intensification of irrigated area. The surface water can satisfy a very low portion of this demand; consequently, the groundwater is overexploited. The irrigation sector is divided into public and private. While the public irrigated areas are well known, the private ones are not sufficiently controlled mainly the water volumes pumped from the aquifer. Therefore, a sustainable management of all available water resources and meeting as much as possible all water demands, is crucial. To analyze the actual and future water balance of the Merguellil watershed, and to identify critical trends and thresholds and effective solutions, a WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) application has been developed. It utilizes a constrained optimization algorithm to allocate water among competing demands in a basin. The year 2009 is considered as the reference one which represents the basic definition of the water system as it currently exists, and forms the foundation of all scenarios analysis. Three scenarios were compared to the reference one. The first combines between the reduction of 10% in precipitation, as it is forseen by the regional climate model RCA (driven by ECHAM5) that provides statistic data of precipitation until 2050, and the increase of 2% per year in irrigated area in the kairouan plain deduced from the land use maps dating from 1991/1992 to 2009/2010 obtained by multi dates remote sensing data. The second scenario is the application of a deficit irrigation that respects the yield

  12. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.; Hay, Michael S.

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  13. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    SciTech Connect

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  14. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  15. Center-level patterns of indicated willingness to and actual acceptance of marginal kidneys.

    PubMed

    Massie, A B; Stewart, D E; Dagher, N N; Montgomery, R A; Desai, N M; Segev, D L

    2010-11-01

    UNet(SM) , the UNOS data collection and electronic organ allocation system, allows centers to specify organ offer acceptance criteria for patients on their kidney waiting list. We hypothesized that the system might not be fully utilized and that the criteria specified by most transplant centers would be much broader than the characteristics of organs actually transplanted by those centers. We analyzed the distribution of criteria values among waitlist patients (N = 304 385) between January 2000 and February 2009, mean criteria values among listed candidates on February 19, 2009 and differences between a center's specified criteria and the organs it accepted for transplant between July 2005 and April 2009. We found wide variation in use of criteria variables, with some variables mostly or entirely unused. Most centers specified very broad criteria, with little within-center variation by patient. An offer of a kidney with parameters more extreme than the maximum actually transplanted at that center was designated a 'surplus offer' and indicated a potentially avoidable delay in distribution. We found 7373 surplus offers (7.1% of all offers), concentrated among a small number of centers. The organ acceptance criteria system is currently underutilized, leading to possibly avoidable inefficiencies in organ distribution.

  16. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  17. Transport code for radiocolloid migration: with an assessment of an actual low-level waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1984-12-31

    Recently, there is increased concern that radiocolloids may act as a rapid transport mechanism for the release of radionuclides from high-level waste repositories. The role of colloids is, however, controversial because the necessary data and assessment methodology have been limited. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that colloids are an important consideration in the geological disposal of nuclear waste. To quantitatively assess the role of colloids, the TRACR3D transport code has been enhanced by the addition of the population balance equations. This new version of the code can simulate the migration of colloids through combinations of porous/fractured, unsaturated, geologic media. The code was tested against the experimental laboratory column data of Avogadro et al. in order to compare the code results to both experimental data and an analytical solution. Next, a low-level radioactive waste site was investigated to explore whether colloid migration could account for the unusually rapid and long transport of plutonium and americium observed at a low-level waste site. Both plutonium and americium migrated 30 meters through unsaturated volcanic tuff. The nature and modeling of radiocolloids are discussed along with site simulation results from the TRACR3D code. 20 references.

  18. [The actual approaches to the analysis of the decrease of population mortality on the territorial level].

    PubMed

    Krasnenkov, V L; Kamruzzaman, Saĭed

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with one of the major medical demographic problems of Tver region's higher population mortality, including mortality of able-bodied population. The prevalence of main causes of death and their structure are analyzed. The prospective forecast of death rate indicators based on extrapolation technique is proposed. The main strategic approaches to the development of target programs of decreasing premature population mortality in Tverskaya oblast on the basis of the expertise of hospital lethality and analysis of demographic situation is presented. The proposed approaches can promote the study of optimal management and organization decision-making by administrations of different levels.

  19. Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for Level 3 and 4 PSHAs - Experience Gained from Actual Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norm A.; Boore, David M.; Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Knepprath, Nichole E.

    2009-01-01

    In April 1997, after four years of deliberations, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee released its report 'Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts' through the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as NUREG/CR-6372, hereafter SSHAC (1997). Known informally ever since as the 'SSHAC Guidelines', SSHAC (1997) addresses why and how multiple expert opinions - and the intrinsic uncertainties that attend them - should be used in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses (PSHA) for critical facilities such as commercial nuclear power plants. Ten years later, in September 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a 13-month agreement with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) titled 'Practical Procedures for Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines and for Updating PSHAs'. The NRC was interested in understanding and documenting lessons learned from recent PSHAs conducted at the higher SSHAC Levels (3 and 4) and in gaining input from the seismic community for updating PSHAs as new information became available. This study increased in importance in anticipation of new applications for nuclear power facilities at both existing and new sites. The intent of this project was not to replace the SSHAC Guidelines but to supplement them with the experience gained from putting the SSHAC Guidelines to work in practical applications. During the course of this project, we also learned that updating PSHAs for existing nuclear power facilities involves very different issues from the implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for new facilities. As such, we report our findings and recommendations from this study in two separate documents, this being the first. The SSHAC Guidelines were written without regard to whether the PSHAs to which they would be applied were site-specific or regional in scope. Most of the experience gained to date from high-level SSHAC studies has been for site-specific cases, although three

  20. Actual ET modelling based on the Budyko framework and the sustainability of vegetation water use in the loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuerui; Sun, Miao; Zhao, Qi; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xining; Pan, Wenxiang; Wang, Yubao

    2017-02-01

    Jointly influenced by the natural factors and the artificial protection measures, the ecological environment of Loess Plateau has been significantly improved in recent years, but which has already brought about some water-related problems. To maintain the balance between precipitation and water consumption is an important foundation for sustainable development of the ecology remediation. This study used Budyko Framework to simulate the actual water consumption of 161 sub-basins from 1990 to 2014. Based on the simulation results, the research also analyzed the evolution characteristics of water balance in Loess Plateau from 1990 to 2014. Results show that, with the increase of vegetation coverage, the regional precipitation and actual evapotranspiration were both showing a significant increasing trend, and the increasing rate of precipitation was 1.91mm/a on average, which was greater than the increasing rate of actual evapotranspiration of 1.34mm/a. To further demonstrate the water balance regime in Loess Plateau, the evapotranspiration coefficient (ECC) was used to quantitatively indicate the ratio of the vegetation water consumption and the total precipitation. The average values of ECC were 0.868, 0.863, 0.851 and 0.837 respectively in four sub-periods of 1990-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. The above analyses indicate that with the vegetation recovery and ecological restoration, the percentage of evapotranspiration in the total precipitation is keeping decreasing and in turn the percentage of water yield in the total precipitation is keeping increasing. Consequently, it seems more sustainable for vegetation water use in most areas of Loess Plateau currently.

  1. Evaluation of Water Stress Coefficient Methods to Estimate Actual Corn Evapotranspiration in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract for Kullberg Hydrology Days: Abstract. Increased competition for water resources is placing pressure on the agricultural sector to remain profitable while reducing water use. Remote sensing techniques have been developed to monitor crop water stress and produce information for evapotranspi...

  2. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  3. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    PubMed

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing.

  4. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  5. Nodal Network Modelling by Integrating Remote Sensing Derived Actual Evapotranspiration with Spatial Water Balance in a Demand Driven Irrigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Kaleem; Hafeez, Mohsin; Sixsmith, Josh; Faux, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    The long-term sustainability of water for agriculture is in doubt in many regions of the world. The major withdrawals of water are for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption. Irrigated agriculture is major consumer of fresh water, but a large part of the water devour for irrigation is wasted due to poor management of irrigation systems. Improving water management in irrigated areas and assessment of irrigation performance are critical activities for this endeavour. These activities are needed not only to improve water productivity, but also to increase the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and improving the irrigation efficiency. The improvement of the water use efficiency entail the complete understanding of various components of water balances such as rainfall, surface water, groundwater and evapotranspiration (ET). Evapotranspiration is the overriding aspect of water balance at farm to catchment scale. Many models have been used to measure the Evapotranspiration rate, either empirical or functional. The major disadvantage of this approach is that most methods generate only point values, resulting in estimates that are not representative of large areas. These methods are based on crop factors under ideal conditions and cannot therefore represent actual crop ET. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful mean to estimate ET over various spatial and temporal scales. The use of remote sensing techniques to estimate ET is achieved by solving the energy balance thermodynamics fluxes at the surface of the earth. For improved irrigation system management and operation, a holistic approach of integrating remote sensing derived ET from SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm, for Australian agro-ecosystem with spatial water balance by using nodal network model was applied to evaluate agricultural water management in Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), New South Wales, Australia. It covers approximately 79,000 ha of intensive

  6. Comparative analysis of the actual evapotranspiration of Flemish forest and cropland, using the soil water balance model WAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Muys, B.; Feyen, J.; Veroustraete, F.; Minnaert, M.; Meiresonne, L.; de Schrijver, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on the quantification of the green - vegetation related - water flux of forest stands in the temperate lowland of Flanders. The underlying reason of the research was to develop a methodology for assessing the impact of forests on the hydrologic cycle in comparison to agriculture. The tested approach for calculating the water use by forests was based on the application of the soil water balance model WAVE. The study involved the collection of data from 14 forest stands, the calibration and validation of the WAVE model, and the comparison of the water use (WU) components - transpiration, soil and interception evaporation - between forest and cropland. For model calibration purposes simulated and measured time series of soil water content at different soil depths, period March 2000-August 2001, were compared. A multiple-site validation was conducted as well. Actual tree transpiration calculated with sap flow measurements in three forest stands gave similar results for two of the three stands of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but WAVE overestimated the actual measured transpiration for a stand of poplar (Populus sp.). A useful approach to compare the WU components of forest versus cropland is scenario analysis based on the validated WAVE model. The statistical Profile Analysis method was implemented to explore and analyse the simulated WU time series. With an average annual rainfall of 819 mm, the results reveal that forests in Flanders consume more water than agricultural crops. A 30 years average of 491 mm for 10 forests stands versus 398 mm for 10 cropped agricultural fields was derived. The WU components, on yearly basis, also differ between the two land use types (transpiration: 315 mm for forest and 261 mm for agricultural land use; soil evaporation: 47 mm and 131 mm, for forest and cropland, respectively). Forest canopy interception evaporation was estimated at 126 mm, while it was negligible for cropland.

  7. Comparative analysis of the actual evapotranspiration of Flemish forest and cropland, using the soil water balance model WAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Muys, B.; Feyen, J.; Veroustraete, F.; Minnaert, M.; Meiresonne, L.; de Schrijver, A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper focuses on the quantification of the green - vegetation related - water flux of a forest stand in the temperate lowland of Flanders. The underlying reason of the research was to develop a methodology for assessing the impact of forests on the hydrologic cycle in comparison to agriculture. The approach tested for calculating the water consumption by forests was based on the application of the soil water balance model WAVE. The study involved the collection of data from 14 forest stands, the calibration and validation of the WAVE model, and the comparison of the water use (WU) components - transpiration, soil and interception evaporation - between forest and cropland. For model calibration purposes simulated and measured time series of soil water content at different soil depths, period March 2000-August 2001, were compared. A multiple-site validation was conducted as well. Actual tree transpiration calculated with sap flow measurements in three forest stands gave similar results for two of the three stands of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but WAVE overestimated the actual measured transpiration for a stand of poplar (Populus sp.). A useful approach to compare the WU components of forest versus cropland is scenario analysis based on the validated WAVE model. The statistical Profile Analysis method was implemented to explore and analyse the simulated WU time-series. With an average annual rainfall of 819 mm, the results show that forests in Flanders consume more water than agricultural crops. A 30 years average of 491 mm for 10 forests stands versus 398 mm for 10 cropped agricultural fields was derived. The WU components, on yearly basis, also differ between the two land use types (transpiration: 315 mm for forest and 261 mm for agricultural land use; soil evaporation: 47 mm and 131 mm, for forest and cropland, respectively). Forest canopy interception evaporation was estimated at 126 mm, while it was negligible for cropland.

  8. Water Purification Characteristic of the Actual Constructed Wetland with Carex dispalata in a Cold Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Morio; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsukada, Hiroko

    Carex dispalata, a native plant species applied in cold districts for water purification in constructed wetlands, has useful characteristics for landscape creation and maintenance. In this study, seasonal differences in purification ability were verified, along with comparison of frozen and non-frozen periods' performance. A wetland area was constructed using a “hydroponics method” and a “coir fiber based method”. Results show that the removal rates of BOD, SS, and Chl-a were high. On this constructed wetland reduces organic pollution, mainly phytoplankton, but the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was insufficient. The respective mean values of influent and treated water during three years were 26.6 mg/L and 12.2 mg/L for BOD, and 27.9 mg/L and 7.5 mg/L for SS. The mean value of the BOD removal rate for the non-frozen period was 2.99 g/m2/d that for the frozen period was 1.86 g/m2/d. The removal rate followed the rise of the BOD load rate. The removal rate limits were about 4 g/m2/d during the frozen period and 15 g/m2/d during the non-frozen period. For operations, energy was unnecessary. The required working hours were about 20 h annually for all maintenance and management during operations.

  9. A Basic study on Navigators’ Visual Observation Area and Stress Level for ShipHandling by Actual Ships and Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Hayashi, Yuji; Miyoshi, Yuichi; Inokuchi, Seiji

    A navigator gets navigational information for safe navigation from own ship and her environment through their five senses, and navigates her. We think that the most important thing is the ability to judge in various environments more than the knowledge of how to handle some instruments or equipments. What does the navigator do when he/she navigates? Recently, we use a ship handling simulator (simulator in short) to train the ship handling for safe navigation. We need to recognize the effect of training, the better usage of a simulator and the difference of stress level between actual ships and simulators. The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of visual observation area and stress level of the navigator in the case of arriving and leaving port. In our experiments, we measured subject’s eye movement and heart rate variability which means the R-R interval. Our experimental ship is Training Ship FUKAE-MARU of Kobe University of Mercantile Marine (KUMM in short). The results show that characteristics of subject’s visual observation area and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS in short) value calculated with R-R interval is how dependency of cue for both navigational environments.

  10. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  11. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  12. Assessment of the level of the actual and desirable levels of computer literacy, usage and expected knowledge of undergraduate students of nursing.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of students entering nursing at the bachelors level, of their actual and desirable knowledge about computers and their applications relevant to nursing and health care. Within the health care system the use of computerized systems is increasing rapidly. In Australia, the NSW Health Department's Information Management Resource Consortium pilot project--to introduce the First Data Hospital Information System into NSW public hospitals--is a significant example of this trend. While the importance of computerized systems is fairly well recognized for the areas of management and research, they are becoming increasingly significant in the delivery of clinical care and quality assurance. It is important that nurses during their undergraduate education develop the computer literacy and awareness that will allow them access to the both the information and its management. To achieve this effectively it is essential to determine both the entry knowledge of students and what skills and knowledge are essential and desirable for their future roles as nurses. The research undertaken replicated an American study [2] and used their validated questionnaire. Both pre-registration(n=20) and post-registration (n=24) undergraduate students responded to a 21 item questionnaire. The issues addressed related to computer literacy, usage, and knowledge of clinical applications. Both groups desired more "hands on" experience and knowledge in the nurse's role in developing applications and using computers to help care for patients. These results were consistent with the Parks et. al. study. The significance of comparing actual and desirable levels of computer knowledge and awareness is in assisting educators to shape curriculum and course content to more effectively meet the educational needs of these groups in terms of Health Informatics.

  13. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  14. Application of TDR to water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, A.; Hansen, B.; Schelde, K.

    2000-09-01

    A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies of water erosion and sediment transport. A computer algorithm for the analysis of TDR traces from the new probe was developed and incorporated into existing software for automated acquisition and analysis of TDR data. Laboratory calibration showed that water level could be measured with sufficient accuracy (standard deviation <2 mm) for a range of applications in hydrology. Soil erosion is typically a short duration process closely linked to soil moisture content and rainfall intensity. A major benefit of integrating time critical measurements of surface runoff and soil moisture into a single system is the synchronisation of measurements. Measurements were made on a regular schedule except during rainfall events when the measuring rate depended on rainfall intensity. In a parallel calibration study it was shown that the performance of the TDR probe was comparable to a commercial ultrasonic liquid level sensor used for measuring runoff at an erosion site not instrumented for automated TDR measurements.

  15. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  16. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-12-31

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

  17. Estimation of total available water in the soil layer by integrating actual evapotranspiration data in a remote sensing-driven soil water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Isidro; González-Piqueras, Jose; Carrara, Arnaud; Villodre, Julio; Calera, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The total available water (τ) by plants that could be stored in its root soil layer is a key parameter when applying soil water balance models. Since the transpiration rate of a vegetation stand could be the best proxy about the soil water content into the root soil layer, we propose a methodology for estimating τ by using as basic inputs the evapotranspiration rate of the stand and time series of multispectral imagery. This methodology is based on the inverted formulation of the soil water balance model. The inversion of the model was addressed by using an iterative approach, which optimizes the τ parameter to minimize the difference between measured and modeled ET. This methodology was tested for a Mediterranean holm oak savanna (dehesa) for which eddy covariance measurements of actual ET were available. The optimization procedure was performed by using a continuous dataset (in 2004) of daily ET measurements and 16 sets of 8 daily ET measurements, resulting in τ values of 325 and 305 mm, respectively. The use of these τ values in the RSWB model for the validation period (2005-2008) allowed us to estimate dehesa ET with a RMSE = 0.48 mm/day. The model satisfactorily reproduces the water stress process. The sensitivity of τ estimates was evaluated regarding two of the more uncertain parameters in the RSWB model. These parameters are the average fraction of τ that can be depleted from the root zone without producing moisture stress (pτ) and the soil evaporation component. The results of this analysis indicated relatively little influence from the evaporation component and the need for adequate knowledge about pτ for estimating τ.

  18. GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this

  19. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  20. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  1. Identifying Groundwater Droughts using standardized Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, J. C.; Birk, S.

    2015-12-01

    Drought indices are frequently used to compare the occurrence and characteristics of droughts at different sites as well as to characterize different hydrometeorological aspects of drought. The existing indices have been mostly focused on precipitation, soil moisture, and surface waters though. To enable a comparison of groundwater drought with other hydrometeorological aspects of drought, the Standardized Groundwater level Index SGI was proposed by Bloomfield and Marchant (2013). So far, the SGI has been applied only to consolidated aquifers in the UK. The purpose of this work is to assess the applicability and performance of the SGI in unconsolidated, porous aquifers situated in valleys, which represent the main sources of drinking water in many regions. For this purpose, long-term time series of groundwater levels both in wet and dry regions of Austria are analyzed and compared with time series of precipitation, evapotranspiration and river stages. It is shown that large drought events, such as 2003 with only 79% of the long-term average precipitation, but also less severe events are reflected by negative SGI anomalies. To identify and classify time periods with a groundwater deficit, such benchmark years are used to propose a threshold value of the SGI defining the onset of a drought. Time periods where a clear drop in SGI does not correspond to a significant anomaly in precipitation are also visible in the data. More detailed investigations into small valley fill aquifers in the south-east of Austria reveal that the SGI may closely correlate with river stage fluctuations. Also, effects of the geographic setting (mountainous area vs. lowland) and the impacts of human activities (hydropower, drinking water extraction) are shown. Bloomfield, J. P., Marchant, B. P., Analysis of groundwater drought building on the standardised precipitation index approach, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 4769-4787, 2013.

  2. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  3. Local and profile soil water content monitoring: A comparison of methods in terms of apparent and actual spatial variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many soil water sensors are now available, questions about their accuracy, precision, and representativeness still abound. This study examined down-hole (access tube profiling type) and insertion or burial (local) type sensors for their ability to assess soil profile water content (depth of...

  4. A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Leveling Device for Ultramicrotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Austin E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a device for maintaining the proper water level in knife boats during ultramicrotomy. Water levels in troughs are adjusted rapidly and precisely during the cutting process. Illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

  5. County Level Assessment of Impaired Waters and Gastrointestinal Infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation therefore, assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water ...

  6. Recent and late quaternary changes in water level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcott, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    Water level changes of both the Great Lakes and the sea are described along with methods of analyzing water level data. The influence of elastic deformation of the earth and viscosity is discussed. Causes of water level changes reviewed include: earth movements, geoid changes, storm surges or meteorological phenomena, and melting ice in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountain glaciers.

  7. Engaging the Public in the MESSENGER Spacecraft's Confirmation of Water Ice on Mercury by Using Actual Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J. P.; Goldstein, J. J.; Hamel, S.; Hirshon, B.; Malaret, E.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Weir, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft have provided compelling support for the 20-year-old hypothesis that Mercury hosts abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed polar craters. MESSENGER's Education and Public Outreach (EPO) team is creating a suite of materials to engage the public in the scientific process that led to this discovery. The Water Ice Data Exploration (WIDE) suite will consist of a video presentation from a mission scientist and engineer, a pencil-and-paper activity, and a web-based interactive data-mapping tool. Each of these individual parts will examine Mariner 10 flyby data from the 1970s, Earth-based radar data from the early 1990s, and MESSENGER flyby and orbital data from various instruments to help show the progression of evidence in support of this conclusion. The QuickMap interactive data mapping tool will be customized for this project and will also serve as an introduction to the larger QuickMap tool, with which publicly released MESSENGER data can be viewed (http://messenger-act.actgate.com/msgr_public_released/react_quickmap.html). The WIDE suite of materials will be accessible from a dedicated HTML page on the MESSENGER EPO website (temporary draft: http://www.messenger-education.org/workshops/cod.php), enabling free and simple dissemination to broad audiences.

  8. 26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1974 through 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, J.O.; Oberender, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 270 observation wells in Wyoming, mostly in areas where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. The program is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State engineer and the Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and Development. This report contains hydrographs for most observation wells showing water-level fluctuations from 1974 through 1983. Also included in the report are maps showing locations of observation wells and tabulations of well depths, use of water, geologic source, records available, and highest and lowest water levels for the period of record. (USGS)

  10. Center Hill Reservoir Fishery Study--Water Level Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    The pH and the range of its variations are dependent upon the buffering capacity within a lake . In water containing a bicarbonate in solution, for...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide It noc.esr anidmt ntby block mbi’) Center Hill Lake , TN, Water Levels, Fisheries, Water Quality, Trends. 12A4, C -gvr...water level fluctuation is not a&p~ropriate at Center Hill Lake The graphical analysis of the relationship between the rate of water level change in feet

  11. Water level, specific conductance, and water temperature data, San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Time series of water-level, specific-conductance, and watertemperature data were collected at seven sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000). Water-level data were recorded only at Point San Pablo. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following locations (Figure 1): • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway near Vallejo • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9 • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo • Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation • Central San Francisco Bay at Pier 24 • South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City.

  12. Tracking water levels in axisymmetric flows

    SciTech Connect

    Aktas, B.; Baratta, A.J.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    An interface tracking scheme can radically improve the first-order computational methods for two-phase flow when a problem consists of an interface between liquid phase and steam. On the other hand, the authors studies have shown that failure to implement level tracking fully consistently has degraded the quality of TRAC-BF1 results. In these studies, they have presented an improved version of one-dimensional level tracking with relatively simple and physically sensible corrections. A fully consistent level tracking scheme is also necessary for best results in multidimensional two-phase flows.

  13. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Hester, W.G.; O'Byrne, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Mean water levels in wells across Georgia were from 0.25 foot higher to 11.4 feet lower in 1978 than in 1977, and in some areas were the lowest on record. Water levels in the principal artesian aquifer underwent a long-term decline during the period 1969-78. In some areas water levels dropped more than 10 feet. Wells tapping the Clayton Limestone in the Albany area showed a long-term decline during the period 1969-78, and in some wells water levels dropped more than 20 feet. Water levels in the Cretaceous aquifer system showed little fluctuation during 1978; however, in a well located in Chattahoochee County, water levels declined 4.4 feet during 1969-78. In the Piedmont area mean water levels remained the same to 2.2 feet lower in 1978 than in 1977, and showed no long-term trend. Chloride concentrations in the principal artesian aquifer in the Savannah area remained stable and in the Brunswick area continued to rise during 1978. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends for 1978 and fluctuations of the monthly mean water level for the previous 10 years are shown in hydrographs of 33 selected observation wells in Georgia. Chloride concentrations in 11 wells in the Savannah and Brunswick areas are shown in graphs of monthly values over the previous 10 years. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each of the hydrographs and chloride concentration graphs shown. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  15. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  16. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97(th) percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  17. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:27830837

  18. A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Socolow, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold

  19. Ground-water levels in Arkansas, spring 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, D.A.; Plafcan, Maria

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater level measurements were made in 701 observation wells in Arkansas in the spring of 1987. This report contains the water level data presented in tables listed by aquifer; then by county. For each well, the depth to water below land surface and the altitude of the water level for 1987 are shown, along with the net change in water level between 1986 and 1987 and between 1982 and 1987. In addition, the report contains maps showing the average water level changes, by county, between the years 1982 and 1987 for the aquifers in the Quaternary deposits and the Sparta and Memphis Sands. Also shown are water level hydrographs for selected wells completed in the Quarternary deposits and Sparta Sand. The aquifers in the Quarternary deposits and the Sparta and Memphis Sands are important aquifers in eastern and southern Arkansas for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Water level data showed an average water level decline of 0.03 ft in the Quaternary deposits of the 24 most heavily irrigated counties of eastern Arkansas and 0.39 ft in the Sparta and Memphis Sands between the years 1982 and 1987. (USGS)

  20. Lake Michigan Storm: Wave and Water Level Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    However, this artifact did not affect the integrity of the solution as these apparitions typically occur in deep water and the difference between...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 6 Great Lakes Coastal Flood Study, 2012 Federal Inter-Agency Initiative Lake Michigan Storm: Wave and Water Level...Federal Inter-Agency Initiative ERDC/CHL TR-12-26 November 2012 Modeling of Lake Michigan Storm Waves and Water Levels Robert E. Jensen, Mary A

  1. Fluctuations of ground-water levels in Lee County, Florida, in 1975 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1975 water year, rainfall was about average at Page Field, Florida, and from 20-25 percent below average at Lehigh Acres and Sanibel Island. Water levels were monitored in 57 observation wells in Lee County, Florida. Of the 23 wells that tap the water-table aquifer, one record high and 5 record low water levels were established. Record low water levels were established in 5 of 20 wells that tap the sandstone aquifer and in 1 of 10 wells that tap the upper Hawthorn aquifer. A record high water level was established in 1 of 3 wells that tap the lower Hawthorn aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Estimation of Actual Crop ET of Paddy Using the Energy Balance Model SMARET and Validation with Field Water Balance Measurements and a Crop Growth Model (ORYZA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, N. D.; Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources requires reliable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) at fine spatial and temporal resolution. This is significant in the case of rice based irrigation systems, one of the major consumers of surface water resources and where ET forms a major component of water consumption. However huge tradeoff in the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images coupled with lack of adequate number of cloud free images within a growing season act as major constraints in deriving ET at fine spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing based energy balance models. The scale at which ET is determined is decided by the spatial and temporal scale of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which form inputs to energy balance models. In this context, the current study employed disaggregation algorithms (NL-DisTrad and DisNDVI) to generate time series of LST and NDVI images at fine resolution. The disaggregation algorithms aimed at generating LST and NDVI at finer scale by integrating temporal information from concurrent coarse resolution data and spatial information from a single fine resolution image. The temporal frequency of the disaggregated images is further improved by employing composite images of NDVI and LST in the spatio-temporal disaggregation method. The study further employed half-hourly incoming surface insolation and outgoing long wave radiation obtained from the Indian geostationary satellite (Kalpana-1) to convert the instantaneous ET into daily ET and subsequently to the seasonal ET, thereby improving the accuracy of ET estimates. The estimates of ET were validated with field based water balance measurements carried out in Gadana, a subbasin predominated by rice paddy fields, located in Tamil Nadu, India.

  3. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water level data for North Carolina, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, Ronald W.; Strickland, A.G.; Bailey, M. Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous and periodic measurements in 54 key wells and water-level measurements emplaced in Coastal Plain aquifers across North Carolina in 193 supplemental wells are presented in this report. Hydrographs of selected wells show changes in ground-water storage in the State. The water table in the shallow aquifers was higher throughout most of the State in 1987 than in 1986, indicating that rain had recharged these aquifers sufficiently to replenish the deficit in ground water storage that accumulated in the western and central parts of the State during 1986. Water levels in the heavily pumped Coastal Plain aquifers show a general downward trend for the year, indicating ground water is being withdrawn from aquifer storage. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 13 wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer; the greatest decline measured during 1987 was 0.3 ft. Water levels in wells in the Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers generally show downward trends. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 8 wells in the Peedee aquifer; the maximum decline measured during 1987 was 1.5 ft. All wells in the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers had record low water levels for 1987, with maximum measured declines in 1987 of 8.6, 3.1, and 3.1 ft., respectively. Record high water levels were measured in two wells, one each in the Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Potentiometric surface maps show the effects of major centers of pumping for the Castle Hayne, Black Creek, and lower Cape Fear aquifers of the Coastal Plain.

  5. Water Level Detection in Silty Materials Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Siriwardane, Hema J.; Pyakurel, Sandeep; Kiriakidis, Ricardo; Ingram, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    Detection of water level in silty soils can be complicated because of capillary action. In this study, the water level in a silty soil sample was detected using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique in the laboratory. The soil sample has dimensions of 62 cm × 48 cm × 46 cm and was kept in a clear Plexiglas container which facilitated water level measurements. Two ground-coupled antennas with frequencies of 900 MHz and 1,500 MHz were used in this study. The soil sample was dry at the beginning of the experiment. The water level in the soil sample was raised to a pre-determined level and radar readings were taken at different times over 24 hours. The moisture content in the soil sample above the water level increased with time due to capillary action. At the end of the experiment, the variation of moisture content with depth of the sample was experimentally determined. The GPR observations were compared with measured water depth in the soil sample. The paper presents the comparison of water level as determined by GPR with the variation of experimentally determined moisture content in the silty soil sample. This study includes an investigation on the effects of capillary action on GPR measurements.

  6. The ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa are to provide the data needed to: (1) determine the change in aquifer storage, (2) document the effects of climatic stress and human activities on discharge and recharge to the principal aquifers, (3) quantify the physical characteristics of ground-water flow including the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and specific capacity of aquifers; and (4) provide historical baseline data for future research. The design of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa that satisfies these objectives includes three types of data: (1) hydrologic data, (2) water-management data for use by State and local officials, and (3) baseline data.

  7. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976 through 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, H.I.; Oberender, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater levels are measured periodically in a network of 84 observation wells in Wyoming, mostly in areas where groundwater is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. The program is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the Wyoming Economic Development and Stabilization Board. This report contains hydrographs for 84 observation wells showing water-level fluctuations from 1976 through 1985. Also included in the report are maps showing locations of observation wells and tables listing well depths, use of water, geologic source, records available, and highest and lowest water levels for the period of record. (USGS)

  8. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1978 through September 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, H.I.; Green, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater levels are measured periodically in a network of 95 observation wells in Wyoming, mostly in areas where groundwater is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. The program is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the Wyoming Economic Development and Stabilization Board. This report contains hydrographs for 95 observation wells showing water level fluctuations from 1978 through September 1987. Also included in the report are maps showing locations of observation wells and tables listing well depths, use of water, geologic source, records available, and highest and lowest water levels for the period of record. (USGS)

  9. Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

  10. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  11. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. 3. View of Santa Elena, looking from water level (Note: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Santa Elena, looking from water level (Note: The lighthouse of Del Morro is just visible in the background) - Murallas del Viejo San Juan, Baluarte de Santa Elena, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  13. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    Nine hydrographs were selected as representative of the water-level conditions in their respective counties. Wells in Fulton, Izard, and Newton Counties (station names 20N08W27ABD1, 18N09W15BCB1, and 16N21W34ABC1, respectively) have water levels that are within the usual range of values for their respective counties. Wells in Boone, Marion, and Washington Counties (station names 18N19W19BCC1, 19N15W20ACC1, and 16N32W09ABD1, respectively) have water levels that have recently declined or are declining for the period of record. Wells in Benton, Carroll, and Sharp Counties (station names 19N29W07DAA1, 21N26W17BCC1, and 15N05W06DDD1, respectively) have water levels that have been rising recently.

