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Sample records for actual weight status

  1. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  2. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  3. Actual Body Weight and the Parent's Perspective of Child's Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; Rennie, Donna C; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Team

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent's perception of their child's weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child's weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child's height and weight and rated their child's weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent's perception of child's weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child's BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child's weight status. PMID:27527235

  4. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  5. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  6. Weight Status of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maaskant, Marian A.; van Knijff-Raeven, Ankie G. M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.; Veenstra, Marja Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim was to study the weight and weight status of the study group in 2002 and 2007, and to study the differences in weight and weight status between 2002 and 2007 and the risk groups for (becoming) overweight/obese. Materials and Methods: The Body Mass Index (BMI) of 336 clients of a Dutch service provider for persons with…

  7. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes.

  8. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Across the Excess Weight Status Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Meg H.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M.; Ratcliff, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight utilizing cross-sectional data from the publicly available Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). PMID:23784908

  9. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  10. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

  11. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  12. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the child’s perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...

  13. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  14. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  15. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  16. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  17. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  18. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars.

  19. A correlation analysis of Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape-determined pediatric weight with actual pediatric weight in India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepak Geetaprasad; Kole, Tamorish; Nagpal, Rahul; Smith, Jeffery Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape indicates standardized, pre-calculated medication doses, dose delivery volumes, and equipment sizes using color-coded zones based on height-weight correlations. The present study attempted to provide more evidence on the effectiveness of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape by comparing the tape-estimated weights with actual weights. We hypothesized that the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape would overestimate weights in Indian children aged<10 years, leading to inaccurate dosing and equipment sizing in the emergency setting. METHODS: This prospective study of pediatric patients aged <10 years who were divided into three groups based on actual body weight: <10 kg, 10–18 kg, and >18 kg. We calculated the percentage difference between the Broselow-predicted weight and the measured weight as a measure of tape bias. Concordant results were those with a mean percent difference within 3%. Standard deviation was measured to determine precision. Accuracy was determined as color-coded zone prediction and measured weight concordance, including the percentage overestimation by 1–2 zones. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1. Total agreement between color-coding was 63.18% (κ=0.582). The Broselow™ color-coded zone agreement was 74.8% in the <10 kg group, 61.24% in the 10–18 kg group, and 53.42% in the >18 kg group. CONCLUSIONS: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape showed good evidence for being more reliable in children of the <10 kg and 10–18 kg groups. However, as pediatric weight increased, predictive reliability decreased. This raises concerns over the use of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape in Indian children because body weight was overestimated in those weighing >18 kg. PMID:27006737

  20. Randomized Comparison of Actual and Ideal Body Weight for Size Selection of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in Overweight Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Kang, Hyo Jong; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-08-01

    Size selection of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic based on actual body weight remains a common practice. However, ideal body weight might allow for a better size selection in obese patients. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of ideal body weight and actual body weight when choosing the appropriate size of the LMA Classic by a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients with age 20 to 70 yr, body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), and the difference between LMA sizes based on actual weight and ideal weight were allocated to insert the LMA Classic using either actual body weight or ideal body weight in a weight-based formula for size selection. After insertion of the device, several variables including insertion parameters, sealing function, fiberoptic imaging, and complications were investigated. The insertion success rate at the first attempt was lower in the actual weight group (82%) than in the ideal weight group (96%), even it did not show significant difference. The ideal weight group had significantly shorter insertion time and easier placement. However, fiberoptic views were significantly better in the actual weight group. Intraoperative complications, sore throat in the recovery room, and dysphonia at postoperative 24 hr occurred significantly less often in the ideal weight group than in the actual weight group. It is suggested that the ideal body weight may be beneficial to the size selection of the LMA Classic in overweight patients (Clinical Trial Registry, NCT 01843270).

  1. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 158

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarafrazi, Neda; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Borrud, Lori; Burt, Vicki; Paulose-Ram, Ryne

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem associated with many adverse health outcomes in adulthood. During 2011-2012, nearly 17% of children and adolescents were obese. Weight status misperception occurs when the child's perception of their weight status differs from their actual weight status based on measured height and weight.…

  2. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and..., payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products..., acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  3. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and..., payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products..., acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  4. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and..., payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products..., acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  5. [Analysis of antioxidant status and actual diet of students].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The study of the features of the antioxidant status and dietary intake of students is highly relevant, since this population cohort is the future labor potential of society. 40 female students (mean age--22.4 +/- 0.6 years) living in hostel dormitories (n=20) and rented apartments (n=20) were surveyed. To assess the nutrition the method of questioning within 5 days, including weekends has been used. Personal energy consumption per diem has been calculated by table-keeping method. It was found that, retinol blood serum content (measured spectrofluorimetrically) in students living in dormitories was 1.45 fold lower than that in students living in rented apartments (1.28 +/- 0.66 vs. 1.86 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, p<0.001). When analyzing the changes of the integral parameter of antioxidant defense system (the total antioxidant activity assessed using as a model system a suspension of egg yolks lipoprotein) a decrease of this parameter with respect to standards for the majority of the surveyed women (65% of students living in dorms and 80% of students living in rented apartments) has been noted. The energy value of the daily ration for girls in both groups (1375 +/- 626 kcal--in a dormitory and 1731 +/- 547 kcal--in a rented apartment) was lower than energy expenditure (1789 +/- 202 and 1808 +/- 234 kcal/day, respectively), with higher energy value in students living in rented apartments (p<0.001). Carbohydrates prevailed in the diet of students living in dormitories (417 +/- 207 g/day vs. 289 +/- 131 g/day in female students living in rented apartments, p<0.0001) while in the diet of the students living in rented apartments fats (110.5 +/- 55.7 g/day, compared with that of the students living in the hostel--66.1 +/- 50.8 g/day, p<0.0001) and proteins (99.1 +/- 47.9 vs. 81.6 +/- 42.7 g/day, p<0.001) prevailed. Thus, the high-risk group with regard to adaptive capacity and unbalanced diet are students living in dormitories, with a crucial role played by low material support

  6. [Analysis of antioxidant status and actual diet of students].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The study of the features of the antioxidant status and dietary intake of students is highly relevant, since this population cohort is the future labor potential of society. 40 female students (mean age--22.4 +/- 0.6 years) living in hostel dormitories (n=20) and rented apartments (n=20) were surveyed. To assess the nutrition the method of questioning within 5 days, including weekends has been used. Personal energy consumption per diem has been calculated by table-keeping method. It was found that, retinol blood serum content (measured spectrofluorimetrically) in students living in dormitories was 1.45 fold lower than that in students living in rented apartments (1.28 +/- 0.66 vs. 1.86 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, p<0.001). When analyzing the changes of the integral parameter of antioxidant defense system (the total antioxidant activity assessed using as a model system a suspension of egg yolks lipoprotein) a decrease of this parameter with respect to standards for the majority of the surveyed women (65% of students living in dorms and 80% of students living in rented apartments) has been noted. The energy value of the daily ration for girls in both groups (1375 +/- 626 kcal--in a dormitory and 1731 +/- 547 kcal--in a rented apartment) was lower than energy expenditure (1789 +/- 202 and 1808 +/- 234 kcal/day, respectively), with higher energy value in students living in rented apartments (p<0.001). Carbohydrates prevailed in the diet of students living in dormitories (417 +/- 207 g/day vs. 289 +/- 131 g/day in female students living in rented apartments, p<0.0001) while in the diet of the students living in rented apartments fats (110.5 +/- 55.7 g/day, compared with that of the students living in the hostel--66.1 +/- 50.8 g/day, p<0.0001) and proteins (99.1 +/- 47.9 vs. 81.6 +/- 42.7 g/day, p<0.001) prevailed. Thus, the high-risk group with regard to adaptive capacity and unbalanced diet are students living in dormitories, with a crucial role played by low material support.

  7. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  8. LOCATION OF BODY FAT AMONG WOMEN WHO ACCURATELY OR INACCURATELY PERCEIVE THEIR WEIGHT STATUS.

    PubMed

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated location of body fat, with specific focus on abdominal fat, among normal weight and overweight women who accurately or inaccurately perceived their weight status. Young, adult women (N = 120; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.2) were asked to classify their weight status using the Self-Classified Weight subscale from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Actual weight status was operationalized via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Overweight women who thought they were normal weight had an average of 19 pounds more fat than normal weight women with 1.5 pounds of excess abdominal fat. Interventions to raise awareness among overweight women unaware of their fat level are warranted. However, these interventions should balance consideration of potential detriments to body image among these women. PMID:26474442

  9. Weighting the Weights: Agreement among Anthropometric Indicators Identifying the Weight Status of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraelen, C. J. F.; Maaskant, M. A.; van Knijff-Raeven, A. G. M.; Curfs, L. M. G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were (1) to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat free mass index (FFMI) and skinfold thickness are feasible measurement options in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to measure their weight status, and (2) to assess the level of agreement among these methods. Methods:…

  10. Factors Associated with Underestimation of Weight Status among Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Arai, Shoshana; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe weight misperception and to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on underestimation of weight status in Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design Data from 886 non-pregnant adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey administered in English, Spanish, and Korean, were analyzed. The actual weight status derived from the participants’ body mass index (BMI) categories and their perceived weight status were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore if underestimation of weight status was associated with ethnicity, gender, and education level. Results Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Koreans represented 19.4%, 26.8%, 27.4%, and 26.4% of the total sample of 886. Overall, 2 in 3 participants correctly perceived their weight status, but 42% of Latinos underestimated their weight status and 22% of Koreans overestimated their weight status. Latino ethnicity, male, and low education (≤ high school) were related to greater underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). In contrast, Korean ethnicity was related to less underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). Conclusions Misperception of weight status should be counted in any efforts to develop a weight management intervention for Latino and Korean Americans. PMID:26118149

  11. Parental Perceptions of Their Adolescent's Weight Status: The ECHO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the correlates of parental classification of adolescent weight status. Methods: Measured adolescent weight status was compared to parent self-report perception data (n 374 dyads) using multivariate analyses with interactions to identify characteristics associated with inaccurate parent classification of adolescent weight…

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  16. Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

    2012-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight.

  17. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  18. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls) aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%). The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID) scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants) (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32). There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03): the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the nutritional status of

  19. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticket. If the actual weight used is not obtained on the date and at the place of transfer of possession... growing arrangement, any feed that is picked up from or returned by a livestock grower or poultry grower must be weighed or its weight must be reasonably determined. When feed is picked up or returned and...

  20. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticket. If the actual weight used is not obtained on the date and at the place of transfer of possession... growing arrangement, any feed that is picked up from or returned by a livestock grower or poultry grower must be weighed or its weight must be reasonably determined. When feed is picked up or returned and...

  1. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  2. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  4. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  5. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  6. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  7. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5) were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals. PMID:20696072

  9. Singaporean Mothers’ Perception of Their Three-year-old Child’s Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Tint, Mya Thway; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lek, Ngee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inaccurate parental perception of their child’s weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child’s weight status verbally and visually. Methods At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child’s measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child’s actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa statistic (κ). Results Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821) with complete data on mothers’ verbal and visual perceptions and children’s anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child’s weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child’s weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child’s weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%), and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%), their child’s weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%). Birth order (p<0.001), maternal (p = 0.004) and child’s weight status (p<0.001) were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions. Conclusions Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child’s weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood

  10. Income inequality and weight status in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Virginia W; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2005-07-01

    Prior empirical studies have demonstrated an association between income inequality and general health endpoints such as mortality and self-rated health, and findings have been taken as support for the hypothesis that inequality is detrimental to individual health. Unhealthy weight statuses may function as an intermediary link between inequality and more general heath endpoints. Using individual-level data from the 1996-98 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examine the relationship between individual weight status and income inequality in US metropolitan areas. Income inequality is calculated with data from the 1990 US Census 5% Public Use Microsample. In analyses stratified by race-sex groups, we do not find a positive association between income inequality and weight outcomes such as body mass index, the odds of being overweight, and the odds of being obese. Among white women, however, we do find a statistically significant inverse association between inequality and each of these weight outcomes, despite adjustments for individual-level covariates, metropolitan-level covariates, and census region. We also find that greater inequality is associated with higher odds for trying to lose weight among white women, even adjusting for current weight status. Although our findings are suggestive of a contextual effect of metropolitan area income inequality, we do not find an increased risk for unhealthy weight outcomes, adding to recent debates surrounding this topic.

  11. Parental Perception of Weight Status: Influence on Children’s Diet in the Gateshead Millennium Study

    PubMed Central

    Almoosawi, Suzana; Jones, Angela R.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Collins, Heather; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child’s diet. Methods Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child’s weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6–8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool) food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child’s gender, child’s weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal education and deprivation status. Results Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child’s weight status, 63 (17%) parents perceived their child as being of ‘normal’ weight or ‘overweight’ when they were actually ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child’s weight had children with a lower ‘healthy’ dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028). This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005). Conclusions In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the ‘healthy’ dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents’ diets based on their perception status

  12. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  13. Strategies for Addressing Weight Status Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school wellness policies (i.e., wellness policies) include suggestions and requirements to promote health. Some school districts include weight status measurement in their wellness policies for surveillance and/or screening. Surveillance monitors the percentage of students who are overweight or obese. Screening provides parents with…

  14. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  15. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  16. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  17. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  18. Survey on the actual status of use of antiseptics in our hospital.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hajime; Togashi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Sagawa, Kenichi; Shimada, Shigehiko

    2002-01-01

    Prevention of nosocomial infections is an important task for any medical institution. Although it is important to administer antibiotics prophylactically during the perioperative period, the proper use of antiseptics should have top priority. We carried out a survey to show the actual status of antiseptic use in our hospital in order to determine their proper use. The survey was carried out considering two aspects: the expense situation on the basis of the order slips and the status of use in each department and ward. It was conducted by questionnaire, and the pharmacist of each department asked questions to the nursing staff there. It was found that disinfectants and antiseptics are used almost correctly in our hospital. However, some improper uses were also found. In the future, on the basis of the findings of this study by questionnaire, we would like to give instructions from the standpoint of the pharmacist in the proper use of disinfectants and antiseptics and in the control of nosocomial infections.