  14. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  15. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  16. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix C. Coastal Zone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    ACCESION NO 3.RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT &PERIOD COVERED Lake Erie Water Level Study , Appendix C,Fia Coasta...10 N1000 N N N N N N N N N N A2. 57 AD-AIN 586 INTERNATIONAL LAKE ERIE REGULATION STUDY BOARD FIG 13/2 LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL STUDY . APPENDIX C

  17. Transient response of Salix cuttings to changing water level regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable water management requires an understanding of the effects of flow regulation on riparian ecomorphological processes. We investigated the transient response of Salix viminalis by examining the effect of water-level regimes on its above-ground and below-ground biomass. Four sets of Salix cuttings, three juveniles (in the first growing season) and one mature (1 year old), were planted and initially grown under the same water-level regime for 1 month. We imposed three different water-level regime treatments representing natural variability, a seasonal trend with no peaks, and minimal flow (characteristic of hydropower) consisting of a constant water level and natural flood peaks. We measured sap flux, stem water potential, photosynthesis, growth parameters, and final root architecture. The mature cuttings were not affected by water table dynamics, but the juveniles displayed causal relationships between the changing water regime, plant growth, and root distribution during a 2 month transient period. For example, a 50% drop in mean sap flux corresponded with a -1.5 Mpa decrease in leaf water potential during the first day after the water regime was changed. In agreement with published field observations, the cuttings concentrated their roots close to the mean water table of the corresponding treatment, allowing survival under altered conditions and resilience to successive stress events. Juvenile development was strongly impacted by the minimum flow regime, leading to more than 60% reduction of both above-ground and below-ground biomass, with respect to the other treatments. Hence, we suggest avoiding minimum flow regimes where Salix restoration is prioritized.

  18. Water levels in bedrock aquifers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    This report on water levels in bedrock aquifers in South Dakota is the result of a continuing investigation begun in 1959 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources. The purpose of the investigation is to collect data on the artesian water supply in the bedrock aquifers and to present these data in data reports that will aid in planning the use and conservation of water from these aquifers in South Dakota. The locations of wells were data have been collected are included. (USGS)

  19. High resolution measurement of water levels in optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrieta-Rico, Fabian N.; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Raymond-Herrera, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    Systems for optical analysis use vacuum chambers, where low pressures are reached. Remaining water molecules are the prevalent contaminant in high vacuum chambers. For this reason measurement of water levels is an important task that allows correct equipment operation. In this work, a different approach is presented for detecting and quantifying the water molecules inside a the vacuum chamber used in optical systems. A zeolite coated quartz crystal microbalance is used for detecting the water molecules, and the change in the resonance frequency is measured using a novel technique known as the principle of rational approximations. Theoretical results show how nanograms of adsorbed molecules are measured, and the number of molecules are quantified.

  20. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  1. Analysis for water level data for Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, T.J.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Stage-duration curves were developed for five gaging stations in Everglades National Park, Florida. Four of the five curves show similar characteristics with an increase in the slope when the water level is below land surface. Monthly stage-duration curves, developed for one of the stations, reflect the seasonal trends of the water level. Recession curves were prepared for the same five stations. These curves represent the average water-level decline during periods of little or no rainfall. They show the decline in level at the end of 10, 20, and 60 days for any given initial stage. A family of curves was also prepared to give the recession from various initial stages for any period up to 60 days.

  2. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations compared to natural lakes and rivers. This impact is most pronounced in newly created reservoirs where methylation is fueled by the decomposition of flooded organic material, which can release Hg and enhance microbial activity. Much less is known about the longer-term water-level management impacts on Hg cycling in older reservoirs. The objective of our study was to understand the role of on-going water-level fluctuations on sediment MeHg concentrations and sulfur speciation within a reservoir 75 years after initial impoundment. The study was performed at the Cottage Grove Reservoir located 15 km downstream of the historical Black Butte Hg mine. For 8 months each year, the water level is lowered resulting in roughly half of the reservoir’s sediment being exposed to the atmosphere. Water samples from the inflow, water-column, outflow, and sediment were collected seasonally over a year for total-Hg, MeHg, and several ancillary parameters. The results showed that conditions in the reservoir were favorable to methylation with a much higher %MeHg observed in the outflowing water (34%) compared to the inflow (7%) during the late-summer. An

  3. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  4. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual

  5. Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

  6. Subsidence at the Fairport Harbor Water Level Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    SUBSIDENCE AT THE FAIRPORT HARBOR WATER LEVEL GAUGE I will provide information on methods being used to monitor Lake Erie water levels and earth movement at Fairport Harbor, Ohio. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is responsible for vertical movement throughout the Great Lakes region. Fairport Harbor is also experiencing vertical movement due to salt mining, so the nearby water level gauge operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is affected by both GIA and mining. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and maintains the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). The NSRS includes a network of permanently marked points; a consistent, accurate, and up-to-date national shoreline; a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) which supports three-dimensional positioning activities; and a set of accurate models describing dynamic, geophysical processes that affect spatial measurements. The NSRS provides the spatial reference foundation for transportation, mapping, charting and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications. Fundamental elements of geodetic infrastructure include GPS CORS (3-D), water level and tide gauges (height) and a system of vertical bench marks (height). When two or more of these elements converge they may provide an independent determination of position and vertical stability as is the case here at the Fairport Harbor water level gauge. Analysis of GPS, leveling and water level data reveal that this gauge is subsiding at about 2-3 mm/year, independent of the effects of GIA. Analysis of data from the nearby OHLA GPS CORS shows it subsiding at about 4 mm/yr, four times faster than expected due to GIA alone. A long history of salt mine activity in the area is known to geologists but it came as a surprise to other scientists.

  7. Simulated effects of pumping irrigation wells on ground-water levels in western Saginaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Success of agriculture in many areas of Michigan relies on withdrawal of large quantities of ground water for irrigation. In some areas of the State, water-level declines associated with large ground-water withdrawals may adversely affect nearby residential wells. Residential wells in several areas of Saginaw County, in Michigan's east-central Lower Peninsula, recently went dry shortly after irrigation of crop lands commenced; many of these wells also went dry during last year's agricultural cycle (summer 2000). In September 2000, residential wells that had been dry returned to function after cessation of pumping from large-capacity irrigation wells. To evaluate possible effects of groundwater withdrawals from irrigation wells on residential wells, the U.S. Geological Survey used hydrogeologic data including aquifer tests, water-level records, geologic logs, and numerical models to determine whether water-level declines and the withdrawal of ground water for agricultural irrigation are related. Numerical simulations based on representative irrigation well pumping volumes and a 3-month irrigation period indicate water-level declines that range from 5.3 to 20 feet, 2.8 to 12 feet and 1.7 to 6.9 feet at distances of about 0.5, 1.5 and 3 miles from irrigation wells, respectively. Residential wells that are equipped with shallow jet pumps and that are within 0.5 miles of irrigation wells would likely experience reduced yield or loss of yield during peak periods of irrigation. The actual 1 extent that irrigation pumping cause reduced function of residential wells, however, cannot be fully predicted on the basis of the data analyzed because many _other factors may be adversely affecting the yield of residential wells.

  8. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  9. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  10. Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Garner, George Walter; Lowe, Tracie M; Haynes, James A; Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

  11. The effects of water levels on Two Lake Ontario Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Osborn, Ronald G.; Auble, Gregor T.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Ontario's water levels have been regulated since 1959, after the completion of the St. Lawrence River navigation and hydropower development project. The plan used to guide the regulation (1958-D) has been in effect since 1963 (Bryce, 1982). The purpose of the regulation was to prevent extreme high-water levels which increased erosion on the south shore of Lake Ontario, while protecting the interests of commercial navigation and hydropower production in the St. Lawrence River (T. Brown, personal communication, member of the Board of Control). Major user groups have sought further reductions in the range of lake level fluctuations. However, the biological resources, especially the lake influenced wetlands, benefit from the waterlevel fluctuations. Great Lakes wetlands are the most important habitat for wildlife of the region (Tilton and Schwegler, 1978). We provide information here on the responses of wetland plant communities in two wetlands to changes in lake levels over time.

  12. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  13. Water-Table Levels and Gradients, Nevada, 1947-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Buto, Susan G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Welborn, Toby L.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began a program to protect the quality of ground water in areas other than ground-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWA) are areas that are not currently, but could eventually be, used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor-vehicle waste. To help determine whether a well is in an OSGWA, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection needs statewide information on depth to water and the water table, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination and contaminant transport. This report describes a study that used available maps and data to create statewide maps of water-table and depth-to-water contours and surfaces, assessed temporal changes in water-table levels, and characterized water-table gradients in selected areas of Nevada. A literature search of published water-table and depth-to-water contours produced maps of varying detail and scope in 104 reports published from 1948 to 2004. Where multiple maps covered the same area, criteria were used to select the most recent, detailed maps that covered the largest area and had plotted control points. These selection criteria resulted in water-table and depth-to-water contours that are based on data collected from 1947 to 2004 being selected from 39 reports. If not already available digitally, contours and control points were digitized from selected maps, entered into a geographic information system, and combined to make a statewide map of water-table contours. Water-table surfaces were made by using inverse distance weighting to estimate the water table between contours and then gridding the estimates. Depth-to-water surfaces were made by subtracting the water-table altitude from the land-surface altitude. Water-table and depth-to-water surfaces were made for only 21 percent of Nevada because of a lack of

  14. The response of mire vegetation to water level drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurki, Kirsi; Laine, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Mires have a significant role in climate change mitigation due to their enormous carbon storage and due to the fluxes of greenhouse gases between ecosystem and the atmosphere. Mire vegetation is controlled by ecohydrology, climate and by the competition of plants on light and nutrients. The water logged conditions create a challenging environment for both vascular plants and bryophytes; therefore majority of plants growing in these habitats are highly specialized. Global warming is predicted to affect mire vegetation indirectly through increased evapotranspiration leading to decreased water table levels down to 14-22 centimeters. Water level drawdown is likely to affect the vegetation composition and consequently the ecosystem functioning of mires. Previous studies covering the first years following water table level drawdown have shown that vascular plants benefit from a lower water table and hollow-specific Sphagnum species suffer. In addition to changes in plant abundances the diversity of plant communities decreases. The lawn and hollow communities of Sphagna and sedges are found to be the most sensitive plant groups. It has been shown that surveys on vegetation changes can have different results depending on the time scale. The short and long term responses are likely vary in heterogenous mire vegetation; therefore predictions can be done more reliably with longer surveys. We applied BACI (before-after-control-impact) experimental approach to study the responses of different functional mire plant groups to water level drawdown. There are 3 control plots, 3 treatment plots with moderate water level drawdown and 3 plots drained for forestry 40 years ago as a reference. The plots are located in meso-, oligo- and ombrotrophic sites in Lakkasuo (Orivesi, Finland). The vegetation was surveyed from permanent sampling points before ditching in 2000 and during the years 2001-2003 and 2009. The data was analyzed with NMDS (PC-Ord) and DCA (CANOCO). Overall results show

  15. Water-level changes (1975-1998) in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Phillips, Steven P.

    1998-01-01

    Antelope Valley is in the western part of the Mojave Desert in southern California, about 50 mi northeast of Los Angeles. Between 1975 and 1998, water levels in the valley have changed in response to a shift in ground-water use from agricultural to urban, declining in some areas and rising in others. A study to document these changes was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Antelope Valley Water Group. This report presents the water-level data and the changes that occurred during this study period.

  16. Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

  17. Low-level measurements of tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; Manjón, G

    2004-01-01

    Using a liquid scintillation counter, an experimental procedure for measuring low-level activity concentrations of tritium in environmental water has been developed by our laboratory, using the electrolytic tritium enrichment. Additionally, some quality tests were applied in order to assure the goodness of the method. Well-known water samples collected in the Tagus River (West of Spain) and the Danube River (Bulgaria), both affected by nuclear plant releases, were analysed and results were compared to previous data. The analytical procedure was applied to drinking water samples from the public water supply of Seville and mineral waters from different springs in Spain in order to characterize its origin. Due to the very low levels of tritium in the analysed samples, some results were reported as lower than the minimum detectable activity concentration (MDA). However, the count rate of these measurements was over the background count rate of LS counter in all the cases. For that reason, an exhaustive discussion about the meaning of the MDA, using an experimental essay, was made in order to establish a rigorous criterion that leads to a reliable value in the case of low-level measurements.

  18. Neonatal thyroxine level and perchlorate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Li, F X; Byrd, D; Deyhle, G M; Sesser, D E; Skeels, M R; Lamm, S H

    2000-02-01

    Environmental contamination of drinking water has been observed for perchlorate, a chemical able to affect thyroid function. This study examines whether that exposure affected the thyroid function of newborns. Neonatal blood thyroxine (T4) levels for days 1 to 4 of life were compared for newborns from the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, which has perchlorate in its drinking water, and those from the city of Reno, Nevada, which does not (detection limit, 4 micrograms/L [ppb]). This study is based on blood T4 analyses from more than 23,000 newborns in these two cities during the period April 1998 through June 1999. No difference was found in the mean blood T4 levels of the newborns from these two cities. Drinking water perchlorate levels measured monthly for Las Vegas ranged during this study period from non-detectable for 8 months to levels of 9 to 15 ppb for 7 months. Temporal differences in mean T4 level were noted in both cities but were unrelated to the perchlorate exposure. This study was sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of gender, birth weight, and the day of life on which the blood sample was taken on the neonatal T4 level, but it detected no effect from environmental exposures to perchlorate that ranged up to 15 micrograms/L (ppb).

  19. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  20. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  1. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  2. [Relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and water level in the river].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

    2011-02-01

    The development and degradation processes of riparian wetlands are significantly affected by river hydrological processes. By observing the variation of groundwater levels in riparian wetlands at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially that during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and flood water level in the river is studied. The results show that groundwater level in riparian wetlands is significantly affected by water level in the river investigated. There is a negative exponential relationship between groundwater level and the distance between wells and river. The correlation coefficient shows the maximum (R2 > 0.98) during the period of regulation for water and sediment. Affected by the cultivation system in the flooding area, distance between monitoring wells and river bank, water level in the river variation of groundwater level in the wetland changed greatly. In artificial wetland, which is far from the river, the inter-annual variation in groundwater levels show a " (see symbol)" shape, while in the farmland, which is close to the river, the inter-annual variation of groundwater levels show a big peak. The groundwater level 400 m from the river is affected by flood events obviously, that in the area which is less than 200 m from the river is significantly affected by flood events in the area which is especially less than that in the area that is less than 100 m from the river, the groundwater level is affected by flood events intensively. The result indicated that there was a very close relationship between groundwater and surface water, and it was the hydrological ecotone between groundwater of riparian wetlands and the river. It is very important that rational protection for this region (very important for the area which is less than 100 m from the river, important for the area that is between 100 m and 200 m from the river) is

  3. Nitrogen dynamics in sediment during water level manipulation on the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavanaugh, Jennifer C.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.; Bartsch, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been linked to increasing eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico and as a result there is increased interest in managing and improving water quality in the Mississippi River system. Water level reductions, or 'drawdowns', are being used more frequently in large river impoundments to improve vegetation growth and sediment compaction. We selected two areas of the Upper Mississippi River system (Navigation Pool 8 and Swan Lake) to examine the effects of water level drawdown on N dynamics. Navigation Pool 8 experienced summer drawdowns in 2001 and 2002. Certain areas of Swan Lake have been drawn down annually since the early 1970s where as other areas have remained inundated. In the 2002 Pool 8 study we determined the effects of sediment drying and rewetting resulting from water level drawdown on (1) patterns of sediment nitrification and denitrification and (2) concentrations of sediment and surface water total N (TN), nitrate, and ammonium (NH4+). In 2001, we only examined sediment NH4+ and TN. In the Swan Lake study, we determined the long-term effects of water level drawdowns on concentrations of sediment NH4+ and TN in sediments that dried annually and those that remained inundated. Sediment NH4+ decreased significantly in the Pool 8 studies during periods of desiccation, although there were no consistent trends in nitrification and denitrification or a reduction in total sediment N. Ammonium in sediments that have dried annually in Swan Lake appeared lower but was not significantly different from sediments that remain wet. The reduction in sediment NH4+ in parts of Pool 8 was likely a result of increased plant growth and N assimilation, which is then redeposited back to the sediment surface upon plant senescence. Similarly, the Swan Lake study suggested that drawdowns do not result in long term reduction in sediment N. Water level drawdowns may actually reduce water retention time and river-floodplain connectivity, while promoting significant

  4. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  5. System for water level measurement based on pressure transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Marzecki, Michał; Woyke, Michał; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports system for water level measurement, which is designed to be used for measuring liquid levels in the tanks of an autonomous industrial cleaning robot. The selected method of measurement utilized by the designed system is based on pressure measurement. Such system is insensitive on vibrations, foams presence and liquid impurities. The influences of variable pressure on the measurements were eliminated by utilizing the differential method and as well as the system design. The system is capable of measuring water level in tanks up to 400 mm of height with accuracy of about 2,5%. The system was tested in a container during filling and emptying with various liquids. Performed tests exhibited the linearity of the sensor characteristic and the lack of hysteresis. Obtained sensitivity of the sensor prototype was approximately 6,2 mV/mm H2O.

  6. Water-soluble vitamin levels in extended hours hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Natalie; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Linehan, Leanne; Corradini, AnnMarie; Kerr, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Patients on extended hours (>15 h/week) hemodialysis may be at a higher risk of deficiency of water-soluble vitamins than conventional (≤15 h/week) hemodialysis patients due to their increased weekly hours of dialysis. We compared serum levels of the water-soluble vitamins in a group of extended and conventional hours hemodialysis patients. Predialysis serum levels of vitamin C, vitamin B12, thiamine, pyridoxine, and folate were measured in 52 patients: 26 extended group and 26 conventional group. Information on patient's intake of vitamin supplements and dialysis regimen was obtained. Data were log transformed due to the skewed distribution of the results. Median vitamin C levels were significantly lower in the extended group (0.30 vs. 1.14 mg/dL, P<0.001), with 7 patients having a level <0.18 mg/dL. Thiamine levels were also lower in the extended group (median 211 vs. 438.5 nmol/L, P=0.0005). However, extended patients had higher levels of pyridoxine (23.2 vs. 11.1 ng/mL, P=0.03). Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between the groups. There was significant variability in vitamin supplement prescription in both groups, and dietary data were not obtained. This study showed a high incidence of vitamin C deficiency in extended hours hemodialysis patients, suggesting that supplementation is warranted. It also supports an ongoing role for multivitamin supplementation in conventional hemodialysis patients.

  7. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  8. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. L...

  9. [Optimal fluoride level in drinking water and public health].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, E; Sgan-Cohen, H; Vered, Y; Leventhal, A

    2003-11-01

    Water fluoridation is a safe, efficient, and well-proven way of preventing dental decay in the community. In countries such as Israel, where dental care is not covered by the national insurance law, this has an important role in reducing social inequalities in health care. For toddlers and children, water fluoridation is the only way of promoting dental health without a need for regular visits to dental clinics, and without regard to parent awareness and motivation. The other methods of fluoride supplementation do not succeed in reaching the level of safety and cost-efficiency of water fluoridation, and their use is successful only among upper socio-economic classes. Water fluoridation has been defined by the US CDC as one of the main achievements in health care during the 20th century. In spite of the legal difficulties raised by various activist groups, the use of water fluoridation is growing steadily among developed as well as third world countries. The Israeli bylaw of national water fluoridation that is in effect will enable the safe improvement of the overall dental health status of the population at an extremely low cost.

  10. Water Level Temporal Variation Analysis at Prata Basin Using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, G.; Blitzkow, D.; Matos, A.; Vaz, F.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

    2008-12-01

    A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations of Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height deduced from GRACE geoid (height anomaly) is carried out. The 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by Groupe de Recherches de Géodésie Spatiale (CNES/GRGS). The height anomaly was converted into equivalent water height, over the Prata basin for a ~6-year period (July-2002 to May-2008). A correlation around 74 per cent has been detected. This correlation allows defining a local transfer function by adjusting a linear relationship between GRACE-based and in situ observation time-series. The study of the Continuous Wavelet Transform was applied in the hydrometric stations and a time-scale correlation was figured out.

  11. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level.

    PubMed

    Chao, B F; Wu, Y H; Li, Y S

    2008-04-11

    By reconstructing the history of water impoundment in the world's artificial reservoirs, we show that a total of approximately 10,800 cubic kilometers of water has been impounded on land to date, reducing the magnitude of global sea level (GSL) rise by -30.0 millimeters, at an average rate of -0.55 millimeters per year during the past half century. This demands a considerably larger contribution to GSL rise from other (natural and anthropogenic) causes than otherwise required. The reconstructed GSL history, accounting for the impact of reservoirs by adding back the impounded water volume, shows an essentially constant rate of rise at +2.46 millimeters per year over at least the past 80 years. This value is contrary to the conventional view of apparently variable GSL rise, which is based on face values of observation.

  12. Present and proposed ground-water-level program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamik, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A statewide observation-well program was designed for Maine. Three networks were designed to provide reliable data to describe the effects of natural and manmade stress on water levels in the State. They are a climatic-effects network, a terrain-effects network, and a local-effects network. Review of the 32 observation wells in the current program showed that only 17 wells should be retained. Each of these wells was assigned to one of the three types of networks. Fourteen wells were deactivated because of reliability problems and one was deactivated because it provided redundant data. The installation of seven additional wells in climatic-effects network is the highest priority of the proposed program. The next priority is to install 22 additional wells in the terrain-effects network. Implementation of local-effects network sites will be responsive to increases in ground-water usage and the data needs of water-resources managers. (USGS)

  13. Water-level controls on macro-tidal rip currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Martin J.; Masselink, Gerd; Scott, Tim M.; Russell, Paul E.

    2014-03-01

    Field measurements and numerical modelling have been used to investigate the water-level control of rip current dynamics on a macro-tidal beach. Field data collected over 32 complete tidal cycles, spanning a range of wave and tide conditions, demonstrate that rip current strength and behaviour is modulated at the semi-diurnal frequency by tide-induced changes in the water-level over bar/rip morphology. Peak flow speeds in the rip neck correspond to the time of maximum wave breaking 1.5 h before and after low water. Alongshore-directed water surface gradients ∂η/∂y were measured along the feeder channel and around the ends of the inter-tidal bar, with head differences O(0.1 m). The numerical model reproduced ∂η/∂y with a good level of skill and showed that ∂η/∂y and increase with the proportion of breaking waves Qb over the inter-tidal bar; but was maximised during peak Qb, maximum ∂η/∂y occurred when wave breaking moved offshore to the sub-tidal bar and Qb was reduced. Around low water, the forcing of the rip current by the alongshore pressure-driven feeder current was reduced by the decrease in Qb over the bar and feeder regions, but an offshore flow through the rip channel was maintained by a localised intensification of ∂η/∂y around the ends of the inter-tidal bar.

  14. Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, M.S.; Koopman, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    Accurate measurement of water levels deeper than 1,000 feet in wells requires specialized equipment. Corrections for stretch and thermal expansion of measuring tapes must be considered, and other measuring devices must be calibrated periodically. Bore-hole deviation corrections also must be made. Devices for recording fluctuation of fluid level usually require mechanical modification for use at these depths. A multichannel recording device utilizing pressure transducers has been constructed. This device was originally designed to record aquifer response to nearby underground nuclear explosions but can also be used for recording data from multi-well pumping tests. Bottom-hole recording devices designed for oil-field use have been utilized in a limited manner. These devices were generally found to lack the precision required, in ground-water investigations at the Nevada Test Site but may be applicable in other areas. A newly developed bottom-hole recording pressure gauge of improved accuracy has been used with satisfactory results.

  15. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  16. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  17. Functionally Layered Video Coding for Water Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsiri, Sakol; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Shogo

    This paper proposes a new type of layered video coding especially for the use of monitoring water level of a river. A sensor node of the system decomposes an input video signal into some kinds of component signals and produces a bit stream functionally separated into three layers. The first layer contains the minimum components effective for detecting the water level. It is transmitted at very low bit rate for regular monitoring. The second layer contains signals for thumb-nail video browsing. The third layer contains additional data for decoding the original video signal. These are transmitted in case of necessity. A video signal is decomposed into several bands with the three dimensional Haar transform. In this paper, optimum bands to be contained into the 1st layer are experimentally investigated considering both of water level detection and data size to be transmitted. As a result, bit rate for transmitting the first layer is reduced by 32.5% at the cost of negligible 3.7% decrease of recognition performance for one of video examples.

  18. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  19. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  20. Estimation of distributional parameters for censored trace level water quality data. 2. Verification and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Gilliom, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of distributional parameters (mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range) are often desired for data sets containing censored observations. Eight methods for estimating these parameters have been evaluated by R. J. Gilliom and D. R. Helsel (this issue) using Monte Carlo simulations. To verify those findings, the same methods are now applied to actual water quality data. The best method (lowest root-mean-squared error (rmse)) over all parameters, sample sizes, and censoring levels is log probability regression (LR), the method found best in the Monte Carlo simulations. Best methods for estimating moment or percentile parameters separately are also identical to the simulations. Reliability of these estimates can be expressed as confidence intervals using rmse and bias values taken from the simulation results. Finally, a new simulation study shows that best methods for estimating uncensored sample statistics from censored data sets are identical to those for estimating population parameters.

  1. Concentrating low-level tritiated water through isotope exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Dye, R.C.; Pratt, L.R.; Gomez, M.A.; Meadows, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    Trapping of tritium on polymers with specific functional groups was investigated as a means of treating waste streams containing low levels of tritium. Chemical exchange of tritium with hydrogen on the functional group was used as the mechanism for trapping. The polymers tested include Aurorez polybenzimidazole resin beads, Chelex 100 resin beads, Duolite GT-73, microcrystalline cellulose, and polyethylenimine. The tests were performed under simulated operating conditions on water obtained from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Tritiated water from the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is discharged to this plant. Polyethylenimine is a water-soluble polymer that was tested using a stirred membrane cell with an ultrafiltration membrane. All of the polymers except polyethylenimine took up tritium from the water. Polybenzimidazole demonstrated the highest tritium uptake. The results are explained on the basis of the type of functional group, hydrogen bonding, and rigidity of the molecular structure of the polymer. The theoretical calculations indicate that significant isotope discrimination requires high-frequency modes with hydrogen bonding contribution and support the experimental findings. Modeling suggested trends that may lead to structures that are more efficient in trapping tritium.

  2. Effect of censoring trace-level water-quality data on trend-detection capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, R.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate whether trace-level water-quality data that are routinely censored (not reported) contain valuable information for trend detection. Measurements are commonly censored if they fall below a level associated with some minimum acceptable level of reliability (detection limit). Trace-level organic data were simulated with best- and worst-case estimates of measurement uncertainty, various concentrations and degrees of linear trend, and different censoring rules. The resulting classes of data were subjected to a nonparametric statistical test for trend. For all classes of data evaluated, trends were most effectively detected in uncensored data as compared to censored data even when the data censored were highly unreliable. Thus, censoring data at any concentration level may eliminate valuable information. Whether or not valuable information for trend analysis is, in fact, eliminated by censoring of actual rather than simulated data depends on whether the analytical process is in statistical control and bias is predictable for a particular type of chemical analyses.

  3. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    SERDP NOAA USACE Ocean MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COASTAL SITES...Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide. U.S. Department of Defense...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. 224 pp. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR

  4. Screening Experiments for Removal of Low-Level Tritiated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yun Mi; Baney, Ronald; Powers, Kevin; Koopman, Ben; Tulenko, James

    2005-03-15

    Screening experiments for low levels of tritiated water (HTO) remediation based upon selective adsorption/desorption mechanisms utilizing equilibrium isotope effects have been carried out. Several organic and inorganic high surface area materials were investigated to assess their ability to selectively adsorb low concentrations of HTO. Ion-exchange resins with cation functionalities, chitosan, sodium alginate, and several inorganic media modified with metal cations exhibited promising results. Biomaterials, for example, chitosan and modified alginate, demonstrated positive results. Based on the literature and our preliminary testing, we postulate four possible mechanisms for selected tritium adsorption: hydrogen ion exchange, HTO coordination with surface cation sites, hydrogen bonding to surface basic sites, and secondary hydrogen bonding (structural water) in fine pores.

  5. Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergun; Sonmez, Abdullah; Colak, Mehmet; Toker, Hilmi

    2006-12-01

    Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of wood in damp conditions. This study deals with the physical restriction of water access in wood by impregnating water repellent agents into wood to limit amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood after boron treatment. Borates were incorporated with polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) their bulking effect in wood was considered. Results indicated that the amount of leachates from wood treated with borates in PEG-400 was remarkably higher compared to those of wood treated with the aqueous solutions of borates. Water absorption (WA) levels of wood treated with aqueous solutions of borates were higher than those of their treated samples with the solutions in PEG-400. Secondary treatments of wood with the water repellent (WR) chemicals following borate impregnation reduced the leaching of chemicals from wood in water and also WA of the specimens were less than those of the wood treated with only borates from aqueous and PEG solutions. Styrene (St) was the most effective monomer among the other agents used in terms of immobility effect on borates and WA.

  6. Predicting atrazine levels in water utility intake water for MCL compliance.

    PubMed

    Pappas, E A; Huang, C

    2008-10-01

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in finished municipal drinking water must not exceed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 microg/L, as determined by a specific monitoring regime mandated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine levels were monitored along tile-fed drainage ditches draining to a major drinking water source and used to predict MCL exceedance frequencies of intake and finished drinking water. Water samples were collected daily at eight monitoring sites located at the outlets of subbasins draining 298-19 341 ha (736-47 794 ac). Flow-weighted average (FWA) atrazine concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 9.8 microg/L, and were above 3 microg/L for the majority of sites, including the largest site, which represents water quality at the intake of the local municipal water treatment plant. However, a relatively low percentage of samples near the water utility intake exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine (10.4%) made this problem difficult to detect. In order to have a 95% probability of detecting any intake sample exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine in a drainage system exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine on a FWA basis, sampling frequency would need to be every 7 days or more often during the second quarter when the potentials for field atrazine losses and temporal variability of atrazine concentrations are highest.

  7. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  8. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  9. Spectral analysis of observed aquifer water level fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes small, periodic, water level perturbations in a fully screened observation well penetrating a homogeneous, isotropic, confined aquifer system. The analytical solution is formulated in terms of frequency and phase response functions that are controlled by aquifer transmissivity (T) and storage coefficient (S). Well casing storage effects are considered; however, well screen entrance losses associated with turbulence are neglected because piezometric head differences inside and outside the well are small. As the ratio of well casing radius to well screen radius (rc/rw) changes, these theoretical response functions are systematically altered. When rc/rw<1, water level fluctuations are increasingly amplified as (rc/rw)→0 and system responses associated with differences in T and S are accentuated. For (rc/rw)≥1, however, distinguishing between system responses is more complicated because well casing storage effects gradually dominate water level perturbations as rc/rw grows. Finally, in practical applications for any rc/rw value, obtaining unique estimates for T and S can be difficult in the presence of noise without the improved Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization scheme developed here. Initially, a sigmoidal curve fitting algorithm and observed frequency and phase response functions are used to identify a starting estimate for T. This value is then used in the LM procedure and facilitates convergence to optimal system parameters while minimizing uncertainty. Without this approach, however, the LM scheme will not yield unique estimates. This methodology yields smaller aquifer parameters than traditional specific capacity tests, suggesting either a well bore skin effect or a scaling phenomenon similar to that reported in the literature for slug and aquifer test comparisons. Hence, this technique is probably best suited for monitoring wells where conventional aquifer test methods are impractical. This approach is

  10. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term trends are apparent on hydrographs of wells Br-46, Mr-2S, Pt-276, Ro-3, and Ve-8. The trend of average annual water levels has been generally increasing since the late 1950's and is in general agreement with the increasing trend of precipitation. Hydrographs of well Ve-8, which has the longest period of record in Wisconsin, indicate that the generally rising trend started even earlier at the end of an extensive drought period in the 1930's.