  19. The Relationship of College Students' Perceptions of Their BMI and Weight Status to Their Physical Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Sue Ellen; Fry, Mary D.; Brown, Theresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Limited research has investigated the relationship between individuals' perceptions of their weight status and their physical self-concept. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of college students' Body Mass Index (BMI) scores (i.e. based on actual and self-reported data), and whether students' physical…

  20. Psychological and Behavioral Correlates of Excess Weight: Misperception of Obese Status among Persons with Class II Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of weight status perception in 173 class II obese adult community volunteers. Method Participants completed the EDE-Q, TFEQ, Beck Depression Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale online. Key items assessed dieting frequency, weight history, and perceived current weight status (normal weight, overweight, or obese). Actual weight status was determined using NIDDK/CDC classification schemes. Results Among class II obese participants, 50.9% incorrectly classified their weight as overweight versus obese, while 49.1% accurately perceived their weight status as obese. Inaccurate participants reported significantly less binge eating and less eating disorder psychopathology. Despite similar BMI, inaccurate participants reported less distress regarding overeating and loss of control over eating. Discussion Our findings suggest that obesity status under-estimation is associated with less eating disorder psychopathology. Under-estimation of obesity status may exacerbate risk for negative health consequences due to a failure to recognize and respond to excess weight. PMID:19718673

  1. Brain-weight/liver-weight ratio as an index of nutritional status in perinatal deaths.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A

    1975-10-01

    Brain-weight/liver-weight ratio has been suggested to be a good indicator of nutritional status in new-born babies. But no evidence except low blood sugar and low hepatic reserve of carbohydrate have been presented to support this. In the present study babies dying in perinatal period have been compared by dividing them arbitrarily into two groups according to a fixed B/L ratio of 3.5. The results showed that the nutritional status of babies with high B/L ratio was comparatively poorer than babies with normal B/L ratio in terms of weight, length and hepatic reserve of iron, folate and vitamin A, and thus provide evidence to the hypothesis. PMID:1244025

  2. Negotiating options in weight-loss surgery : "Actually I didn't have any other option".

    PubMed

    Groven, Karen Synne; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2016-09-01

    In this study we explore how a selection of Norwegian women account for their decision to undergo weight loss surgery (WLS). We argue that women's descriptions of their experiences leading up to this choice of action illuminate issues regarding social norms of bodily appearance and personal responsibility. The starting point is women's own experiences within a cultural context in which opting for WLS often attracts moral scrutiny. Inspired by Merleau-Ponty's notion of consciousness as embodied and de Beauvoir's ideas concerning women's situation, we argue that bodily as well as socio-cultural aspects intertwine with women's choice of surgery as a means of losing weight. Although society's stigmatization of women with obesity has been well challenged by scholars in the field of critical fat studies, women with obesity still experience the bodily hindrances associated with being overweight in an intense and subjective way. The findings suggest that women confronting the option of WLS do so in a context of pain, dysfunction and social stigma, a combination which illuminates the intricate ambiguity of the obese body as both subject (of agency) and object (of moral and medical scrutiny).

  3. Negotiating options in weight-loss surgery : "Actually I didn't have any other option".

    PubMed

    Groven, Karen Synne; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2016-09-01

    In this study we explore how a selection of Norwegian women account for their decision to undergo weight loss surgery (WLS). We argue that women's descriptions of their experiences leading up to this choice of action illuminate issues regarding social norms of bodily appearance and personal responsibility. The starting point is women's own experiences within a cultural context in which opting for WLS often attracts moral scrutiny. Inspired by Merleau-Ponty's notion of consciousness as embodied and de Beauvoir's ideas concerning women's situation, we argue that bodily as well as socio-cultural aspects intertwine with women's choice of surgery as a means of losing weight. Although society's stigmatization of women with obesity has been well challenged by scholars in the field of critical fat studies, women with obesity still experience the bodily hindrances associated with being overweight in an intense and subjective way. The findings suggest that women confronting the option of WLS do so in a context of pain, dysfunction and social stigma, a combination which illuminates the intricate ambiguity of the obese body as both subject (of agency) and object (of moral and medical scrutiny). PMID:26715285

  4. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  5. Weight Bias Internalization Scale: Psychometric properties using alternative weight status classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan S; Dedrick, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    The Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) was developed to facilitate systematic investigation of internalized weight bias, but the English version has not undergone confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, it is unclear whether the measure can be used when participants are grouped based on self-perceived versus body mass index (BMI)-based weight status. The present study evaluated the WBIS in a sample of 243 male and female undergraduate students who were overweight/obese as classified by self-perception or BMI. After exclusion of Item 1 due to poor item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's alphas were .92 and .94 for the perception-based and BMI-based groupings, respectively. CFAs using the reduced 10-item scale with addition of modifications for correlated errors resulted in acceptable model fit for the one-factor model in both groupings. Findings suggest psychometric properties of the modified WBIS are acceptable and are similar for overweight/obese participants grouped by either perceived weight status or BMI. PMID:26907913

  6. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  7. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of informed consent. Descriptive statistics, the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The mean age was 8.55 ± 2 years (range: 5-12 years). Seventy-eight percent of the schoolchildren presented with a backpack overload that was greater than 10% of their body weight. No significant differences were found in relation to gender. Four out of every five schoolchildren presented with backpack overload, exposing them to a potential health problem. Education and public policy prevention strategies for this situation should be implemented in Mexico and other regions of the world with the same problem. PMID:26416767

  8. Weight, nutrition, and immune status in postpartal women.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, S; Fehder, W P; York, R; Douglas, S D

    1997-01-01

    Postpartal weight loss, nutritional intake, and immune status were examined in 65 women. Although 80% of the women lost weight and were not overweight by the 4th postpartal month, the majority had diets that were inadequate in fat content (> or = 30% of calories from fat) or protein content (< or = 12% of calories from protein), or in terms of caloric intake (< or = 1,200 calories or > or = 2,200 calories). Differences in some immune cell subsets were noted between women with high-fat and normal-fat diets. Women with high-fat diets had lower percentages of specific immune cell subsets than women with normal-fat diets. Protein intake was not related to immune cell phenotypes.

  9. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  10. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    PubMed

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups. PMID:21184344

  11. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Healthy infants with normal birth weight (2500–4000 g) were included as controls. All infants were evaluated by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale II (PDMS-2) test and final scores compared between the two groups. Finding: 88 infants including 58 MLBW and 30 NBW with a mean birth weight of 1900±382.4 g and 3150±473.5 g respectively, were studied. In the MLBW group, gross and fine motor skill scores were below average in 6 (6.8%) and 10 (17%) infants, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups according to gross motor quotient (102.5±5.5 in NBW vs 100.1±7.2 in MLBW; P=0.1), but MLBW infants achieved significantly lower scores in fine motor (93.3±5.4 vs 99.6±5.0; P=0.001) and total motor quotient (97.0±5.9 vs 101.53±5.0; P=0.001). Conclusion: The finding of this study show developmental defects in fine motor skills in MLBW infants. Accurate monitoring of the developmental status of this population should be emphasized for an earlier recognition and intervention. PMID:25793065

  12. Weight Status and Weight-Management Behaviors Among Philadelphia High School Students, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Bauer, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity among youth may be stabilizing and even declining in some areas of the United States. The objective of our study was to examine whether the stabilization in obesity prevalence among Philadelphia high school students was accompanied by changes in weight-management behaviors. Methods We evaluated changes in self-reported weight status and weight-management behaviors by using data collected by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007, 2009, and 2011. We used multivariable regression models controlling for race/ethnicity and age to estimate prevalence. Results Although the proportion of overweight and obese students did not change significantly during the study period, we found that approximately half of female students and 30% of male students reported trying to lose weight. Among female students, we observed significant increases in the proportion engaging in 5 or more days of physical activity per week (26.0% in 2007 to 31.9% in 2011; P = .003) and significant decreases in the proportion consuming at least 1 soda per day (31.1% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2011, P = .001). The proportion of female students who fasted for weight loss also increased significantly during the study period (12.2% in 2007 to 17.0% in 2011, P = .02). We found no significant changes in behavior among male students. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity and overweight may have reached a plateau among Philadelphia high school students, most students still failed to meet recommendations for healthful weight-management behaviors. Continued public health initiatives are necessary to promote participation in healthful weight-management behaviors. PMID:24070036

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  14. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention

  15. Actual and perceived HBV status among Asian Pacific Islander Americans in Rhode Island: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Austin Y; Nguyen, Joyce E; Doyle, Richard J; Feller, Edward

    2015-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) American population is an under-recognized health issue in the United States. Among foreign-born API, the prevalence of HBV is approximately 10%. The prevalence in the general population is below 0.5%; among non-Hispanic whites it is below 0.2%. We examined beliefs held by the API populations in Rhode Island (RI) about personal HBV status and compared them with their actual HBV status. Of 59 total study participants, only 19 (32%) participants correctly knew their HBV status. Six (10%) participants were carriers of HBV; 18 (31%) lacked immunity to the virus. This pilot study suggests the RI API population is not knowledgeable about their own HBV status and are inadequately screened, vaccinated against, and treated for HBV. Increased statewide screening and education efforts, tailored to address this population, are needed to identify and inform those in need of medical attention or vaccination.

  16. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  17. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  18. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (χ(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health. PMID:23827129

  19. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impa...

  20. Weight Status, Parent Reaction, and Self-Concept in Five-Year-Old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between weight status and self-concept in a sample of preschool-aged girls and whether parental concern about child overweight or restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Method Participants were 197 5-year-old girls and their parents. Girls’ weight status (weight for height percentile) was calculated based on height and weight measurements. Girls’ self-concept was assessed using an individually administered questionnaire. Parents’ concern about their child’s weight status and restriction of their child’s access to food were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Results Girls with higher weight status reported lower body esteem and lower perceived cognitive ability than did girls with lower weight status. Independent of girl’s weight status, higher paternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical ability among girls; higher maternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls. Finally, higher maternal restriction of girls’ access to foods was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls with higher weight status but not among girls with lower weight status. Conclusions At least as early as age 5 years, lower self-concept is noted among girls with higher weight status. In addition, parents’ concern about their child’s weight status and restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Public health programs that raise parental awareness of childhood overweight without also providing constructive and blame-free alternatives for addressing child weight problems may be detrimental to children’s mental health. PMID:11134433

  1. The harmful and beneficial impacts of weight bias on well-being: the moderating influence of weight status.

    PubMed

    Gumble, Amanda; Carels, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Weight bias is evident among normal weight and obese individuals. This weight bias may be associated with comparisons to others, which may enhance feelings of self-worth. However, the ego-enhancing versus ego-diminishing influence of these evaluations may be moderated by the individual's weight status, and the strength of these effects may be moderated by gender. Eight-five participants completed the Implicit Associations Test, questionnaires assessing explicit weight bias, body image, and self-esteem, and height and weight assessments. Implicit weight bias was prevalent among all individuals, p<.001, and was associated with a more positive body image, ps<.05, and higher self-esteem, ps<.01, for thinner individuals but a more negative body image and lower self-esteem for heavier individuals. Gender moderation effects were not observed. It is arguably problematic that the positive benefits to normal weight individuals' self-esteem and body image appear to come via negative comparisons with overweight individuals.

  2. Mediating Effect of Perceived Overweight on the Association between Actual Obesity and Intention for Weight Control; Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US. PMID:26644903

  3. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions.

  4. Am I Overweight? A Longitudinal Study on Parental and Peers Weight-Related Perceptions on Dietary Behaviors and Weight Status Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zarychta, Karolina; Mullan, Barbara; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the interplay between various types of adolescents’ perceptions of weight status in predicting adolescents’ nutrition behavior and their body mass was conducted. In particular, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parental and peers’ perceptions of their own weight status (reported by adolescents) and objectively measured weight status of adolescents would be mediated by three types of adolescents’ weight status perceptions (adolescents’ own weight perceptions, parental perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants, and peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants) and by adolescents’ nutrition behaviors. Design: Data were collected twice, with a 13-month follow-up. Participants (N = 1096) were aged 14–20, with BMI ranging from 16.20 to 41.21. Multiple mediation analysis with two sequential mediators was applied. Main outcome measures: At the baseline adolescents completed the questionnaire assessing their nutrition behaviors and weight status perceptions. Weight and height were measured objectively at baseline and follow-up. Results: Two types of weight perceptions (adolescents’ own weight status perceptions, peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status reported by participants), and adolescents’ nutrition behaviors mediated the relationship between the others’ own weight perceptions and adolescents’ weight status. No indirect effects of others’ own weight perceptions on adolescents’ weight status through parental perceptions were found. Conclusion: Adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and body weight status depend on what they think about their own weight status and what they think of their peers’ perceptions, but do not depend on what adolescents think of their parents’ perceptions. PMID:26869979

  5. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  6. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64 g (range 1899–4990 g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (Δ Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and Δ insulin = 10 pmol/L for birth weight <2.5 kg versus >4.5 kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  7. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped...

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped...

  9. Perceived and desired body weight among female university students in relation to BMI-based weight status and socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawlińska-Chmara, Romana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify if the accuracy of weight perception among young women depends on their socio-economic status and BMI-based weight status. In addition, the survey contained questions whether women were satisfied with their weight and tested if the desire to change weight is affected by real body weight and weight perception. The sample consisted of 1,129 female university students, aged 20-24. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-economic status, weight perception and desired body weight. 71.9% of the surveyed students correctly estimated, 24.2% overestimated and 3.9% underestimated their body weight. Underweight women tended to incorrectly assess their body weight more often than normal weight women or overweight women (43.2% vs. 75.4% vs. 77.2%). Students from families of high socio-economic status slightly more often estimated their weight status correctly than students with average and low status, but the difference was statistically significant only in the case of the factor "mother's education". Most of surveyed women expressed the desire to weigh less or/and to have thinner waist, hips or thighs. The desire to be thinner was associated with body weight status and body weight perception.

  10. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predicting female middle school students' behavioral intention of weight reduction by weight status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529

  11. Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394

  12. Parents perception of weight status of Mexican preschool children using different tools.

    PubMed

    Souto-Gallardo, M C; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of parents to estimate the weight status of preschool children attending the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) day-care centers using three different tools. A total of 100 parent-child pairs attending to all the existing IMSS day-care centers in Ensenada (n = 9) completed a questionnaire on the perception of children's weight status using verbal description, sketches, and pictures. Chi squared test and univariate logistic regression was applied to assess the difference in perception between the tools used, the factors associated with the weight status perception and to identify predictors of parental underestimation of their child's weight. The sample size was estimated for a significance level of 0.05 with statistical power of 80%. No significant differences were found in the perception of weight status using different tools. The parents' underestimation of the child's weight status ranged from 51 to 59%, this percentage jumps to 79 to 84% in overweight children and 82 to 91% in obese children. Being a young mother and having a daughter increased the risk of underestimation. Higher odds of underestimation were found in > 2BMI z-score. The high underestimation found in this study shows that the ability of parents in signaling an alert to prevent childhood obesity might be highly reduced and preventive health programs should include increasing the weight status perception. PMID:23094521

  13. Parents perception of weight status of Mexican preschool children using different tools.

    PubMed

    Souto-Gallardo, M C; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of parents to estimate the weight status of preschool children attending the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) day-care centers using three different tools. A total of 100 parent-child pairs attending to all the existing IMSS day-care centers in Ensenada (n = 9) completed a questionnaire on the perception of children's weight status using verbal description, sketches, and pictures. Chi squared test and univariate logistic regression was applied to assess the difference in perception between the tools used, the factors associated with the weight status perception and to identify predictors of parental underestimation of their child's weight. The sample size was estimated for a significance level of 0.05 with statistical power of 80%. No significant differences were found in the perception of weight status using different tools. The parents' underestimation of the child's weight status ranged from 51 to 59%, this percentage jumps to 79 to 84% in overweight children and 82 to 91% in obese children. Being a young mother and having a daughter increased the risk of underestimation. Higher odds of underestimation were found in > 2BMI z-score. The high underestimation found in this study shows that the ability of parents in signaling an alert to prevent childhood obesity might be highly reduced and preventive health programs should include increasing the weight status perception.