  11. Simulated effects of water-level changes in the Mississippi River and Pokegama Reservoir on ground-water levels, Grand Rapids area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2005-01-01

    The extent of aquifer water-level changes resulting from these river, wetland, and lake water-level changes varied because of the complex hydrogeology of the study area. A 1.00-foot decline in reservoir/river water levels caused a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline in the middle aquifer near Jay Gould and Little Jay Gould Lakes of 1.09 feet and a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline of 1.00 foot in the lower aquifer near Cut-off and Blackwater Lakes. The amount and extent of ground-water-level changes in the middle and lower aquifers can be explained by the thickness, extent, and connectivity of the aquifers. Surface-water/ground-water interactions near wetlands and lakes with water levels unchanged from the calibrated model resulted in small water-table altitude differences among the simulations. Results of the ground-water modeling indicate that lowering of the reservoir and river water levels by 1.00 foot likely will not substantially affect water levels in the middle and lower aquifers.

  12. Reverse water-level fluctuations associated with fracture connectivity.

    PubMed

    Gellasch, Christopher A; Wang, Herbert F; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Bahr, Jean M; Lande, Lauren L

    2014-01-01

    Reverse water-level fluctuations (RWFs), a phenomenon in which water levels rise briefly in response to pumping, were detected in monitoring wells in a fractured siliciclastic aquifer system near a deep public supply well. The magnitude and timing of RWFs provide important information that can help interpret aquifer hydraulics near pumping wells. A RWF in a well is normally attributed to poroelastic coupling between the solid and fluid components in an aquifer system. In addition to revealing classical pumping-induced poroelastic RWFs, data from pressure transducers located at varying depths and distances from the public supply well suggest that the RWFs propagate rapidly through fractures to influence wells hundreds of meters from the pumping well. The rate and cycling frequency of pumping is an important factor in the magnitude of RWFs. The pattern of RWF propagation can be used to better define fracture connectivity in an aquifer system. Rapid, cyclic head changes due to RWFs may also serve as a mechanism for contaminant transport.

  13. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

  15. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  16. Ground-water levels near the top of the water-table mound, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, Andrew J.; Carlson, Carl S.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2002 the U.S. Geological Survey began continuous water-level monitoring in three wells in the vicinity of the Southeast Ranges of Camp Edwards, near the Impact Area of the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. The purpose of this effort was to examine how water levels at sites with different unsaturated-zone thicknesses near the top of the water-table mound beneath western Cape Cod are affected by temporally variable recharge from precipitation, which is the sole source of water to the sand and gravel aquifer. The depths to water at the well sites are about 18, 30, and 101 feet below land surface. This report presents the first 3 years of water-level records and an estimate of aquifer recharge calculated from climatological measurements by the Jensen and Haise method and the Thornthwaite method. The water levels in the three wells varied temporally by about 4.5 feet during the study period. A comparison of the water levels with those measured in a nearby monitoring well with about 42 years of monthly measurements indicates that the 3-year monitoring period included the lowest water levels on western Cape Cod since the drought of the 1960's. The response of water levels to recharge was related to the depth to water. Water levels in the two wells with shallow depths to water responded quickly (within hours or days) to recharge, whereas the water-level response in the well with the greatest depth to water often lagged the recharge event by a month or more. The variations in the water levels among the wells changed as the location of the top of the water-table mound moved with the changing water-table altitude.

  17. NOAA tsunami water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National Ocean Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-ocean, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-ocean and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep ocean and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.

  18. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  19. Effects of Proposed Additional Ground-Water Withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer on Water Levels in Lonoke County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The Grand Prairie Water Users Association, located in Lonoke County, Arkansas, plans to increase ground-water withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer from their current (2005) rate of about 400 gallons per minute to 1,400 gallons per minute (2,016,000 gallons per day). The effect of pumping from a proposed well was simulated using a digital model of ground-water flow. The proposed additional withdrawals were added to an existing pumping cell specified in the model, with increased pumping beginning in 2005, and specified to pump at a total combined rate of 2,016,000 gallons per day for a period of 46 years. In addition, pumping from wells owned by Cabot Water Works, located about 2 miles from the proposed pumping, was added to the model beginning in 2001 and continuing through to the end of 2049. Simulated pumping causes a cone of depression to occur in the alluvial aquifer with a maximum decline in water level of about 8.5 feet in 46 years in the model cell of the proposed well compared to 1998 withdrawals. However, three new dry model cells occur south of the withdrawal well after 46 years. This total water-level decline takes into account the cumulative effect of all wells pumping in the vicinity, although the specified pumping rate from all other model cells in 2005 is less than for actual conditions in 2005. After 46 years with the additional pumping, the water-level altitude in the pumped model cell was about 177.4 feet, which is 41.7 feet higher than 135.7 feet, the altitude corresponding to half of the original saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer (a metric used to determine if the aquifer should be designated as a Critical Ground-Water Area (Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, 2006)).

  20. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  1. Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation in annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer from 1971 to 1980 caused water levels in that aquifer to rise, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years.

  3. Water-level predictions for Indian Wells Valley ground-water basin, California, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in Indian Wells Valley, virtually a closed basin in the Mojave Desert of southern California, has increased gradually since 1945 and presently exceeds the long-term mean annual recharge (perennial supply). In order to aid in the understanding and management of the ground-water basin, a digital ground-water model was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Since the original development of this model, conditions in the basin, including areal distribution and rates of ground-water pumpage, have changed. The results of simulation for the period 1969-76 constitute a second verification of the original model. Calculated heads for 1976 agree with the observed heads, indicating a good calibration of the original model. A predictive simulation for the period 1977-2020 used pumpage values increasing from about 15,500 acre-feet per year to about 26,000 acre-feet per year. The pumpage used in this report reflects a slightly slower growth rate and a more concentrated pattern of development than that investigated when the model was originally developed. The effects of this pattern of pumpage are reflected in the water levels simulated by the model. Predicted drawdowns for 1983 are less extensive but locally more severe than those predicted earlier. The reversal of the hydraulic gradient between China Lake playa and the city of Ridgecrest, as produced by these drawdowns by the year 2020, suggests that the water-quality effects of such drawdowns should be investigated, as this could result in inferior water from the China Lake playa area flowing southward into areas of withdrawal. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  5. Regional water table (2000) and ground-water-level changes in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2000, the U. S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-nine hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 13 short-term (1996 to 2000) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 1998 and 2000 water-levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basins, water-level data showed little change from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of areas along the Mojave River. Water levels along the Mojave River were typically in decline or unchanged, with exceptions near the Hodge and the Lenwood outlet, where water levels rose in response to artificial recharge. The Morongo ground-water basin had virtually no change in water levels from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of Yucca Valley, where artificial recharge and ground-water withdrawal continues.

  6. Reducing production of taste and odor by deep-living cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs by regulation of water level.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming; Jia, Dongmin; Yu, Jianwei; Vogt, Rolf D; Wang, Jingshi; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Abatement and control of algae, producing toxins and creating taste & odor (T&O) in drinking water sources, is a major challenge for water supply. In this study we proposed a strategy based on water level regulation for the control of odor-producing cyanobacteria in source water. Miyun Reservoir, the main surface water source for Beijing, has been suffering from 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) induced T&O problems caused by deep-living Planktothrix sp. since 2002. The biomass of deep-living Planktothrix in Miyun Reservoir was found to be mainly governed by the water depth above its sediment habitat. An algorithm for water level regulation aiming to minimize the risk for T&O in different types of reservoirs is proposed. The study demonstrates that risk for T&O can be minimized by increasing the water level in Miyun Reservoir. The high-risk area can be reduced by about 2.91% (0.61% to 5.76%) of surface area for each meter increase in the water level, when the water level is lower than 145m. More specifically, the water level needs to be raised to higher than 147.7ma.s.l. from 131.0m in order to obtain an acceptable risk level (ARL) of 10%. This management strategy to abate T&O problems is simpler and cheaper to implement compared to traditional physical, chemical and biological techniques. Moreover, it has no apparent negative impact on water quality and aquatic organisms.

  7. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  8. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  9. Survey of fluoride levels in vended water stations.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Urvi G; Archarya, Bhavini S; Velasquez, Gisela M; Vance, Bradley J; Tate, Robert H; Quock, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to measure the fluoride concentration of water derived from vended water stations (VWS) and to identify its clinical implications, especially with regard to caries prevention and fluorosis. VWS and corresponding tap water samples were collected from 34 unique postal zip codes; samples were analyzed in duplicate for fluoride concentration. Average fluoride concentration in VWS water was significantly lower than that of tap water (P < 0.001). Fluoride concentration in the VWS water ranged from <0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm, with a mean concentration of 0.02 ppm (±0.02 ppm). Patients utilizing VWS as their primary source of drinking water may not be receiving optimal caries preventive benefits; thus dietary fluoride supplementation may be indicated. Conversely, to minimize the risk of fluorosis in infants consuming reconstituted infant formula, water from a VWS may be used.

  10. Regional water table (1996) and water-level changes in the Mojave River, and Morongo, and the Fort Irwin ground-water basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Christensen, Allen H.

    1997-01-01

    The Mojave River, the Morongo, and the Fort Irwin ground-water basins lie in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert Region of southern California. These basins supply ground water to local water districts, military bases, and private wells. The rapid growth in population in these basins, which is due, in part, to their proximity toLos Angeles, has increased the demand for water and, therefore, the need to understand the Mojave ground-water systems. Ground-water conditions for the Mojave River, the Morongo, and the Fort Irwin ground-water basins for 1996 and areas with significant changes in water levels are identified in this report. Water-level data were compiled for 632 wells in the study area during January-September 1996 to define the water- table surface and direction of ground-watermovement. These data were used to construct the water-table map included in this report. Also shown on the map are 31 hydrographs that show long-term water-level changes in the study area. Short-term water-level changes were determined and a water- level change map was made by comparing 1996 ground-water conditions to 1990-94 conditions in the Mojave ground-water basin and to 1994 conditions in the Morongo and the Fort Irwin ground-water basins. In general, ground-water levels and the direction of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer have not changed significantly since previously published maps (1995). However, the short-term water level did change at specific locations in all three ground-water basins. Water levels in the Mojave River ground-water basin had a maximum rise during the period 1992-96 of 52 feet and a maximum decline of 28. Water levels in the Morongo ground-water basin had a maximum rise of 66 feet and a maximum decline of 57 feet. The Fort Irwin ground-water basins, however, had relatively little change in water level with a maximum rise of 6 feet and a maximum decline of 8 feet. Hydrographs in the regional aquifer systemindicate a decline or, in some

  11. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  12. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake.

  13. Estimating Impaired Waters on a County Level for Public Health Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water quality for ...

  14. Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system.

  15. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-10-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning.

  16. Regional water table (2004) and water-level changes in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins, Southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Huff, Julia A.; Predmore, Steven K.; Clark, Dennis A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During March and April 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made almost 900 water-level measurements in about 740 wells in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with historical data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. In addition, 26 long-term (as much as 74 years) hydrographs were constructed which show water-level conditions throughout the basins, 9 short-term (1992 to 2004) hydrographs were constructed which show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River, and a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2002 and 2004 water levels throughout the basins. The water-level change data show that in the Mojave River ground-water basin, more than one half (102) of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and almost one fifth (32) of the wells had declines greater than 5 ft. between 2002 and 2004. The water-level change data also show that about one tenth (17) of the wells compared in the Mojave River ground-water basin had water level increases of 0.5 ft or more. Most of the water-level increases were the result of stormflow in the Mojave River during March 2004, which resulted in recharge to wells in the floodplain aquifer mainly along the river in the Alto subarea and the Transition zone, and along the

  17. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  18. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  19. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  20. Effect of water level drawdown on decomposition in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are key processes in element cycling in most ecosystems. In peatlands, there has been a long-term imbalance between litter production and decay caused by high water levels (WL) and consequent anoxia. This has resulted in peatlands being a significant sink of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, peatlands are experiencing both "natural" (global climate change) and anthropogenic (ditching) changes that threaten their ability to retain this ecosystem identity and function. Many of these alterations can be traced back to WL drawdown, which can cause increased aeration, higher acidity, falling temperatures, and a greater probability of drought. Such changes are also associated with an increasing decomposition rate, and therefore a greater amount of C released back to the atmosphere. Yet studies about how the overall C balance of peatlands will be affected have come up with conflicting conclusions, demonstrating that the C store could increase, decrease, or remain static. A factor that has been largely overlooked is the change in litter type composition following persistent WL drawdown. It is the aim of our study, then, to help to resolve this issue. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent WL drawdown on the decomposition of numerous types of above-ground and below-ground plant litters at three boreal peatland sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. We thus believe that enough permutations have been created to obtain a good assessment of how each factor, site nutrient level, WL regime, and litter type composition, influences decomposition. We used the litter bag method to measure the decomposition rates: placed measured amounts of plant litter, or cellulose strips as a control, into closed mesh bags, and installed the bags in the natural environment for decomposition for each litter type for varying amounts of time. Following litter bag recovery, the litter was

  1. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  2. Water Levels In Major Artesian Aquifers Of The New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Storck, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Water levels in 1,251 wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, and Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware, were measured from October 1988 to February 1989 and compared with 1,071 water levels measured from September 1983 to May 1984. Water levels in 916 of the wells measured in the 1983 study were remeasured in the 1988 study. Alternate wells were selected to replace wells used in 1983 that were inaccessible at the time of the water-level measurements in 1988 or had been destroyed. New well sites were added in strategic locations to increase coverage where possible. Large cones of depression have formed or expanded in the nine major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water levels are shown on nine potentiometric-surface maps. Hydrographs for observation wells typically show water-level declines for 1983, through 1989. In the confined Cohansey aquifer, the lowest water level, 20 feet below sea level, was measured in a well located at Cape May City Water Department, Cape May County. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand declined as much as 21 feet at Ventnor, Atlantic County, over the 6-year period from the 1983 study to this study for 1988. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer were as low as 56 feet below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County; 45 feet below sea level in southern Cumberland County; and 28 feet below sea level at Margate, Atlantic County. Water levels in the Vincentown aquifer did not change over the 6-year period. The lowest water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and the Englishtown aquifer system were 218 feet and 256 feet below sea level, respectively. Large cones of depression in the Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system are centered in the Camden County area and the Middlesex and Monmouth County area. Water levels declined as much as 46 feet in these areas over the 6-year period.

  3. Water-level and water-quality changes in Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted

    1984-01-01

    The surface level of Great Salt Lake, Utah, fluctuates continuously, primarily in response to climatic factors. During 1847-1982 the lake surface fluctuated between a low of about 4,191 feet and a high of about 4,212 feet above sea level but showed no net change. From September 18, 1982, to June 30, 1983, however, the lake rose 5.2 feet-from about 4,200 to about 4,205 feet above sea level-which is the greatest seasonal rise ever recorded. That rise resulted from considerably greater than average rainfall in 1982, greater than average snowfall during the autumn of 1982 through the spring of 1983, and unseasonably cool weather during that spring.Man's activities have had a lesser, but still important effect on the lake level. The lake surface would have been about 5 feet higher in 1983 had there been no consumptive use of water owing to man's activities in the lake basin since 1847. The lake has been divided into two parts by a railroad causeway since 1959. The causeway restricts natural circulation, resulting in a difference of salinity and surface level of the lake across the causeway. The difference in surface level between the two parts of the lake varies both seasonally and annually and was as much as 3.25 feet in 1983.The water budget for the Great Salt Lake can be expressed as:Inflow = Outflow ± Storage changeThe average annual inflow for 1931-76 was about 2.9 million acre-feet-about 1.9 million acre-feet from surface water, about 900,000 acre-feet from direct precipitation, and about 75,000 acre-feet from ground water. The average annual outflow for the same period, all by evaporation, also was about 2.9 million acre-feet. There was no net change in storage during the period.The famed buoyancy of the brine in Great Salt Lake results from a dissolved-mineral content of almost 5 billion tons. More than 2 million additional tons have been added to the lake annually in recent years. The major dissolved ions in the brine are chloride, sulfate, sodium, magnesium

  4. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  5. Regional Water Table (2002) and Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River and Morongo Ground-Water Basins, Southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Predmore, Steven K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 600 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  6. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  7. Molecular level water and solute transport in reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Shen, Meng; Keten, Sinan

    2015-11-01

    The water permeability and rejection characteristics of six solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polymeric reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate that water flux increases with an increasing fraction of percolated free volume in the membrane polymer structure. Solute molecules display Brownian motion and hop from pore to pore as they pass through the membrane. The solute rejection depends on both the size of the solute molecule and the chemical interaction of the solute with water and the membrane. When the open spaces in the polymeric structure are such that solutes have to shed at least one water molecule from their solvation shell to pass through the membrane molecular structure, the water-solute pair interaction energy governs solute rejection. Organic solutes more easily shed water molecules than ions to more readily pass through the membrane. Hydrogen-bonding sites for molecules like urea also lead to a higher rejection. These findings underline the importance of the solute's solvation shell and solute-water-membrane chemistry in solute transport and rejection in RO membranes. Funded by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern with computing resources from XSEDE (NSF grant ACI-1053575).

  8. Options for water-level control in developed wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, J. R.; Laubhan, M. K.; Reid, F. A.; Wortham, J. S.; Fredrickson, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Wetland habitats in the United States currently are lost at a rate of 260,000 acres/year (105,218 ha/year). Consequently, water birds concentrate in fewer and smaller areas. Such concentrations may deplete food supplies and influence behavior, physiology, and survival. Continued losses increase the importance of sound management of the remaining wetlands because water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands in the conterminous United States, and such hydrologic alterations frequently reduce wetland productivity. The restoration of original wetland functions and productivity often requires the development of water distribution and discharge systems to emulate natural hydrologic regimes. Construction of levees and correct placement of control structures and water-delivery and water-discharge systems are necessary to (1) create soil and water conditions for the germination of desirable plants, (2) control nuisance vegetation, (3) promote the production of invertebrates, and (4) make foods available for wildlife that depends of wetlands (Leaflets 13.2.1 and 13.4.6). This paper provides basic guidelines for the design of wetlands that benefit wildlife. If biological considerations are not incorporated into such designs, the capability of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address the development of palustrine wetlands in migration and wintering areas, many of the discussed principles are applicable to the development of other wetland types and in other locations.

  9. Statistical summaries of ground-water level data collected in the Suwannee River Water Management District, 1948 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, J.J.; Freeman, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1948, ground-water level data have beensystematically collected from selected wells in theSuwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),the SRWMD, and other agencies. Records of waterlevels in the SRWMD (fig. 1), collected by the USGS and SRWMD through 1990, and by the SRWMD from 1990 to 1994, have been published for many years in the USGS annual report series "Water Resources Data for Florida." However, no systematic statistical summaries of water levels in the SRWMD have been previously published. The need for such statistical summary data forevaluations of drought severity, ground-water supplyavailability, and minimum water levels for regulatory purposes increases daily as demands for ground-water usage increase. Also, much of the base flow of the Suwannee River is dependent upon ground water. As the population and demand for ground water for drinking water and irrigation purposes increase, the ability to quickly and easily predict trends in ground-water availability will become paramount. In response to this need, the USGS, in cooperation with the SRWMD, compiled this report. Ground-water sta tistics for 136 sites are presented as well as figures showing water levels that were measured in wells from 1948 through September 1994. In 1994, the SRWMD and the USGS began a long- term program of cooperative studies designed tobetter understand minimum and maximum streamflows and ground-water levels in the SRWMD. Minimum and maximum flows and levels are needed by the district to manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the SRWMD and to maintain or improve the various ecosystems. Data evaluation was a necessary first step in the long- term SRWMD ground-water investigations program, because basic statistics for ground-water levels are not included in the USGS annual data reports such as "Water Resources Data for Florida, Water Year 1994" (Fran klin and others, 1995). Statistics included in this report were generated

  10. Options for future effective water management in Lombok: A multi-level nested framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjah, Taslim; Baldwin, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Previous research on water use in Lombok identified reduced water available in springs and limits on seasonal water availability. It foreshadowed increasing competition for water resources in critical areas of Lombok. This study examines preliminary information on local social-institutional arrangements for water allocation in the context of Ostrom's rules for self-governing institutions. We identify robust customary mechanisms for decision-making about water sharing and rules at a local level and suggest areas of further investigation for strengthening multi-level networked and nested frameworks, in collaboration with higher levels of government.

  11. Regional water-level changes for the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer in Iowa, 1975 to 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turco, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a two-layer, ground-water flow model of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990 were compared to selected measured 1997 water levels. The difference between the simulated water levels and the 1997 maximum measured water levels ranges from 0 to about 150 feet, but most differences are less than 25 feet. The comparison indicates that the model may help estimate future water levels in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer as an aid in managing the resource.

  12. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  13. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  14. Water levels in the Calumet aquifer and their relation to surface-water levels in northern Lake County, Indiana, 1985-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeman, Theodore K.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of water-level data from the data-collection network indicates that the water table normally slopes toward streams, ditches, sewers, the Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan. The slope of the water table toward the Grand Calumet River is greatest in the winter and can decrease to being almost horizontal in the summer. Wells near streams respond quickly to nearby surface-water-level changes. Water-table maps indicate that sewers and dewatering systems are lowering ground-water levels in large areas. Ditches, the Grand Calumet River, and the Indiana Harbor Canal connect the Lake Michigan water level to large parts of the study area. The surface-water stage in the Indiana Harbor Canal, which functions as a ditch, can equal Lake Michigan's stage up to 3.75 miles inland from the lakeshore. Human activity, the stage of Lake Michigan, and the storage capacity of the Calumet aquifer combine to reduce vertical changes in the water table in the study area.

  15. North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study Phase I: Statistical Analysis of Historical Extreme Water Levels with Sea Level Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    and increasing storminess are exacerbating the vulnerability of coastal communities. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy accounted for more than 60 deaths...water level seems to be out of place in relation to the mean curve. The highest water level at Sandy Hook occurred as a consequence of Hurricane ...and Sandy Hook gages are shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12, respectively. At Kings Point, Hurricane Sandy’s storm surge peak occurred almost at the

  16. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  17. Seasonal variation of water level, water and soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes in hyporheic zone of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of study was to evaluate interaction between groundwater and stream water in hyporheic zone using water level, water temperature, soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes. We installed seven piezometers (IYHW1 to 7) in the streambed that across stream in every 10 m and in depth of 0.85 to 1.54 m, a device that measure stage level nearby IYHW1, and devices that measure soil temperature in every 10 cm down to 50 cm nearby each piezometer was installed. We monitored water level and water temperature every hour from automatic transducers at the piezometers and the stage level, and soil temperatures were monitored every two hours. We took samples from the hyporheic water, stream water, and nearby groundwater to analysis chemical and isotopic compositions. The water level difference between stream water and hyporheic waters indicated that groundwater was downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. The groundwater temperature remained steady in different seasons, but the stream water represented a frequent fluctuation with large amplitude. The hyporheic waters and soil temperature represented intermediate variation characteristics. The chemical compositions were not able to indicate in interaction of groundwater and stream water because no distinctive difference in seasonal variation in waters. The quantity of isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen determined from using mixing ratio indicated that downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2011-0007232).

  18. [Fluoride levels in commercial dentifrices and drinking water in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Merghache, D; Bellout, B; Merghache, S; Boucherit-Atmani, Z

    2011-12-01

    More and more scientific evidence show that fluorides have a cariostatic action to the plaque-saliva-tooth interface during cariogenous dissolution. Fluorides slow down demineralization and enhance remineralization. Their action is optimal, in the oral environment, when used at low concentrations on a continuous basis. The use of the fluorinated toothpastes during brushing of the teeth is a simple, rational method of daily topics application of fluorine, largely used in the context of prevention of dental caries and which can even be regarded as a public health measure. The water ingestion fluorinated represents itself an excellent average of the local application of fluorine. Our work concerned a quantitative study of fluorine in toothpaste and drinking water, and comparative between the local product and the imported one for the toothpastes, and the mineral water and public supply. The standard method of fluorine based on the potentiometry and distillation has shown that 50% of the tested toothpastes contain adequate concentration so that a product of dental care fights against decay. The Tlemcen tap water contains acceptable fluorine content, but the mineral water, with an excessive contribution, can cause fluorose. Of this, we can deduce that a topical application of a suitable quantity of fluorine on a daily basis in accordance with the precautions is not only the prevention of dental caries, but also to stabilize it if it already exists.

  19. Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, D.J.; Watkins, S.A.; Lisle, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level trends with magnitudes near or exceeding the regional hydraulic gradient may have a substantial effect on ground-water flow directions. Water-level measurements can be adjusted for the effects of barometric pressure, formation water density (from water-temperature measurements), borehole deviation, and land-surface altitude in selected wells in the Frenchman Flat area. Water levels in one well were adjusted for the effect of density; this adjustment was significantly greater (about 17 feet) than the adjustment of water levels for barometric pressure, borehole deviation, or land-surface altitude (less than about 4 feet). Water-level measurements from five wells exhibited trends that were statistically and hydrologically significant. Statistically significant water-level trends were observed for three wells completed in the alluvial aquifer (WW-5a, UE-5n, and PW-3), for one well completed in the carbonate aquifer (SM-23), and for one well completed in the quartzite confining unit (Army-6a). Potential causes of water-level fluctuations in wells in the Frenchman Flat area include changes in atmospheric conditions (precipitation and barometric pressure), Earth tides, seismic activity, past underground nuclear testing, and nearby pumping. Periodic water-level measurements in some wells completed in the carbonate aquifer indicate cyclic-type water-level fluctuations that generally correlate with longer term changes (more than 5 years) in precipitation. Ground-water pumping fromthe alluvial aquifer at well WW-5c and pumping and discharge from well RNM-2s

  20. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend), the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.

  1. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. Methods A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Results Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although <1% had levels above the physiologic normal of 2% methemoglobin, regardless of the source of their drinking water. The multivariable analyses did not show a statistically significant association between methemoglobin levels and the estimated nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (β = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p < 0.0001). Also, a greater proportion of private well users (27%) compared to public system users (13%) were using devices capable of removing nitrate from water (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Pregnant women potentially exposed to nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove

  2. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  3. Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Page, H. Scott

    2007-11-29

    The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

  4. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  5. The effects of using ground water to maintain water levels of Cedar Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    There were no identifiable changes in measured physical and chemical characteristics of lake water during sustained pumping of ground water into the lake, nor were there identifiable changes in the number or makeup of the phytoplankton community. Differences in physical and chemical characteristics of lake water and ground water added to the lake probably were not great enough to cause changes within the lake.

  6. Water levels in major artesian aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, J.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Water levels and changes in water levels in the major aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain are documented. Water levels in 1,071 wells were measured in 1983, and are compared with 827 water level measurements made in the same wells in 1978. Increased groundwater withdrawals from the major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain have caused large cones of depression in the artesian heads. These cones are delineated on detailed potentiometric surface maps based on water level data collected in the fall of 1983. Hydrographs from observation wells show trends of water levels for the 6-year period of 1978 through 1983. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is divided into the lower, middle, and upper aquifers. The potentiometric surfaces in these aquifers form large cones of depression centered in the Camden and Middlesex-Monmouth County areas. Measured water levels declined as much as 23 ft in these areas for the period of study. The lowest levels are 96 ft below sea level in Camden County and 91 ft below sea level in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area. Deep cones of depression in coastal Monmouth and Ocean counties in both the Englishtown aquifer system and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer are similar in location and shape. This is because of an effective hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Measured water levels declined as much as 29 ft in the Englishtown aquifer system and 21 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer during the period of study. The lowest levels are 249 ft below sea level in the Englishtown aquifer system and 196 ft below sea level in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer are as low as 75 ft below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County and 35 ft below sea level in southern Cumberland County. Water levels in Cumberland County are affected by large withdrawals of groundwater in Kent County, Delaware. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800 ft sand of the Kirkwood Formation define an

  7. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix G. Recreational Beaches and Boating.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL STUDY . APPENDIX G. RECREATIONAL BEACHES A--ETC(U...NATIONAL BUREAUJ OT 5ANDARDS 1963-A -0 Lake Erie Water Level Study Opp COW avacRe to DTIC do" "mit fay legible repzoducdaA., CD C 9 LwwMM ----wTuvreationa1...I. REPORT NUMBER GOVT ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (arut Subtitle, S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Lake Erie Water Level Study ,

  8. Water-level altitudes in the Jasper Aquifer, greater Houston area, Texas, January-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, is the second annual report that depicts water-level altitudes in the Jasper aquifer in the greater Houston area (Montgomery County and parts of Harris, Grimes, Walker, and Waller Counties). The first water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer in the area published by the U.S. Geological Survey (Coplin, 2001) depicts water levels in wells measured in spring 2000.

  9. Modelling water table levels to integrate wetland management and ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acreman, M.; Bradford, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Somerset Levels and Moors (UK) contain a range of wetland types with different management regimes, including important areas of wet grassland habitats. A groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, is applied at the field-scale to predict spatial and temporal variations in water table levels. The results are used for a range of applications, including the impact of controlled water levels for the conflicting water requirements of agriculture and biodiversity and to assist the study of microbial activity that controls methane production.

  10. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  11. Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Doyle, T.W.; Doyle, T.J.; Swarzenski, C.M.; From, A.S.; Day, Richard H.; Conner, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of mangroves in suppressing water level heights during landfall of tropical storms and hurricanes. Recent hurricane strikes along the Gulf Coast of the United States have impacted wetland integrity in some areas and hastened the need to understand how and to what degree coastal forested wetlands confer protection by reducing the height of peak water level. In recent years, U.S. Geological Survey Gulf Coast research projects in Florida have instrumented mangrove sites with continuous water level recorders. Our ad hoc network of water level recorders documented the rise, peak, and fall of water levels (?? 0.5 hr) from two hurricane events in 2004 and 2005. Reduction of peak water level heights from relatively in-line gages associated with one storm surge event indicated that mangrove wetlands can reduce water level height by as much as 9.4 cm/km inland over intact, relatively unchannelized expanses. During the other event, reductions were slightly less for mangroves along a river corridor. Estimates of water level attenuation were within the range reported in the literature but erred on the conservative side. These synoptic data from single storm events indicate that intact mangroves may support a protective role in reducing maximum water level height associated with surge.

  12. Water mass change in the Amazon basin estimated by multi-temporal SAR data, GRACE gravimetry and water level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonova, S.; Seitz, F.; Hedman, K.; Meyer, F.

    2012-04-01

    The 2007 IPCC assessment report identified the land hydrology as one of the most uncertain components of the global water cycle. Variations of continental water masses occur in several compartments (e.g. surface and soil water, snow/ice, and groundwater). Mass variations and related changes of surface water exten-sions are being observed by contemporary space and in-situ observation systems such as GRACE gravim-etry, altimetry, optical/infrared sensors, SAR/InSAR, and in-situ river gauges. In this session we will present a regional multi-sensor study in the Amazon basin. The study focuses on the quantification of variations of water mass and water surface extent caused by extreme flood and drought situations that were frequent during the last decade. PALSAR data of two extreme events was selected; once when the Amazon River was flooded (March/April 2009) and once when the region suffered from a se-vere drought (October/November 2009). The advantage of using PALSAR is that it operates in L-Band and has the possibility to penetrate through the vegetation which is essential in the Amazon basin with its dense vegetation. Time series of water level variations were obtained from two in-situ gauges at Manacapuru and Obidos as well as from Envisat satellite altimetry. Total water storage change in the whole region was given by GRACE gravimetry. First, the variation of water mass is computed numerically using GRACE. Second the water level variations obtained from the two river gauges are analyzed with respect to observation of Envisat. Third the surface water extent is estimated by extracting water masks from PALSAR image data. The water mass change is obtained by intersecting the water masks with a medium resolution digital elevation model (SRTM). More specifically, water heights along the boundary of the river body were extracted from the DEM and processed for error reduction. Then, pixel heights within the river contour were interpolated with a Delaunay triangula

  13. Dramatic water-level fluctuations in lakes under intense human impact: modelling the effect of vegetation, climate and hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lakes form a highly important ecosystem in the glacial terrain of northern Europe and America, but their hydrology remains understudied. When the water-level of a lake drops significantly and rises again in a time span of half a century and the widespread explanation of the fluctuations seems insufficient, then it raises a question: how do different anthropogenic and natural processes actually affect the formation of a lakes' water body. The abovementioned scenario applies to three small closed-basin Estonian lakes (L. Ahnejärv, L. Kuradijärv and L. Martiska) analysed in the current study. These lakes suffered a major water-level drop (up to 3.8 m) between 1946 and 1987 and a major rise between 1987 and 2010, from 1 m (L. Ahnejärv) to 2.5 m (L. Kuradijärv). Decreasing and increasing groundwater abstraction near the lakes has been widely considered to be the only reason for the fluctuations. It is true that the most severe drop in the lake levels did occur after 1972 when groundwater abstraction for drinking water started in the vicinity of the lakes. However, the lake levels started to fall before the groundwater abstraction began and for the time being the lake levels have risen to a higher level than in the 1970s when the quantity of annually abstracted groundwater was similar to nowadays. Therefore the processes affecting the formation of the lakes' water body prove to be more complex than purely the hydrogeological change caused by groundwater abstraction. A new deterministic water balance model (where the evaporation from the lake surface was calculated by Penman equation and the catchment runoff by Thornthwaite-Mather soil-moisture model), compiled for the study, coupled with LiDAR-based GIS-modelling of the catchments was used to identify the different factors influencing the lakes' water level. The modelling results reveal that the moderate drop in lake water levels before the beginning of groundwater abstraction was probably caused by the growth of a

  14. Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kues, G.E.; Garcia, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in four unincorporated areas of Bernalillo County during 1990-93. Twenty wells in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County were sampled approximately monthly between January 1990 and June 1993. The water samples were analyzed for concentrations of chloride and selected nutrient species; many of the samples also were analyzed for concentrations of total organic carbon and dissolved boron and iron. Eleven wells northeast of the city of Albuquerque, 20 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately north of Albuquerque, and 30 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately south of Albuquerque were sampled once each between December 1992 and September 1993; all water samples were analyzed for chloride and selected nutrient species, and selected samples from wells in the north and south valley areas were also analyzed for major dissolved constituents, iron, manganese, and methylene blue active substances. Samples from 10 of the wells in the north and south valley areas were analyzed for 47 selected pesticides. Field measurements of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were made on most samples at the time of sample collection. Water levels also were measured at the time of sample collection when possible. Results of the monthly water-quality and water-level monitoring in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County are presented in graphical form. Water-quality and water-level data collected from the other areas are presented in tabular form.

  15. Ground-water levels in Delaware in 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marine, I.W.

    1954-01-01

    In 1943 the towns of Lewes and Rehoboth entered into cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in order to study salt-water encroachment in that area. Three observation wells were established, of which one, NI 3, had observations continued on the statewide program in 1952. Cooperation with the town was conducted in 1950. In December 1949 the State of Delaware, through the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Delaware and the Highway Department, cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey for the purpose of making of a reconnaissance study of ground water within the State. In the fall of 1950, under the cooperative agreement with the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Delaware, 13 water-table wells were established for measurement. Beginning July 1, 1951, cooperation transferred to the Delaware Geological Survey of the University of Delaware, and measurement s continued the remainder of the year. Cooperation was also established with the Delaware Geological Survey representing the city of Newark for a detailed study of the Newark area. An additional observation well, Cb 123, was established in the course of this program.

  16. Water-level data for the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, C.A.; Hinaman, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Water-level data for 171 wells and one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, are presented for 1993 and 1994. Eight sets of synoptic ground- water-level measurements collected between April 1993 and September 1994, and locations and field notes for the 171 wells are presented. A hydrograph from December 19, 1993 through November 8, 1994 is presented for one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area. Hydrographs from October 15, 1993 through November 8, 1994 are presented for eight wells screened in the water- table aquifer. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected the synoptic ground-water-level measurements. The U.S. Geological Survey collected the continuously recorded water-level data.

  17. Hydration level dependence of the microscopic dynamics of water adsorbed in ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Yue, Yanfeng; Bahadur, Jitendra; Guo, Junjie; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2016-10-20

    Even when not functionalized intentionally, most carbon materials are not hydrophobic and readily adsorb water molecules from atmospheric water vapor. We have equilibrated an ultramicroporous carbon at several levels of relative humidity, thereby attaining various hydration levels. The water molecules were adsorbed on the pore walls (but did not fill completely the pore volume) and thus could be better described as hydration, or surface, rather than confined, water. We used quasielastic neutron scattering to perform a detailed investigation of the dependence of microscopic dynamics of these adsorbed water species on the hydration level and temperature. The behavior of hydration water in ultramicroporous carbon clearly demonstrates the same universal traits that characterize surface (hydration) water in other materials that are surface-hydrated. In addition, unless special treatment is intentionally applied to ultramicroporous carbon, the species filling its pores in various applications, ranging from hydrogen molecules to electrolytes, likely find themselves in contact with non-freezing water molecules characterized by rich microscopic dynamics.

  18. Effects of alternative Missouri River management plans on ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) proposed eight Alternative River Management Plans (ARMPs) for managing reservoir levels and water-release rates for the Missouri River. The plans include the Current Water Control Plan (CWCP), Conservation 18, 31, and 44 (C18, C31, and C44) that provide different levels of water conservation in the reservoirs during droughts, Fish and Wildlife 10, 15, and 20 (FW10, FW15, and FW20) that vary water-release rates to provide additional fish and wildlife benefits, and Mississippi River 66 (M66) that maintains a 66,000 cubic feet per second discharge at St. Louis to provide navigation support for the Mississippi River. Releases from Gavin?s Point Dam affect both the lower 1,305 kilometers of the Missouri River and ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain. Changes in the magnitude and timing of ground-water-level fluctuations in response to changes in river management could impact agriculture, urban development, and wetland hydrology along the lower Missouri River flood plain. This study compared simulated ground-water altitude and depth to ground water for the CWCP in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Kansas City area between 1970 and 1980 with each ARMP, determined the average change in simulated ground-water level for selected river-stage flood pulses at selected distances from the river, and compared simulated flood pulse, ground-water responses with actual flood pulse, and ground-water responses measured in wells located at three sites along the lower Missouri River flood plain.For the model area, the percent total shallow ground-water area (depth to ground water less than 0.3048 meter) is similar for each ARMP because of overall similarities in river flow between ARMPs. The percent total shallow ground-water area for C18 is the most similar to CWCP followed by C31, M66, C44, FW10, FW15, and FW20. ARMPs C18, C31, C44, and M66 do not cause large changes in the percent shallow ground-water

  19. Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Virginia L.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    1997-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies one of the major agricultural areas in the world, including parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Ground-water irrigation expanded rapidly after 1940 in the area underlain by the High Plains aquifer (called the 'High Plains region' in this report): 1949--2.1 million acres; 1959--6.1 million acres; 1969--9.0 million acres; 1978--12.9 million acres; and 1980--13.7 million acres (Gutentag and others, 1984; Thelin and Heimes, 1987). In 1990, 95 percent of the water withdrawn from the High Plains aquifer, 15.7 million acre-feet, was used for irrigation (Marilee Horn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1996). Water-level declines appeared in the High Plains aquifer soon after extensive ground-water irrigation development began. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet. In response to these declines, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resource agencies, began a ground-water monitoring program in 1988 to assess water-level change in the aquifer annually, using water-level measurements in more than 7,000 wells. The water-level measurements are made in winter or early spring, when water levels generally represent nonpumping conditions.

  20. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  1. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  2. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  3. Human Impacts on Tides Overwhelm the Effect of Sea Level Risee on Extreme Water Levels in the Rhine-Meuse Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoitink, T.; Vellinga, N.; Hoekstra, P.; Van Der Vegt, M.; Zhang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Mean sea level rise receives ample attention in the literature. However, peak water levels, which are most important for flood vulnerability and salinity intrusion in tidal river networks, may not be linearly related with mean surface levels. To quantify tidal and subtidal water level changes and to link these changes to human intervention, 70 years of water level data for the Rhine-Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water levels are examined, and extreme water levels are investigated by applying the combined Mann-Kendall and Pettitt tests to find trends and trend changes. Tidal water levels are studied based on harmonic analysis. Results show that the mean water levels throughout the system rise with the same pace as the mean sea level. However, high and low water levels do not show the same increase, and the spatial variability in decadal trends in high- and low water levels is high. High water and low water extremes generally decrease. Both the extreme water level analysis and the harmonic analysis display significant trend breaks in 1970, 1981 and 1997. These breaks can be attributed to the closure of the Haringvliet estuary, the removal of sluices and the removal of a dam, respectively, which radically alter the tidal motion. These results demonstrate that the direct human influence on the tidal motion can overwhelm the effect of mean sea level rise on water level extremes.

  4. Ground-water levels spring 1985, and ground-water level changes spring 1983 to spring 1985, in three basalt units underlying the Columbia Plateau, Washington and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.; Whiteman, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater level contour maps for three basalt units of the Columbia Plateau regional aquifer system were constructed by using water levels measured in 1,105 wells during 1985. These measurements then were compared with similar measurements from spring 1983 to assess the changes in groundwater levels over the 2-year period for each of the basalt units. Configuration of the groundwater contours and water level changes reflect (1) recharge and discharge; (2) hydraulic conductivity; (3) use of imported surface water for irrigation; and (4) pumpage of groundwater. The movement of groundwater within each basalt unit is controlled mainly by the major rivers, streams, and coulees, whereas variations in flow directions between units are related to the occurrence, extent, and hydraulic conductivity of the basalt units and sedimentary interbeds and to differences in the amounts of recharge to each unit. (USGS)

  5. Bridge over Troubled Waters: Training for Department Level Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gillian E.; Skipper, Barbara L.

    A clinical supervision training program has provided department level coordinators with support in their role as a bridge between administrators and teachers in six high schools and nine middle schools in a San Antonio, Texas, school district. This paper identifies major characteristics of the training program's model, describes the program, and…

  6. Small Differences in Water Level Impacted Straighthead Ratings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straighthead (STHD) is a physiological disorder that results in sterile rice panicles that remain upright at maturity. Depending on the rice variety and its level of host plant resistance, yields can be reduced significantly. The underlying cause of STHD is unknown, but it has been linked to nitroge...

  7. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  8. Comparison of 1972 and 1996 water levels in the Goleta central ground-water subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Pratt, David A.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water levels for 1996 were compared with 1972 water levels to determine if a "drought buffer" currently exists. The drought buffer was defined previously, in a litigated settlement involving the Goleta Water District, as the 1972 water level in the Central ground-water subbasin. To make this deter mination, a network of 15 well sites was selected, water levels were measured monthly from April through December 1996, and the 1996 water-level data were compared with1972 data. The study was done in cooperation with the Goleta Water District. The 1972-1996 water-level-altitude changes for corresponding months of the comparison years were averaged for each network well. These averaged changes ranged from a rise of 9.4 ft for well 2N2 to a decline of 45.0 ft for well 8K8. The results of the comparison indicate a rise in water level at 1 site (well 2N2) and a decline at 14 sites. The mean of the 14 negative average values was a decline of 24.0 ft. The altitude of the bottom of well 2N2 was higher than the bottom altitudes at the other network sites, and this well is located a few feet from a fault that acts as a hydrologic barrier. The results of the water-level comparison for the Central subbasin were influenced to some unknown degree by the areal distribution of the set of wells selected for the network and the vertical dis tribution of the perforated intervals of the wells. For this reason, the mean water-level change--a decline of 21.8 ft--calculated from the averages of the month-to-month changes for the 15 network sites, should be used with caution. In addition, the number of usable individual monthly comparison measurements available for an individual site ranged from one to nine, and averaged six. Therefore, a weighted mean of the monthly averages was calculated on the basis of the number of comparison measurements available for each site. The weighted mean is a decline of 20.9 ft. All Central subbasin wells that were idle (that is, were not being pumped

  9. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act.

  10. What happens to near-shore habitat when lake and reservoir water levels decline?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water management and drought can lead to increased fluctuation and declines in lake and reservoir water levels. These changes can affect near-shore physical habitat and the biotic assemblages that depend upon it. Structural complexity at the land-water interface of lakes promote...

  11. Serum lipid levels in neighboring communities with chlorinated and nonchlorinated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program was designed to ascertain levels of serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of a total of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroid hormones differed according to the chlorination of the water supply, or to the calcium and magnesium content (hardness) of the drinking water supply. This report examines the relationship of chlorination and water calcium to estimated community mean serum lipid levels. The estimated community means are adjusted for potential confounders, including age, education level, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary fat and dietary calcium. Serum cholesterol levels proved to be significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but differences were considerably smaller and not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also higher in chlorinated communities for females (p = .06). Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in hard water communities than in soft water communities, although the p-value for the hardness term did not quite reach significance at p < .05 in either model. The regression of community mean HDL levels on both drinking water calcium and magnesium levels was positive, indicating increasing mean HDL levels with increasing calcium and/or magnesium content in the drinking water.

  12. Automatic Measurement of Water Levels by Using Image Identification Method in Open Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han; Xue Yang, Jia

    2014-05-01

    Water level data is indispensable to hydrology research, and it is important information for hydraulic engineering and overall utilization of water resources. The information of water level can be transmitted to management office by the network so that the management office may well understand whether the river level is exceeding the warning line. The existing water level measurement method can only present water levels in a form of data without any of images, the methods which make data just be a data and lack the sense of reality. Those images such as the rising or overflow of river level that the existing measurement method cannot obtain simultaneously. Therefore, this research employs a newly, improved method for water level measurement. Through the Video Surveillance System to record the images on site, an image of water surface will be snapped, and then the snapped image will be pre-processed and be compared with its altitude reference value to obtain a water level altitude value. With the ever-growing technology, the application scope of image identification is widely in increase. This research attempts to use image identification technology to analyze water level automatically. The image observation method used in this research is one of non-contact water level gage but it is quite different from other ones; the image observation method is cheap and the facilities can be set up beside an embankment of river or near the houses, thus the impact coming from external factors will be significantly reduced, and a real scene picture will be transmitted through wireless transmission. According to the dynamic water flow test held in an indoor experimental channel, the results of the research indicated that all of error levels of water level identification were less than 2% which meant the image identification could achieve identification result at different water levels. This new measurement method can offer instant river level figures and on-site video so that a

  13. The status of streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks in Maryland, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, James M.; Cleaves, Emery T.

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of streamflow and ground-water levels in Maryland is vitally important to the effective management and protection of the State?s water resources. Streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks have been operated for many years in Maryland, and in recent years, these networks have been redesigned to improve their efficiency. Unfortunately, these networks are increasingly at risk due to reduced and fluctuating funding from Federal, State, and local agencies. Stable, long-term funding is necessary to ensure that these networks will continue to provide valuable water data for use by State and local water-resources managers.

  14. Water-Level Changes in Aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Predevelopment to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rice, Donald E.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, which underlies a large part of the east coast of the United States, is an important source of water for more than 20 million people. As the population of the region increases, further demand is being placed on those ground-water resources. To define areas of past and current declines in ground-water levels, as well as to document changes in those levels, historical water-level data from more than 4,000 wells completed in 13 regional aquifers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were examined. From predevelopment to 1980, substantial water-level declines occurred in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Regional variability in water-level change in the confined aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain resulted from regional differences in aquifer properties and patterns of ground-water withdrawals. Within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft were observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Regional declines in water levels were most widespread in the deeper aquifers that were most effectively confined?the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers. Within these aquifers, water levels had declined up to 200 ft in southern Virginia and to more than 100 ft in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Substantial water-level declines were also evident in the regional Lower Chesapeake aquifer in southeastern New Jersey; in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer in Delaware, Maryland, southern Virginia and east-central North Carolina; in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in east-central New Jersey and southeastern North Carolina; and in the Black Creek-Matawan aquifer in east-central New Jersey and east-central North Carolina. Conversely, declines were least severe in the regional Upper Chesapeake aquifer during this period. In the Southeastern Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft in the Chattahoochee River aquifer occurred in eastern South Carolina and in southwestern

  15. Water-level maps of the alluvial aquifer, northwestern Mississippi, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Water levels were measured in 427 wells in the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in northwestern Mississippi during the period September 15-28, 1981. Water levels in the alluvial sands and gravel were generally lower than water levels in September 1980 and larger depressions in the surface of the ground-water body were detected in the Sunflower-Leflore County area and in Humphreys County. These depressions are attributed to heavy pumping for irrigation and to less-than normal rainfall. Other smaller depressions are attributed to local heavy pumping. (USGS)

  16. Water-level measurements and chloride concentrations for selected wells in Louisiana, January 1988-October 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, Wendell M.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents water-level measurements and chlorideconcentrations in water from selected wells completed in aquifers in Louisiana. The data were collected during the period January1988-October 1997. Water-level data are presented for 109 wells, and chloride data are presented for 45 wells. Hydrographs and summaries of water-level trends are presented for wellscompleted in aquifers throughout the State. Chlorographs and summaries of chloride trends are presented for wells completed in the Mississippi River alluvial and Sparta aquifers; Chicot aquifer system; and Gramercy, Norco, and Gonzales-New Orleans aquifers. Data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  17. Observations and estimates of wave-driven water level extremes at the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Wave-driven extreme water levels are examined for coastlines protected by fringing reefs using field observations obtained in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The 2% exceedence water level near the shoreline due to waves is estimated empirically for the study sites from breaking wave height at the outer reef and by combining separate contributions from setup, sea and swell, and infragravity waves, which are estimated based on breaking wave height and water level over the reef flat. Although each component exhibits a tidal dependence, they sum to yield a 2% exceedence level that does not. A hindcast based on the breaking wave height parameterization is used to assess factors leading to flooding at Roi-Namur caused by an energetic swell event during December 2008. Extreme water levels similar to December 2008 are projected to increase significantly with rising sea level as more wave and tide events combine to exceed inundation threshold levels.

  18. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  19. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  20. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  1. Evaluation of water levels in major aquifers of the New Jersey coastal plain, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Increased withdrawals from the major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain have caused water-level declines and large regional cones of depression. These cones of depression are delineated on detailed potentiometric surface maps produced from water-level data collected in the field in 1978. Water levels for 1978 are compared with those from 1970 or 1973, and water-level changes are evaluated and compared with hydrographs from observation wells. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is divided into regionally extensive lower and upper aquifers. These aquifers have large cones of depression centered in Camden, Middlesex, and Monmouth Counties. Water levels declined 5 to 20 feet in these areas between 1973 and 1978. Deep cones of depression in coastal Monmouth and Ocean Counties in the Englishtown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers are similar in location and shape, due to a good hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Water levels declined 2 to 31 feet in the Englishtown aquifer and 12 to 26 feet in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer between 1973 and 1978. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation define an extensive elongated cone of depression centered near Margate, Atlantic County. Head changes ranged from a decline of 4 feet to a recovery of 9 feet during 1970-78. The lowest heads in the Cohansey Sand were about 26 feet below sea level at Cape May, Cape May County, and less than 0.5 miles from salty ground water. (USGS)

  2. Water-level records for the Big Sioux Aquifer, Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a tabulation of water levels in wells tapping the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, S. Dak. Included is a compilation of all water levels in 43 wells measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies during the period 1957-80. The data are presented in tabular and graphic form. (USGS)

  3. Wave Height and Water Level Variability on Lakes Michigan and St Clair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    breaker ratio parameter, RWH: runup wire height, DX: constant grid mesh spacing, and Friction Coeff: bottom friction factor. CSHORE requires metric...33  Figure 20 . Comparison of 6-min and 1-hr water level measurements for 5 May 1998...Figure 22. Time series of measurements from Port Inland water level gage showing both storm surge and seiche for storm on Nov 20 , 1985

  4. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  5. Projections of extreme water level events for atolls in the western Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Conditions that lead to extreme water levels and coastal flooding are examined for atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands based on a recent field study of wave transformations over fringing reefs, tide gauge observations, and wave model hindcasts. Wave-driven water level extremes pose the largest threat to atoll shorelines, with coastal levels scaling as approximately one-third of the incident breaking wave height. The wave-driven coastal water level is partitioned into a mean setup, low frequency oscillations associated with cross-reef quasi-standing modes, and wind waves that reach the shore after undergoing high dissipation due to breaking and bottom friction. All three components depend on the water level over the reef; however, the sum of the components is independent of water level due to cancelling effects. Wave hindcasts suggest that wave-driven water level extremes capable of coastal flooding are infrequent events that require a peak wave event to coincide with mid- to high-tide conditions. Interannual and decadal variations in sea level do not change the frequency of these events appreciably. Future sea-level rise scenarios significantly increase the flooding threat associated with wave events, with a nearly exponential increase in flooding days per year as sea level exceeds 0.3 to 1.0 m above current levels.

  6. Assessing the effect of different river water level interpolation schemes on modeled groundwater residence times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, Samuel; Renard, Philippe; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Obtaining a quantitative understanding of river-groundwater interactions is of high practical relevance, for instance within the context of riverbank filtration and river restoration. Modeling interactions between river and groundwater requires knowledge of the river's spatiotemporal water level distribution. The dynamic nature of riverbed morphology in restored river reaches might result in complex river water level distributions, including disconnected river branches, nonlinear longitudinal water level profiles and morphologically induced lateral water level gradients. Recently, two new methods were proposed to accurately and efficiently capture 2D water level distributions of dynamic rivers. In this study, we assessed the predictive capability of these methods with respect to simulated groundwater residence times. Both methods were used to generate surface water level distributions of a 1.2 km long partly restored river reach of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. We then assigned these water level distributions as boundary conditions to a 3D steady-state groundwater flow and transport model. When applying either of the new methods, the calibration-constrained groundwater flow field accurately predicted the spatial distribution of groundwater residence times; deviations were within a range of 30% when compared to residence times obtained using a reference method. We further tested the sensitivity of the simulated groundwater residence times to a simplified river water level distribution. The negligence of lateral river water level gradients of 20-30 cm on a length of 200 m caused errors of 40-80% in the calibration-constrained groundwater residence time distribution compared to results that included lateral water level gradients. The additional assumption of a linear water level distribution in longitudinal river direction led to deviations from the complete river water level distribution of up to 50 cm, which caused wide-spread errors in simulated

  7. Persistent water level changes in a well near Parkfield, California, due to local and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Coseismic water level rises in the 30-m deep Bourdieu Valley (BV) well near Parkfield, California, have occurred in response to three local and five distant earthquakes. Coseismic changes in static strain cannot explain these water level rises because (1) the well is insensitive to strain at tidal periods; (2) for the distant earthquakes, the expected coseismic static strain is extremely small; and (3) the water level response is of the incorrect sign for the local earthquakes. These water level changes must therefore be caused by seismic waves, but unlike seismic water level oscillations, they are monotonic, persist for days or weeks, and seem to be caused by waves with periods of several seconds rather than long-period surface waves. Other investigators have reported a similar phenomenon in Japan. Certain wells consistently exhibit this type of coseismic water level change, which is always in the same direction, regardless of the earthquake's azimuth or focal mechanism, and approximately proportional to the inverse square of hypocentral distance. To date, the coseismic water level rises in the BV well have never exceeded the seasonal water level maximum, although their sizes are relatively well correlated with earthquake magnitude and distance. The frequency independence of the well's response to barometric pressure in the frequency band 0.1 to 0.7 cpd implies that the aquifer is fairly well confined. High aquifer compressibility, probably due to a gas phase in the pore space, is the most likely reason why the well does not respond to Earth tides. The phase and amplitude relationships between the seasonal water level and precipitation cycles constrain the horizontal hydraulic diffusivity to within a factor of 4.5, bounding hypothetical earthquake-induced changes in aquifer hydraulic properties. Moreover, changes of hydraulic conductivity and/or diffusivity throughout the aquifer would not be expected to change the water level in the same direction at every time

  8. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations

  9. North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) Coastal Storm Model Simulations: Waves and Water Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 14 North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) Coastal Storm Model Simulations: Waves and Water Levels Co...geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our nation’s public good...Waves and Water Levels Mary A. Cialone, T. Chris Massey, Mary E. Anderson, Alison S. Grzegorzewski, Robert E. Jensen, Alan Cialone, David J. Mark

  10. Water level fluctuations in an urban pond: Climatic or anthropogenic impact?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benton, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Illinois State Geological Survey began an investigation of fluctuating water levels in a pond in Cary, Illinois. The cause of the fluctuations appeared to be ground water discharge into a storm sewer recently installed by the Illinois Department of Transportation. However, analysis of climatic data provided an equally likely explanation of the fluctuations. Distinguishing the effect of climatic variations from the effect of the storm sewer was hampered by the lack of antecedent ground water and surface water data. In similar settings, it is recommended that ground water and surface water data be collected prior to initiating any infrastructure improvements.

  11. Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions.

  12. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  13. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term.

  14. Levels of iodine and other elements in drinking water across rural counties adjoining a former uranium mining and milling works, through short-time activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Vieira, Bruno J.; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this study, drinking waters from the Urgeiriça region (Centre-North of Portugal) were collected for (potential) health concerns over their (actual) iodine contents. After freeze-drying 1 L of each water, neutron activation analysis (NAA) with both thermal and epithermal neutrons was applied, the latter to ease the determination of iodine. Levels of iodine were found to be low and not likely associated to a higher risk of thyroid cancers in the area. However, other chemical elements in the sampled waters could pose some threats from the point of view of human health: aluminium and bromine. Some samples contained arsenic and/or uranium, yet the levels of these two elements were below the regulated values. NAA demonstrated to be very adequate for analysis of iodine and other elements, via short-lived nuclides.

  15. Lake Erie water level study. Appendix E. Power. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This appendix presents the results of the studies on the effects of limited regulation of Lake Erie on hydroelectric power generation. These studies were undertaken by the International Lake Erie Regulation Study Board. The Board was established by the International Joint Commission in 1977 to conduct the study as a result of the reference from the Governments of Canada and the United States. The purpose of the studies was to determine the economic effects of changes in levels and flows as a result of limited regulation of Lake Erie. This appendix contains the study results of the effect on the generation of hydroelectric power on the connecting channels of the Great Lakes and on the St. Lawrence River. The methodologies used in evaluating the effects of the various regulation plans indicate the benefits or losses to hydroelectric power generation in terms of energy and capacity resulting from changes in levels and flows. The methods used in the evaluation were those used in current economic studies by the power entities involved.

  16. An electrical impedance sensor for water level measurements in air-water two-phase stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Min Seok; Lee, Sung Yong; Lee, Bo An; Yun, Byong Jo; Kim, Kyung Youn; Kim, Sin

    2013-09-01

    We report a design of an optimized ring-type impedance sensor for water level measurements in air-water stratified flows through horizontal pipes. The ring-type sensor is optimized in view of the sensor linearity. In order to determine an optimal electrode and gap size of a ring-type sensor which generates a linear relationship between the impedance (resistance and/or reactance) and the water level, systematic numerical calculations are performed, and a ring-type impedance sensor of electrode width-to-diameter ratio 0.25 and gap-to-diameter ratio 0.2 has been selected as optimal. Lab-scale static experiments have been conducted to verify the sensor performance in terms of the linearity. Finally, this proposed sensor is installed in a horizontal loop 40 mm in diameter and roughly 5200 mm in length and measures water levels for various stratified flow conditions. The comparisons of water level measurements between the proposed sensor and the high-speed camera images post-processed by the edge detection scheme show that the maximum deviation in dimensionless water level is roughly 0.037, which corresponds to 1.5 mm over the range 40 mm.

  17. Stability of low levels of perchlorate in drinking water and natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stetson, S.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Macalady, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate ion (ClO4-) is an environmental contaminant of growing concern due to its potential human health effects, impact on aquatic and land animals, and widespread occurrence throughout the United States. The determination of perchlorate cannot normally be carried out in the field. As such, water samples for perchlorate analysis are often shipped to a central laboratory, where they may be stored for a significant period before analysis. The stability of perchlorate ion in various types of commonly encountered water samples has not been generally examined-the effect of such storage is thus not known. In the present study, the long-term stability of perchlorate ion in deionized water, tap water, ground water, and surface water was examined. Sample sets containing approximately 1000, 100, 1.0, and 0.5 ??g l-1 perchlorate ion in deionized water and also in local tap water were formulated. These samples were analyzed by ion chromatography for perchlorate ion concentration against freshly prepared standards every 24 h for the first 7 days, biweekly for the next 4 weeks, and periodically after that for a total of 400 or 610 days for the two lowest concentrations and a total of 428 or 638 days for the high concentrations. Ground and surface water samples containing perchlorate were collected, held and analyzed for perchlorate concentration periodically over at least 360 days. All samples except for the surface water samples were found to be stable for the duration of the study, allowing for holding times of at least 300 days for ground water samples and at least 90 days for surface water samples. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground-Water Levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akbari, M. Amin; Tahir, Mohammad; Litke, David W.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 69 wells in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, starting in July 2004 and continuing through March 2007. The monitoring network is composed of existing water-supply wells; therefore, both static and dynamic water levels were recorded. Very little information is available about the construction or completion of the wells, and there are no geologic logs for the wells being monitored. The majority of the wells are completed in Tertiary or Quaternary sediments. Water levels were measured periodically, generally monthly, by engineers from the Afghanistan Geological Survey using 100-meter electric tapes. Well depths in the study area ranged from 4.9 to 160 meters. Water levels below land surface ranged from less than 1.5 to 68 meters, while static water levels ranged from 1.5 to 40 meters. Seasonal water-level fluctuations from September 2005 through May 2006 ranged from less than 1 to 8 meters. Water level trends during the study period showed both increases and decreases. Drawdowns due to pumping ranged from 5 to 25 meters.

  19. [Spatial Variability Characteristics of Water Quality and Its Driving Forces in Honghu Lake During High Water-level Period].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhao-hua; Wang, Xiang-rong; Chen, Hong-bing; Wu, Zhong; Zhu, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Based on the high-density analysis of 139 monitoring points and samples in water of honghu lake with different degrees of eutrophication during the high water-level period, we could get the figures of spatial variability characteristics of pollution factors, the biomass of aquatic plants and water quality in Honghu Lake using the GIS interpolation methods. The result showed that the concentrations of TN, TP, NH4(+) -N, permanganate index gradually increased from south to north during this period, the trend of water pollution degree in Honghu Lake was the region of inflowing rivers > enclosure culture area > open water area > the lake protection area > region of the Yangtze river into the lake; and the contribution rate of water quality parameters was in the order of TN > TP > permanganate index > NH4(+), -N > DO; under the influence of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage, domestic sewage, bait, aquatic plants and water exchange, 59% of TN, 35.2% of TP, 13.7% of permanganate index, 4.3% of NH4(+)-N exceeded the water quality targets, respectively, accordingly, 66.2% of the water quality also exceeded the water quality target. Nonetheless, DO reached the water quality target due to the influences of monsoon climate and other environment factors. The spatial variation analysis could directly reflect the mutual interaction among human activity, land-use types and environment factors which had an enormous impact on Honghu Lake water environment. In order to ensure that the lake water environment is beneficial for human productions and livings, it is necessary for us to control the discharge of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage and domestic sewage, as well as the expanding area of aquaculture, all the above measures would be significant for gradually resuming the self-purification capacity of water body and finally achieving the ecological sustainable development of Honghu Lake water environment.