  14. STATUS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS TABLE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2003-08-08

    During discussions within the Inorganic Chemistry Division Committee, that dealt with the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements and the official IUPAC position on its presentation, the following question was raised. When the various chemical elements are presented, each with their appropriate atomic weight value, how should the radioactive elements be presented? The Atomic Weights Commission has treated this question in a number of different ways during the past century, almost in a random manner. This report reviews the position that the Commission has taken as a function of time, as a prelude to a discussion in Ottawa about how the Commission should resolve this question for the future.

  15. Social engagement in adolescence moderates the association between weight status and body image.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction.

  16. Social engagement in adolescence moderates the association between weight status and body image.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  17. Influence of weight status on physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Oudghiri, Dia Eddine; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Fernández, María Del Mar; Aranda, Pilar; Aparicio, Virginia Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were analyzed by standardized field-based fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility and balance. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were also measured. Results Blood pressure (P=0.001), plasma triglycerides (P=0.041) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001) increased as weight status increased. Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility (both, P<0.001), static balance (P<0.05) and dynamic balance (P<0.01) decreased as weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between normal-weight and overweight vs. obese groups. No differences between groups were observed on quality of life. Conclusion Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied population. PMID:27303571

  18. Weight Status Measures Collected in the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Sroka, Christopher J.; McIver, Kerry L.; Sagatov, Robyn D.F.; Arteaga, S. Sonia; Frongillo, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is one of the largest studies to assess the relationship between characteristics of community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol that was developed for collecting the anthropometric data for the study and the procedures for analyzing the data. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyses will be completed by mid-2016. During in-home visits, Healthy Communities Study staff collected height, weight, and waist circumference measurements from child participants and height and weight measurements from adult participants. The protocol for obtaining these measurements was adapted from the protocol used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with modifications to accommodate assessments conducted in homes rather than in a Mobile Examination Center. In addition to anthropometric data from in-home visits, the Healthy Communities Study collected retrospective height and weight measurements from the medical records of child participants. These data were used to calculate trajectories of BMI and BMI z-scores. The study implemented procedures for ensuring the accuracy of the in-home measurements and abstracted medical data. These procedures included automatically checking the ranges on entered data, reviewing data for end-digit patterns, and abstracting selected medical records using two independent abstractors to assess agreement. The collection of longitudinal height and weight measures will allow researchers to address several pressing questions related to how characteristics of community programs and policies are associated with obesity-related outcomes among children. PMID:26384935

  19. Perceived weight discrimination in the CARDIA study: Differences by race, sex, and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Lewis, Tené T.; Durant, Nefertiti; Halanych, Jewell; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Sidney, Stephen; Kim, Yongin; Lewis, Cora E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported weight discrimination and differences based on race, sex, and BMI in a biracial cohort of community-based middle-aged adults. Design and Methods We report on 3,466 participants (mean age=50 years, mean BMI=30 kg/m2) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who completed the 25-year examination of this epidemiological investigation in 2010–11. The sample included normal weight, overweight, and obese participants. CARDIA participants are distributed into four race-sex groups, with about half being African-American and half White. Participants completed a self-reported measure of weight discrimination. Results Among overweight/obese participants, weight discrimination was lowest for White men (12.0%) and highest for White women (30.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for weight discrimination in those with class 2/3 obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) versus the normal-weight was most pronounced: African American men, 4.59(1.71–12.34); African American women, 7.82(3.57–17.13); White men, 6.99(2.27–21.49); and White women, 18.60(8.97–38.54). Being overweight (BMI=25–29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight was associated with increased discrimination in White women only: 2.10(1.11–3.96). Conclusions We provide novel evidence for a race-sex interaction on perceived weight discrimination, with White women more likely to report discrimination at all levels of overweight and obesity. Pychosocial mechanisms responsible for these differences deserve exploration. PMID:23512948

  20. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-08-21

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017

  1. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017

  2. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program.

  3. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…

  4. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status.

  5. Gingival status during prolonged fasting for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Squire, C F; Costley, J M

    1976-02-01

    Nineteen obese patients were observed during a prolonged period of fasting for weight loss. The period of fasting ranged from 15 to 71 days. The patients consumed a dose of certain vitamins and minerals with 2 liters of water per day. No effort was made to alter the patient at the beginning and termination of the fasting period. At the time of original recording the Plaque and Gingival Index correlated directly. As the fasting period lengthened, there was a decrease in the Plaque Index scores but the Ginival Index scores increased considerably. This is an opposite correlation to what one would expect in individuals maintained on an adequate diet. PMID:1062556

  6. Parental Feeding Patterns and Child Weight Status for Latino Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Sharon M.; Barry, Kathleen M.; Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between parental patterns regarding child feeding and child Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile in Latino parent-preschooler dyads participating in a clinical trial. Methods This secondary analysis examined data collected during a randomized clinical trial of a culturally tailored healthy lifestyle intervention focused on childhood obesity prevention, Salud Con La Familia. We analyzed 77 Latino parent-child dyads who completed baseline and 3-month follow-up data collection, assessing associations between preschool child BMI percentile and parental response to the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) over time. Results Higher child BMI was related to higher parental CFQ concern scores (r = 0.41, p <.001). A general inverse association between child BMI percentile and parental responsibility was also observed (r = −0.23, p = .040). Over the 3-month period, no statistically significant associations between changes in the CFQ subscale scores and changes in child BMI percentile were identified. Conclusions Child BMI percentile consistent with overweight/obese is associated with parental concern about child weight and child BMI percentile consistent with normal weight is associated with perceived responsibility for feeding. Emphasizing parental responsibility to help children to develop healthy eating habits could be an important aspect of interventions aimed at both preventing and reducing pediatric obesity for Latino preschoolers. PMID:24548581

  7. Weight Status and Behavioral Problems among Very Young Children in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Behrman, Jere R.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Our objective was to explore the association between weight status and behavioral problems in children before school age. We examined whether the association between weight status and behavioral problems varied by age and sex. Subjects/Methods This study used cross-sectional data from a nationally-representative sample of children and their families in Chile (N = 11,207). These children were selected using a cluster-stratified random sampling strategy. Data collection for this study took place in 2012 when the children were 1.5–6 years of age. We used multivariable analyses to examine the association between weight status and behavioral problems (assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist), while controlling for child’s sex, indigenous status, birth weight, and months breastfed; primary caregiver’s BMI and education level; and household wealth. Results Approximately 24% of our sample was overweight or obese. Overweight or obese girls showed more behavioral problems than normal weight girls at age 6 (β = 0.270 SD, 95% CI = 0.047, 0.493, P = 0.018). Among boys age 1 to 5 years, overweight/obesity was associated with a small reduction in internalizing behaviors (β = -0.09 SD, 95% CI = -0.163, -0.006, P = 0.034). Conclusions Our data suggest that the associations between weight status and behavioral problems vary across age and sex. PMID:27583678

  8. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  9. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  10. Weight status, body image and bullying among adolescents in the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13-15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3-20.2) reported being bullied ≥ 3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for "slightly overweight"; OR 2.74 for "very overweight", both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted.

  11. Unhealthy Weight-control Behaviours, Dieting and Weight Status: A Cross-cultural Comparison between North American and Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Fauquet, Jordi; Loth, Katie; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262

  12. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results: Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05) were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status. Conclusion: Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children. PMID:23113200

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Mothers' Perception of Weight Status of Their Children with Intellectual Disabilities in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…

  14. Investigating Perceived vs. Medical Weight Status Classification among College Students: Room for Improvement Exists among the Overweight and Obese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Christopher; Eakin, Angela; Bertrand, Brenda; Barber-Heidel, Kimberly; Carraway-Stage, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The American College Health Association estimated that 31% of college students are overweight or obese. It is important that students have a correct perception of body weight status as extra weight has potential adverse health effects. This study assessed accuracy of perceived weight status versus medical classification among 102 college students.…

  15. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  16. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), and overweight or obese (OWOB) children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample) of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998-2010) (n = 1,125). Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  17. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people.

  18. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen E.; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L.; Greaney, Mary L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Mezgebu, Solomon; Hunt, Anne T.; Blood, Emily A.; Horan, Chrissy; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Bettencourt, Maria F.; Richmond, Tracy K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting. Objective Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC), a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity. Methods We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools’ socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components. Setting/Participants Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students. Intervention Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV), watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV) and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA) on most days Main Outcome Measures 1) School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2) individual odds of overweight/obesity. Results The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001), TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003) and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02), adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016). Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower

  19. Overestimation and Underestimation: Adolescents' Weight Perception in Comparison to BMI-Based Weight Status and How It Varies across Socio-Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunkyung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight perception has been studied with a limited focus on "feeling overweight." This study, using a more inclusive definition of overestimation and underestimation, examines adolescents' weight perception focusing on how accurate it is in relation to body mass index (BMI)-based weight status and how it varies across socio-demographic…

  20. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  2. Effects of Daily Physical Education on Physical Fitness and Weight Status in Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gamble, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Pennsylvania Department of Health developed the Active Schools Program (ASP) which required 30?minutes of daily physical education (PE) in middle schools to reduce childhood obesity. This investigation evaluated the ASP effects on physical fitness and weight status in middle school adolescents throughout 1 academic year.…

  3. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  4. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  5. Parenting Styles, Communication and Child/Adolescent Diets and Weight Status: Let's Talk about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…

  6. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  7. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  8. Parental feeding practices and child weight status in Mexican American families: A longitudinal analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parental feeding practices are thought to influence children's weight status, through children's eating behavior and nutritional intake. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, the direction of influence is unclear. Moreover, although obesity rates are high among Latino children, fe...

  9. Psychosocial environment: definitions, measures and associations with weight status--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Glonti, K; Mackenbach, J D; Ng, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; McKee, M; Rutter, H

    2016-01-01

    Socio-ecological models suggest that many elements of the social environment act as upstream determinants of obesity. This systematic review examined definitions, measures and strength of associations between the psychosocial environment and adult weight status. Studies were included if they were conducted on adults, the outcome was weight status, carried out in any developed country and investigated at least one psychosocial environmental construct. Six databases for primary studies were searched: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We restricted our search to studies published in English between January 1995 and February 2015. An adapted 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' was used to evaluate risk of bias of included studies. Out of 14,784 screened records, 42 articles were assessed using full text. A total of 19 studies were included. The strongest associations with weight status were found for social capital and collective efficacy, although few studies found significant associations. There was heterogeneity in the definitions and metrics of psychosocial environmental constructs. There is limited evidence that greater social capital and collective efficacy are associated with healthier weight status. The research conducted to date has not robustly identified relations. We highlight challenges to undertaking research and establishing causality in this field and provide recommendations for further research.

  10. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  11. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children. PMID:27652830

  12. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  13. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  14. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  15. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-01

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 (normal), 25.0-29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m² (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women's weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in normal weight

  16. Psychosocial factors as mediators of food insecurity and weight status among middle school students.

    PubMed

    Willis, Don E; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors-namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity.

  17. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  18. Latina Mothers’ Beliefs and Practices Related to Weight Status, Feeding and the Development of Child Overweight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine maternal beliefs and practices related to weight status, child feeding, and child overweight in the Latino culture that may contribute to the rising rates of overweight among preschool Latino children in the U.S. Design and sample This two-phase qualitative study relies on data obtained in 6 focus groups with a total of 31 primarily Spanish-speaking, low income mothers, followed by 20 individual, in-depth interviews with women participating in a health promotion educational program. Measures Child-feeding beliefs, practices and weight status perceptions were elicited. Results Findings indicated that most respondents reported personal struggles with weight gain, particularly during and after pregnancy, and were concerned that their children would become obese. Although subjects understood the health and social consequences related to overweight, many discussed the pressures of familial and cultural influences endorsing a “chubby child.” Conclusions Education and interventions that incorporate “culturally mediated” pathways to address mothers’ feeding practices are essential for prevention and control of childhood overweight among low-income Latinos. Nurses should be aware of social and cultural influences on Latina mothers’ beliefs and practices related to weight status and feeding practices and address these in their education approaches to prevent childhood overweight and obesity with this population group. PMID:21442018

  19. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  1. Boys' and Girls' Weight Status and Math Performance from Kindergarten Entry through Fifth Grade: A Mediated Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sara; Krull, Jennifer L.; Chang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a mediated model of boys' and girls' weight status and math performance with 6,250 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Five data points spanning kindergarten entry (mean age = 68.46 months) through fifth grade (mean age = 134.60 months) were analyzed. Three weight status groups were identified: persistent…

  2. Effects of altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth.

    PubMed

    Giussani, D A; Phillips, P S; Anstee, S; Barker, D J

    2001-04-01

    The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. This study tested the hypothesis that in highland regions, high altitude rather than maternal economic status is associated with reduced and altered fetal growth by investigating the effects of high altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth in Bolivia. Bolivia is geographically and socioeconomically unique. It contains several highland (>3500 m above sea level) and lowland (<500 m) cities that are inhabited by very economically divergent populations. Birth weight, body length, and head circumference were compared between a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of La Paz (3649 m; largest high-altitude city) and a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of Santa Cruz (437 m; largest low-altitude city). In addition, the frequency distribution across the continuum of birth weights was plotted for babies born from high- and low-income families in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Mean birth weights were lower in babies from La Paz than in babies from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. The cumulative frequency curve across all compiled birth weights was shifted to the left in babies from La Paz compared with those from Santa Cruz, regardless of economic status. The frequency of low birth weight (<2500 g) was higher in babies from La Paz than from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. In addition, at high altitude but not at low altitude, high income was associated with an increase in the head circumference:birth weight ratio. These findings suggest that high altitude rather than economic status is associated with low birth weight and altered body shape at birth in

  3. [Special features of actual nutrition and nutritional status of children living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Iudina, T V; Mikhaĭlov, I G; Raengulov, B M

    2000-01-01

    Actual nutrition of children living at boarding-school of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district and also characteristics of their health, such as capacity for work, vitamin metabolism, physical development and activity of bio-oxidant systems of organism have been studied. The obtained results have become the basis for developing scientifically substantiated principles of creating balanced nutrition ration with antioxidant properties for the children living at the Far North.