  20. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  1. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  2. Water levels in, extent of freshwater in, and water withdrawal from eight major confined aquifers, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Rosman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Water levels in 722 wells in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northeastern Delaware were measured during October and November 1993 and were used to define the potentiometric surface of the eight major confined aquifers of the area. Isochlors (lines of equal chloride concentration) for 250 and 10,000 milligrams per liter are included to show the extent of freshwater in each of the aquifers. Estimated water withdrawals from the eight major confined aquifers are reported for 1978-94. Water-withdrawal and water-level maps including isochlors were constructed for the Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, the Englishtown aquifer system, the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. From 1988 to 1993, water levels near the center of the large cones of depression in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area rose as much as 120 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and Englishtown aquifer system, 40 ft in the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, and 96 ft in the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Large cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Burlington-Camden-Gloucester area remained at about the same altitude; that is, the potentiometric surface neither rose nor fell in the aquifers by more than 5 feet. In the same area, water levels in the Englishtown aquifer system were static, whereas the water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer declined 5 to 20 feet, forming an expanded cone of depression. Water levels in the Cohansey, Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and Piney Point aquifers declined by 1 to 10 feet during 1988?93.

  3. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1996 through December 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made.Precipitation and the altitude of Lake Huron are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at two sites, and mean monthly precipitation as recorded in Huron County, for the period October 1988 through December 1996. In general, Lake Huron water levels in 1996 were about the same as they were from 1992-94 (NOAA, 1988-96). Precipitation was generally within the normal range, but was lower than 1993 or 1994. Rainfall during May, June, and July was, cumulatively, about 8.5 inches less in 1995 than in 1994.Hydrographs are presented for each of four wells with water-level recorders. Quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during 1996 for the other 22 wells are shown graphically and tabulated.In general, water levels in the glaciofluvial aquifer reflect seasonal variations, with maximum depths to water occurring in late summer and early fall and minimum depths to water occurring in late winter and early

  4. Magnesium level in drinking water and cardiovascular risk factor: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Durlach, J; Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A

    1985-01-01

    Water hardness can no longer be considered as the most reliable "water factor' with regard to the cardiovascular risk observed in epidemiologic studies. Only two out of three studies have shown a reverse correlation between cardiovascular mortality and water hardness. But studies carried out on the water Mg level alone, as opposed to those on water hardness (Ca + Mg) have all shown a reverse correlation between cardiovascular mortality and the Mg level. In developed countries, the Mg intake is often marginal and the Mg intake coming from drinking water represents the critical factor through which the Mg intake is deficient or satisfactory. Thus, Mg deficiency, either experimental or in man facilitates cardiovascular pathology. The importance of the Mg intake in drinking water is both quantitative and qualitative. Water containing Mg is better and more quickly absorbed than dietary Mg. This particular availability might help to understand why an adequate water Mg level may determine a better state of health, even without any Mg deficiency. Epidemiological data in man and experimental data in rats have demonstrated that the intake of water containing a sufficient amount of Mg may prevent arterial hypertension and correlated ionic and nervous disturbances. Indirectly the water Mg level also interferes in the leakage of food-borne Mg during cooking. There is an inverse correlation between the Mg loss in the cooked food and the Mg level of the cooking water itself. Mg appears to be an antagonist of noxious polluting agents (e.g. in the human amnion, Mg is a competitive inhibitor of Pb and Cd). It is not advisable to enrich water in Mg in the course of the processing since its corrosivity index would also increase. The best pathway is probably to neutralize corrosive water by filtration on calibrated grains of earth-alkaline metals (Neutralite or Magno or Akdolit) to ensure the highest possible Mg/Ca ratio, with the best anticorrosive power.

  5. Relationship between cyanobacterial biomass and total microcystin-LR levels in drinking and recreational water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baik-Ho; Hwang, Soon-Jin; Park, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Jae

    2010-11-01

    Cyanobacterial biomass, chlorophyll-a, and microcystin-LR levels were monitored in drinking and recreational water in Seoul, South Korea and three satellite cities from Oct 2006 to Aug 2007. Total microcystin-LR was the sum of particulate and dissolved microcystin. Except during cold periods, toxic cyanobacteria, including Anabaena flos-aquae, were found at all sites. The total microcystin-LR levels were below guideline danger levels (<1.0 μg/L) except one time (1.27 μg/L in October), whereas chl-a (111.7 μg/L) and cell levels (2.6 × 10⁵ cells/mL) were at 'vigilance' and 'alert' levels for drinking water and at 'guidance' level for recreational water, respectively. Discrepancies in these parameters may thus lead to frequent unnecessary alerts, thereby increasing water management costs.

  6. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  7. Interpretation of changes in water level accompanying fault creep and implications for earthquake prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative calculations for the effect of a fault creep event on observations of changes in water level in wells provide an approach to the tectonic interpretation of these phenomena. For the pore pressure field associated with an idealized creep event having an exponential displacement versus time curve, an analytic expression has been obtained in terms of exponential-integral functions. The pore pressure versus time curves for observation points near the fault are pulselike; a sharp pressure increase (or decrease, depending on the direction of propagation) is followed by more gradual decay to the normal level after the creep event. The time function of the water level change may be obtained by applying the filter - derived by A.G.Johnson and others to determine the influence of atmospheric pressure on water level - to the analytic pore pressure versus time curves. The resulting water level curves show a fairly rapid increase (or decrease) and then a very gradual return to normal. The results of this analytic model do not reproduce the steplike changes in water level observed by Johnson and others. If the procedure used to obtain the water level from the pore pressure is correct, these results suggest that steplike changes in water level are not produced by smoothly propagating creep events but by creep events that propagate discontinuously, by changes in the bulk properties of the region around the well, or by some other mechanism.-Author

  8. Generalized water-level contours, September-October 2000 and March-April 2001, and long-term water-level changes, at the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 has relied on ground water as the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has affected ground-water levels at U.S. Air Force Plant 42, and vicinity. A study to document changes in groundwater gradients and to present historical water-level data was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force. This report presents historical water-level data, hydrographs, and generalized seasonal water-level and water-level contours for September?October 2000 and March?April 2001. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently water availability. During September?October 2000 and March?April 2001 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made a total of 102 water-level measurements, 46 during September?October 2000 and 56 during March?April 2001. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with historical data, document changes in ground-water levels. Two water-level contour maps were drawn: the first depicts water-level conditions for September?October 2000 map and the second depicts water-level conditions for March?April 2001 map. In general, the water-level contour maps show water-level depressions formed as result of ground-water withdrawal. One hundred sixteen long-term hydrographs, using water-level data from 1915 through 2000, were constructed to show water-level trends in the area. The hydrographs indicate that water-level decline occurred throughout the study area, with the greatest declines south of U.S. Air Force Plant 42.

  9. Water movement in the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    Four unsaturated-zone monitoring sites and a meteorologic station were installed at the low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, S.C., to investigate the geohydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water movement in the unsaturated zone. The study site is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The unsaturated zone consists of a few centimeters to more than 1 meter of surface sand, underlain by up to 15 meters of clayey sand. Two monitoring sites were installed in experimental trenches, and two were installed in radioactive-waste trenches. Two different trench designs were evaluated at the monitoring sites. A meteorologic station was used to measure precipitation and to calculate actual evapotranspiration using the Bowen ratio method. Soil-moisture tensiometers, soil-moisture conductance probes, and temperature sensors were used to monitor soil-water movement in and adjacent to the trenches. Tracer tests using sodium chloride were conducted at each monitoring site. Hydrologic properties of unsaturated-zone materials were also determined. Data collection at the monitoring sites began in January 1982 and continued until early May 1984. Tensiometer data show that the unsaturated materials had their highest percent saturations in winter and spring. Saturations in the backfill sand varied from 20 to 100 percent, and in the adjacent undisturbed and overlying compacted clayey sand, from about 75 to 100 percent. The same pattern generally was observed at all four monitoring sites. The tracer-test data indicate that water movement occurred mainly during the recharge period, winter and spring. The tracer-test results enabled computation of rates of unsaturated flow in the compacted clayey-sand cap, the compacted clayey-sand barrier, and the backfill sand. A micro-scale hydrologic budget was determined for an undisturbed part of the site from July 1983 through June 1984.Total precipitation was 144 centimeters, and actual evapotranspiration was 101

  10. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, March 1993 through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan. In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The program included the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells, in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake townships (figure 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements on 22 other wells (figure 1). Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made.Two of the wells with recorders are completed in the Marshall aquifer (H5r and H25Ar), one is completed in the glacio-fluvial aquifer (H2r), and one is completed in the Saginaw aquifer (H9r). Hydrographs are presented for each of the four wells with water level recorders (figures 3, 4, 6, and 8). Hydrographs of quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during the period October, 1988 to January, 1990 (the original project period) are shown in figures 5, 7, 9, and 10 and quarterly water levels are presented in tables 1 through 4.Figure 2 shows the monthly-mean water-level elevation of Lake Huron, as measured at Harbor Beach and Essexville, and monthly-mean precipitation as recorded at Bad Axe, for the period October, 1988 through December, 1994. In general, Lake Huron water-level elevation were at or near record lows in late 1989, and near record highs in late 1993. Precipitation throughout the period was generally within the normal range.

  11. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  12. A Simple Water Balance Approach to Monitor Lake Water Level Changes: Validation using TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Alemu, H.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    A simple water balance approach is adapted to monitor water resources in semi-arid region of east Africa by integrating coarse and dynamic datasets such as rainfall with fine and static elevation datasets. The model takes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data, modeled runoff and reference evapotranspiration (ET) data to monitor changes in lake water heights. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM) was used to delineate lake Turkana watershed. A simple water balance modeling approach was applied on Turkana basin to estimate lake water level heights for ten years (1997- 2008) and the results were compared with TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter data. It was observed that simple water balance approach could capture the trend and seasonal variations of lake water fluctuations as measured by the satellite. The El Nino year of 1998 and the following consecutive dry years until 2002 are captured well on both. A mean deviation up to 30 cm of lake water height was found when compared to the satellite measurements. The satellite measurements made since 2004 showed that the lake water height gradually reduced, whereas simulations made using the water balance model showed an increasing trend. This could be reasoned by the fact that, on the Omo river, which contributes to over 80% of the lake inflows, a dam was commissioned in 2004. Knowledge of such processes occurring upstream or downstream is often required while analyzing satellite altimetry data to avoid misinterpretation. Although the absolute accuracy is low, the advantage of the simple water balance method lies in its ability to: (i) capture the trend and seasonal variations of water level fluctuations of small to large lakes around the world; (ii) when coupled with ground measurements or satellite altimetry data for lake water heights, the simple water balance method can identify the presence and absence of upstream and downstream processes; (iii) since water

  13. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  14. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

  15. Observation-well network for collection of ground-water level data in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolow, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers--water-bearing deposits of sand and gravel, glacial till, and fractured bedrock--provide an extensive and readily accessible ground-water supply in Massachusetts. Ground water affects our everyday lives, not just in terms of how much water is available, but also in terms of the position of ground-water levels in relation to land surface. Knowledge of ground-water levels is needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to help plan, manage, and protect ground-water supplies, and by private construction companies for site planning and evaluation. A primary part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division, is the systematic collection of ground-water, surface-water, and water-quality data. These data are needed to manage and protect the nation's water resources. The Massachusetts-Rhode Island District of the USGS, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (DEM), Office of Water Resources, and county and town environmental agencies, has maintained a network of observation wells throughout the Commonwealth since the mid 1930's. The purpose of this network is to monitor seasonal and long-term changes in groundwater storage in different lithologic, topographic, and geographic settings. These data are analyzed to provide a monthly index of ground-water conditions to aid in water-resources management and planning, and to define long-term changes in water levels resulting from manmade stresses (such as pumping and construction-site drainage) and natural stresses (such as floods and droughts).

  16. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    In 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, a stochastic model is generated using the measured monthly water level data of the lake. The model is derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the data set. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. For the multiple-trend, the time series is first divided into homogeneous segments by means of SEGMENTER, segmentation software. Four segments are found meaningful practically each fitted with a trend line. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning future development in surrounding areas of the lake.

  17. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  18. A Screening-Level Hydroeconomic Model of South Florida Water Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Flaxman, M.; Wiesmann, D.

    2014-12-01

    South Florida's water resources management is characterized by system-wide tradeoffs associated with maintaining the ecological integrity of natural environments such as the Everglades while meeting the water demands of the agricultural sector and growing urban areas. As these tradeoffs become more pronounced due to pressures from climate change, sea level rise, and population growth, it will be increasingly challenging for policy makers and stakeholders to reach consensus on water resources management objectives and planning horizons. A hydroeconomic optimization model of south Florida's water resources system is developed to incorporate the value of water for preserving ecosystem services alongside water supplies to the Everglades Agricultural Area and urban areas. Results of this screening-level network flow model facilitate quantitative analysis and provide insights for long-term adaptive management strategies for the region's water resources.

  19. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  20. Energy-Water Nexus: Balancing the Tradeoffs between Two-Level Decision Makers

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov

    2016-09-03

    Energy-water nexus has substantially increased importance in the recent years. Synergistic approaches based on systems-analysis and mathematical models are critical for helping decision makers better understand the interrelationships and tradeoffs between energy and water. In energywater nexus management, various decision makers with different goals and preferences, which are often conflicting, are involved. These decision makers may have different controlling power over the management objectives and the decisions. They make decisions sequentially from the upper level to the lower level, challenging decision making in energy-water nexus. In order to address such planning issues, a bi-level decision model is developed, which improvesmore » upon the existing studies by integration of bi-level programming into energy-water nexus management. The developed model represents a methodological contribution to the challenge of sequential decisionmaking in energy-water nexus through provision of an integrated modeling framework/tool. An interactive fuzzy optimization methodology is introduced to seek a satisfactory solution to meet the overall satisfaction of the two-level decision makers. The tradeoffs between the two-level decision makers in energy-water nexus management are effectively addressed and quantified. Application of the proposed model to a synthetic example problem has demonstrated its applicability in practical energy-water nexus management. Optimal solutions for electricity generation, fuel supply, water supply including groundwater, surface water and recycled water, capacity expansion of the power plants, and GHG emission control are generated. In conclusion, these analyses are capable of helping decision makers or stakeholders adjust their tolerances to make informed decisions to achieve the overall satisfaction of energy-water nexus management where bi-level sequential decision making process is involved.« less

  1. Energy-Water Nexus: Balancing the Tradeoffs between Two-Level Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov

    2016-09-03

    Energy-water nexus has substantially increased importance in the recent years. Synergistic approaches based on systems-analysis and mathematical models are critical for helping decision makers better understand the interrelationships and tradeoffs between energy and water. In energywater nexus management, various decision makers with different goals and preferences, which are often conflicting, are involved. These decision makers may have different controlling power over the management objectives and the decisions. They make decisions sequentially from the upper level to the lower level, challenging decision making in energy-water nexus. In order to address such planning issues, a bi-level decision model is developed, which improves upon the existing studies by integration of bi-level programming into energy-water nexus management. The developed model represents a methodological contribution to the challenge of sequential decisionmaking in energy-water nexus through provision of an integrated modeling framework/tool. An interactive fuzzy optimization methodology is introduced to seek a satisfactory solution to meet the overall satisfaction of the two-level decision makers. The tradeoffs between the two-level decision makers in energy-water nexus management are effectively addressed and quantified. Application of the proposed model to a synthetic example problem has demonstrated its applicability in practical energy-water nexus management. Optimal solutions for electricity generation, fuel supply, water supply including groundwater, surface water and recycled water, capacity expansion of the power plants, and GHG emission control are generated. In conclusion, these analyses are capable of helping decision makers or stakeholders adjust their tolerances to make informed decisions to achieve the overall satisfaction of energy-water nexus management where bi-level sequential decision making process is involved.

  2. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  3. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; An, Shuqing

    2012-01-01

    Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution) to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season) and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season) than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a)) decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a) influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes) that was present historically.

  4. Summary of recovered historical ground-water-level data for Michigan, 1934-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornett, Cassaundra L.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; McGowan, Rose M.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents ground-water-level data-recovery efforts performed by the USGS Michigan Water Science Center and provides nearly three-hundred hydrographs generated from these recovered data. Data recovery is the process of verifying and transcribing data from paper files into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) electronic databases appropriate for ground-water-level data. Entering these data into the NWIS databases makes them more useful for USGS analysis and also makes them available to the public through the internet.

  5. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: WATER-LEVEL DATA FROM THE NYE COUNTY EARLY WARNING DRILLING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Dove, P. Sanchez, and L. Saraka

    2000-04-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate unqualified, water-level data gathered under the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and to determine whether the status of the data should be changed to ''qualified'' data in accordance with AP-SIII.2Q (Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data). The corroboration method (as defined in Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q) was implemented to qualify water-level data from Nye County measurements obtained directly from the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Program Office (NWRPO). Comparison of United States Geological Survey (USGS) measurements contained in DTN GS990608312312.003 with the Nye County water-level data has shown that the differences in water-level altitudes for the same wells are significantly less than 1 meter. This is an acceptable finding. Evaluation and recommendation criteria have been strictly applied to qualify Nye County measurements of water levels in selected wells measured by the USGS. However, the process of qualifying measured results by corroboration also builds confidence that the Nye County method for measurement of water levels is adequate for the intended use of the data (which is regional modeling). Therefore, it is reasonable to extend the term of ''qualified'' to water-level measurements in the remaining Nye County Phase I wells on the basis that the method has been shown to produce adequate results for the intended purpose of supporting large-scale modeling activities for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The Data Qualification Team recommends the Nye County, water-level data contained in Appendix D of this report be designated as ''qualified''. These data document manual measurements of water-levels in eight (8) EWDP Phase I drillholes that were obtained prior to the field installation of continuous monitoring equipment.

  6. Water levels in observation wells in Santa Barbara County, California, in 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.; Merritt, P.M.

    1957-01-01

    Investigation of the ground-water resources of Santa Barbara County was continued during 1956 by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Monthly water-level recorders were operated. Earlier measurements, covering the period 1941 through 1953, have been published in Geological Survey water-Supply Papers; those for 1954 and 1955 are in press and have been released locally in duplicated form. Water-Supply Paper 1068 contains tabulated descriptions of 2,246 wells in existence in 1942 in the various ground-water basins of the county. The same publication contains also many water-level measurements made prior to 1942 by the city of Santa Barbara, Santa Maria Valley Water Conservation District, San Joaquin Power Division of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Union Sugar Co., Union Oil Co., and other organizations and individuals. Comprehensive reports on the geology and ground-water resources of the Santa Ynez River basin (Upson and Thomasson, 1951), the south-coast basins (Upson, 1951), the Santa Maria Valley area (Worts, 1951), and the Cuyama Valley (Upson and Worts, 1951) have been published as Water-Supply Papers 1107, 1108, 1000, and 1110-B respectively. A report on stream runoff and ground-water storage capacity of the Santa Ynez River valley (Troxell and Wilson, 1952) was released to the open file in October 1952. A report appraising the ground-water resources of the Santa Ynez River valley (Wilson, 1957) was released to the open file in October 1956.

  7. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: quality and management.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Bilqis A; Hallman, Kelly; Levy, Jason; Bouis, Howarth; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Feroze; Khanam, Sufia; Kabir, Mamun; Hossain, Sanower; Shah Alam, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices by users at both the supply and household levels in rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and seventy tube-well water samples and 300 water samples from household storage containers were tested for fecal coliform (FC) concentrations over three surveys (during different seasons). The tube-well water samples were tested for arsenic concentration during the first survey. Overall, the FC was low (the median value ranged from 0 to 4 cfu/100ml) in water at the supply point (tube-well water samples) but significantly higher in water samples stored in households. At the supply point, 61% of tube-well water samples met the Bangladesh and WHO standards of FC; however, only 37% of stored water samples met the standards during the first survey. When arsenic contamination was also taken into account, only 52% of the samples met both the minimum microbiological and arsenic content standards of safety. The contamination rate for water samples from covered household storage containers was significantly lower than that of uncovered containers. The rate of water contamination in storage containers was highest during the February-May period. It is shown that safe drinking water was achieved by a combination of a protected and high quality source at the initial point and maintaining quality from the initial supply (source) point through to final consumption. It is recommended that the government and other relevant actors in Bangladesh establish a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, handling and related educational

  8. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

  9. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  10. Interannual water-level fluctuations and the vegetation of prairie potholes: Potential impacts of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Valk, Arnold; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive changes in either mean water depth, amplitude of interannual fluctuations, or both, were modeled to predict if they would affect the number of zones in each wetland class. The results indicated that, in some cases, even small changes in mean water depth when coupled with a small change in amplitude of water-level fluctuations can shift a prairie pothole wetland from one class to another. Our results suggest that climate change could alter the relative proportion of different wetland classes in the prairie pothole region.

  11. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  12. Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level

  13. Rectal cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Tsai, S S; Lai, T C; Hung, C F; Chiu, H F

    1999-05-01

    The possible association between the risk of rectal cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible rectal cancer deaths (986 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (986 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and rectal cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.01-1. 55) and 1.38 (1.10-1.73), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for rectal cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.

  14. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well-field areas that supplied 155 million gallons to municipalities on May 12, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1980 than in September 1979 and a little higher than the average May levels. Change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 12 feet at Verna well field to an increase of 7 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  15. Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

  16. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,700-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with the seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 181.1 million gallons to municipalities on May 10, 1982. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In May 1982, ground-water levels were lower than those of September 1981. Seasonal recharge from above-average rainfall and reduced pumpage aided in the water-level recovery from record to near record levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  17. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 123.7 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were generally higher in September 1979 than in May 1979 and higher than the average September levels. Change of water levels ranged from an increase of 15 feet at Cosme well field to a decrease of 9 feet at Verna well field. (USGS)

  18. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 140.3 million gallons to municipalities on September 21, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In September 1981, ground-water levels were significantly higher than those of May 1981 and were unchanged or within a few feet of those in September 1980. Seasonal recharge from summer rains and reduced pumpage are factors in the water-level recovery from record and near record low levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  19. An Investigation of Water Level Prediction in Urban Drainage System Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, F.; Chiang, Y.; Chiu, Y.; Ho, Y.; Chang, L.; Wang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The pumping stations are the major hydraulic facilities for the elimination of flood in highly developed cities and therefore play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan area. Accurate predictions of inner water level in urban drainage systems are necessary and important for successful operation of pumping stations. In view of the characteristics of artificial neural networks (ANNs), the model was introduced in this study for extracting rainfall-water level patterns from torrential rain events. The Yu-Cheng pumping station, Taipei city, is used as a case study, where historical records which contain information of rainfall amounts and inner water levels are used to train and verify the ANN's performance. First, we directly construct the ANN for multistep ahead water level predictions by using 11 storm events at gauging sites. The optimal structure and parameters are then tested via 3 different events. Second, the storm water management model (SWMM) was utilized for the purpose of generating data at un-gauged sites. Data generated from SWMM were further used to train the ANN. Finally, a comparison of water level prediction between SWMM and ANN are given. Our preliminary results show that the ANN is capable of constructing accurate and reliable water level prediction. The results also exemplify the need for a detailed investigation on SWMM-derived error that could propagate the input error into the ANN models.

  20. Climate change and recent water level variability in Patagonian proglacial lakes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Andrea I.; Lecomte, Karina L.; Depetris, Pedro J.

    2008-10-01

    A long series of lakes (~ 150) borders the Patagonian Andes (south of ~ 38°S), most of which are a geomorphologic relict of Pleistocene glaciations. Employing instrumental records, we inspected lake water level departures from seasonal variations in seven proglacial lakes: Lacar, Mascardi, Steffen, Escondido, Puelo, Vinter, and Argentino. Lakes north of ~ 42°S show maximum gage (water) level during austral winter months; lakes between ~ 42° and ~ 45°S appear transitional; the one lake south of ~ 50°S (Argentino) shows maximum water level in early autumn. Most lakes show moderate level fluctuation throughout yearly records and, in general, show heteroscedacity. Furthermore, Hurst exponents reveal persistent behavior (i.e., long-term memory effect) in all water level series. In most lakes there are no trends in deseasonalized mean and maximum water levels (Seasonal Kendall test). Lake Mascardi-Manso River system (mostly fed by melt water from the retreating Manso Glacier) is a contrasting example that shows a decreasing trend during summer months that we ascribe to the also declining ice volume. Harmonic analysis (Fourier and wavelet transform) of deseasonalized mean and maximum water level time series shows interannual and decadal periodicities that we link to the occurrence of El Niño and/or the Antarctic Oscillation. The associated phase spectrum indicates that there is a ~ 13-month lag between ENSO occurrences and its effect on anomalous lake water levels. Increased snow accumulation during austral winters usually follows summertime El Niño events, which normally result in increased melt water volume that occurs with about one-year delay during the following (austral) spring/summer.

  1. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable.

  2. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  3. Multimedia level-III partitioning and residence times of xenobiotics in water-rich and water-poor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkopf, C.; Kuehne, R.; Schueuermann, G.

    2000-05-01

    The environmental fate of 10 compounds covering a wide range of intrinsic persistence and volatility is studied with a multimedia level-III fugacity model at two system temperatures (293 and 282 K) using water-rich and water-poor model environments and standard emission scenarios to air and water, respectively. The resultant level-III partitionings depend significantly on the entry mode and on the relative compartment sizes, and the variation with system temperature is more pronounced for polar compounds and when air is the primary discharge compartment. For example, the steady-state portion in soil of airborne phenol varies from 21 to 89%, whereas waterborne phenol resides in water at a rate of 100% in both water-rich and water-poor environments. For some compounds, the residence time (considering both advection and degradation) is substantially affected by intermedia transport processes such as rainfall. With airborne atrazine, the regional residence time is comparable to that of DDT and significantly greater than the ones of hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyl 28, and lindane, although the latter have much longer media-specific half-lives and much greater hydrophobicity. The discussion includes detailed analyses of the compound properties and their impact on the level-III environmental fate.

  4. Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid rate of water infrastructure development in the Mekong Basin is a cause for concern due to its potential impact on fisheries and downstream natural ecosystems. In this paper, we analyze the historical water levels of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap system by comparing pre- and post-1991 daily observations from six stations along the Mekong mainstream from Chiang Saen (northern Thailand), to Stung Treng (Cambodia), and the Prek Kdam station on the Tonle Sap River. Observed alterations in water level patterns along the Mekong are linked to temporal and spatial trends in water infrastructure development from 1960 to 2010. We argue that variations in historical climatic factors are important, but they are not the main cause of observed changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. Our analysis shows that the development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong Basin in the post-1991 period may have resulted in a modest increase of 30-day minimum levels (+17%), but significant increases in fall rates (+42%) and the number of water level fluctuations (+75%) observed in Chiang Saen. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at Mukdahan (northeast Thailand), which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse (southern Laos), alterations to the number of fluctuations and rise rate became strongly significant after 1991. The observed alterations slowly decrease downstream, but modified rise rates, fall rates, and dry season water levels were still quantifiable and significant as far as Prek Kdam. This paper provides the first set of evidence of hydrological alterations in the Mekong beyond the Chinese dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given the evident alterations at Pakse and downstream, post-1991 changes could also be directly attributed to water infrastructure development in the Chi and Mun basins of Thailand. A reduction of 23 and 11% in the water raising and falling

  5. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maltby, Dorothy

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1982. Also shown are 5 hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1977 and 1982. (USGS)

  6. DAHITI - An Innovative Approach for Estimating Water Level Time Series over Inland Water using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from lakes, reservoirs, rivers, wetlands and in general any inland water body. In this contribution, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is presented. The method is the basis for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service 'Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water' (DAHITI). It is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in situ data between 4 cm and 36 cm for lakes and 8 cm and 114 cm for rivers, respectively. Within this presentation, the new approach will be introduced and examples for water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers will be shown featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases.

  7. DAHITI - an innovative approach for estimating water level time series over inland waters using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from reservoirs, wetlands and in general any inland water body, although the radar altimetry technique has been especially applied to rivers and lakes. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Waters" (DAHITI). The new method is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, TOPEX/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields rms differences with respect to in situ data between 4 and 36 cm for lakes and 8 and 114 cm for rivers. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from other available altimeter databases can be achieved.

  8. Source and magnitude of error in an inexpensive image-based water level measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Troy E.; Birgand, François; Chapman, Kenneth W.

    2013-07-01

    Recent technological advances have opened the possibility to use webcams and images as part of the environmental monitoring arsenal. The potential sources and magnitude of uncertainties inherent to an image-based water level measurement system are evaluated in an experimental design in the laboratory. Sources of error investigated include image resolution, lighting effects, perspective, lens distortion and water meniscus. Image resolution and meniscus were found to weigh the most in the overall uncertainty of this system. Image distortion, although largely taken into account by the software developed, may also significantly add to uncertainty. Results suggest that "flat" images with little distortion are preferable. After correction for the water meniscus, images captured with a camera (12 mm or 16 mm focal lengths) positioned 4-7 m from the water level edge have the potential to yield water level measurements within ±3 mm when using this technique.

  9. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18

  10. Understanding the connection of extreme water levels to mortality in the megacity Dhaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of extreme water levels on a local scale we study both low and high water levels and their connection to mortality in the megacity Dhaka. Dhaka is currently threatened by a range of natural hazards such as earth quakes, tropical cyclones and - on an almost annual basis - flooding . Flooding in the megacity is largely determined by the close proximity to the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers upstream as well as the conjunction with the Meghna river further downstream. The risk of flooding is aggravated through rapid urbanization and concurrent encroachment on retention areas, as well as increasing problems with both the natural and man-made drainage system. A growing population, continuing urbanization and climate change are all expected to worsen the situation in Dhaka. This prompted us to study historical trends in extreme water levels using over 100 years of daily water level data with respect to trends in frequency, magnitude and duration, focusing on rare but particularly high-risk events using extreme-value theory. In a further step, the complex link between water levels and mortality are studied using a distributed lag non-linear model with mortality data available on a daily basis for a five-year period (2003-2007). Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level when comparing the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. Results further indicate that for the period of 2003-2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality

  11. Water level response to hydropower development in the upper Mekong River.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaojuan; He, Daming

    2008-05-01

    Environmental changes and their transboundary influences on the Mekong watercourse system have been an international research focus in recent years, but the opinions and results related to the impacts of upper Mekong River dams are quite different. In this paper, based on the records of water levels from 1960 to 2003 at three mainstream sites in the upper Mekong River, a quantitative examination has been undertaken into characteristics of the mainstream water-level process at multiple timescales and its response to cascade development. The major results are: i) Annual mean, wet period mean, and the mean water levels during the period between March and April (PBMA period) exhibit a significant increasing trend at Jiuzhou and Yunjinghong sites, which are influenced by large-scale factors such as climate change and solar activity. ii) The interdecadal and interannual variations of annual mean, annual maximum, and wet period mean water levels at three sites show similar features during the dam construction period. iii) The interdecadal variations of PBMA period water level show a gradual increase at Gajiu and Yunjinghong sites but a falling trend at Jiuzhou; these trends confirm that there is some regulation on the flow in the dry season caused by the two existing dams. iv) The downstream effects of the present dams on water levels are very limited at the annual mean and wet season mean levels, not apparent at the monthly and yearly timescales, and relatively significant at daily and hourly timescales.

  12. Trends in water level and flooding in Dhaka, Bangladesh and their impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-01-22

    Climate change is expected to impact flooding in many highly populated coastal regions, including Dhaka (Bangladesh), which is currently among the fastest growing cities in the world. In the past, high mortality counts have been associated with extreme flood events. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. A distributed lag non-linear model was then used to examine the connection between water levels and mortality. Results indicate that for the period of 2003-2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality could be found. As our trend analysis of past water levels shows that minimum water levels have decreased during the past 100 years, action should be taken to ensure that the exposed population is also well-adapted to drought.

  13. Trends in Water Level and Flooding in Dhaka, Bangladesh and Their Impact on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact flooding in many highly populated coastal regions, including Dhaka (Bangladesh), which is currently among the fastest growing cities in the world. In the past, high mortality counts have been associated with extreme flood events. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. A distributed lag non-linear model was then used to examine the connection between water levels and mortality. Results indicate that for the period of 2003–2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality could be found. As our trend analysis of past water levels shows that minimum water levels have decreased during the past 100 years, action should be taken to ensure that the exposed population is also well-adapted to drought. PMID:25648177

  14. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  15. Water level measurements in 52 shallow boreholes in the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    Water-level measurements have been read in 52 cased boreholes in the San Francisco bay region. These measurements are compared to water-table depths determined by P-wave velocity. A velocity in excess of 1200 m/s is taken as the depth of the upper surface of the water table. This method works best in saturated alluvium, and fails in dry rock because of P-wave velocities greater than 1200 m/s.

  16. Estimating water supply arsenic levels in the New England bladder cancer study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuckols, John R.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Airola, Matthew S.; Baris, Dalsu; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Taylor, Anne; Paulu, Chris; Karagas, Margaret R.; Colt, Joanne; Ward, Mary H.; Huang, An-Tsun; Bress, William; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods.

  17. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-12

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  18. Records of water levels in unconsolidated deposits in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    Water levels in unconsolidated deposits measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies throughout eastern South Dakota during the period 1948-1980 are presented in tabular and graphic form. (USGS)

  19. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  20. Real-time ground-water-level monitoring in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.; Navoy, Anthony S.; Pope, Daryll A.

    2002-01-01

    A network of seven observation wells that transmit ground-water-level data on a real-time basis through satellite telemetry is operating (started May 2001) in New Jersey through a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The water-level data from these observation wells are transmitted every 4 hours and then are immediately posted for viewing on the Internet. This fact sheet describes the rationale for real-time monitoring of ground-water levels, the design of the network, and the equipment used to measure water levels and transmit the data to the Internet. Instructions for viewing the data are included.

  1. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  2. Experimental manipulation of water levels in two French riverine grassland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oorschot, Mark; van Gaalen, Nils; Maltby, Ed; Mockler, Natalie; Spink, Andrew; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental study, we simulated the effects of different river flooding regimes on soil nutrient availability, decomposition and plant production in floodplain grasslands. This was done to investigate the influences of soil water contents on nutrient cycling. Water levels were manipulated in mesocosms with intact soil turfs from two French floodplain grasslands. Three water levels were established: a `wet' (water level at the soil surface), an `intermediate' (water level at -20 cm) and a `dry' treatment (water level at -120 cm). With increasing soil moisture, soil pH became more neutral, while redox-potential and oxygen concentration decreased. The `dry' treatment showed much lower values for process rates in soil and vegetation than the `intermediate' and `wet' treatments. Regressions showed that soil C-evolution and N-mineralization were positively related to soil moisture content. Not all mineralized N was available for plant uptake in the wet treatment, as a considerable part was denitrified here. Denitrification was especially high as soil water contents increased to levels above field capacity, where redox-potentials sharply dropped. Further, soil P availability was higher under wet conditions. In the `dry' treatment, soil water content was close to the wilting point and plant production was low. In the `intermediate' treatment, plant production was most likely limited by nitrogen. The `wet' treatment did not result in a further increase in plant production. Dam construction and river bed degradation can result in lower river levels and summer drought on floodplains. This experimental study suggests that summer drought on floodplain soils reduces decomposition of soil organic matter, nutrient availability, denitrification, plant production and nutrient uptake. This can affect the capacity of floodplains to remove or retain nutrients from river water in a negative way.

  3. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  4. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  5. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

  6. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  7. Implementation of E.U. Water Framework Directive: source assessment of metallic substances at catchment levels.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ho-Sik; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    The E.U. Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to prevent deterioration of water quality and to phase out or reduce the concentrations of priority substances at catchment levels. It requires changes in water management from a local scale to a river basin scale, and establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) as a guideline for the chemical status of receiving waters. According to the Directive, the standard and the scope of the investigation for water management are more stringent and expanded than in the past, and this change also needs to be applied to restoring the level of metals in water bodies. The aim of this study was to identify anthropogenic emission sources of metallic substances at catchment levels. Potential sources providing substantial amounts of such substances in receiving waters included stormwater, industrial effluents, treated effluents, agricultural drainage, sediments, mining drainage and landfill leachates. Metallic substances have more emission sources than other dangerous substances at catchment levels. Therefore, source assessment for these substances is required to be considered more significantly to restore their chemical status in the context of the WFD. To improve source assessment quality, research on the role of societal and environmental parameters and contribution of each source to the chemical distribution in receiving waters need to be carried out.

  8. Determination of Trace Level Triclosan in Water by Online Preconcentration and HPLC-UV Diode Array

    EPA Science Inventory

    An online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantification of trace levels of triclosan in water is discussed. Triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent, and related compounds have been shown to reach municipal waste waters through the disposal ...

  9. Water-level changes in the high plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma, predevelopment to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The predevelopment to 1980 water-level changes in the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma are shown for Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, on the east, and for the Oklahoma Panhandle, consist- ing of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties, on the west. About 1,470 water-level measurements in the Panhandle were used in compiling the predevelopment water-table map (Havens, 1982c). In the remaining area to the east about 150 water-level measurements from the 1950's to the 1970's are representative of predevelopment water levels. For the 1980 water-table map, about 330 measurements were made in the Panhandle and about 350 measurements in the eastern area by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (Havens, 1982b).

  10. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1982-83 climatic years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, R.L.; Mize, L.D.; Spiser, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1982-83 climatic years, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources, collected ground-water level data in Oklahoma from 1,087 sites in 77 counties. This report presents those data points.

  11. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1983-84 climatic year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, R.L.; Mize, L.D.; Spiser, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1983-84 climatic years, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, collected ground-water level data in Oklahoma from 1,083 sites in 77 counties. This report presents those data points.

  12. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  13. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2000, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2000-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 125 gaging stations; stage for 20 gaging stations; information for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 10 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 77 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 21 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  14. Status of Water Levels and Selected Water-Quality Conditions in the Sparta-Memphis Aquifer in Arkansas and the Status of Water Levels in the Sparta Aquifer in Louisiana, Spring 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.; Jones, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, the Arkansas Geological Commission, and the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development has monitored water levels in the Sparta Sand of Claiborne Group and Memphis Sand of Claiborne Group since the 1920's. Ground-water withdrawals have increased while water levels have declined since monitoring was initiated. This report has been produced to describe ground-water levels in the aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand and provide information for the management of this valuable resource. The 2005 potentiometric-surface map of the aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand was constructed using water-level data collected in 333 wells in Arkansas and 120 wells in Louisiana during the spring of 2005. The highest water-level altitude measured in Arkansas was 327 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 located in Grant County in the outcrop at the western boundary of the study area; the lowest water-level altitude was 189 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Union County. The highest water-level altitude measured in Louisiana was 246 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 located in Bossier Parish in the outcrop area near the western boundary of the study area; the lowest water-level altitude was 226 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in central Ouachita Parish. Three large depressions centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties in Arkansas are the result of large withdrawals for industrial and public supplies. In Louisiana, three major pumping centers are in Ouachita, Jackson, and Lincoln Parishes. Water withdrawals from these major pumping centers primarily is used for industrial and public-supply purposes. Withdrawals from Ouachita and Lincoln Parishes and Union County, Arkansas, primarily for industrial purposes, have caused the resulting cones of depression to coalesce so that the -40 foot

  15. Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2014-04-01

    The rapid rate of water infrastructure development in the Mekong basin is a cause for concern due to its potential impact on fisheries and downstream natural ecosystems. In this paper we analyse the historical water levels of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap system by comparing pre and post 1991 daily observations from six stations along the Mekong mainstream from Chiang Sean (northern Laos), to Stung Treng (Cambodia), and the Prek Kdam station on the Tonle Sap River. Observed alterations in water level patterns along the Mekong are linked to temporal and spatial trends in water infrastructure development from 1960 to 2010. We argue that variations in historical climatic factors are important, but they are not the main cause of observed changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. Our analysis shows that the development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post-1991 period have resulted in a significant increase of 7 day minimum (+91.6%), fall rates (+42%), and the number of water level fluctuations (+75) observed in Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at Mukdahan (northeast Thailand), which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse (southern Laos), alterations to the number of fluctuations and rise rate became strongly significant after 1991. The observed alterations slowly decrease downstream, but modified rise rates, fall rates, and dry season water levels were still quantifiable and significant as far as Prek Kdam. This paper provides the first set of evidence of hydrological alterations in the Mekong beyond the Chinese dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given the evident alterations with no precedence at Pakse and downstream, post-1991 changes can also be directly attributed to water infrastructure development in the Chi and Mun basins of Thailand. A reduction of 23 and 11% in the water raising and fall rates respectively at Prek

  16. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

    2006-04-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  17. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  18. Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P.; Paul, Christopher J.; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet

    2007-01-01

    Background More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. Objectives We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Methods We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. Results The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Conclusions Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents. PMID:17384768

  19. Prediction of Water-level Changes and Water Use in the High Plains Aquifer from Radar Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorological conditions are the primary driver of variations in the annual volume of groundwater pumped for irrigation from the High Plains aquifer (HPA), one of the largest aquifers of the world. Correlations between climatic indices (such as the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and mean annual water-level changes and water use have been shown to be valuable tools for assessing the aquifer's response to various climatic scenarios in the semi-arid Kansas HPA (Whittemore et al., 2015). The correlations are generally better for a relatively large area (region) of the aquifer (such as that encompassed by a climatic division) because of the number of weather stations from which the climatic indices are computed. Correlations can be poor for county-sized and smaller areas (less than a few to several hundred km2) because of the low density of weather stations. Since 2005, radar precipitation data have been served online by the National Weather Service. The radar data are adjusted based on ground observations and are available at a spatial resolution of ~4x4 km. Correlations between radar precipitation and mean annual water-level changes and water use are comparable to those using SPI for the same region. Correlations using radar precipitation data are generally higher than with SPI computed for smaller areas, such as for counties and areas around individual monitoring wells. The optimum correlations for radar precipitation are determined using sums of different spans of monthly mean precipitation that include the irrigation season for the area of interest. Coefficients of determination, R2, for radar precipitation versus annual water-level change and water use can exceed 0.8 for counties and monitoring well areas in the Kansas HPA. These correlations are being used to assess the impact of drought and water-use management on HPA sustainability. These correlations can also be used to assess the quality of the reported water-use data.

  20. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semi-annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 200.7 million gallons to municipalities on May 18, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1981 than in May and September 1980. Annual change of water levels ranged from decreases of 19 feet at Sun City well field to less than 1 foot at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  1. The effects of water-level fluctuations on weekly tree growth in a southeastern USA swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Keeland, B.D.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Annual growth of wetland trees has been shown to be related to variations in hydrologic regimes, however the relationship between water level fluctuations and tree growth season has not been documented. In a study of weekly growth patterns of three wetland tree species in a southeastern forested wetland, transfer function modeling was used to examine relationships between tree growth and the weekly changes in water levels and weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). An autoregressive-moving average model was fit to each time series of water-level changes (input series), and the selected model was then used to filter the tree-growth (output) time series. Cross-correlations between each input and output time series were examined and significant relationships between weekly changes in water levels and tree diameter were found for Nyssa sylvatica and Taxodium distichum trees growing at sites with periodic shallow flooding. There were no significant relationships between changing water levels and tree growth in areas with permanent flooding or soil saturation. Further, changes in growth of N. sylvatica, N. aquatica, and T. distichum were significantly cross-correlated with weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance at sites with either periodic or permanent flooding. 59 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Hydrogen water reduces NSE, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of hydrogen water in the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its effect on serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Forty newborns with HIE who received treatment from April 2014 to April 2015 were divided into a conventional care group and a hydrogen water group according to the different treatment methods applied. Twenty healthy full-term newborns comprised the control group. In the hydrogen water group, 5-mL/kg hydrogen water was orally administered two days after birth daily for 10 days in addition to conventional treatment. After 10 days, efficacy indicators were examined in the HIE groups. The NSE, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were compared among all three groups. The efficacy indicators were significantly lower in the hydrogen water group compared with the conventional group. Before treatment, the serum NSE, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the HIE groups were higher than those in the control group. After treatment, these levels in the hydrogen water group were lower than those in the conventional group. Hydrogen water lowers serum NSE, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in HIE newborns, thereby exerting a protective effect. PMID:28352827

  3. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John P.; Chamness, Michele A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    1999-09-07

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document, along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels.

  4. New methods to estimate 2D water level distributions of dynamic rivers.

    PubMed

    Diem, Samuel; Renard, Philippe; Schirmer, Mario

    2013-01-01

    River restoration measures are becoming increasingly popular and are leading to dynamic river bed morphologies that in turn result in complex water level distributions in a river. Disconnected river branches, nonlinear longitudinal water level profiles and morphologically induced lateral water level gradients can evolve rapidly. The modeling of such river-groundwater systems is of high practical relevance in order to assess the impact of restoration measures on the exchange flux between a river and groundwater or on the residence times between a river and a pumping well. However, the model input includes a proper definition of the river boundary condition, which requires a detailed spatial and temporal river water level distribution. In this study, we present two new methods to estimate river water level distributions that are based directly on measured data. Comparing generated time series of water levels with those obtained by a hydraulic model as a reference, the new methods proved to offer an accurate and faster alternative with a simpler implementation.

  5. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... normal and emergency conditions. The secondary indicator may consist of a gage glass, or other...

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... normal and emergency conditions. The secondary indicator may consist of a gage glass, or other...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... normal and emergency conditions. The secondary indicator may consist of a gage glass, or other...

  8. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... normal and emergency conditions. The secondary indicator may consist of a gage glass, or other...

  9. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... normal and emergency conditions. The secondary indicator may consist of a gage glass, or other...

  10. Water movement in the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; McMahon, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Four unsaturated zone monitoring sites and a meteorologic station were installed at the low level radioactive waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina, to investigate the geohydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water movement in the unsaturated zone. The study site is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The unsaturated zone consists of a few centimeters to > 1 m of surface sand, underlain by up to 15 m of clayey sand. Two monitoring sites were installed in experimental trenches and two were installed in radioactive waste trenches. Two different trench designs were evaluated at the monitoring sites. A meteorologic station was used to measure precipitation and to calculate actual evapotranspiration using the Bowen ratio method. Soil-moisture tensiometers, soil-moisture conductance probes, and temperature sensors were used to monitor soil-water movement in and adjacent to the trenches. Tracer tests using sodium chloride were conducted at each monitoring site. Data collection at the monitoring sites began in January 1982 and continued until early May 1984. Tensiometer data show that the unsaturated materials had their highest percent saturations in the winter and spring. Saturations in the backfill sand varied from 20 to 100%. They varied from about 75 to 100% in the adjacent undisturbed and overlying compacted clayey sand. Additionally, because tensiometer data indicate negligible water storage changes in the unsaturated zone, it is estimated that approximately 43 cm of recharge reached the water table. During 1984, the rise and fall of ponded water in an experimental trench was continuously monitored with a digital recorder. A cross-sectional finite element model of variably saturated flow was used to test the conceptual model of water movement in the unsaturated zone and to illustrate the effect of trench design on water movement into the experimental trenches. Monitoring and model results show that precipitation on trenches infiltrated the trench

  11. Water levels and water quality in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer (middle Claiborne aquifer) in Arkansas, spring-summer 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey has monitored water levels in the Sparta Sand of Claiborne Group and Memphis Sand of Claiborne Group (herein referred to as the Sparta Sand and the Memphis Sand, respectively) since the 1920s. Groundwater withdrawals have increased while water levels have declined since monitoring was initiated. Herein, aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand will be referred to as the Sparta-Memphis aquifer throughout Arkansas. During the spring of 2009, 324 water levels were measured in wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer and used to produce a regional potentiometric-surface map. During the summer of 2009, 64 water-quality samples were collected and measured for specific conductance, temperature, and pH from wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer. The regional direction of groundwater flow in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer is generally to the south-southeast in the northern half of Arkansas and to the east and south in the southern half of Arkansas, away from the outcrop area except where affected by large groundwater withdrawals. The highest and lowest water-level altitudes measured in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer were 325 feet above and 157 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, respectively. Eight depressions (generally represented by closed contours) are located in the following counties: Bradley; Ashley; Calhoun; Cleveland; Columbia; Arkansas, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Prairie; Cross and Poinsett; and Union. Two large depressions shown on the 2009 potentiometric-surface map, centered in Jefferson and Union Counties, are the result of large withdrawals for industrial, irrigation, or public supply. The depression centered in Jefferson County deepened and expanded in recent years into Arkansas and Prairie Counties. The area enclosed within the 40-foot contour on the 2009 potentiometric-surface map has expanded south to the Drew

  12. Ground-water level data for North Carolina, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, A.G.; Coble, R.W.; Edwards, L.A.; Pope, B.F.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous and periodic water-level measurements were made in 59 key wells throughout North Carolina. Additional measurements were made in 112 supplementary wells completed in Coastal Plain aquifers of the State. Changes in groundwater storage are shown in 3-year and 10-year hydrographs of selected wells in the State. The water table in the shallow aquifers was higher throughout most of 1989 and early 1990 than in 1988, indicating that these aquifers were sufficiently recharged by precipitation to replenish the late 1987-88 deficit in groundwater storage. Water levels in the heavily pumped Coastal Plain aquifers declined as a result of water being withdrawn from aquifer storage. Record low water levels were measured in 8 to 13 wells completed in the Castle Hayne aquifer and in 6 of 8 wells in the Peedee aquifer; the maximum annual declines during 1988-90 averaged 3.3 and 1.6 ft/yr, respectively, for these two aquifers. All wells in the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers had record low water levels during 1988-90, with maximum annual declines averaging 9.0, 2.2, and 2.6 ft/yr, respectively. Water levels in two of three wells in the Yorktown aquifer did not show a general downward trend during 1988-90, although water levels declined in the third well, reaching a record low in 1990. The effects of water withdrawals from major pumping centers in the North Carolina Coastal Plain are shown in potentiometric-surface maps of the Black Creek and lower Cape Fear aquifers.

  13. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-05-01

    On 28-30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  14. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  15. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  16. Combined effects of projected sea level rise, storm surge, and peak river flows on water levels in the Skagit Floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamman, Josheph J; Hamlet, Alan F.; Fuller, Roger; Grossman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding of the combined effects of sea level rise (SLR), storm surge, and changes in river flooding on near-coastal environments is very limited. This project uses a suite of numerical models to examine the combined effects of projected future climate change on flooding in the Skagit floodplain and estuary. Statistically and dynamically downscaled global climate model scenarios from the ECHAM-5 GCM were used as the climate forcings. Unregulated daily river flows were simulated using the VIC hydrology model, and regulated river flows were simulated using the SkagitSim reservoir operations model. Daily tidal anomalies (TA) were calculated using a regression approach based on ENSO and atmospheric pressure forcing simulated by the WRF regional climate model. A 2-D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the reservoir simulation model, and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and TA. Combining peak annual TA with projected sea level rise, the historical (1970–1999) 100-yr peak high water level is exceeded essentially every year by the 2050s. The combination of projected sea level rise and larger floods by the 2080s yields both increased flood inundation area (+ 74%), and increased average water depth (+ 25 cm) in the Skagit floodplain during a 100-year flood. Adding sea level rise to the historical FEMA 100-year flood resulted in a 35% increase in inundation area by the 2040's, compared to a 57% increase when both SLR and projected changes in river flow were combined.

  17. Hydrological drivers of record-setting water level rise on Earth's largest lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Bruxer, J.; Durnford, D.; Smith, J. P.; Clites, A. H.; Seglenieks, F.; Qian, S. S.; Hunter, T. S.; Fortin, V.

    2016-05-01

    Between January 2013 and December 2014, water levels on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan-Huron, the two largest lakes on Earth by surface area, rose at the highest rate ever recorded for a 2 year period beginning in January and ending in December of the following year. This historic event coincided with below-average air temperatures and extensive winter ice cover across the Great Lakes. It also brought an end to a 15 year period of persistently below-average water levels on Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron that included several months of record-low water levels. To differentiate hydrological drivers behind the recent water level rise, we developed a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for inferring historical estimates of the major components of each lake's water budget. Our results indicate that, in 2013, the water level rise on Lake Superior was driven by increased spring runoff and over-lake precipitation. In 2014, reduced over-lake evaporation played a more significant role in Lake Superior's water level rise. The water level rise on Lake Michigan-Huron in 2013 was also due to above-average spring runoff and persistent over-lake precipitation, while in 2014, it was due to a rare combination of below-average evaporation, above-average runoff and precipitation, and very high inflow rates from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River. We expect, in future research, to apply our new framework across the other Laurentian Great Lakes, and to Earth's other large freshwater basins as well.

  18. Level of Fluoride in Soil, Grain and Water in Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Vishwakarma, Prashanth; Jadhav, Harish Chaitram; Khairnar, Mahesh Ravindra; Deshmukh, Manjiri Abhay; Wadgave, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has an influence on both oral as well as systemic health. The major source of fluoride to body is through drinking water as well as through diet. Staple diet mainly depends on local environmental factors, food grains grown locally, its availability etc. Determination of fluoride level in these food grains is important. So, estimation of the amount of fluoride in grains and its relation to the sources of fluoride used for their cultivation viz., soil and water is important. Aim To estimate the relation of fluoride concentration in grains (Jowar) with respect to that of soil and water used for their cultivation. Materials and Methods Fifteen samples each of soil, water and grains were collected using standardized method from the same farm fields of randomly selected villages of Jalgaon district. Fluoride ion concentration was determined in laboratory using SPADNS technique. Mean difference in fluoride levels in between the groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey test. Linear regression method was applied to analyse the association of the fluoride content of grain with water and soil. Results There was a significant difference in between mean fluoride levels of soil and water (p<0.001) and in between soil and grain (p<0.001); however, difference in between mean fluoride levels of water and grain was found to be non significant (p=0.591). Also fluoride levels in all the three groups showed significant association with each other. Conclusion Fluoride level of soil, grains and water should be adjusted to an optimum level. Soil has positive correlation with respect to uptake of fluoride by Jowar grains. So, Jowar grains with optimum fluoride content should be made available in the commercial markets so that oral and general health can be benefitted. PMID:28384970

  19. Spoil banks: Effects on a coastal marsh water-level regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erick M.; Turner, R. E.

    1987-05-01

    Above- and below-ground water-level fluctuations were measured in the marshes south of New Orleans, Louisiana, between November 1982 and December 1983. The purpose of the program was to define the basic marsh water-level regime and to investigate how canal spoil banks may influence the water-level regime. Two study areas were used: (1) a control area, defined as a section of marsh with unrestricted hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou; and, (2) a partially-impounded area, defined as an area with limited hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou due to the presence of dredged canal spoil banks. Data sources included marsh water levels from gages deployed at three sites within the study areas and water levels from the adjacent bayous obtained from the tide gages of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from all marsh gage sites showed a similar pattern with a distinct surface and subsurface diurnal tidal signal superimposed upon other, larger scale events. These larger scale events correspond to the passage of weather fronts. The data also indicated that a significant amount of water-level fluctuation in the marshes occurs below ground. A comparison of the control area and the partially-impounded site indicated that the spoil banks changed the response of the marsh water levels to the forcing from the bayou, with the result that the partially-impounded area: (1) was flooded 141 hours more per month than the control area; (2) had fewer, but longer flooding events; (3) had fewer but longer drying events; and (4) reduced water exchange, both above and below ground.

  20. The effects of water-level fluctuations on vegetation in a Lake Huron wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Nichols, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity and resultant habitat value of wetland plant communities in the Laurentian Great Lake's are dependent on water-level fluctuations of varying frequency and amplitude. Conceptual models have described the response of vegetation to alternating high and low lake levels, but few quantitative studies have documented the changes that occur. In response to recent concerns over shoreline management activities during an ongoing period of low lake levels in lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron that began in 1999, we analyzed a quantitative data set from Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron collected from 1988 to 1993 during a previous lake-level decline to provide the needed information on vegetation responses. Transects were established that followed topographic contours with water-level histories that differed across a six-year period, ranging from barely flooded to dewatered for varying numbers of years to never dewatered. Percent cover data from randomly placed quadrats along those transects were analyzed to assess floristic changes over time, document development of distinct plant assemblages, and relate the results to lake-level changes. Ordinations showed that plant assemblages sorted out by transects that reflect differing water-level histories. Distinction of assemblages was maintained for at least three years, although the composition and positioning of those assemblages changed as lake levels changed. We present a model that uses orthogonal axes to plot transects by years out of water against distance above water and sorted those transects in a manner that matched ordination results. The model suggests that vegetation response following dewatering is dependent on both position along the water level/soil moisture gradient and length of time since dewatering. This study provided quantitative evidence that lake-level fluctuations drive vegetative change in Great Lakes wetlands, and it may assist in making decisions regarding shoreline management in areas that

  1. Kalman filter approach for estimating water level time series over inland water using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, since some years, this technology is also used for observing inland water levels of lakes and rivers. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water" (DAHITI). The method is based on a Kalman filter approach incorporating multi-mission altimeter observations and their uncertainties. As input data, cross-calibrated altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa are used. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparison with in-situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in-situ data between 4 and 38 cm for lakes and 12 and 139 cm for rivers, respectively. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from available other altimeter data bases can be achieved.

  2. Water-level altitudes 1997, water-level changes 1977-97 and 1996-97, and compaction 1973-96 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Coplin, L.S.; Santos, Horacio X.

    1997-01-01

    This report is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes since 1977 and compaction since 1973 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas.

  3. Water-level altitudes 1995, water-level changes 1977-95 and 1994-95, and compaction 1973-94 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Coplin, L.S.; Santos, Horacio X.

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in an annual series of reports that depicts altitudes of water levels and water-level changes since 1977 and compaction since 1973 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas.

  4. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  5. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Amy E.; Crump, John A.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Slutsker, Laurence; Quick, Robert E.; Vulule, John M.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007), but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk. PMID:21139864

  6. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  7. Data on ground-water levels and ground-water/surface-water relations in the Great Miami River and Little Miami River valleys, southwestern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, William P.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected in September, October, and November 1993 to define the ground-water levels and the ground-water/surface-water relations in the vicinity of Dayton, Ohio. In this report, water levels are listed for 678 wells completed in sand and gravel. Data from 101 streamflow measurements made at selected sites along the Great Miami, Stillwater, Mad, and Little Miami Rivers and their tributaries during 2-day gain-loss study also are listed. Surface-water altitudes were determined at 11 stream-gaging stations and 39 other streamflow measurement sites. Discharge data for measurements made at 30 storm-sewer outfalls are given. Streamflow and discharge data obtained during the study were used to calculate the gain or loss of streamflow along 16 selected reaches of the Great Miami, Stillwater, Mad, and Little Miami Rivers. Streambed-conductivity data obtained by use of seepage meters at nine different sites also are given.

  8. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Fuller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS initially operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham (H5r), Fairhaven (H9r), Grant (H2r), and Lake Townships (H25Ar) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report (fig. 1). The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only wells H9r and H25Ar retained continuous water-level recorders, while wells H2r and H5r reverted to quarterly or periodic measurement status due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. Well H2r was selected for periodic measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is absent in much of Huron County and well H5r, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected because the water level in the well is often perturbed as a result of pumpage from nearby production wells and does not always reflect baseline conditions within the aquifer. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level in 24 of the wells on a quarterly basis. USGS personnel accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel on a semi-annual basis to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the meanmonthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from

  9. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1995 through December 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made.

  10. A study on organotin levels in Canadian drinking water distributed through PVC pipes.

    PubMed

    Sadiki, A I; Williams, D T

    1999-03-01

    A study on organotin compounds in Canadian drinking water was carried out in winter-spring 1996 (28 sites) and autumn 1996 (21 sites). Approximately 29% and 40% of distribution waters supplied through PVC pipes installed recently (typically less than 6 months) contained organotin compounds in the winter-spring and autumn surveys respectively. Monomethyl-, dimethyl-, monobutyl- and dibutyltin levels ranged up to 291 ng Sn/L, 49.1 ng Sn/L, 28.5 ng Sn/L and 52.3 ng Sn/L, respectively. An additional study in summer 1996, of locations where the highest organotin levels were detected in the winter-spring survey, indicated that organotin levels had decreased in most distribution water samples. Samples of PVC pipe/tubing contained organotin compounds consistent with the organotin patterns found in the distribution water samples.

  11. Water-level monitoring in the area of the Palmdale Uplift, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, D.L.; Merifield, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    Abnormal behavior of water levels in wells has been observed prior to a number of earthquakes. For instance, water-level minima have been noted in the Cienega Winery well before earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. Abnormal water-level fluctuations were used in conjunctions with other precursors to predict the February 4, 1975, Haicheng earthquake in northeastern China. That such changes should occur prior to earthquakes is not surprising. Ground water that occupies the void spaces in porous rocks or alluvium can be expected to rise in wells when an aquifer is squeezed and fall when it is distended. COnfined aquifers, in particualr, have been found to be highly sensitive to Earth strain changes. 

  12. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  13. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 141.8 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Potentiometric levels in the Floridan aquifer were higher in September 1980 than in May 1980 and generally lower than in September 1979. Annual change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 6 feet at Morris Bridge well field to an increase of 2 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  14. Hydrologic effects on water level changes associated with episodic fault creep near Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, E.A.; Burford, S.S.; Riley, F.S.; Records, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction experiment, water level is monitored in a well 460 m from the main trace of the San Andreas fault on Middle Mountain, in the preparation zone of the anticipated Parkfield earthquake. The well configuration allows water level to be monitored in two fluid reservoirs at depths of 85 and 250 m below land surface. During 1987, water level changes were recorded during 12 of the 18 episodes of accelerated fault creep detected by a creep meter spanning the fault trace 750 m northwest of the well. The creep-related water level changes in the shallow reservoir have durations of less than 1 day, whereas in the deeper reservoir the changes persist for as long as 2 months. These data suggest that the transient nature of the water level changes in the shallow interval is due to vertical flow to the water table and is not evidence that creep events propagate past the well. -from Authors

  15. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to collect water-level altitudes (hereafter referred to as water levels) at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships will have continuous water-level recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships will revert to quarterly measurement status. USGS has also provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 23 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 23 quarterly-measured wells is also summarized in the annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998).The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville and Harbor Beach, and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2002-04; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003-04). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period of this study was measured in

  16. Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Between December 1993 and March 1994, 27 wells were installed at 12 sites near the J4 test cell at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. This information will be used to help understand the effects of dewatering operations at the J4 test cell on the local ground-water-flow system. The J4 test cell, extending approximately 250 feet below land surface, is used in the testing of rocket motors. Ground water must be pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep it structurally intact. The amount of water discharged from the J4 test cell was monitored to estimate the average rate of ground-water withdrawal at the J4 test cell. Ground- water levels were monitored continuously at 14 wells for 12 months. Water-quality samples were collected from 26 of the new wells, 9 existing wells, and the ground-water discharge from the J4 test cell. All samples were analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds.

  17. Water levels and water quality in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer (middle Claiborne aquifer) in Arkansas, spring-summer 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, has monitored water levels in the Sparta Sand of Claiborne Group and Memphis Sand of Claiborne Group (herein referred to as “the Sparta Sand” and “the Memphis Sand,” respectively) since the 1920s. Groundwater withdrawals have increased while water levels have declined since monitoring was initiated. Herein, aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand will be referred to as “the Sparta-Memphis aquifer” throughout Arkansas. During the spring of 2011, 291 water levels were measured in wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer and used to produce a regional potentiometric-surface map. During the summer of 2011, groundwater-quality samples were collected and measured from 61 wells for specific conductance, pH, and temperature.In the northern half of Arkansas, the regional direction of groundwater flow in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer is generally to the south-southeast and flows east and south in the southern half of Arkansas. The groundwater in the southern half of Arkansas flows away from the outcrop area except where affected by large depressions in the potentiometric surface. The highest and lowest water-level altitudes measured in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer were 326 feet above and 120 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29), respectively.Five depressions are located in the following counties: Arkansas, Cleveland, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Prairie; Union; Cross, Poinsett, St. Francis, and Woodruff; Columbia; and Bradley. Two large depressions, centered in Jefferson and Union Counties, are the result of large withdrawals for industrial, irrigation, or public supply. The depression centered in Jefferson County has expanded in recent years into Arkansas and Prairie Counties as a result of large withdrawals for irrigation and public supply. The lowest water-level altitude measured in this depression is

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Water Levels in Bedrock Wells in New Hampshire, 1984 to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Kernen, Brandon M.; Wunsch, David R.; Argue, Denise M.; Bennett, Derek S.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    These data provided an opportunity to examine groundwater-level conditions across the state; however, the bedrock wells used in this study would not be suitable for rigorous evaluation of trends in SWL across the state because the locations and characteristics of the wells vary with time. Further, these wells cannot substitute for a carefully designed network of wells selected for the sole purpose of monitoring trends in water levels over time. The SWL data may be useful in the design of a monitoring network, and continued collection of water-level data from the bedrock wells could be used to augment data from monitoring wells.