  4. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices), to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight, and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated the relationship between feeding practice and child weight. Ninety-nine parent-child dyads were recruited for a cross-sectional study where parents self-reported their parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices along with demographic characteristics. Height and weight were measured for each dyad. The relationship between parenting style and feeding style showed modest agreement. Feeding style, but not parenting style, was associated with child BMI z-score while controlling for known covariates. An indulgent feeding style was associated with a higher child weight status. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that feeding style moderated the association between restrictive feeding practices and child BMI z-score. No moderating relationship was found between feeding style and the practices of pressure to eat or monitoring and child weight. This research suggests that an indulgent feeding style may be predictive of higher child weight and that future studies should examine the possible moderating role of feeding style in the parent feeding practice-child weight relationship. PMID:20079785

  5. Adolescent obesity, change in weight status, and hypertension: racial/ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira F; Clark, Cari J; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to determine whether change in weight status between adolescence and young adulthood was associated with the risk of developing hypertension among adolescents and whether sex and racial/ethnic group differences existed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample was restricted to participants who self-identified as black, Hispanic, or white non-Hispanic (n=8543). Height and weight were measured in adolescence (mean 16 years) and again in adulthood (mean 29 years). We categorized the weight of participants into 4 groups: stayed normal weight; gained weight (normal weight in adolescence and obese in adulthood); lost weight (overweight/obese in adolescence nonobese in adulthood); and chronically overweight/obese. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg measured in adulthood or use of antihypertensive medications. A higher risk of hypertension was noted for all sex and racial/ethnic groups who became obese in adulthood. Furthermore, those who were chronically overweight/obese were at higher risk of hypertension for all groups, with odds ratios ranging from 2.7 in Hispanic men to 6.5 in Hispanic women. Except for black men, those who lost weight during follow-up had no significant increased risk compared with those who maintained normal weight. Overall, there was an increased risk of hypertension for those who gained weight in adulthood and among those who remained obese from adolescence to young adulthood. These data give further evidence for prevention strategies that begin earlier in life to reduce or delay the onset of chronic disease in young adults.

  6. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  7. Messages of Medication: Effects of Actual versus Informed Medication Status on Hyperactive Boys' Expectancies and Self-Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    After 15 boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were informed that they had taken either medication or placebo, they completed computer tasks, self-assessments, and causal judgments. Boys predicted better performance when told they were on medication. For self-evaluations, medication status and information interacted, with boys…

  8. Associations of Supermarket Characteristics with Weight Status and Body Fat: A Multilevel Analysis of Individuals within Supermarkets (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N.; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Methods Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007–2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Results Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. Conclusion A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods. PMID:22496738

  9. Examining body image discrepancies and perceived weight status in adult Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Smith, April R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    This study examined potential differences and similarities between attitudes about body shape and eating behaviors in Japan versus America. Discrepancies between various body ideals (e.g., own versus ideal; Japanese versus American) and perceived weight status were examined in a sample of adult Japanese women. Forty-five adult Japanese women rated various body ideals using the Stunkard Body Shape Questionnaire. They also answered questions about their perceived body weight and completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Participants rated the ideal body shape for Japanese women to be significantly thinner than for American women. Body image discrepancy predicted drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms as measured by the EDI-2. Furthermore, there was an interaction between perfectionism and perceived overweight status, such that among participants high on perceived weight status, perfectionism predicted greater bulimic symptomology. The relative importance of the internalization of the Western beauty ideal to the rise of eating disorders in Japan is discussed. Similarities between the findings of this study and studies conducted on American samples are highlighted, and areas for future research are proposed. PMID:18928918

  10. Childhood overweight/obesity and pediatric asthma: the role of parental perception of child weight status.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Salma M A; Paige, Katie N; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H; The Strong Kids Research Team

    2013-09-23

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child's weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child's overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  11. Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders. PMID:21218038

  12. Pretreatment weight status and weight loss among head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy: implications for nutrition integrated treatment pathways

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Susan A.; Gupta, Vishal; Reid, Mary E.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Cohan, David; Arshad, Hassan; Rigual, Nestor R.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Sullivan, Maureen; Warren, Graham W.; Singh, Anurag K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to examine the effect of pretreatment weight status on loco-regional progression for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods In an expanded cohort of 140 patients, we retrospectively reviewed weight status and loco-regional progression of SCCHN patients treated with CCRT between 2004 and 2010. Results Pretreatment ideal body weight percentage (IBW%) was statistically significantly different for patients with disease progression than for those without progression (p=0.02) but was not an independent predictor of progression. Median pretreatment IBW% was 118 (72–193) for the progression-free group and was 101.5 (73–163) for the group with progression. Both groups suffered clinically severe weight loss of approximately 9 % from baseline to end treatment. Conclusions Pretreatment weight status, a very crude indicator of nutrition status, may have prognostic value in patients with SCCHN undergoing definitive CCRT. Inadequate nutritional status in these patients has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and decreased quality of life. Based on this report and others, the best next steps include routine validated malnutrition screening and the testing of evidence-based nutrition care protocols with the goals of minimizing weight loss and improvement of quality of life. PMID:23743980

  13. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  14. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents’ weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12–18 years. Method Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999) from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1) were nested within schools (level 2) were performed. Results At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2) was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low) was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate) was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents) was inversely associated with weight status

  15. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Hébert, James R.; Lee, Duck-chul; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.; Sui, Xuemei; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n = 19,003). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one's weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. PMID:23862054

  16. Does weight status influence weight-related beliefs and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food purchases in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Lytle, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design Observational, cross-sectional. Setting Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods Body composition and psychosocial survey were obtained for 345 adolescents. General Linear Models tested adjusted (age and sex) associations between weight-related beliefs and consumption of SSB and FCFP. Significant associations were tested for moderation by weight status. Results SSB was positively related to perceptions that people worry too much about their weight (β = 0.103, p = 0.016), with no moderation present. FCFP were positively associated to perceived barriers to maintaining a healthy weight (β = 0.042, p = 0.004) with a subsequent significant interaction by weight status. Stratified models showed a significant association between perceived barriers to a healthy weight and FCFP for overweight adolescents (β = 0.345, p = 0.022). Conclusions Addressing perceived barriers to a healthy diet may lead to important risk reduction. PMID:21278806

  17. Does weight status influence weight-related beliefs and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food purchases in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Lytle, Leslie A

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional. SETTING: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. METHODS: Body composition and psychosocial survey were obtained for 345 adolescents. General Linear Models tested adjusted (age and sex) associations between weight-related beliefs and consumption of SSB and FCFP. Significant associations were tested for moderation by weight status. RESULTS: SSB was positively related to perceptions that people worry too much about their weight (β = 0.103, p = 0.016), with no moderation present. FCFP were positively associated to perceived barriers to maintaining a healthy weight (β = 0.042, p = 0.004) with a subsequent significant interaction by weight status. Stratified models showed a significant association between perceived barriers to a healthy weight and FCFP for overweight adolescents (β = 0.345, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Addressing perceived barriers to a healthy diet may lead to important risk reduction. PMID:21278806

  18. [Educational status and patterns of weight gain in adulthood in Brazil: Estudo Pró-Saúde].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; França, Rosana de Figueiredo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Chor, Dóra

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between participant and parental educational status (considered as an indicator of socioeconomic status) and participant pattern of weight gain in adulthood. We analyzed data from 2 582 baseline participants (1999) of Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), a longitudinal investigation of civil servants from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-administered questionnaires were used to identify patterns of weight gain in adulthood. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for the association between parental and participant educational status and steady weight gain or weight cycling, with stable weight as a reference, using multinomial logistic regression models. For males, lower paternal educational level entailed a chance about 55% lower of weight cycling as compared to stable weight (OR = 0.45; IC95% = 0.26-0.78), whereas lower maternal schooling was related to increased risk of weight cycling, although without reaching statistical significance (OR = 1.68; IC95% = 0.94-3.00). The association between participant educational status and weight history was not statistically significant among men. In women, lower educational status entailed a chance 94% higher of self-reported weight cycling (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.17-3.23), and there was no association between parental educational level and history of weight gain. In this study, changes in weight throughout life, both steady and cyclic, were associated with parental and participant educational status, with major differences between genders.

  19. Daily temporal patterns of heroin and cocaine use and craving: relationship with business hours regardless of actual employment status.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2013-10-01

    Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants' current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001) and there was a significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p<0.002) regardless of current work status. Cocaine craving also varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001), however, there was no significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p=.57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours.

  20. Childhood Obesity among Puerto Rican Children: Discrepancies Between Child’s and Parent’s Perception of Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T.; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2012-01-01

    Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children’s weight status could be associated to how parents influence children’s eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children’s weight and children’s own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a representative sample of 1st–6th grade students. Only half of the children correctly identified their weight, and only 62.4% of the parents correctly classified their children’s weight. Most obese/overweight children did not perceive themselves as such. Almost half of obese/overweight children were identified by the parents as normal weight while over half of the underweight children were perceived by their parents at normal weight. More girls than boys perceived themselves as obese/overweight and more parents of girls than of boys perceived them as such. Higher-educated parents were better at recognizing overweight/obesity among their children compared to less-educated parents. This study suggests an influence of parents’ SES characteristics on their perceptions of children’s weight status as well as on children’s own perceptions of their weight status. PMID:22690203

  1. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  2. Adolescent weight status and self-reported school performance in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13-15 years old) and high school (16-18 years old) students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1) overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2) overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3) the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  3. Weight Status Among Adolescents in States That Govern Competitive Food Nutrition Content

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Perna, Frank M.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if state laws regulating nutrition content of foods and beverages sold outside of federal school meal programs (“competitive foods”) are associated with lower adolescent weight gain. METHODS: The Westlaw legal database identified state competitive food laws that were scored by using the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students criteria. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2003 and 2006 based on law strength and comprehensiveness. Objective height and weight data were obtained from 6300 students in 40 states in fifth and eighth grade (2004 and 2007, respectively) within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class. General linear models estimated the association between baseline state laws (2003) and within-student changes in BMI, overweight status, and obesity status. Fixed-effect models estimated the association between law changes during follow-up (2003–2006) and within-student changes in BMI and weight status. RESULTS: Students exposed to strong laws at baseline gained, on average, 0.25 fewer BMI units (95% confidence interval: −0.54, 0.03) and were less likely to remain overweight or obese over time than students in states with no laws. Students also gained fewer BMI units if exposed to consistently strong laws throughout follow-up (β = −0.44, 95% confidence interval: −0.71, −0.18). Conversely, students exposed to weaker laws in 2006 than 2003 had similar BMI gain as those not exposed in either year. CONCLUSIONS: Laws that regulate competitive food nutrition content may reduce adolescent BMI change if they are comprehensive, contain strong language, and are enacted across grade levels. PMID:22891223

  4. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  5. Parental Pressure, Dietary Patterns, and Weight Status among Girls Who Are “Picky Eaters”

    PubMed Central

    GALLOWAY, AMY T.; FIORITO, LAURA; LEE, YOONNA; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether mothers' fruit and vegetable intake and mothers' use of pressure in the feeding domain when their daughters were 7 years old predicted picky eating and dietary intake when their daughters were 9 years old, and to examine diet and weight status in picky and nonpicky eaters. Design/Subjects Participants were 173 9-year-old non-Hispanic white girls and their mothers. A longitudinal analysis was used to assess maternal influences on picky eating and diet. A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine diet and weight status between picky and non-picky eaters. Measures included maternal feeding practices, daughters' pickiness, mothers' fruit and vegetable intake, daughters' food intake, and weight status. Statistical Analyses t tests examined differences between picky and nonpicky eaters. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among mothers' fruit and vegetable intake; child feeding practices; daughters' pickiness; and fruit, vegetable, micronutrient, and fiber intakes. Results Mothers consuming more fruits and vegetables were less likely to pressure their daughters to eat and had daughters who were less picky and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Picky eaters consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, but also fewer fats and sweets. All girls consumed low amounts of vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium, but more picky girls were at risk for not meeting recommendations for vitamins E and C and also consumed significantly less fiber. In addition, picky eaters were less likely to be overweight. Conclusions Mothers influenced daughters' fruit and vegetable intake via their own patterns of fruit and vegetable intake and by influencing their daughters' tendencies to be picky eaters. Both picky and nonpicky eaters had aspects of their diets that did not meet recommendations. Taken together, these findings suggest that parents should focus less on “picky eating” behavior and more on modeling fruit and vegetable consumption for their

  6. PROP taster status interacts with the built environment to influence children's food acceptance and body weight status

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Carlye; Senerat, Araliya; Chambers, Earle; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and access to foods in the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children's food acceptance and body weights. Inherited ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) was assessed as a marker of oral taste responsiveness. Food environment was classified as “healthy” or “unhealthy” based on proximity to outlets that sell fruits/vegetables and fast foods using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The cohort consisted of 120 children, ages 4–6 years, recruited from New York City over 2005–2010. Home address and other demographic variables were reported by parents and PROP status, food acceptance, and anthropometrics were assessed in the laboratory. Based on a screening test, children were classified as PROP tasters or non-tasters. Hierarchical linear models analysis of variance was performed to examine differences in food acceptance and body mass index (BMI) z-scores as a function of PROP status, the food environment (“healthy” vs. “unhealthy”), and their interaction. Results showed an interaction between taster status and the food environment on BMI z-score and food acceptance. Non-taster children living in healthy food environments had greater acceptance of vegetables than taster children living in healthy food environments (p≤0.005). Moreover, non-tasters from unhealthy food environments had higher BMI z-scores than all other groups (p≤0.005). Incorporating genetic markers of taste into studies that assess the built environment may improve the ability of these measures to predict risk for obesity and eating behaviors. PMID:23401219

  7. Sleep Duration or Bedtime? Exploring the Relationship between Sleep Habits and Weight Status and Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Tim S.; Maher, Carol A.; Matricciani, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effects of early and late bedtimes and wake up times on use of time and weight status in Australian school-aged children. Design: Observational cross-sectional study involving use of time interviews and pedometers. Setting: Free-living Australian adolescents. Participants: 2200 9- to 16-year-olds from all states of Australia Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Bedtimes and wake times were adjusted for age and sex and classified as early or late using median splits. Adolescents were allocated into 4 sleep-wake pattern groups: Early-bed/Early-rise; Early-bed/Late-rise; Late-bed/Early-rise; Late-bed/Late-rise. The groups were compared for use of time (screen time, physical activity, and study-related time), sociodemographic characteristics, and weight status. Adolescents in the Late-bed/Late-rise category experienced 48 min/d more screen time and 27 min less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (P < 0.0001) than adolescents in the Early-bed/Early-rise category, in spite of similar sleep durations. Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents had a higher BMI z-score (0.66 vs. 0.45, P = 0.0015). Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents were 1.47 times more likely to be overweight or obese than Early-bed/Early-rise adolescents, 2.16 times more likely to be obese, 1.77 times more likely to have low MVPA, and 2.92 times more likely to have high screen time. Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents were more likely to come from poorer households, to live in major cities, and have fewer siblings. Conclusions: Late bedtimes and late wake up times are associated with an unfavorable activity and weight status profile, independent of age, sex, household income, geographical remoteness, and sleep duration. Citation: Olds TS; Maher CA; Matricciani L. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the relationship between sleep habits and weight status and activity patterns. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1299-1307. PMID:21966061

  8. Comparison of two measures of weight criticism in youth: associations with physical activity engagement and attitudes, weight status, and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gayes, Laurie A; Steele, Ric G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the degree to which 2 measures of weight criticism, the Weight Criticism During Physical Activity (WCA) scale and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale (POTS), represent distinct constructs and in what circumstances each is most appropriately used. A community sample of 307 fourth and fifth graders completed these measures, as well as measures of health-related quality of life, physical activity engagement, and attitudes toward physical activity. Body mass index was also calculated. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WCA scale and the POTS represented correlated but distinct constructs and related differently to measures of physical activity and weight status. Findings suggested that the WCA scale may be representing criticism regarding athletic competency, not criticism of weight status as described in the literature. The POTS subscales appear to be accurately described and used in the literature.