  19. Water level and strain changes preceding and following the August 4, 1985 Kettleman Hills, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, E.; Quilty, E.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the four wells monitored near Parkfield, California, during 1985 showed water level rises beginning three days before the M4 6.1 Kettleman Hills earthquake. In one of these wells, the 3.0 cm rise was nearly unique in five years of water level data. However, in the other well, which showed a 3.8 cm rise, many other changes of comparable size have been observed. Both wells that did not display pre-earthquake rises tap partially confined aquifers that cannot sustain pressure changes due to tectonic strain having periods longer than several days. We evaluate the effect of partial aquifer confinement on the ability of these four wells to display water level changes in response to aquifer strain. Although the vertical hydraulic diffusivities cannot be determined uniquely, we can find a value of diffusivity for each site that is consistent with the site's tidal and barometric responses as well as with the rate of partial recovery of the coseismic water level drops. Furthermore, the diffusivity for one well is high enough to explain why the preseismic rise could not have been detected there. For the fourth well, the diffusivity is high enough to have reduced the size of the preseismic signal as much as 50%, although it should still have been detectable. Imperfect confinement cannot explain the persistent water level changes in the two partially confined aquifers, but it does show that they were not due to volume strain. The pre-earthquake water level rises may have been precursors to the Kettleman Hills earthquake. If so, they probably were not caused by accelerating slip over the part of the fault plane that ruptured in that earthquake because they are of opposite sign to the observed coseismic water level drops.

  20. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  1. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society

  2. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  3. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  4. Louisiana/Everglades wetland water level monitoring using satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Shum, C.; Lu, Z.; Alsdorf, D.; Ibaraki, M.; Braun, A.; Kuo, C.

    2008-05-01

    Coastal estuaries, which connect coastal ocean, wetlands and coastal land region, play important roles in ecological environments. Wetlands typically occur in low-lying areas on the edges of lakes, and rivers, or in coastal areas protected from waves and are found in a variety of climates on every continent except Antarctica. Wetlands not only provide habitat for thousands of aquatic/terrestrial plant and animal species but also control floods by holding water much like a sponge by absorbing and reducing the velocity of storm-water. Human activities have so many negative impacts on wetlands and they became main contributing factors to the wetlands losses. For example, Louisiana's wetlands have lost more than 100 km2 of its area per year (Walker et al., 1987; Bourne, 2000). The loss of Louisiana wetlands as a result of ecological erosion or geological subsidence potentially have had significant impacts in slowing down storm surge from the devastating Hurricane Katrina. The ability to quantitatively measure accurate wetland water level changes in Louisiana has impacts on ecology and natural hazards mitigation including improved storm surge modeling resulting from hurricanes. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been proven to be useful to measure centimeter-scale water level changes over Amazon flood plain and Everglades wetland using L-band SAR imagery. This is based on the fact that flooded forests permit double-bounce returns, which allow InSAR coherence to be maintained. Furthermore, ERS-1/2 C-band InSAR data have been used to demonstrate its feasibility to monitor water level changes over Louisiana wetlands. In addition, satellite radar altimetry has been used to measure inland water level variation over large river basins. In this study, we use the decadal (1992-2002) Topex/Poseidon (T/P) measurements from cycle 9 to 364 to detect water level changes of Louisiana's and Everglades' wetlands, where the water surfaces are calm or vegetated, causing

  5. Analysis of changes in water-level dynamics at selected sites in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Benedict, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    The historical modification and regulation of the hydrologic patterns in the Florida Everglades have resulted in changes in the ecosystem of South Florida and the Florida Everglades. Since the 1970s, substantial focus has been given to the restoration of the Everglades ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey through its Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science and National Water-Quality Assessment Programs has been providing scientific information to resource managers to assist in the Everglades restoration efforts. The current investigation included development of a simple method to identify and quantify changes in historical hydrologic behavior within the Everglades that could be used by researchers to identify responses of ecological communities to those changes. Such information then could be used by resource managers to develop appropriate water-management practices within the Everglades to promote restoration. The identification of changes in historical hydrologic behavior within the Everglades was accomplished by analyzing historical time-series water-level data from selected gages in the Everglades using (1) break-point analysis of cumulative Z-scores to identify hydrologic changes and (2) cumulative water-level frequency distribution curves to evaluate the magnitude of those changes. This analytical technique was applied to six long-term water-level gages in the Florida Everglades. The break-point analysis for the concurrent period of record (1978–2011) identified 10 common periods of changes in hydrologic behavior at the selected gages. The water-level responses at each gage for the 10 periods displayed similarity in fluctuation patterns, highlighting the interconnectedness of the Florida Everglades hydrologic system. While the patterns were similar, the analysis also showed that larger fluctuations in water levels between periods occurred in Water Conservation Areas 2 and 3 in contrast to those in Water Conservation Area 1 and the Everglades

  6. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

    1999-09-30

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside

  7. Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated water-level fluctuation (maximum water depth - minimum water depth/catchment size) in 12 temporary, 12 seasonal, and 12 semipermanent wetlands equally distributed among landscapes dominated by tilled agricultural lands and landscapes dominated by grassland. Water levels fluctuated an average of 14.14 cm in wetlands within tilled agricultural landscapes, while water levels in wetlands within grassland landscapes fluctuated an average of only 4.27 cm. Tillage reduces the natural capacity of catch meets to mitigate surface flow into wetland basins during precipitation events, resulting in greater water-level fluctuations in wetlands with tilled catchments. In addition, water levels in temporary and seasonal wetlands fluctuated an average of 13.74 cm and 11.82 cm, respectively, while water levels in semipermanent wetlands fluctuated only 2.77 cm. Semipermanent wetlands receive a larger proportion of their water as input from ground water than do either temporary or seasonal wetlands. This input of water from the ground has a stabilizing effect on water-levels of semipermanent wetlands. Increases in water-level fluctuation due to tillage or due to alteration of ground-water hydrology may ultimately affect the composition of a wetland's flora and fauna. In this paper, we also describe an inexpensive device for determining absolute maximum and minimum water levels in wetlands.

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  9. Ground-water and surface-water-level data at Rindge Tract on the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel, San Joaquin County, California, 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Michael J.; Johnson, Karen L.

    1986-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is formed at the confluence of the two major rivers that drain the Central Valley of California. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and many interconnecting sloughs meandered back and forth across the tidelands, frequently overflowing their banks. Approximately 1 ,100 miles of levees were constructed to form about 60 tracts or islands that protect these lands from periodic flooding. The levees were constructed of sand, silt, and peat dredged from the channel bottom and are subject to erosion and failure. Owing to compaction, oxidation of the peat, and other related conditions, the islands are subsiding at rates of up to 0.25 ft/yr. The altitude of the land surface of the islands is often below sea level and below the surface water level in the channel. This condition causes stresses that may contribute to high groundwater levels and levee failure. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the U.S. Geological Survey install and maintain continuous recorders to monitor water levels in each of four wells. Monitoring which began in July 1983 also provided data to show the relation between surface water levels in the channel and groundwater levels in the wells. Dredging began in the area of the Rindge Tract site during the latter part of July 1983. Water levels in all four wells dropped 1.5 to 2 ft between September 1983 and September 1984 and continued to drop thorough December 1984. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Estimation of Missing Water-Level Data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface elevation models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-2009) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN and their goal of providing quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill missing data. To minimize the occurrences of no estimation of data due to missing data for an input station, a minimum of three linear regression equations were developed for each station using different input stations. Of the 726 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 239 stations, more than 60 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 92 percent have an coefficient of determination greater than 0.70.

  11. Hydration level dependence of the microscopic dynamics of water adsorbed in ultramicroporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Mamontov, Eugene; Yue, Yanfeng; Bahadur, Jitendra; ...

    2016-10-20

    Even when not functionalized intentionally, most carbon materials are not hydrophobic and readily adsorb water molecules from atmospheric water vapor. We have equilibrated an ultramicroporous carbon at several levels of relative humidity, thereby attaining various hydration levels. The water molecules were adsorbed on the pore walls (but did not fill completely the pore volume) and thus could be better described as hydration, or surface, rather than confined, water. We used quasielastic neutron scattering to perform a detailed investigation of the dependence of microscopic dynamics of these adsorbed water species on the hydration level and temperature. The behavior of hydration watermore » in ultramicroporous carbon clearly demonstrates the same universal traits that characterize surface (hydration) water in other materials that are surface-hydrated. In addition, unless special treatment is intentionally applied to ultramicroporous carbon, the species filling its pores in various applications, ranging from hydrogen molecules to electrolytes, likely find themselves in contact with non-freezing water molecules characterized by rich microscopic dynamics.« less

  12. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized

  13. Water-level oscillations caused by volumetric and deviatoric dynamic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Eyal; Kurzon, Ittai; Doan, Mai-Linh; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Travelling seismic waves and Earth tides are known to cause oscillations in well water levels due to the volumetric strain characteristics of the ground motion. Although the response of well water levels to S and Love waves has been reported, it has not yet been quantified. In this paper we describe and explain the behaviour of a closed artesian water well (Gomè 1) in response to teleseismic earthquakes. This well is located within a major fault zone and screened at a highly damaged (cracked) sandstone layer. We adopt the original Skempton approach where both volumetric and deviatoric stresses (and strains) affect pore pressure. Skempton's coefficients < tex - mathid = "IM0001" > B and < tex - mathid = "IM0002" > A couple the volumetric and deviatoric stresses respectively with pore pressure and < tex - mathid = "IM0003" > BKu and < tex - mathid = "IM0004" > N are the equivalent coupling terms to volumetric and deviatoric strains. The water level in this well responds dramatically to volumetric strain (P and Rayleigh waves) as well as to deviatoric strain (S and Love waves). This response is explained by the nonlinear elastic behaviour of the highly damaged rocks. The water level response to deviatoric strain depends on the damage in the rock; deviatoric strain loading on damaged rock results in high water level amplitudes, and no response in undamaged rock. We find high values of < tex - mathid = "IM0005" > N= 8.5 GPa that corresponds to -0.5 < A < -0.25 expected at highly damaged rocks. We propose that the Gomè 1 well is located within fractured rocks, and therefore, dilatency is high, and the response of water pressure to deviatoric deformation is high. This analysis is supported by the agreement between the estimated compressibility of the aquifer, independently calculated from Earth tides, seismic response of the water pressure and other published data.

  14. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  15. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G; Salisbury, Frank B

    2002-03-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  16. Estimation of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Mamoru; Yamakage, Yuzuru; Tsuda, Morimasa; Yanami, Hitoshi; Anai, Hirokazu; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-04-01

    This presentation shows two aspects of the parameter identification to estimate the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization. One is how to adjust the parameters to estimate the discharges accurately. The other is which optimization algorithms are suitable for the parameter identification. Regarding the previous studies, there is a study that minimizes the weighted error of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by single-objective optimization. On the other hand, there are some studies that minimize the multiple error assessment functions of the discharge of a single water level station by multi-objective optimization. This presentation features to simultaneously minimize the errors of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization. Abe River basin in Japan is targeted. The basin area is 567.0km2. There are thirteen rainfall stations and three water level stations. Nine flood events are investigated. They occurred from 2005 to 2012 and the maximum discharges exceed 1,000m3/s. The discharges are calculated with PWRI distributed hydrological model. The basin is partitioned into the meshes of 500m x 500m. Two-layer tanks are placed on each mesh. Fourteen parameters are adjusted to estimate the discharges accurately. Twelve of them are the hydrological parameters and two of them are the parameters of the initial water levels of the tanks. Three objective functions are the mean squared errors between the observed and calculated discharges at the water level stations. Latin Hypercube sampling is one of the uniformly sampling algorithms. The discharges are calculated with respect to the parameter values sampled by a simplified version of Latin Hypercube sampling. The observed discharge is surrounded by the calculated discharges. It suggests that it might be possible to estimate the discharge accurately by adjusting the parameters. In a sense, it is true that the discharge of a water

  17. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  18. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    PubMed

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change.

  19. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability.

  20. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  1. Interactive Effects of Water level and Temperature on Tundra Carbon Flux Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, P. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    Arctic regions store important amounts of soil carbon in an unstable state because of saturated soils and low temperatures. Temperature and soil water may also strongly influence the productivity of tundra ecosystems. As a result, changes in water availability and temperature could have significant effects on the carbon balance. However, as the climate changes, the direction and the magnitude of changes in the carbon balance in response to these potentially interacting physical factors are uncertain. To evaluate the effects of water regime, we have initiated a large hydrological manipulation at Barrow, Alaska where we have maintained flooded, drained, and intermediate water levels in a drained thaw lake basin. To test the interactive effects of temperature and water level, we passively increased the temperature of the surface using open top chambers (OTCs) in each of the three water-level treatments. To quantify the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem carbon balance, we measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components, ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross primary production (GPP) using static chamber methods. Growing seasons differed strongly between 2007 and 2008, the being former hotter, brighter and drier. Interannual differences in water availability revealed an important reduction in ER for both OTC and non- temperature treated plots as a consequence of increased water table in 2008. The effect of increased water table on GPP was not as strong as the effect on ER. However, in areas where most the leaf area was submerged, GPP was strongly reduced. As a result, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was greater (stronger sink activity) in 2008 than in 2007 for the non-temperature treated plots. The OTCs enhanced the effects of lower water availability on the flux components. During the dry year (2007) both the ER and GPP were positively affected with the stronger effect on GPP. As result the NEE was higher in the OTCs. In 2008, the combination of higher

  2. Hydraulic Properties and Water Level Changes in the Missouri Coteau near Minot N.D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, K. C.; Nissen, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The city of Minot, N.D. is experiencing rapid population growth due to expansion of petroleum extraction from oil shale in the Williston Basin. Minot is located on the edge of the Missouri Escarpment, which separates the Missouri Coteau upland (site of Prairie Potholes) to the southwest and the Mouse (Souris) River Basin to the northeast (lowland Drift Prairie). The Missouri Coteau is underlain by horizontally bedded Fort Union Formation (Tertiary sand, silt, and clay) and covered with Quaternary glacial till, as much as 130-feet thick. Surface water on the crest of the Missouri Coteau is deranged and the high areas do not flow coherently out of the area, but lower elevation slopes do have integrated dendritic drainage. Despite deranged surface-water flow in the Missouri Coteau upland area, ground water slopes more or less coherently to the North East towards the Mouse River. The North East slope of the Missouri Coteau has primarily agricultural land use, mostly dry-land farming. There is little irrigated farming here. Water is used for livestock and domestic purposes. Ground water levels were compiled for the region in and around Minot in 1968, and more-recently-drilled wells are documented in the web site of the N.D. State Water Commission. About 20-years ago, the North Prairie Rural Water District (NPRWD) expanded into the Missouri Coteau (near Minot). The North Prairie Rural water is softer than local well water; it is much preferred by residents; and as a result the water district has undergone expansion. This has led to disuse, neglect, and abandonment of rural wells. In addition, the current time frame appears to be the beginning of a sustained period of urban growth and much more rapid ground water use in the Minot area. We hypothesize that water levels have fallen since the 1960's, particularly in and near the Minot City well field. We also hypothesize that more detailed study of hydraulic properties, horizontal extent of local geologic materials, and

  3. Coseismic water level changes induced by two distant earthquakes in multiple wells of the Chinese mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuchuan; Huang, Fuqiong

    2017-01-01

    Coseismic water level oscillations, or step-like rises and step-like drops were recorded in 159 wells throughout the Chinese mainland due to the 2015 Nepal Mw 7.8 earthquake, and 184 wells for the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake. The earthquake magnitude, and the associated dynamic stresses, has positive roles in both the sensitivity of water level to earthquake induced change, and the amplitude and duration of resulting coseismic water level changes. Wells whose water levels are sensitive to Earth tides have high potential to response to earthquakes. Polarities of step-like changes (rises or drops) are locally controlled and spatially variable, with artesian wells generally recording water-level rises. Permeability enhancement was assessed as a mechanism responsible for step-like changes by analyzing the tidal phase responses. Permeability variations are inferred for 17 out of 95 wells with step-like changes during the Nepal earthquake and for 32 out of 105 wells following the Japan earthquake; however, only 6 wells have permeability variations after both earthquakes.

  4. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since the early 1960s. Together with a digital data logger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the wide use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported regarding their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effects of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were considered in this study. The pressure transducers were tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  5. Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, J.E.; Hanson, R.T.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Leake, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

  6. Comparison of recreation use values among alternative reservoir water level management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordell, H. Ken; Bergstrom, John C.

    1993-02-01

    Throughout the United States, reservoirs are managed for multiple uses, including hydropower, stream flow regulation, flood control, and recreation. Water level drawdowns for hydropower, stream flow regulation, and flood control often reduce the suitability of reservoirs for water-based recreation. The gain in aggregate economic use value of outdoor recreation under three alternative water level management scenarios was measured for four reservoirs in western North Carolina as part of an interagency policy analysis. Use values were estimated using a contingent valuation survey and expert panel data. The basic question addressed by this study was whether the value recreational users place on higher water levels held longer into the summer and fall is significantly greater than the value of using these reservoirs as they were managed at the time of this study. Maintaining high water levels for longer periods during the summer and fall was found to result in considerable gains in estimated recreational benefits. While not a primary objective of this study, having these estimates provided us an opportunity to compare increased recreational benefits with the value the Tennessee Valley Authority estimated for the reduced production of electricity that would result if the lakes were managed to hold reservoir levels higher, longer into the year.

  7. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data.

    PubMed

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E

    2006-10-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines.

  9. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    PubMed Central

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. Design An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Primary and secondary outcome measures Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. Results The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100 000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (p<0.001). Analyses also confirmed correlations between drinking water calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Conclusions Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started

  10. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  11. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  12. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  13. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  14. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  15. Generalized water-table and water-level data at the US Air Force plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California, March-April, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Plant 42 (Plant 42) which is in the Antelope Valley about 1.5 miles northeast of Palmdale and 3 miles southeast of Lancaster in Los Angeles County. Historically, ground water has been the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Since 1972, supplemental surface water has been imported from the California Water Project to help meet the demand for water. Despite the importation of surface water, ground-water withdrawal for both municipal and agricultural uses is affecting ground-water levels in the vicinity of Plant 42. To better understand the effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground-water levels and movement in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, constructed a generalized water-table-contour map of the aquifer system underlying Plant 42 and the surrounding area.

  16. Modeling and experimental examination of water level effects on radon exhalation from fragmented uranium ore.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong-Jun; Dai, Xin-Tao; Ding, De-Xin; Zhao, Ya-Li

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model of radon transport in fragmented uranium ore was established according to Fick's law and radon transfer theory in an air-water interface. The model was utilized to obtain an analytical solution for radon concentration in the air-water, two-phase system under steady state conditions, as well as a corresponding radon exhalation rate calculation formula. We also designed a one-dimensional experimental apparatus for simulating radon diffusion migration in the uranium ore with various water levels to verify the mathematical model. The predicted results were in close agreement with the measured results, suggesting that the proposed model can be readily used to determine radon concentrations and exhalation rates in fragmented uranium ore with varying water levels.

  17. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  18. Levels of water-soluble vitamins in methanogenic and non-methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotropicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine which were approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. The thiamine level in Methanococcus voltae was approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Only the levels of riboflavin (and nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in Methanococcus voltae) were approximately equal in the methanogens and nonmethanogens. Folic acid may have been present in extracts of methanogens merely as a precursor, by-product, or hydrolysis product of methanopterin.

  19. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  20. Rising water levels and the future of southeastern Louisiana swamp forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, W.H.; Brody, M.

    1989-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the deterioration of wetland forests in Louisiana is increasing water levels resulting from eustatic sea-level rise and subsidence. Analyses of long-term water level records from the Barataria and Verret watersheds in southeastern Louisiana indicate an apparent sea level rise of about 1-m per century, mainly the result of subsidence. Permanent study plots were established in cypress-tupelo stands in these two watersheds. The tree, water level, and subsidence data collected in these plots were entered into the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servicea??s FORFLO bottomland hardwood succession model to determine the long-term effects of rising water levels on forest structure. Analyses were made of 50a??100 years for a cypress-tupelo swamp site in each basin and a bottomland hardwood ridge in the Verret watershed. As flooding increased, less flood tolerant species were replaced by cypress-tupelo within 50 years. As flooding continued, the sites start to become nonforested. From the test analyses, the FORFLO model seems to be an excellent tool for predicting long-term changes in the swamp habitat of south Louisiana.

  1. Influence of weather extremes on the water levels of glaciated prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W.C.; Boettcher, S.E.; Poiani, K.A.; Guntenspergen, G.

    2004-01-01

    Orchid Meadows is a long-term wetland research and monitoring site on the Coteau des Prairie in extreme east-central South Dakota, USA. It is a 65-ha Waterfowl Production Area with numerous temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent wetlands. Ground water and surface water have been monitored at the site from 1987 to 1989 and from 1993 to the present. Vegetation has been monitored since 1993. The monitoring record includes two nearly back-to-back weather extremes: a drought in the late 1980s and a deluge in the early- to mid-1990s. Wetlands differed sharply in water levels between 3-yr dry and wet periods. For example, the time of inundation ranged among semi-permanent wetlands from 13 to 71 percent during the dry years to 100 percent during the wet years, while for seasonal wetlands, it was 0-29 percent and 46-100 percent, respectively, during dry and wet periods. Temporary wetlands had no surface water during the dry period but had standing water 0-67 percent of the time during the deluge years. The highest ground-water levels during the dry period were lower than most levels during the wet period. The difference in the water-table elevations of temporary wetlands between the periods was as much as 4 m. Ground-water levels near semi-permanent wetlands were considerably more stable (annual range of 0.3-1.6 m) than those near temporary wetlands (1.3-2.5 m). The results support the concept that weather extremes drive the wetland cover cycle and other key ecological processes in prairie wetlands. The new data from Orchid Meadows, together with other long-term data sets from North Dakota and Saskatchewan, Canada, are useful for many research purposes, including the parameterization and testing of models that simulate the effects of climate variability and climate change on prairie wetland ecosystems.

  2. System-level Analysis of Chilled Water Systems Aboard Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-24

    System-level Analysis of Chilled Water Systems Aboard Naval Ships Hessam Babaee, Julie Chalfant, Chryssostomos Chryssostomidis MIT Sea Grant...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Email: babaee@mit.edu Amiel B. Sanfiorenzo † Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance ... water cooling systems using first principles. We begin with a short list of required inputs appropriate to the early stages of design: 1) Basic ship

  3. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  4. The drinking water contamination crisis in Flint: Modeling temporal trends of lead level since returning to Detroit water system.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water close to 25,000 water samples have been collected and tested for lead and copper in >10,000 residences. This paper presents the first analysis and time trend modeling of lead data, providing new insights about the impact of this intervention. The analysis started with geocoding all water lead levels (WLL) measured during an 11-month period following the return to the Detroit water supply. Each data was allocated to the corresponding tax parcel unit and linked to secondary datasets, such as the composition of service lines, year built, or census tract poverty level. Only data collected on residential parcels within the City limits were used in the analysis. One key feature of Flint data is their collection through two different sampling initiatives: (i) voluntary or homeowner-driven sampling whereby concerned citizens decided to acquire a testing kit and conduct sampling on their own (non-sentinel sites), and (ii) State-controlled sampling where data were collected bi-weekly at selected sites after training of residents by technical teams (sentinel sites). Temporal trends modeled from these two datasets were found to be statistically different with fewer sentinel data exceeding WLL thresholds ranging from 10 to 50μg/L. Even after adjusting for housing characteristics the odds ratio (OR) of measuring WLL above 15μg/L at non-sentinel sites is significantly >1 (OR=1.480) and it increases with the threshold (OR=2.055 for 50μg/L). Joinpoint regression showed that the city-wide percentage of WLL data above 15μg/L displayed four successive trends since the return to Detroit Water System. Despite the recent improvement in water quality, the culprit for differences between sampling programs needs to be identified as it impacts exposure assessment and might influence whether there is compliance or not with the Lead and Copper Rule.

  5. Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Sonenshein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric processing of JERS-1 L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired over south Florida during 1993-1996 reveals detectable surface changes in the Everglades wetlands. Although our study is limited to south Florida it has implication for other large-scale wetlands, because south Florida wetlands have diverse vegetation types and both managed and natural flow environments. Our analysis reveals that interferometric coherence level is sensitive to wetland vegetation type and to the interferogram time span. Interferograms with time spans less than six months maintain phase observations for all wetland types, allowing characterization of water level changes in different wetland environments. The most noticeable changes occur between the managed and the natural flow wetlands. In the managed wetlands, fringes are organized, follow patterns related to some of the managed water control structures and have high fringe-rate. In the natural flow areas, fringes are irregular and have a low fringe-rate. The high fringe rate in managed areas reflects dynamic water topography caused by high flow rate due to gate operation. Although this organized fringe pattern is not characteristic of most large-scale wetlands, the high level of water level change enables accurate estimation of the wetland InSAR technique, which lies in the range of 5-10??cm. The irregular and low rate fringe pattern in the natural flow area reflects uninterrupted flow that diffuses water efficiently and evenly. Most of the interferograms in the natural flow area show an elongated fringe located along the transitional zone between salt- and fresh-water wetlands, reflecting water level changes due to ocean tides. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  7. Effectiveness of flushing on reducing lead and copper levels in school drinking water.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E A

    1993-08-01

    Samples from drinking water fountains in 50 schools in New Jersey were collected at specific times during a typical school day and analyzed for lead, copper, pH, alkalinity, and hardness. First-draw lead and copper levels (medians 0.010 mg/l and 0.26 mg/l, respectively) decreased significantly after 10 min of flushing in the morning (medians 0.005 mg/l lead and 0.068 mg/l copper), but levels increased significantly by lunchtime (medians 0.007 mg/l lead and 0.12 mg/l copper) after normal use of fountains in the morning by students. Corrosive water, as defined by the aggressive index, contained significantly higher levels of lead and copper (medians 0.012 mg/l and 0.605 mg/l, respectively) than noncorrosive water (medians 0.005 mg/l and 0.03 mg/l, respectively).

  8. [Impact of drinking water calcium and magnesium levels on morbidity in the Omsk Region].

    PubMed

    Erofeev, Iu V; Neskin, T A; Turchaninov, D V

    2006-01-01

    Drinking water calcium and magnesium levels were examined for impact on morbidity in a model rural area of a West Siberian region. It was ascertained that there were negative correlations between the water levels of the above elements and the incidence of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and locomotor diseases and positive correlations between the concentrations of calcium and magnesium and the incidence of nervous, urogenital, and eye diseases. It is concluded that by adjusting the findings, the medical care availability factor should be taken into account in the investigations using the health indices calculated on the data from official medical accounts. This investigation has shown the estimation of the drinking water levels of calcium and magnesium as a significant hygienic problem for a model region.

  9. Interpretation of oscillatory water levels in observation wells during aquifer tests in fractured rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillatory water levels are predicted by the equations coupling the fluid movement in the observation well and the fluid movement in the surrounding formation. The equivalent-porous medium and dual-porosity models of fractured rock are two models considered in this analysis; however, other conceptual models of fractured media can also be coupled with the model presented here for fluid movement in the observation well. Type curves for the response of water levels in observation wells due to pumping in another well are generated by numerical inversion of the Laplace transform solution to the governing equations. Overdamped conditions, where inertial effects are insignificant, and underdamped conditions, where oscillations arise, are predicted by the solution to the governing equations. By matching water level measurements with the appropriate type curve, a conceptual model of the formation can be identified, and aquifer properties can be estimated. -from Author

  10. Louisiana wetland water level monitoring using retracked TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Yi, Y.; Ibaraki, M.; Kim, J.-W.; Braun, Andreas; Kuo, C.-Y.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies using satellite radar altimetry to observe inland river and wetland water level changes usually spatially average high-rate (10-Hz for TOPEX, 18-Hz for Envisat) measurements. Here we develop a technique to apply retracking of TOPEX waveforms by optimizing the estimated retracked gate positions using the Offset Center of Gravity retracker. This study, for the first time, utilizes stacking of retracked TOPEX data over Louisiana wetland and concludes that the water level observed by each of 10-Hz data with along-track sampling of ∼660 m exhibit variations, indicating detection of wetland dynamics. After further validations using nearby river gauges, we conclude that TOPEX is capable of measuring accurate water level changes beneath heavy-vegetation canopy region (swamp forest), and that it revealed wetland dynamic flow characteristics along track with spatial scale of 660 m or longer.

  11. Evaluation of water-level recovery, 1996-97 to 1999-2000, and comparison of 1999-2000 and 1972-73 water levels in Goleta Central Subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Scrudato, Matthew C.; Houston, Ernest R.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water levels were measured during January 1999-June 2000 to evaluate the rate of water-level recovery in the Goleta Central ground-water subbasin that has resulted from injection of about 2,225 acre-feet of surplus water for storage in the ground-water basin. Injection of surplus water was tabulated and compared with water-level rises since 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of the recharge effort. Water levels have risen about 4 to 37 feet since 1996-97. A preliminary water budget was compiled to assess recharge and discharge in the basin, and it is estimated that total inflow exceeded total outflow during 1998-99 by about 2,844 to 7,518 acre-feet. In addition, water levels for 1999-2000 were compared with water levels for 1972-73 to determine if a 'drought buffer' exists. Water levels measured in two wells during January 1999-June 2000 exceeded January 1972-June 1973 levels. Water levels in the remaining wells measured during January 1999-June 2000 ranged from less than 1 foot to about 32 feet below 1972-73 water levels. In general, the largest water-level rise between 1996-97 and 1999-2000 was about 37 feet in the southeastern end of the basin; the rise was less than 4 feet in the western end of the basin and about 10 feet north of the Goleta Fault. Long-term hydrographs indicate that water levels have been recovering throughout the basin since the early 1990's.

  12. Water levels and water quality in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the summer of 2012 from142 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer and measured onsite for specific conductance, temperature, and pH. Samples were collected from 94 wells for dissolved chloride analysis. Specific conductance ranged from 91 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (μS/cm at 25 °C) in Drew County to 984 μS/cm at 25 °C in Monroe County. The mean specific conductance was 547 μS/cm at 25 °C. Temperature ranged from 18.1 degrees Celsius (°C) in Crittenden County to 22.4 °C in Prairie County. The mean temperature was 22.1 °C. The pH ranged from 8.3 in Randolph County to 6.2 in Drew County and had a median of 7.3. Dissolved chloride concentrations ranged from 3.34 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in Randolph County to 182 mg/L in Lincoln County. The mean chloride concentration was 27.6 mg/L.

  13. A multi-level pore-water sampler for permeable sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.B.; Hartl, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Cable, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The construction and operation of a multi-level piezometer (multisampler) designed to collect pore water from permeable sediments up to 230 cm below the sediment-water interface is described. Multisamplers are constructed from 1 1/2 inch schedule 80 PVC pipe. One-quarter-inch flexible PVC tubing leads from eight ports at variable depths to a 1 1/2 inch tee fitting at the top of the PVC pipe. Multisamplers are driven into the sediments using standard fence-post drivers. Water is pumped from the PVC tubing with a peristaltic pump. Field tests in Banana River Lagoon, Florida, demonstrate the utility of multisamplers. These tests include collection of multiple samples from the permeable sediments and reveal mixing between shallow pore water and overlying lagoon water.