  9. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation.

  10. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels.

  11. Children at familial risk for obesity: an examination of dietary intake, physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Eck, L H; Klesges, R C; Hanson, C L; Slawson, D

    1992-02-01

    A large cohort of children was divided into two groups based on their parents' weight status. The high risk group had one or two overweight parent(s) (n = 92, 4.4 +/- 0.5 years), while the low risk group had no parent overweight (n = 95, 4.5 +/- 0.5 years). Weight of the two groups was similar at the start of the study but the high risk group gained marginally more weight over a one year period (P = 0.05). Although total energy intake was similar, the high risk group was consuming a larger percentage of energy from fat (P = 0.0004) and a smaller percentage from carbohydrate (P = 0.0002). Observed physical activity as similar for most levels but marginally higher for the stationary level and marginally lower in total activity in the high risk group. These results suggest a pattern that may lead to increased weight gain in a high risk group as they grow older.

  12. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status Among Community College Students.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions.

  13. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  14. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91) or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90) in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity) and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond. PMID:22314050

  15. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  16. State-Issued Identification Cards Reveal Patterns in Adult Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Main, Eric C.; Harris, Jenine K.; Moland, Abraham; Cude, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Background: State-issued identification cards are a promising data source for neighborhood-level obesity estimates. Methods: We used information from three million Oregon state-issued identification cards to compute age-adjusted estimates of average adult body mass index (BMI) for each census tract in the state. We used multivariate linear regression to identify associations between weight status and population characteristics, food access, commuting behavior, and geography. Results: Together, home values, education, race, ethnicity, car commuting, and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) explained 86% of the variation in BMI among tracts. BMI was lower in areas with higher home values and greater educational attainment, and higher in areas with more workers commuting by car. Discussion: Our findings are consistent with other research on socioeconomic disparities in obesity. This demonstrates state-issued identification cards are a promising data source for BMI surveillance and may offer new insight into the association between weight status and economic and environmental factors. Public health agencies should explore options for developing their own obesity estimates from identification card data. PMID:26062036

  17. Describing weight status and fitness in a community sample of children attending after-school programming.

    PubMed

    Huberty, J L; Rosenkranz, R R; Balluff, M A; High, R

    2010-06-01

    Although the body of research on public-health aspects of after-school programs is growing, little is known with regard to physical fitness levels of attending children. The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related fitness in a community sample (N.=826) of under-served children attending after-school programming. Health-related fitness was assessed via Fitnessgram(R) and body mass index. In this population, numerous children failed to meet national standards for the push-up (54%), curl-up (24%) and pacer (47%) tests. Many of those failing to meet national standards were unable to perform a single push-up (32%), or curl-up (12%), and over half (51%) of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and weight status emerged for some fitness measures. Based on these data, fitness aspects beyond weight status should be considered when designing PA programs for children, especially those in communities of underserved youth.

  18. Stressed out and Overcommitted! The Relationships between Time Demands and Family Rules and Parents' and Their Child's Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Sevcik, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine the relationship between parent time demands and presence and enforcement of family rules and parent/child dyad weight status. Method. In dyads of one child/parent per family (N = 681 dyads) in Twin Cities, Minnesota, 2007-2008, height and weight were measured, and a survey of demographics, time demands,…

  19. Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608

  20. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  1. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252

  2. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management.

  3. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  4. Interaction of sedentary behaviour, sports participation and fitness with weight status in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Even though the effect of single components contributing to weight gain in children have been addressed only limited research is available on the combined association of sports participation, physical fitness and time spent watching TV with body weight in children. Baseline data from 1594 children (809 male; 785 female), 7.1 ± 0.6 years of age participating in a large school-based intervention in southern Germany was used. Height and weight was measured and body mass index (BMI) percentiles (BMIPCT) were determined accordingly. Sports participation and time spent watching TV was assessed via parent questionnaire while fitness was determined via a composite fitness test. Combined and single associations of sports participation, TV time and fitness with BMIPCT and weight status were assessed via ANCOVA as well as logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and sex. A significant interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness on BMIPCT occurred, despite low correlations among the three components. Further, there was a combined association of sports participation and TV time on BMIPCT. TV time and fitness were also independently associated with BMIPCT. Similarly, only increased TV time and lower fitness were associated with a higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity. These results underline the complex interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness with BMIPCT. In children, TV time and fitness have a stronger influence on BMIPCT compared to sports participation. Sports participation, however, may not reflect overall activity levels of children appropriately. More research is necessary to examine the complex interaction of various behaviours and fitness with BMIPCT.

  5. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141

  6. Actual status of veralipride use

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    During the climacteric period, several symptoms exist that motivate women to seek medical advice; one of the most common is the hot flush, which presents in 75%–85% of these during a variable time span. For the treatment of hot flush, several non-hormonal treatments exist; among them, veralipride has shown to be a useful treatment of vasomotor symptoms during the climacteric period. In recent times, several medical societies have discredited its use. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to define a measured position in relation to the use of this drug. On completion of this review, it was possible to conclude that this drug has an antidopaminergic mechanism of action. The recommended schedule is: 100 mg/day for 20 days, with 10 days drug free. Since the risk of undesirable secondary effects such as galactorrhea, mastodynia, and extrapyramidal can increase with use, no more than 3 treatment cycles are recommended. This drug has a residual effect that can allow drug-free intervals, which permit a longer time between schedules. PMID:20852674

  7. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slabber-Stretch, Marthinette; Walsh, Corinna M.; Kruger, Salome H.; Nel, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    Background The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned. Aim To determine the nutritional status of 13–15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors. Setting Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006). Methods This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease. Results Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%). Conclusion A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status. PMID:26245592

  8. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  9. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  10. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  11. Indulgent Feeding Style and Children’s Weight Status in Preschool

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Shewchuk, Richard M.; Baskin, Monica L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Qu, Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to examine whether parent affect and child temperament characteristics differ across feeding styles in low-income families, given suggestive evidence. The secondary aim was to examine whether feeding styles were still related to children’s body mass index independent of parent affect, child temperament, and known correlates. Methods Participants in this study were 718 parents of childrens attending Head Start programs across two sites (Texas and Alabama). Parents were categorized into feeding styles of authoritative (n = 118), authoritarian (n = 219), indulgent (n = 240) and uninvolved (n = 141) using a parent-report questionnaire characterizing feeding in a general parenting paradigm. Parents completed questionnaires and measured height and weight was obtained from parents and children. Results Differences were found across feeding styles on parent affect and child temperament characteristics. Indulgent parents reported lower Negative Affect for themselves and lower Negative Affectivity for their children. The indulgent feeding style was significantly associated with higher child body mass index after controlling for parent affect, child temperament, and correlates (ethnicity, child age, parent body mass index). Conclusions The results of this study not only show a robust association between the indulgent feeding style and weight status of low-income preschool childrens, but also suggest how congruence between parent emotional affect and child temperament characteristics may contribute to excess consumption among children of indulgent parents. PMID:18714209

  12. Diet, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Culture in a Sample of Children from the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Pamela S.; Lai, Pamela; Guy, Devon; Knight, JaDon; Jackson, Maria; Nielsen, Anders L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Barbados, a small developing state at the end of the nutrition transition, faces an obesity epidemic. Although there is hope of stemming the epidemic in childhood, no descriptions of children's dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns are available for planning purposes. We describe the food and activity preferences and adult encouragement of active and sedentary behaviors for children 9–11 years in relation to weight status and the cultural context. Design. We used data from a pilot study preceding a large-scale ongoing study on the local drivers of the obesity epidemic among preadolescent children. PA, sedentary activity, and dietary intakes were assessed from recalls. Weight and height were measured. Setting. Barbados. Subjects. Sixty-two (62), 9–11-year-old school children. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of energy consumed. Energy intake significantly explained BMI. Parents selected significantly more of children's sedentary activities and encouraged mostly homework and chores (59%). Children's self-selected school-based activity was significantly related to BMI. Conclusions. Childhood obesity prevention recommendations and research should focus on culture-specific practices that promote acquired taste for excess sugar and parent-child interactions regarding PA. Child influenced by school-based activity intervention may an important area for preventive intervention research. PMID:23193460

  13. Depressive symptomatology, weight status and obesogenic risk among Australian adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Millar, Lynne; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Nichols, Melanie; Malakellis, Mary; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adolescence is a period of increased risk for mental health problems and development of associated lifestyle risk behaviours. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesogenic risk factors, weight status, and depressive symptomatology in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The study used repeated measures data from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) It's Your Move project, an Australian community-based obesity prevention intervention. Intervention effect was non-significant therefore intervention and comparison groups were combined in this study. Participants Total sample was 634 secondary school students (female n=338, male n=296) with mean age 13 years (SD=0.6) at baseline (2012) and 15 years (SD=0.6) at follow-up (2014) recruited from 6 government secondary schools in the ACT. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary outcome was depressive symptomatology measured by Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were weight status, physical activity, screen time and diet related measures. Results Increased physical activity was associated to lower depressive symptomatology among males (OR=0.35, p<0.05). Sweet drink (OR=1.15, p<0.05) and takeaway consumption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology among females at follow-up. Males who were classified as overweight or obese at baseline, and remained so over the study period, were at increased risk of depressive symptomatology at follow-up (b=1.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.92). Inactivity among males over the 2-year study period was predictive of higher depressive symptomatology scores at follow-up (b=2.55, 95% CI 0.78 to 4.32). For females, those who increased their consumption of takeaway foods during the study period were at increased risk for developing depressive symptomatology (b=1.82, 95% CI −0.05 to 3.71). Conclusions There are multiple, probably complex

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  15. Association between Mindfulness and Weight Status in a General Population from the NutriNet-Santé Study

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Géraldine M.; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness is defined as non-judgmental awareness of the present moment. There is some evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in weight loss. However, this psychological concept has only been rarely explored in observational studies, and no study to date has examined the association between dispositional mindfulness and weight status in a large population-based sample. Objective We aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness scores and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France. Design and Methods A total of 14,400 men and 49,228 women aged ≥18 y participating in the NutriNet-Santé study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. We collected mindfulness data using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between weight status and dispositional mindfulness, as well as its subscales (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reactivity), was assessed using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Women with higher dispositional mindfulness scores were less likely to be overweight (excluding obesity) (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.79-0.90) and obese (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.65-0.78). In addition, overall, in this group, all subscales were inversely associated with weight status, with the strongest association found for the “observing” subscale. In men, higher mindfulness was associated only with lower odds of obesity (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.81 (0.69, 0.96)), and only the “observing” and “non-reactivity” subscales were significantly inversely associated with weight status. Conclusion Results support the interest of a shift in perspective that takes into account positive psychological and cognitive factors such as dispositional mindfulness in the investigation of obesity and its associated factors. PMID:26038824

  16. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  17. The Role of Distance in Examining the Association Between Active Commuting to School and Students' Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. Methods In 2009–10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. Results 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. Conclusions ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold. PMID:25473961

  18. Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  19. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health.

  20. Normal Weight Status in Military Service Members Was Associated With Intuitive Eating Characteristic.

    PubMed

    Cole, Renee E; Clark, Heidi L; Heileson, Jeffery; DeMay, Jordan; Smith, Martha A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between individual weight status and intuitive eating or motivation for eating characteristics. Participants were predominantly white (57%), Army (91%), enlisted (72%), males (71%), with a mean age of 30 ± 9 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.0 ± 4.2 kg/m(2). The cross-sectional, descriptive study included active duty service members (n = 295) recruited from Texas and Washington. Validated Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES) and Intuitive Eating Scale were administered and BMI (m/kg(2)) was dichotomized at <25 or ≥25 kg/m(2). Descriptive, correlation, t-test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted for BMI category with demographic, lifestyle, and MFES/Intuitive Eating Scale scores (α = 0.05; 80% power). Thirty-six percent were normal BMI (22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and 64% were overweight/obese BMI (29.3 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)). Mean BMI was 27.8 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) (males) and 24.8 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) (females) (p < 0.001). Physical MFES type was predominant (77% normal BMI vs. 66% overweight; p = 0.001). Males ate for physical rather than emotional reasons (p = 0.014). Each 1-point increase in Reliance on Internal Hunger Satiety Score was associated with 34% lower odds of being overweight. Disparity existed between sex and intuitive eating characteristic. Increasing awareness of eating influences may improve weight-related dietary behaviors. PMID:27244071

  1. Impact of rapamycin on status epilepticus induced hippocampal pathology and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hester, Michael S; Hosford, Bethany E; Santos, Victor R; Singh, Shatrunjai P; Rolle, Isaiah J; LaSarge, Candi L; Liska, John P; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence implicates the dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dentate granule cells limit the amount of excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit striking neuroplastic changes that may impair this function during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, aberrant integration of newly-generated granule cells underlies the majority of dentate restructuring. Recently, attention has focused on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a potential mediator of epileptogenic change. Systemic administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has promising therapeutic potential, as it has been shown to reduce seizure frequency and seizure severity in rodent models. Here, we tested whether mTOR signaling facilitates abnormal development of granule cells during epileptogenesis. We also examined dentate inflammation and mossy cell death in the dentate hilus. To determine if mTOR activation is necessary for abnormal granule cell development, transgenic mice that harbored fluorescently-labeled adult-born granule cells were treated with rapamycin following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Systemic rapamycin effectively blocked phosphorylation of S6 protein (a readout of mTOR activity) and reduced granule cell mossy fiber axon sprouting. However, the accumulation of ectopic granule cells and granule cells with aberrant basal dendrites was not significantly reduced. Mossy cell death and reactive astrocytosis were also unaffected. These data suggest that anti-epileptogenic effects of mTOR inhibition may be mediated by mechanisms other than inhibition of these common dentate pathologies. Consistent with this conclusion, rapamycin prevented pathological weight gain in epileptic mice, suggesting that rapamycin might act on central circuits or even peripheral tissues controlling weight gain in epilepsy. PMID:26995324

  2. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use Among 18 to 19 year old Adolescent Women By Weight Status: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M.; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Ela, Elizabeth J.; Hall, Kelli S.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between weight status and sexual practices among 18-19 year-old women. Study design We analyzed a population-based longitudinal study of 18-19 year-old women residing in a Michigan county at cohort inception. Weekly journal surveys measured sexual practices, including contraceptive behaviors. Outcomes included proportion of weeks with a partner, proportion of weeks with sexual intercourse, number of partners, average length of relationships, proportion of weeks with contraception use, and proportion of weeks where contraception was used consistently. We examined 26,545 journal surveys from 900 women over the first study year. Ordinary least squares regression models for each outcome examined differences by weight status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The mean proportion of weeks in which adolescents reported sexual intercourse was 52%; there was no difference by weight status. Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks where any contraception was used compared with normal-weight adolescents (84% vs 91%, p=0.011). Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity and contraceptive use, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks with consistent contraceptive use (68% vs 78%, p=0.016) and oral contraceptive pill use (27% vs 45%, p=0.001) compared with normal-weight adolescents. All other relationships by weight status were not statistically significant. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, obese adolescent women were less likely to use contraception, and less likely to use it consistently when compared with normal-weight peers. Findings suggest obesity may be an important factor associated with adolescent women’s sexual behavior. PMID:26143383

  3. Fitness but not weight status is associated with projected physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Santos, Leandro Dos; Ekelund, Ulf; Santos, Diana A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and fitness have been associated with older adults' physical independence. We aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of physical fitness and adiposity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the projected ability for physical independence. A total of 3496 non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 and older (1167 male) were included in the analysis. BMI and WC were assessed and categorized according to established criteria. Physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test and individual test results were expressed as Z-scores. Projected ability for physical independence was assessed with the 12-item composite physical function scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for being physically dependent. A total of 30.1 % of participants were classified as at risk for losing physical independence at age 90 years. Combined fitness and fatness analysis demonstrated that unfit older adults had increased odds ratio for being physically dependent in all BMI categories (normal: OR = 9.5, 95 %CI = 6.5-13.8; overweight: OR = 6.0, 95 %CI = 4.3-8.3; obese: OR = 6.7, 95 %CI = 4.6-10.0) and all WC categories (normal: OR = 10.4, 95%CI = 6.5-16.8; middle: OR = 6.2, 95 %CI = 4.1-9.3; upper: OR = 7.0, 95 %CI = 4.8-10.0) compared to fit participants that were of normal weight and fit participants with normal WC, respectively. No increased odds ratio was observed for fit participants that had increased BMI or WC. In conclusion, projected physical independence may be enhanced by a normal weight, a normal WC, or an increased physical fitness. Adiposity measures were not associated with physical independence, whereas fitness is independently related to physical independence. Independent of their weight and WC status, unfit older adults are at increased risk for losing physical independence.

  4. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  5. 40 CFR 63.2854 - How do I determine the weighted average volume fraction of HAP in the actual solvent loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2854 How do I determine the weighted... received for use in your vegetable oil production process. By the end of each calendar month following an... the solvent in each delivery of solvent, including solvent recovered from off-site oil. To...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2854 - How do I determine the weighted average volume fraction of HAP in the actual solvent loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2854 How do I determine the weighted... received for use in your vegetable oil production process. By the end of each calendar month following an... the solvent in each delivery of solvent, including solvent recovered from off-site oil. To...

  7. The Neighborhood Food Environment and Adult Weight Status: Estimates From Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I used longitudinal data to consider the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and adult weight status. Methods. I combined individual-level data on adults from the 1998 through 2004 survey years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 with zip code–level data on the neighborhood food environment. I estimated ordinary least squares models of obesity, body mass index (BMI), and change in BMI. Results. For residents of urban areas, the neighborhood density of small grocery stores was positively and significantly related to obesity and BMI. For individuals who moved from a rural area to an urban area over a 2-year period, changes in neighborhood supermarket density, small grocery store density, and full-service restaurant density were significantly related to the change in BMI over that period. Conclusions. Residents of urban neighborhoods with a higher concentration of small grocery stores may be more likely to patronize these stores and consume more calories because small grocery stores tend to offer more unhealthy food options than healthy food options. Moving to an urban area may expose movers to a wider variety of food options that may influence calorie consumption. PMID:21088263

  8. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept.

  9. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. PMID:26854729

  10. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods.

    PubMed

    Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. PMID:24057991

  11. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  12. State-Level School Competitive Food and Beverage Laws Are Associated with Children's Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…

  13. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  14. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  15. Child's Weight Status and Parent's Response to a School-Based Body Mass Index Screening and Parent Notification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiwoo; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the response of parents of elementary school-aged children to a school-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification program conducted in one Minnesota school district in 2010-2011 and whether parent's response was moderated by child's weight status. Randomly selected parents (N = 122) of second- and…

  16. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  17. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  18. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  19. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...

  20. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  1. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  2. Perfectionism and Bulimic Symptoms in African American College Women: Dimensions of Perfectionism and Their Interactions with Perceived Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Weishuhn, Amanda S.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had 2 primary aims: (a) to examine the unique relations between maladaptive and adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and bulimic symptoms and (b) to test an interactive model of perfectionism and perceived weight status for bulimic symptoms in a sample of African American female undergraduates. The sample consisted of 97 women at Time 1…

  3. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  4. Parenting Style as a Moderator of the Association between Parenting Behaviors and the Weight Status of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xu; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the contextual model of parenting style, this study aimed to examine whether the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents' dietary habits, physical activity, and weight status is moderated by parenting style. A total of 1,869 parent-adolescent dyads were recruited in southern China. The adolescents' body mass index,…

  5. Effects of pre-competitional rapid weight loss on nutrition, vitamin status and oxidative stress in elite boxers.

    PubMed

    Reljic, Dejan; Jost, Joachim; Dickau, Kirsten; Kinscherf, Ralf; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake, vitamin status and oxidative stress were evaluated in 17 elite male boxers. Ten of them frequently reduced body weight rapidly before competitions (Weight Loss Group) and 7 did not practice rapid weight loss (Control Group). Food record checklists, blood samples for determination of vitamin status and plasma glutathione levels were obtained during a week of weight maintenance, a pre-competition week and a post-competition week. The average dietary intakes in both groups were 33 ± 8 kcal·kg(-1), 3.7 ± 1.1 g·kg(-1) carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) protein, 1.2 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) fat and 2.2 ± 1.0 L water per day (excluding pre-competition week in Weight Loss Group). Energy (18 ± 7 kcal·kg(-1)), carbohydrate (2.2 ± 0.8 g·kg(-1)), protein (0.8 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1)), fat (0.6 ± 0.3 g·kg(-1)) and water (1.6 ± 0.6 L) consumption (P-values <0.001) and intakes of most vitamins (P-values < 0.05) were significantly reduced during the pre-competition week in the Weight Loss Group. In both groups, the intakes of vitamins A, E and folate were below recommended values throughout the three periods; however, blood vitamin and plasma glutathione levels did not change significantly. Our findings indicate a low-caloric and low-carbohydrate diet in elite boxers, regardless of participating in rapid weight loss or not. Apparently, the pre-competitional malnutitrition in the Weight Loss Group did not induce alterations in the vitamin and glutathione status. PMID:25259507

  6. Effects of pre-competitional rapid weight loss on nutrition, vitamin status and oxidative stress in elite boxers.

    PubMed

    Reljic, Dejan; Jost, Joachim; Dickau, Kirsten; Kinscherf, Ralf; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake, vitamin status and oxidative stress were evaluated in 17 elite male boxers. Ten of them frequently reduced body weight rapidly before competitions (Weight Loss Group) and 7 did not practice rapid weight loss (Control Group). Food record checklists, blood samples for determination of vitamin status and plasma glutathione levels were obtained during a week of weight maintenance, a pre-competition week and a post-competition week. The average dietary intakes in both groups were 33 ± 8 kcal·kg(-1), 3.7 ± 1.1 g·kg(-1) carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) protein, 1.2 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) fat and 2.2 ± 1.0 L water per day (excluding pre-competition week in Weight Loss Group). Energy (18 ± 7 kcal·kg(-1)), carbohydrate (2.2 ± 0.8 g·kg(-1)), protein (0.8 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1)), fat (0.6 ± 0.3 g·kg(-1)) and water (1.6 ± 0.6 L) consumption (P-values <0.001) and intakes of most vitamins (P-values < 0.05) were significantly reduced during the pre-competition week in the Weight Loss Group. In both groups, the intakes of vitamins A, E and folate were below recommended values throughout the three periods; however, blood vitamin and plasma glutathione levels did not change significantly. Our findings indicate a low-caloric and low-carbohydrate diet in elite boxers, regardless of participating in rapid weight loss or not. Apparently, the pre-competitional malnutitrition in the Weight Loss Group did not induce alterations in the vitamin and glutathione status.

  7. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  8. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  9. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  10. “Obese Equals Lazy?” Analysis of the Association between Weight Status and Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kreuser, F.; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K.; Gollhofer, A.; Korsten-Reck, U.; Röttger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Literature provides evidence that overweight children are more sedentary. To verify this generalized statement behavior patterns of overweight and nonoverweight children needs to be understood. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of sedentary and activity levels in a quantitative and qualitative way. Methods. Data was collected from 37 randomly selected nonoverweight and 55 overweight children. They were 8 to 11 years of age. Height and weight were measured and weight status was characterized by BMI (BMI-percentile, BMI-SDS). Daily PA (physical activity) was measured by direct accelerometry. Spare time and screen time entertainment were obtained by questionnaires. Results. The amount of time spent “passive” was significantly higher in overweight children, while nonoverweight children were more “active.” The multiple regression model shows a significant association between weight status (BMI-SDS) and activity parameters. Additionally, screen time entertainment was significantly related to BMI-SDS. Conclusion. The results support the statement that overweight children are less active than nonoverweight children. The high amount of PA seems to be an important factor to prevent overweight in children given that PA shows the highest correlation to weight status. Quantitative and qualitative measurements are needed for further analysis. PMID:23533723

  11. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.

  12. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  13. Predicting future weight status from measurements made in early childhood: a novel longitudinal approach applied to Millennium Cohort Study data

    PubMed Central

    Mead, E; Batterham, A M; Atkinson, G; Ells, L J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: There are reports that childhood obesity tracks into later life. Nevertheless, some tracking statistics such as correlations do not quantify individual agreement, whereas others such as diagnostic test statistics can be difficult to translate into practice. We aimed to employ a novel analytic approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to predict weight status of 11-year-old children from measurements at age 5 years. Subjects/Methods: The UK 1990 growth references were used to generate clinical weight status categories of 12 076 children enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Using ordinal regression, we derived the predicted probability (percent chances) of 11-year-old children becoming underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese and severely obese from their weight status category at age 5 years. Results: The chances of becoming obese (including severely obese) at age 11 years were 5.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.2%) for a normal-weight 5-year-old child and 32.3% (29.8 to 34.8%) for an overweight 5-year-old child. An obese 5-year-old child had a 68.1% (63.8 to 72.5%) chance of remaining obese at 11 years. Severely obese 5-year-old children had a 50.3% (43.1 to 57.4%) chance of remaining severely obese. There were no substantial differences between sexes. Nondeprived obese 5-year-old boys had a lower probability of remaining obese than deprived obese boys: −21.8% (−40.4 to −3.2%). This association was not observed in obese 5-year-old girls, in whom the nondeprived group had a probability of remaining obese 7% higher (−15.2 to 29.2%). The sex difference in this interaction of deprivation and baseline weight status was therefore −28.8% (−59.3 to 1.6%). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that ordinal logistic regression can be an informative approach to predict the chances of a child changing to, or from, an unhealthy weight status. This approach is easy to interpret and could be applied to any longitudinal data set

  14. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  15. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  16. Obesogenic environments: a systematic review of the association between the physical environment and adult weight status, the SPOTLIGHT project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding which physical environmental factors affect adult obesity, and how best to influence them, is important for public health and urban planning. Previous attempts to summarise the literature have not systematically assessed the methodological quality of included studies, or accounted for environmental differences between continents or the ways in which environmental characteristics were measured. Methods We have conducted an updated review of the scientific literature on associations of physical environmental factors with adult weight status, stratified by continent and mode of measurement, accompanied by a detailed risk-of-bias assessment. Five databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1995 and 2013. Results Two factors, urban sprawl and land use mix, were found consistently associated with weight status, although only in North America. Conclusions With the exception of urban sprawl and land use mix in the US the results of the current review confirm that the available research does not allow robust identification of ways in which that physical environment influences adult weight status, even after taking into account methodological quality. PMID:24602291

  17. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (β=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (β=−3.89 and β=−5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (β= −4.97, β= −1.68 and β= −3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during

  18. The Influence of Race in the Association between Weight Status and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…

  19. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  20. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  1. Longitudinal Associations Among Change in Overweight Status, Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Weight-Related Teasing Among Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David H.; Sato, Amy F.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between changes in adolescents’ weight status and psychosocial constructs. Method 118 obese adolescents aged 13–16 years participated in a behavioral weight control intervention. Percent overweight (OW), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and frequency of weight-related teasing (WRT) were collected at baseline, end of intervention, and 12 and 24 months post-randomization. 3 multivariate latent change score models were estimated to examine longitudinal cross-lagged associations between: (1) OW and FNE; (2) OW and WRT; and (3) FNE and WRT. Results Decreases in OW were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in both FNE and WRT; however, changes in FNE and WRT were not prospectively associated with subsequent change in OW. Decreases in FNE were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in WRT. Conclusion Moderate weight loss in the context of a behavioral weight control intervention has positive long-term implications for obese adolescents’ peer relations. PMID:24893862