  14. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998).The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron

  15. Water Phase Change Heat Exchanger System Level Analysis for Low Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and as warm as room temperature near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCHXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. The Orion spacecraft will use a n-pentadecane wax PCHX for its envisioned mission to LLO. Using water as a PCM material is attractive because its higher heat of fusion and greater density result in a lighter, more compact PCHX. To assess the use of a water PCHX for a human spacecraft in a circular LLO, a system level analysis was performed for the Orion spacecraft. Three cases were evaluated: 1) A one-to-one replacement of the wax PCHX on the internal thermal control loop with a water PCHX (including the appropriate control modifications), 2) reducing the radiator return setpoint temperature below Orion's value to enhance PCHX freezing, and 3) placing the water PCM on the external loop. The model showed that the water PCHX could not be used as a drop-in replacement for the wax PCHX. It did not freeze fully during the eclipse owing to its low freezing point. To obtain equivalent performance, 40% more radiator area than the Orion baseline was required. The study shows that, although water PCHXs are attractive at a component level, system level effects mean that they are not the best choice for LLO.

  16. Development of a nuclear technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless steel cylinders was developed. It is based on differences in attenuation coefficients of water and air for Cs137 (662 keV) gamma rays. Experimentally observed gamma ray counting rates with and without water in model reservoir cylinder were compared with corresponding calculated values for two different gamma ray detection theshold energies. Calculated values include the effects of multiple scattering and attendant gamma ray energy reductions. The agreement between the measured and calculated values is reasonably good. Computer programs for calculating angular and spectral distributions of scattered radition in various media are included.

  17. Blood aluminum levels as a function of aluminum intake from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquest, E.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H. )

    1991-04-01

    Questions regarding the health effects of aluminum are still unanswered. The speciation, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of aluminum are not well understood. Furthermore, no animal or human studies of aluminum absorption have been reported using drinking water as the source of aluminum. The following experiment attempted to reach a better understanding of the bioavailability of aluminum from drinking water. Its objective was to determine whether or not increased aluminum ingestion from drinking water would be reflected in increased serum and whole blood aluminum levels in the baboon experimental model.

  18. Water release through plant roots: new insights into its consequences at the plant and ecosystem level.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Iván; Armas, Cristina; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2012-03-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water between different soil parts via plant root systems, driven by water potential gradients in the soil-plant interface. New data suggest that HR is a heterogeneous and patchy process. In this review we examine the main biophysical and environmental factors controlling HR and its main implications at the plant, community and ecosystem levels. Experimental evidence and the use of novel modelling approaches suggest that HR may have important implications at the community scale, affecting net primary productivity as well as water and vegetation dynamics. Globally, HR may influence hydrological and biogeochemical cycles and, ultimately, climate.

  19. Organochlorine residue levels in Mississippi River water snakes in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Sabourin, T.D.; Stickle, W.B.; Michot, T.C.; Villars, C.E.; Garton, D.W.; Mushinsky, H.R.

    1984-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the usefulness of water snakes in pollution monitoring. This was accomplished by assessing the organochlorine load in tissues of snakes inhabiting three sites along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two species of water snakes, Nerodia rhombifera and Nerodia cyclopion, were chosen for analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Fishes account for 95.2 and 98.4%, respectively, of the total volume of food consumed by N. rhombifera and N. cyclopion. Thus, the organochlorine load of both species should reflect considerable biomagnification relative to water column levels.

  20. Water level and ice monitoring of large and middle-sized lakes of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybushkina, Galina; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Soustova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    Studying of water level and ice cover of large and medium sized lakes are of interest because they represent natural reservoirs of fresh water and are associated with human economic activity. Moreover, the water level variations and ice cover duration are important indicators of climate changes. In addition to in situ observations satellite methods of monitoring have certain advantages connected with the global coverage, instantaneous observations of large water areas and relatively low cost. However, the use of satellite methods for inland waters is often difficult because of their spatial resolution comparable to or greater than the size of water reservoirs. Remote sensing with high spatial resolution is often associated with a large repeat period of data (ICESat), or with a significant dependence of the quality of data on weather conditions (Landsat). In this regard, the use of Jason -2 satellite equipped with dual-frequency (13.6 GHz and 5 GHz) radar altimeters and passive three-frequency (18, 21 and 37 GHz) microwave radiometers is of interest, because the footprint diameter of their altimeters in Ku-band is about 10 km and the repeat period of observations is ten days, that make it suitable for observations of large and medium-sized inland waters. In this work we use the data of three mentioned above satellites to determine the water level variations and ice-cover régime of 8 lakes in Russia, water areas of which are intersected by the tracks of these satellites. Variations in water level is calculated on the base of retracking method [1] taking into account the fact that the waveforms of altimetry pulses of satellites Jason-2 and ICESat are distorted due to the influence of land. Satellite data are compared with available in situ observations and the correlation coefficient with in situ observations is calculated. The ice regime of lakes is determined using a new method [2] based on the analysis of the difference between the brightness temperatures of land

  1. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  2. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  3. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of Black Terns in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) nests in freshwater wetlands that are prone to water level fluctuations, and nest losses to flooding are common. We examined temporal patterns in water levels at six sites with Black Tern colonies in Maine and determined probabilities of flood events and associated nest loss at Douglas Pond, the location of the largest breeding colony. Daily precipitation data from weather stations and water flow data from a flow gauge below Douglas Pond were obtained for 1960-1999. Information on nest losses from three floods at Douglas Pond in 1997-1999 were used to characterize small (6% nest loss), medium (56% nest loss) and large (94% nest loss) flood events, and we calculated probabilities of these three levels of flooding occurring at Douglas Pond using historic water levels data. Water levels generally decreased gradually during the nesting season at colony sites, except at Douglas Pond where water levels fluctuated substantially in response to rain events. Annual probabilities of small, medium, and large flood events were 68%, 35%, and 13% for nests initiated during 23 May-12 July, with similar probabilities for early (23 May-12 June) and late (13 June-12 July) periods. An index of potential nest loss indicated that medium floods at Douglas Pond had the greatest potential effect on nest success because they occurred relatively frequently and inundated large proportions of nests. Nest losses at other colonies were estimated to be approximately 30% of those at Douglas Pond. Nest losses to flooding appear to be common for the Black Tern in Maine and related to spring precipitation patterns, but ultimate effects on breeding productivity are uncertain.

  4. Sea water intrusion by sea-level rise: scenarios for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A; Pingel, Thomas J; Garcia, Elizabeth S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to assess the contributions of 21st-century sea-level rise and groundwater extraction to sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Sea water intrusion is represented by the landward advance of the 10,000 mg/L iso-salinity line, a concentration of dissolved salts that renders groundwater unsuitable for human use. A mathematical formulation of the resolution of sea water intrusion among its causes was quantified via numerical simulation under scenarios of change in groundwater extraction and sea-level rise in the 21st century. The developed method is illustrated with simulations of sea water intrusion in the Seaside Area sub-basin near the City of Monterey, California (USA), where predictions of mean sea-level rise through the early 21st century range from 0.10 to 0.90 m due to increasing global mean surface temperature. The modeling simulation was carried out with a state-of-the-art numerical model that accounts for the effects of salinity on groundwater density and can approximate hydrostratigraphic geometry closely. Simulations of sea water intrusion corresponding to various combinations of groundwater extraction and sea-level rise established that groundwater extraction is the predominant driver of sea water intrusion in the study aquifer. The method presented in this work is applicable to coastal aquifers under a variety of other scenarios of change not considered in this work. For example, one could resolve what changes in groundwater extraction and/or sea level would cause specified levels of groundwater salinization at strategic locations and times.

  5. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  6. Modification of closure depths by synchronisation of severe seas and high water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain; Pindsoo, Katri; Kudryavtseva, Nadezhda; Eelsalu, Maris

    2017-02-01

    The closure depth indicates the depth down to which storm waves maintain a universal shape of the coastal profile. It is thus a key parameter of the coastal zones for a variety of engineering and ecosystem applications. Its values are commonly estimated with respect to the long-term mean water level. The present study re-evaluates closure depths for microtidal water bodies where the wave loads are highly correlated with the course of the water level. The test area is the eastern Baltic Sea. The closure depth is calculated for the eastern Baltic Sea coast with a resolution of 5.5 km and the vicinity of Tallinn Bay with a resolution of 0.5 km. While the classic values of closure depth are extracted from statistics of the roughest seas, the present analysis is based on single values of a proxy of the instantaneous closure depth. These values are evaluated from numerically simulated time series of wave properties and water levels. The water level-adjusted closure depths are almost equal to the classic values at the coasts of Lithuania but are up to 10% smaller at the Baltic Proper coasts of Latvia and Estonia. The difference is up to 20% in bayheads of the Gulf of Finland.

  7. Detection of ultra-low levels of DNA changes by drinking water: epidemiologically important finding.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Parmila; Kamiseki, Meiko; Biyani, Manish; Suzuki, Miho; Nemoto, Naoto; Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    The safety of drinking water is essential to our health. In this context, the mutagenicity of water needs to be checked strictly. However, from the methodological limit, the lower concentration (less than parts per million) of mutagenicity could not be detected, though there have been of interest in the effect of less concentration mutagens. Here, we describe a highly sensitive mutation assay that detects mutagens at the ppb level, termed genome profiling-based mutation assay (GPMA). This consists of two steps; (i) Escherichia coli culture in the medium with/without mutagens and (ii) Genome profiling (GP) method (an integrated method of random PCR, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and computer-aided normalization). Owing to high sensitivity of this method, very low concentration of mutagens in tap water could be directly detected without introducing burdensome concentration processes, enabling rapid measurement of low concentration samples. Less expectedly, all of the tap waters tested (22 samples) were shown to be significantly mutagenic while mineral waters were not. Resultantly, this article informs two facts that the GPMA method is competent to measure the mutagenicity of waters directly and the experimental results supported the former reports that the city tap waters contain very low level of mutagenicity reagent trihalomethanes.

  8. Water-level conditions in the confined aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Depaul, Vincent T.; Rosman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, downward water-level trends were observed at 22 wells (29 percent), upward trends were observed at 21 wells (27 percent), and insubstantial trends at 34 wells (44 percent). Downward trends were detected most often at wells open to the Piney Point aquifer and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Upward water-level trends were most frequent in wells open to the Englishtown aquifer system in Critical Area 1 and in wells within the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in southern New Jersey.

  9. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.

    1999-12-16

    This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate baro-metric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  10. Ground-Water Hydrographs and 5-Year Ground-Water-Level Changes, 1984-93, for Selected Areas In and Adjacent to New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Garcia, Benjamin M.

    1995-01-01

    A cooperative observation-well monitoring program was begun in New Mexico in 1925 between the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. The majority of the wells are located in New Mexico; however, a few are in Texas east of Curry and Roosevelt County, New Mexico, and in Colorado along the Rio Grande. The program presently includes 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and 34 monitoring areas in which selected wells are measured periodically, usually every 5 years, to record changes in ground-water levels. These monitoring areas are those where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation, municipal, or industrial purposes. Water-level data and water-level changes computed from these data are used to determine areas of ground-water-level rises and declines. This information is necessary for management of ground-water resources in New Mexico. Included in this report are hydrographs of ground-water levels obtained from 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and maps of ground-water-level changes computed for a 5-year period in each of 34 monitoring areas. Well locations and ground-water-level data for a 5-year period are listed in tables for each monitoring area. Where available, plots of annual precipitation data for climatological stations within or adjacent to each monitoring area are included.

  11. Water-level changes induced by local and distant earthquakes at Long Valley caldera, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, E.; Sneed, M.; Galloway, D.L.; Sorey, M.L.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Hughes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Distant as well as local earthquakes have induced groundwater-level changes persisting for days to weeks at Long Valley caldera, California. Four wells open to formations as deep as 300 m have responded to 16 earthquakes, and responses to two earthquakes in the 3-km-deep Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) show that these changes are not limited to weathered or unconsolidated near-surface rocks. All five wells exhibit water-level variations in response to earth tides, indicating they can be used as low-resolution strainmeters. Earthquakes induce gradual water-level changes that increase in amplitude for as long as 30 days, then return more slowly to pre-earthquake levels. The gradual water-level changes are always drops at wells LKT, LVEW, and CH-10B, and always rises at well CW-3. At a dilatometer just outside the caldera, earthquake-induced strain responses consist of either a step followed by a contractional strain-rate increase, or a transient contractional signal that reaches a maximum in about seven days and then returns toward the pre-earthquake value. The sizes of the gradual water-level changes generally increase with earthquake magnitude and decrease with hypocentral distance. Local earthquakes in Long Valley produce coseismic water-level steps; otherwise the responses to local earthquakes and distant earthquakes are indistinguishable. In particular, water-level and strain changes in Long Valley following the 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake, 450 km distant, closely resemble those initiated by a M4.9 local earthquake on November 22, 1997, during a seismic swarm with features indicative of fluid involvement. At the LKT well, many of the response time histories are identical for 20 days after each earthquake, and can be matched by a theoretical solution giving the pore pressure as a function of time due to diffusion of a nearby, instantaneous, pressure drop. Such pressure drops could be produced by accelerated inflation of the resurgent dome by amounts too

  12. Bank recession and lakebed downcutting; response to changing water levels at Maumee Bay State Park, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The shore and nearshore area of Maumee Bay, at the western end of Lake Erie, was studied from 1981 to 1990 and this report documents the impact of water levels on bank recession and lakebed downcutting. The shore of Maumee Bay is composed of a low bank of sand-poor glacial lacustrine silt and clay. Three regimes of lake level occurred during this 9-year study. Each regime produced a different character and rate of erosion. During stable lake levels, erosion occurred as bank recession and as nearshore lakebed downcutting. During rising/high lake levels, bank recession continued, but lakebed downcutting slowed except at the new transgressed shoreline. During falling water levels, bank recession all but ceased, the former shoreline became emergent and lakebed downcutting resumed. Over the 9 years of this study, total bank recession averaged about 20 m and nearshore lakebed downcutting averaged about 50 cm. At lower lake levels the visual (from land) erosion ceased and lakebed downcutting became dominant, which continued to deepen the nearshore. Therefore, when higher lake levels return, waves in the deeper water will have an even greater impact on bank recession rates.

  13. Actual and potential transpiration and carbon assimilation in an irrigated poplar plantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Oren, Ram; Hinckley, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    We examined the tradeoffs between stand-level water use and carbon uptake that result when biomass production of trees in plantations is maximized by removing nutrient and water limitations. A Populus trichocarpa Torr. x P. deltoides Bartr. & Marsh. plantation was irrigated and received frequent additions of nutrients to optimize biomass production. Sap flux density was measured continuously over four of the six growing-season months, supplemented with periodic measurements of leaf gas exchange and water potential. Measurements of tree diameter and height were used to estimate leaf area and biomass production based on allometric relationships. Sap flux was converted to canopy conductance and analyzed with an empirical model to isolate the effects of water limitation. Actual and soil-water-unlimited potential CO(2) uptakes were estimated with a canopy conductance constrained carbon assimilation (4C-A) scheme, which couples actual or potential canopy conductance with vertical gradients of light distribution, leaf-level conductance, maximum Rubisco capacity and maximum electron transport. Net primary production (NPP) was about 43% of gross primary production (GPP); when estimated for individual trees, this ratio was independent of tree size. Based on the NPP/GPP ratio, we found that current irrigation reduced growth by about 18% compared with growth with no water limitation. To achieve maximum growth, however, would require 70% more water for transpiration, and would reduce water-use efficiency by 27%, from 1.57 to 1.15 g stem wood C kg(-1) water. Given the economic and social values of water, plantation managers appear to have optimized water use.

  14. Water-level surface in the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomaszewski, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Chicot equivalent aquifer system is an important source of freshwater in southeastern Louisiana. In 2005, about 47 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Livingston, Tangipahoa, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Washington, and West Feliciana Parishes. Concentrated withdrawals exceeded 5 Mgal/d in Bogalusa, the city of Baton Rouge, and in northwestern East Baton Rouge Parish. In the study area, about 30,000 wells screened in the Chicot equivalent aquifer system were registered with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LaDOTD). These wells were constructed for public-supply, industry, irrigation, and domestic uses. Most of the wells were registered as domestic-use wells and are small-diameter, low-yielding wells. Total withdrawal from the Chicot equivalent aquifer system for domestic use was estimated to be 12 Mgal/d in 2005. This report documents the 2009 water-level surface of the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana. The report also shows differences in water-level measurements for the years 1991 and 2009 at selected sites. Understanding changes and trends in water levels is important for continued use, planning, and management of groundwater resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, conducted this study of the water-level surface of the Chicot equivalent aquifer system as part of an ongoing effort to monitor groundwater levels in aquifers in Louisiana.

  15. Water Level Effects on Growth of Melaleuca Seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) Littoral Zone.

    PubMed

    LOCKHART; AUSTIN; AUMEN

    1999-05-01

    / The invasive exotic wetland tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, is expanding rapidly throughout seasonally wet areas of southern Florida (USA), including the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee. Natural resource managers are concerned that a lower lake level regulation schedule under consideration for Lake Okeechobee, while potentially beneficial to overall ecosystem health, might increase the rate of Melaleuca expansion. To investigate this possibility, Melaleuca saplings (harvested from the littoral zone) and 7-week-old seedlings (grown from harvested seeds) were subjected to various hydroperiod treatments in replicated mesocosms. Hydroperiod treatments were selected based on a simulation of historical water level variations. Saplings grew taller under longer hydroperiods with fluctuating water levels, including periods of submersion. Time since germination affected the response of seedlings to inundation. Submersed 7-week-old seedlings grew slower and had less biomass than submersed 12-week-old seedlings, yet mortality was low at both ages. Melaleuca's plasticity allows it to adapt to hypoxic, aquatic conditions by means of aquatic heterophylly and adventitious roots. Algae and drought also increased mortality. Based on faster growth of Melaleuca under longer hydroperiods and its adaptability to seasonal flooding, a lower lake regulation schedule may not stimulate its expansion. Therefore, water levels should not be manipulated only to control Melaleuca. Control of Melaleuca should continue using current practices such as manual removal or chemical treatment. KEY WORDS: Melaleuca; Lake Okeechobee; Littoral zone; Water level; Regulation schedule

  16. Water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Eastern Arkansas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    During the spring of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, measured 670 water levels in 659 wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Groundwater levels are affected by groundwater withdrawals resulting in potentiometric-surface depressions. In 2008, the lowest water-level altitude was 69 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in the center of Arkansas County. The highest water-level altitude was 288 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in northeastern Clay County on the west side of Crowleys Ridge. Two large depressions in the potentiometric surface are located in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties and west of Crowleys Ridge in Craighead, Cross, Lee, Monroe, Poinsett, St. Francis, and Woodruff Counties. The elongated depression in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties has two areas that have changed in horizontal area or depth when compared to previous conditions of the aquifer. The area in Arkansas County in the southeastern half of the depression has not expanded horizontally from recent years, although the center of the depression has deepened. The area in Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression has not expanded and water level in the deeper part of the depression has risen. In Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression, the 90-foot contour shown on the 2006 potentiometric-surface map is not shown on the 2008 potentiometric-surface map. Along the west side of Crowleys Ridge, the area enclosed by 140-foot contour in Cross and Poinsett Counties has expanded further south into Cross County. The 130-foot contour in Poinsett County expanded north in 2008. The 130-foot contour is shown in Cross County, which was not evident in previous years. The 130-foot contour in St. Francis, Monroe, and Woodruff Counties in 2006 is not shown on the 2008

  17. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinus, Pieter G. E. F.

    1980-04-01

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached mudflats (sometimes considered as giant mudwaves), which migrate continuously to the west due to deposition of slingmud at their west side and simultaneous erosion of the east side. In between the mudflats cheniers may develop. Thin-section analysis of the clay deposits revealed that they are built up of an alternation of thick clayey laminae and thin laminae of silt and fine sand. The clayey laminae chiefly show a unistrial plasmic fabric. Disturbaces in the upper zone are caused by bioturbation. Two types of cheniers can be distinguished. One type contains fine sand which has been winnowed out of the pelite deposits. Since this sand is brought from the shelf the chenier formation begins at approximately mean low-water level. Longshore bars are formed and these are driven shoreward by wave action. The other type is built up of medium to coarse sand supplied by a local river. It is transported westward by beachdrift in a narrow zone around the mean high-water line. These cheniers develop therefore at or just above the mean high-tide level. The sedimentary structures of both types of cheniers have many characteristics in common. However, each type also has its own distinct features.

  18. Assessment of pollution levels in fish and water of main basin, Lake Mariut.

    PubMed

    Amr, Hanaa M; El-Tawila, Mahmoud M; Ramadan, Mohamed H M

    2005-01-01

    Lake Mariut has suffered over the years from the untreated sewage, agricultural and industrial wastes dumped into it. Lake Mariut fish quality and quantity were adversely affected eventually being unfit for human consumption due to its poor water quality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the levels of metals in the fish caught from Lake Mariut main basin and its fitness for human consumption, and the water quality after the enforcement of the Egyptian Law for Environmental Protection (Law 4/1994). Fish and water samples were collected form Lake Mariut main basin through out the period from May to December 2000. The results showed that mercury was totally undetected in fish and water samples. The levels of Fe obtained were very low compared to previous studies. Fe and Cr contents in fish flesh were higher compared to their levels in water samples. Also Cu has shown a decrease in both fish and water samples. Zn and Cd contents in water samples have decreased compared with former studies. However, they have not changed in fish flesh. Pb content in both fish flesh and water samples has shown a great decrease compared to previous studies. The Cd and Pb mean values in fish flesh of the present study (0.81 and 0.14 mg/kg) exceeded the Egyptian Standards No. 2360/1993 value (should not exceed 0.1 mg/kg for each). The results also showed that the water quality has changed compared with previous studies. BOD has increased in north of Main Basin, east of Main Basin, South of Main Basin, and southwest of Main Basin; and deCreased in WTP effluent; and Qalaa Drain. There has been an increase in TSS, TVSS, and NO3 levels compared to pervious studies. There has been a decrease in TS, TDS, COD,hardness, and chloride levels. This decrease, especially in COD, may be attributed to the enforcement of the Egyptian Law 4/1994. The pH and alkalinity were in agreement with the values shown by previous studies except for east of Main Basin which showed higher values. The study

  19. Perchlorate levels found in tap water collected from several cities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdemgil, Yiğit; Gözet, Tuba; Can, Özge; Ünsal, İbrahim; Özpınar, Aysel

    2016-03-01

    Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that inhibits iodide transport to the thyroid by sodium-iodide transporters. Because perchlorate is highly soluble, stable, and mobile in water, drinking water is a potential source of perchlorate exposure. When exposed to perchlorate, thyroid dysfunction can be observed in sensitive populations (pregnant woman, infants, and children), especially those with iodide deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the perchlorate levels in tap water from five cities in Turkey. Perchlorate concentrations of 145 tap water samples collected from Ankara, Isparta, Istanbul, Kayseri, and Sakarya were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mean and median values were found to be 0.15 and 0.07 μg/L, respectively. The median values (25-75 % percentile) of Istanbul, Ankara, Sakarya, Isparta, and Kayseri were 0.08 μg/L (0.04-0.09 μg/L), 0.07 μg/L (0.07-0.21 μg/L), 0.04 μg/L (0.04-0.04 μg/L), 0.03 μg/L (0.02-0.07 μg/L), and 0.25 μg/L (0.23-0.31 μg/L), respectively. The median perchlorate level observed in Kayseri was significantly higher than those found at other cities (p < 0.05). Perchlorate concentrations in water samples were lower than the interim drinking water health advisory level (15 μg/L) determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study showed that perchlorate in drinking water is not the main source of exposure in these cities. Future studies should be performed to determine perchlorate levels in other potential sources, such as food products.

  20. Estimating water supply arsenic levels in the New England bladder cancer study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuckols, J.R.; Beane, Freeman L.E.; Lubin, J.H.; Airola, M.S.; Baris, D.; Ayotte, J.D.; Taylor, A.; Paulu, C.; Karagas, M.R.; Colt, J.; Ward, M.H.; Huang, A.-T.; Bress, W.; Cherala, S.; Silverman, D.T.; Cantor, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (??? 150 ??g/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case-control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 ??g/L; range, 0.1-11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 ??g/L; range, 0.3-3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 ??g/L; range, 0.6-22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods.

  1. Estimating Water Supply Arsenic Levels in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Airola, Matthew S.; Baris, Dalsu; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Taylor, Anne; Paulu, Chris; Karagas, Margaret R.; Colt, Joanne; Ward, Mary H.; Huang, An-Tsun; Bress, William; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (≥ 150 µg/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case–control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 µg/L; range, 0.1–11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 µg/L; range, 0.3–3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 µg/L; range, 0.6–22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods. PMID:21421449

  2. Ground-water levels in intermontane basins of the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briar, David W.; Lawlor, S.M.; Stone, M.A.; Parliman, D.J.; Schaefer, J.L.; Kendy, Eloise

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program is a series of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to analyze regional ground-water systems that compose a major portion of the Nation's water supply (Sun, 1986). The Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins is one of the study regions in this national program. The main objectives of the RASA studies are to (1) describe the groundwater systems as they exist today, (2) analyze the known changes that have led to the systems present condition, (3) combine results of previous studies in a regional analysis, where possible, and (4) provide means by which effects of future ground-water development can be estimated.The purpose of this study, which began in 1990, was to increase understanding of the hydrogeology of the intermontane basins of the Northern Rocky Mountains area. This report is Chapter B of a three-part series and shows the general distribution of ground-water levels in basin-fill deposits in the study area. Chapter A (Tuck and others, 1996) describes the geologic history and generalized hydrogeologic units. Chapter C (Clark and Dutton, 1996) describes the quality of ground and surface waters in the study area.Ground-water levels shown in this report were measured primarily during summer 1991 and summer 1992; however, historical water levels were used for areas where more recent data could not be obtained. The information provided allows for the evaluation of general directions of ground-water flow, identification of recharge and discharge areas, and determination of hydraulic gradients within basin-fill deposits.

  3. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  4. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  5. Impacts of the Reduction of Nutrient Levels on Bacterial Water Quality in Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Christian J.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of reducing nutrient levels on bacterial water quality in drinking water. Two American Water System facilities (sites NJ102a and IN610) with histories of coliform problems were involved, and each water utility received two pilot distribution systems (annular reactors). One reactor simulated the conventional treatment conditions (control), while the other reactor was used to assess the effect of biological filtration and subsequent reduced biodegradable organic matter levels on suspended (water column) and biofilm bacterial concentrations in the distribution systems. Biodegradable organic matter levels were reduced approximately by half after biological treatment. For site NJ102a, the geometric mean of the assimilable organic carbon concentrations was 217 μg/liter in the plant effluent and 91 μg/liter after biological filtration. For both sites, plant effluent biodegradable dissolved organic carbon levels averaged 0.45 mg/liter, versus 0.19 to 0.22 mg/liter following biological treatment. Biological treatment improved the stability of free chlorine residuals, while it had little effect on chloramine consumption patterns. High bacterial levels from the biological filters resulted in higher bacterial concentrations entering the test reactors than entering the control reactors. On average, biofilms in the model systems were reduced by 1 log unit (from 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 104 CFU/cm2) and 0.5-log unit (from 2.7 × 105 to 7.8 × 104 CFU/cm2) by biological treatment at sites NJ102a and IN610, respectively. Interestingly, it required several months of biological treatment before there was an observable impact on bacterial water quality in the system, suggesting that the effect of the treatment change was influenced by other factors (i.e., pipe conditions or disinfection, etc.). PMID:10543809

  6. Dynamics of mangrove-marsh ecotones in subtropical coastal wetlands: fire, sea-level rise, and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Jones, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ecotones are areas of sharp environmental gradients between two or more homogeneous vegetation types. They are a dynamic aspect of all landscapes and are also responsive to climate change. Shifts in the position of an ecotone across a landscape can be an indication of a changing environment. In the coastal Everglades of Florida, USA, a dominant ecotone type is that of mangrove forest and marsh. However, there is a variety of plants that can form the marsh component, including sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl), needlegrass rush (Juncus roemerianus Scheele), and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.). Environmental factors including water depth, soil type, and occurrence of fires vary across these ecotones, influencing their dynamics. Altered freshwater inflows from upstream and increasing sea level over the past 100 years may have also had an impact. We analyzed a time series of historical aerial photographs for a number of sites in the coastal Everglades and measured change in position of mangrove–marsh ecotones. For three sites, detailed maps were produced and the area of marsh, mangrove, and other habitats was determined for five periods spanning the years 1928 to 2004. Contrary to our initial hypothesis on fire, we found that fire did not prevent mangrove expansion into marsh areas but may in fact assist mangroves to invade some marsh habitats, especially sawgrass. Disparate patterns in mangrove–marsh change were measured at two downstream sites, both of which had multiple fires over from 1948 to 2004. No change in mangrove or marsh area was measured at one site. Mangrove area increased and marsh area decreased at the second of these fire-impacted sites. We measured a significant increase in mangrove area and a decline in marsh area at an upstream site that had little occurrence of fire. At this site, water levels have increased significantly as sea level has risen, and this has probably been a factor in the mangrove expansion.

  7. Co-seismic multilayer water temperature and water level changes associated with Wenchuan and Tohoku-Oki earthquakes in the Chuan no. 03 well, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Anhua; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Zhaohua; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper shows analysis of water level (the distance from the land surface to the water in the well under static condition) and water temperature observed at three different levels of Chuan no. 03 well to study the changes associated with the Wenchuan earthquake of 2008 and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Our analysis shows co-seismic changes in water level and water temperature associated with the increase in compressive stress associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. The water level shows an increase, whereas there was drop in water temperature at the shallow depth (395 m) and enhancement of water temperature at the middle (595 m) and the bottom (765 m) layers. However, no step change in water level or temperature of Chuan no. 03 well is observed associated with the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, only seismic wave propagation-induced water level oscillation and led to co-seismic response of water temperature. The analysis of the co-seismic responses and post-earthquake adjustment processes combined with the borehole histogram and the borehole temperature gradient data clearly show co-seismic changes in water temperature that could be closely associated with the changes in the regional stress and strain state and the distribution of the aquifer and the characteristics of the aquifer. The observed temperature variation of different layers in the borehole is likely to be controlled by the flow of water in the horizontal direction.

  8. Assessing Holocene water level changes of Lake Turkana, Kenya with potential linkages to monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on better defining water level variability in the past 10 ka for Lake Turkana, Kenya. The water level of Lake Turkana was approximately 90m higher than today ca. 8 ka years ago, and in the past century lake levels have varied by up to 15 m. Lake level is especially sensitive to shifts in water balance with changes in regional rainfall linked to the relative strength of the Indian Ocean Monsoon. Variations in monsoonal precipitation in Kenya may be controlled by distinct modes of the Indian Ocean Dipole, with one mode associated with increased sea surface temperatures and concomitant heavy rainfall in the Turkana basin, and the other mode resulting in low precipitation. Well preserved beach ridges up to 90 m above present water level occur around the lake representing a record of varying elevations of lake level still-stands during the Holocene. Along this prograded strand plain there is evidence of a shift in human subsistence from fishing villages to pastoral encampments, possibly associated with pronounced mid-Holocene drying and a precipitous (>30 m) fall in lake level ca. between 7 and 5 ka. However, a recent GPS campaign of beach ridges on the east and west sides of the lake reveal variability in highstand beach ridge elevations, implying deferential tectonic deformation across the basin and possible crustal warping due to hydroisostatic processes. Radiocarbon dating of aquatic shells will resolve the ages of beach ridges and these ages will be tested by direct dating of littoral quartz grains by OSL. Stratigraphic exposures of this littoral system reveal new evidence for lake still-stands, transgressions and regressions. Ultimately, the data will constrain a basin hydrologic model to assess the catchment changes and evaporative conditions required to yield the tens of meters of lake level change in the Holocene and provide new insights into the magnitude and linkage to monsoon variability.

  9. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used i