  2. Childhood Growth Trajectories According to Combinations of Pregestational Weight Status and Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these combinations, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan. The study participants were 1,973 women and their singletons, who were born between April 1, 1991 and March 31, 2003. Children were categorized according to whether they were born to normal-weight, nonsmoking mothers (NN); normal-weight, smoking mothers (NS); underweight, nonsmoking mothers (UN); underweight, smoking mothers (US); overweight, nonsmoking mothers (ON); or overweight, smoking mothers (OS). Birth weight and anthropometric data were collected from 1,965 children at birth (99.6%), 1,655 aged 3 (83.9%), 1,527 aged 5 (77.4%), 1,497 aged 7–8 (75.9%), and 1,501 aged 9–10 (76.1%). Multilevel analysis examining both individual and age as different level variables according to sex was used to describe the trajectories of body mass index z scores for statistical analyses. Although children of the OS group were the leanest at birth, their body mass indices had increased rapidly by 3 years of age. Moreover, body mass index was also likely to increase in boys in the NS and ON groups. A different trend was observed in girls. Body mass index decreased from 5 years of age in girls in the US group. There were no remarkable differences in body mass index trajectories between children in the other groups. In conclusion, childhood growth trajectories differed according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further, there were sex-related differences in the associations between childhood growth and factor combinations. PMID:25680116

  3. Childhood growth trajectories according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these combinations, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan. The study participants were 1,973 women and their singletons, who were born between April 1, 1991 and March 31, 2003. Children were categorized according to whether they were born to normal-weight, nonsmoking mothers (NN); normal-weight, smoking mothers (NS); underweight, nonsmoking mothers (UN); underweight, smoking mothers (US); overweight, nonsmoking mothers (ON); or overweight, smoking mothers (OS). Birth weight and anthropometric data were collected from 1,965 children at birth (99.6%), 1,655 aged 3 (83.9%), 1,527 aged 5 (77.4%), 1,497 aged 7-8 (75.9%), and 1,501 aged 9-10 (76.1%). Multilevel analysis examining both individual and age as different level variables according to sex was used to describe the trajectories of body mass index z scores for statistical analyses. Although children of the OS group were the leanest at birth, their body mass indices had increased rapidly by 3 years of age. Moreover, body mass index was also likely to increase in boys in the NS and ON groups. A different trend was observed in girls. Body mass index decreased from 5 years of age in girls in the US group. There were no remarkable differences in body mass index trajectories between children in the other groups. In conclusion, childhood growth trajectories differed according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further, there were sex-related differences in the associations between childhood growth and factor combinations.

  4. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  5. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  6. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food. PMID:19481125

  7. Parent use of food to soothe infant/toddler distress and child weight status. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Birch, Leann L; Voegtline, Kristin

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the parent feeding practice of using food to soothe infant/toddler distress and its relationship to child weight status. Seventy eight families with infants and toddlers (43 males) ranging in age from 3 to 34 months (M=14 mos, SD=9 mos) completed a survey which included questions on their use of food to soothe, questionnaires on parent feeding practices, parenting self-efficacy, child temperament and child's weight and length at the time of their last well-baby visit. Results revealed the use of food to soothe to be a valid construct. In addition, mothers who used food to soothe rated themselves lower in parenting self-efficacy and their children higher in temperamental negativity. Analyses examining weight status as the outcome variable revealed that mothers who reported the use of food to soothe had heavier children, however, this relationship was stronger for children rated as high in temperamental negativity. PMID:21896298

  8. GDM Women’s Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Redman, Leanne M.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG) with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55), 2.98 (1.89-4.69), and 2.93 (2.07-4.13), respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84), 2.89 (1.78-4.70), and 2.84 (1.98-4.06), respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73), 1.96 (1.24-3.09), and 1.59 (1.15-2.21), respectively]. Conclusions Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG. PMID:26098307

  9. Weight Loss and Health Status 3 Years after Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Inge, Thomas H.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Zeller, Meg H.; Chen, Mike K.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, C. Ralph

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related quality of life and postoperative complications were evaluated through 3 years after the procedure. RESULTS The mean (±SD) baseline age of the participants was 17±1.6 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 53; 75% of the participants were female, and 72% were white. At 3 years after the procedure, the mean weight had decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 29) in the total cohort, by 28% (95% CI, 25 to 30) among participants who underwent gastric bypass, and by 26% (95% CI, 22 to 30) among those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. By 3 years after the procedure, remission of type 2 diabetes occurred in 95% (95% CI, 85 to 100) of participants who had had the condition at baseline, remission of abnormal kidney function occurred in 86% (95% CI, 72 to 100), remission of prediabetes in 76% (95% CI, 56 to 97), remission of elevated blood pressure in 74% (95% CI, 64 to 84), and remission of dyslipidemia in 66% (95% CI, 57 to 74). Weight-related quality of life also improved significantly. However, at 3 years after the bariatric procedure, hypoferritinemia was found in 57% (95% CI, 50 to 65) of the participants, and 13% (95% CI, 9 to 18) of the participants had undergone one or more additional intraabdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter, prospective study of bariatric surgery in adolescents, we

  10. Are clinical criteria just proxies for socioeconomic status? A study of low birth weight in Jamaica.

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, J W; Gertler, P J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the clinical risk factors for low birth weight are independent of socioeconomic risk factors in a population based sample from a developing country. DESIGN: Survey data from patient reported socioeconomic measures and their most recent pregnancy history. SETTING: A national sample of randomly selected households in Jamaica. SUBJECTS: All women aged 14-50 in the household who had a pregnancy lasting seven months in the past five years (n = 952). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Birth weight. RESULTS: Clinical risk factors for low birth weight, such as parity age, are independent of socioeconomic determinants, such as consumption and where a mother lives. Women who are nulliparous, 35 or older, poor, or living in certain areas are more likely to have lower birth weight children than those that do not have these characteristics (t statistics > 2.0). The addition of socioeconomic factors to the multiple regression does not alter the estimates for the clinical risk factors for low birth weight. Thus, the effect of being nulliparous can be offset by being in the highest consumption quintile and, conversely, the risk of being older will be compounded if women are poor. CONCLUSIONS: Both clinical and socioeconomic risk factors should be used to target women at risk. In terms of the quality of care, this study links clinical and socioeconomic risk factors to poor outcomes. Further studies are needed, however, to link the quality of care at various locations to these outcomes. Images PMID:9135795

  11. The impact of excessive maternal weight on the nutritional status of the fetus – the role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration – Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Material and methods Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Results Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p < 0.00001). The NBM mothers showed lower Lc compared to EBM mothers (p = 0.000018). Leptin concentration values in NBM/LGA and NBM/AGA mothers were similar (p = 0.6775). Newborns: Correlations were found between Lc and ponderal index (PI) (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.43, p = 0.004) and placental weight (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Girls presented higher Lc than boys (p = 0.0338). In LGA groups, newborns born to EBM mothers presented higher Lc than those born to NBM mothers (p = 0.0013). In both AGA groups, Lc was similar (AGA/EBM vs. AGA/NBM p = 0.1619). The highest Lc and the largest placentas were found in the group of LGA newborns born to EBM mothers. Conclusions Leptin concentration positively correlates with BMI in pregnant women, with PI and female sex in newborns as well as with placental weight. The nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers. PMID:27186186

  12. Improved nutritional status and bone health after diet-induced weight loss in sedentary osteoarthritis patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, P; Bartels, E M; Riecke, B F; Bliddal, H; Leeds, A R; Astrup, A; Winther, K; Christensen, R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obese subjects are commonly deficient in several micronutrients. Weight loss, although beneficial, may also lead to adverse changes in micronutrient status and body composition. The objective of the study is to assess changes in micronutrient status and body composition in obese individuals after a dietary weight loss program. SUBJECTS/METHODS: As part of a dietary weight loss trial, enrolling 192 obese patients (body mass index >30 kg/m2) with knee osteoarthritis (>50 years of age), vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12 and body composition were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. All followed an 8-week formula weight-loss diet 415–810 kcal per day, followed by 8 weeks on a hypo-energetic 1200 kcal per day diet with a combination of normal food and formula products. Statistical analyses were based on paired samples in the completer population. RESULTS: A total of 175 patients (142 women), 91%, completed the 16-week program and had a body weight loss of 14.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 13.3–14.7; P<0.0001), consisting of 1.8 kg (1.3–2.3; P<0.0001) lean body mass (LBM) and 11.0 kg (10.4–11.6; P<0.0001) fat mass. Bone mineral content (BMC) did not change (-13.5 g; P=0.18), whereas bone mineral density (BMD) increased by 0.004 g/cm2 (0.001–0.008 g/cm2; P=0.025). Plasma vitamin D and B12 increased by 15.3 nmol/l (13.2–17.3; P<0.0001) and 43.7 pmol/l (32.1–55.4; P<0.0001), respectively. There was no change in plasma ferritin. CONCLUSIONS: This intensive program with formula diet resulted in increased BMD and improved vitamin D and B12 levels. Ferritin and BMC were unchanged and loss of LBM was only 13% of the total weight loss. This observational evidence supports use of formula diet-induced weight loss therapy in obese osteoarthritis patients. PMID:22190136

  13. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Frederick F

    2005-11-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets. Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has substantially different effects on lipoproteins. Saturated fat raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but has unfavorable effects on total cholesterol, and has been associated with increased cardiovascular events. In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Although current national guidelines modestly liberalize unsaturated fat consumption, important questions still remain about the optimal percentage of unsaturated fats in the diet. PMID:16255998

  14. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Frederick F

    2005-11-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets. Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has substantially different effects on lipoproteins. Saturated fat raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but has unfavorable effects on total cholesterol, and has been associated with increased cardiovascular events. In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Although current national guidelines modestly liberalize unsaturated fat consumption, important questions still remain about the optimal percentage of unsaturated fats in the diet.

  15. Perceived and actual social discrimination: the case of overweight and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the correspondence between perceived and actual social discrimination of overweight people. In total, 77 first-year students provided self-ratings about their height, weight, and perceived social inclusion. To capture actual social inclusion, each participant nominated those fellow students (a) she/he likes and dislikes and (b) about whom she/he is likely to hear social news. Students with lower Body Mass Index (BMI) felt socially included, irrespective of their actual social inclusion. In contrast, students with higher BMI felt socially included depending on the degree of their actual social inclusion. Specifically, their felt social inclusion accurately reflected whether they were actually liked/disliked, but only when they were part of social news. When not part of social news, they also showed insensitivity to their actual social inclusion status. Thus, students with a lower BMI tended to be insensitive, while students with a higher BMI showed a differential sensitivity to actual social discrimination.

  16. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  17. Vitamin A status of low and normal birth weight infants at birth and in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ramesh; Virmani, Deenanath; Jaipal, Munnalal; Gupta, Shuchita; Toteja, G S

    2013-10-01

    Serum retinol levels of low birth weight (LBW; birth weight < 2500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight ≥ 2500 g) infants were evaluated at birth and 3 months using high performance liquid chromatography. At birth, levels were 13.3 ± 8.2 ug/dL in LBW (n=146) and 14.0 ± 6.2 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 79; p = 0.51), with 41.1% of LBW and 24.1% of NBW infants having vitamin A deficiency (VAD, < 10 ug/dL; P = 0.01). At follow up, levels were 18.0 ± 9.4 ug/dL in LBW (n = 83) and 20.0 ± 7.3 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 51; P = 0.19), with 18.1% of LBW and 3.9% of NBW infants having VAD (P = 0.02). PMID:23798634

  18. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...

  19. Units and Systems of Weights and Measures, Their Origin, Development, and Present Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbrow, L. E.

    This newsletter, adapted in 1976 from one originally published in 1960, reviews the subject of weights and measures from several standpoints. It deals first with the historical development of standard systems of measurement, discussing both the metric and English systems. The second section defines a variety of units and describes standardization…

  20. Select Parent and Family System Correlates of Adolescent Current Weight Status: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Burnham, Joy J.; Richey, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In this exploratory, correlational study, the researchers examined the extent to which select family systems theory constructs were associated with self-reported current weight among a sample of 77 primarily non-Hispanic Black adolescents. We also explored the extent to which select parental and familial constructs (family cohesion, family…

  1. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  2. Weight to length ratio--a good parameter for determining nutritional status in preterm and full-term newborns.

    PubMed

    Yau, K I; Chang, M H

    1993-05-01

    To identify which parameter showed the strongest correlation with neonatal body fat store, when the ratios for assessing both weight-for-length and the mid-arm circumference to head circumference (MAC/HC) were included in the analysis, body anthropometrics and skinfold thickness were measured in 250 full-term and 125 preterm infants. Among the study cases, 66.7% were appropriate for gestational age, 26.7% were small for gestational age and 6.7% were large for gestational age. Sum of the skinfold thickness measured at the midtricepital and subscapular areas correlated well with body anthropometrics, weight/length ratio, body mass index, ponderal index and mid-arm circumference to head circumference ratio. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the weight/length ratio correlated best with skinfold thickness in both full-term and preterm newborn infants. Therefore, the simple weight/length ratio might be useful for evaluation of the nutritional status of intrauterine growth, and in the prediction of metabolic complications in both full-term and preterm newborns with abnormal intrauterine growth. PMID:8518517

  3. Weight Status of Mexican Immigrant Women: A Comparison With Women in Mexico and With US-Born Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L.; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. Methods. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001–2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Results. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Conclusions. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a “healthy immigrant” effect. PMID:23865649

  4. Role of Child Weight Status and the Relative Reinforcing Value of Food in Children’s Response to Portion Size Increases

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Remiker, Adriane M.; Strutz, Erin M.; Moore, Reneé H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Food portion size is an important determinant of intake in children. It remains unknown if children’s weight status and relative reinforcing value of food (RRVF) interact with portion size to affect intake. Design and Methods In a randomized crossover design, 25 normal-weight and 25 obese children, ages 8 to 10 years, consumed dinner once a week for 3 weeks. At each dinner, the same meal was served, but the portion size of all foods (chicken nuggets, hash browns, ketchup, green beans, brownies) and a sugar-sweetened beverage (fruit punch) varied across conditions (100%, 150%, 200%). Children’s RRVF was assessed using a behavioral choice task. Results There was a significant main effect of portion size condition (P=0.003) and weight status (P=0.0005) and a non-significant trend for a portion size-by-weight status interaction (P=0.108) on intake. Mean intakes across conditions (100%, 150%, 200%) were 801±57, 964±58, and 873±57 kcal for normal-weight children and 1041±57, 1129±57, and 1210±57 kcal for obese children, respectively. Neither the main effect of RRVF status nor the condition-by-RRVF status interaction was significant (P>0.48). Conclusions Environments that offer large portions of palatable foods affect all children’s intake irrespective of their weight status or how reinforcing they find food to be. PMID:24733645

  5. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  6. Resting IL-6 and TNF-α level in children of different weight and fitness status.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Hackney, A C; Battaglini, Claudio; Combs, Terry; Harrell, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    Reports suggest children with high aerobic fitness (VO2max; mL/kg/min) have healthier profiles of TNF-α and IL-6; however, research has not accounted for differences in adiposity between high-fit and low-fit individuals. Thus, this study examined differences in inflammatory markers of obese and normal weight children of different fitness levels, using two different VO2max units: per unit of fat free mass (VO2FFM) or total body mass (VO2kg). Children (n = 124; ages 8-12) were divided into four matched groups; normal weight high-fit (NH), normal weight low- fit (NL), obese high-fit (OH), and obese low-fit (OL). Height, weight, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI), and predicted VO2max were measured and a morning, fasting blood sample taken. IL-6 was elevated in the NL and OL groups compared with the NH group, as well as the OL group compared with the OH group. No differences were found in TNF-α. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and the two units of predicted VO2max did not differ suggesting that either VO2FM or VO2kg can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and predicted VO2max, whether expressed per mass or per fat-free mass was similar, suggesting that both can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. Given the polar design of this study, this relationship should be confirmed including overweight subjects.

  7. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children’s weight status

    PubMed Central

    Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as ‘competitive foods’) are associated with children’s weight status. METHODS We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states’ competitive food laws and children’s overweight and obesity status (BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile). Children (n=16271) between the ages of 11–14 years with a BMI for age ≥ 5th percentile who attended public school were included. RESULTS Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. CONCLUSION State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. PMID:25117896

  8. Relationships between the built environment and walking and weight status among older women in three U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Troped, Philip J; Starnes, Heather A; Puett, Robin C; Tamura, Kosuke; Cromley, Ellen K; James, Peter; Ben-Joseph, Eran; Melly, Steven J; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies of built environment associations with physical activity and weight status among older women in large geographic areas that use individual residential buffers to define environmental exposures. Among 23,434 women (70.0 ± 6.9 yr; range = 57-85) in 3 states, relationships between objective built environment variables and meeting physical activity recommendations via walking and weight status were examined. Differences in associations by population density and state were explored in stratified models. Population density (odds ratio [OR] =1.04 [1.02, 1.07]), intersection density (ORs = 1.18-1.28), and facility density (ORs = 1.01-1.53) were positively associated with walking. Density of physical activity facilities was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 0.69 [0.49, 0.96]). The strongest associations between facility density variables and both outcomes were found among women from higher population density areas. There was no clear pattern of differences in associations across states. Among older women, relationships between accessible facilities and walking may be most important in more densely populated settings.

  9. Changes in Individual Weight Status Based on Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lai Ming; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight change predicted diseases and mortality. We investigate 3-year changes in individual body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods In the Population Health Survey, 7084 adults in 2003 (baseline) were followed up in 2006. Longitudinal anthropometric data were available in 2941 (41.5%) for BMI and 2956 for waist circumference. Weight status and central obesity were based on objectively measured BMI and waist circumference using Asian standards. Results Mean BMI (SD) increased from 22.8 (3.62) to 23.1 (3.95) (p<0.001) with 1.3 percentage point increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity (from 44.3% to 45.6%). One in 5 (22.0%) normal or underweight baseline respondents became overweight or obese and a similar proportion (24.8%) of overweight and obese respondents became normal or underweight. Prevalence of central obesity increased from 28.3% to 32.4% (p<0.001) with a non-significantly greater increase in women (30.0% to 38.1%) than men (23.0% to 26.1%) (p=0.63). A higher proportion of centrally obese respondents returned to normal (29.4%) than normal respondents developing central obesity (17.4%). Conclusions This is one of the few studies in Chinese, which found dynamic longitudinal changes (increase/stable/decrease) in individual weight status and waist circumference. Future studies with better follow-up and investigating the causes of such changes are warranted. PMID:25775476

  10. Weight status, quality of life, and self-concept in African American, Hispanic, and white fifth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Jan L; Taylor, Wendell C; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Franklin, Frank A; Harrison, Gail G; Kelder, Steven H; Schuster, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the association between weight status and quality of life (QOL) in fifth-grade African American, Hispanic, and white children and the potential mediation of this relationship by self-concept. A sample was recruited from fifth-grade public school students in three sites, of whom 599 were African American (40%), Hispanic (34%), or white (26%). During a home interview, physical and psychosocial QOL and global and body-specific self-concept were measured. Measured height and weight were used to calculate BMI. In this sample, 57% were classified by BMI as not overweight, 17%, overweight, and 26%, obese. Although there was no significant interaction between weight classification and race/ethnicity for QOL, obese children reported significantly lower psychosocial but not physical QOL than those classified as not overweight. There was a significant association between BMI (measured continuously) and psychosocial QOL, but only 2% of the variance was accounted for. Both global self-concept and body dissatisfaction independently mediated significant portions of the association between BMI and psychosocial QOL. Being obese in childhood may have negative psychosocial effects.

  11. A Prospective Study of Psychological Distress and Weight Status in Adolescents/Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262

  12. Relationship between Cardiovascular Disease Knowledge and Race/Ethnicity, Education and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Elsa-Grace V; Mull, Lorraine; Sciacca, Robert R; Akabas, Sharon; Flink, Laura E; Moise, Nathalie; Paul, Tracy K; Dumas, Nicole E; Bier, Michael L; Mattina, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate CVD knowledge has been cited to account for the imperfect decline in CVD among women over 2 decades. Hypothesis Due to concerns that at-risk women might not know the leading cause of death or symptoms of a heart attack, our goal was to assess the relationship between CVD knowledge race/ethnicity, education and BMI. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, CVD knowledge, socio-demographics, risk factors, and body mass index(BMI) were evaluated in 681 women. Results Participants included Hispanic, 42.1 %(n=287); non-Hispanic white(NHW) 40.2% (n=274); non-Hispanic black(NHB) 7.3% (n=50) and Asian/Pacific Islander(A/PI) 8.7% (n=59). Average BMI was 26.3±6.1 kg/m2. Hypertension was more frequent among overweight (45%) and obese (62%) than normal weight (24%), p<0.0001; elevated total cholesterol was more frequent among overweight (41%), and obese (44%) than normal weight (30%) (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively); and diabetes was more frequent among obese (25%) than normal weight (5%) (p<0.0001). Knowledge of the leading cause of death and symptoms of a heart attack varied by race/ethnicity and education (p<0.001), but not BMI. Concerning the leading cause of death among US women: 87.6% (240/274) NHW answered correctly compared to 64% (32/50) NHB (p<0.05); 28.3% (80/283) Hispanics (p<0.0001) and 55.9% (33/59) A/PI (p<0.001). Among participants with ≤ 12 years of education, 21.2% knew the leading cause of death and 49.3% heart attack symptoms vs. 75.7% and 75.5%, respectively for > 12 years (both p <0 .0001). Conclusions Effective prevention strategies for at-risk populations need to escalate CVD knowledge and awareness among the under-educated and minority women. PMID:22083540

  13. The Association between Screen Time and Weight Status in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, M; Santiago-Torres, M; Cui, Y; Schoeller, D; LaRowe, T; Adams, A; Carrel, A

    2016-01-01

    Background About one-third of U.S. children are overweight or obese and the number is even higher among Hispanics children (41%). In this regards, the time spent in sedentary behaviours is higher among Hispanic children versus non-Hispanic white children. But whether the home environment contributes to the obesity disparity among Hispanic children through the promotion of sedentary behaviours at home is less known. We aimed to investigate the associations between the home environment, parental limiting, and screen time with Hispanic children’s body weight. Methods Study participants were middle school Hispanic children (n=187), ages 10–14 years and their parents. Children’s anthropometrics were measured and used to calculate BMI z-scores. Questionnaires were used to assess children’s time spent on physical activity (PA), sedentary activities, and to query parents on the home environment and parental limiting. Results Total time (h/d) spent watching television (TV) was positively associated with children’s BMI z-score (P=0.02). However, no association was found between total screen time (TV, video games, and computer) and PA and with children’s BMI z-score. Sleeping time (h/d) was inversely associated with children’s BMI z-score (P=0.02); while there was a significant interaction between sleeping time and gender (P-interaction=0.02). Further, having a screen in the bedroom was positively associated with children’s TV and total screen time (P<0.05); while parental limits on screen time was inversely associated with children’s screen time (P<0.05). Conclusions Screen and sleep time may contribute to higher body weight among Hispanic children, independently of associations with physical activity. Our findings suggest a differential effect of gender in the contribution of sleep time to higher body weight, in that girls spent less time sleeping when compared to boys. These findings can inform obesity-prevention efforts to intervene at the family level

  14. Morbidity status of low birth weight babies in rural areas of Assam: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Madhur; Baruah, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) infants suffer more episodes of common childhood diseases and the spells of illness are more prolonged and serious. Longitudinal studies are useful to observe the health and disease pattern of LBW babies over time. Aims: This study was carried out in rural areas of Assam to assess the morbidity pattern of LBW babies during their first 6 months of life and to compare them with normal birth weight (NBW) counterparts. Materials and Methods: Total 30 LBW babies (0-2 months) and equal numbers of NBW babies from three subcenters under Boko Primary Health Centre of Assam were followed up in monthly intervals till 6 months of age in a prospective fashion. Results: More than two thirds of LBW babies (77%) were suffering from moderate or severe under-nutrition during the follow up. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) was the predominant morbidity suffered by LBW infants. The other illnesses suffered by the LBW infants during the follow up were diarrhea, skin disorders, fever and ear disorders. LBW infants had more episodes of hospitalization (65%) than the NBW infants (35%). Incidence rate of episodes of morbidity was found to be higher among those LBW infants who remained underweight at 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 49.3 per 100 infant months) and those who were not exclusively breast fed till 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 66.7 per 100 infant months). Conclusion: The study revealed that during the follow up, incidence of morbidities were higher among the LBW babies compared to NBW babies. It was also observed that ARI was the predominant morbidity in the LBW infants during first 6 months of age. PMID:26288777

  15. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  16. Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135

  17. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  18. Prices of unhealthy foods, Food Stamp Program participation, and body weight status among U.S. low-income women†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Diawara, Norou; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in 1985–2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association by using geographic identifiers. Using the merged data, we used panel econometric models to examine the impact of unhealthy food prices on the food stamp-eligible U.S. population. Our results indicate that higher prices for unhealthy food can partially offset the positive association between Food Stamp Program participation and bodyweight among low-income women. PMID:25177147

  19. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products. PMID:15883552

  20. Metabolically healthy obesity from childhood to adulthood - Does weight status alone matter?

    PubMed

    Blüher, Susann; Schwarz, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Up to 30% of obese people do not display the "typical" metabolic obesity-associated complications. For this group of patients, the term "metabolically healthy obese (MHO)" has been established during the past years and has been the focus of research activities. The development and severity of insulin resistance as well as (subclinical) inflammations seems to play a key role in distinguishing metabolically healthy from metabolically non-healthy individuals. However, an internationally consistent and accepted classification that might also include inflammatory markers as well as features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is missing to date, and available data - in terms of prevalence, definition and severity - are heterogeneous, both during childhood/adolescence and during adulthood. In addition, the impact of MHO on future morbidity and mortality compared to obese, metabolically non-healthy as well as normal weight, metabolically healthy individuals is absolutely not clear to date and even conflicting. This review summarizes salient literature related to that topic and provides insight into our current understanding of MHO, covering all age spans from childhood to adulthood.

  1. The relationship between beverage intake and weight status in children: the Cuenca study.

    PubMed

    Milla Tobarra, Marta; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Lahoz García, Noelia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas está cobrando mayor importancia en las investigaciones actuales en relación a una posible asociación con la epidemia de obesidad infantil. La influencia de la actividad física en este consumo de fluidos ha sido escasamente estudiada y la resistencia cardiorespiratoria (RCR) puede resultar un marcador fiable para su valoración. Nuestro estudio analiza la ingesta de fluidos y su relación con el estatus ponderal ajustado por RCR en niños de 9-11 años. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que participaron 373 niños de 9-11 años de colegios de la provincia de Cuenca (España). Para obtener la ingesta de bebidas, se realizó la media de dos recordatorios de 24 horas obtenidos mediante el programa YANA-C, validado para el estudio HELENA. La condición física cardiorrespiratoria fue evaluada a través del test de 20 metros ida y vuelta. Resultados: La ingesta media de líquidos fue de 1483,39 ml/día, y la energía proveniente de fluidos supone un 16% del aporte energético diario. Las bebidas suponen el 40% del aporte de azúcares ingeridos en la dieta. Las bebidas más consumidas en niños son los zumos naturales y las bebidas lácteas. Las niñas delgadas consumen más leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus homólogas con peso normal y sobrepeso-obesidad. Conclusiones: Los niños con exceso de peso consumen menos zumos naturales y bebidas lácteas, y las niñas consumen menos leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus compañeras en normopeso. Es de gran importancia revisar los hábitos de hidratación de los escolares para establecer conclusiones fiables sobre cuál es la mejor forma de hidratarse en diferentes situaciones para evitar ganancias ponderales.

  2. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status.

  3. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  4. Influence of the PROP bitter taste phenotype and eating attitudes on energy intake and weight status in pre-adolescents: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J

    2013-06-13

    The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.7±3.2%) children with mean age=10.3±0.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster×gender interaction, and the maternal BMI×maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children.

  5. Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Alicia A.; Elliott, Michael; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Lovegreen, Sarah L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Sallis, James F.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between weight status and characteristics of the food and physical activity environments among adults in rural U.S. communities. Method Cross-sectional telephone survey data from rural residents were used to examine the association between obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and perceived access to produce and low-fat foods, frequency and location of food shopping and restaurant dining, and environmental factors that support physical activity. Data were collected from July to September 2005 in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Logistic regression models (N = 826) adjusted for age, education and gender comparing normal weight to obese respondents. Results Eating out frequently, specifically at buffets, cafeterias, and fast food restaurants was associated with higher rates of obesity. Perceiving the community as unpleasant for physical activity was also associated with obesity. Conclusion Adults in rural communities were less likely to be obese when perceived food and physical activity environments supported healthier behaviors. Additional environmental and behavioral factors relevant to rural adults should be examined in under-studied rural U.S. populations. PMID:18976684

  6. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01) compared with those who exceeded this recommendation. Findings suggest specific intervention programmes may be designed to target both cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  7. Evaluation of diet quality and weight status of children from a low socioeconomic urban environment supports "at risk" classification.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Denise D; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia; McKay, M Geraldine; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; Touger-Decker, Riva; Smith, Jeffrey K; Perlman, Adam

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated diet quality and weight status in 248 randomly selected low-income urban children, aged 7 to 13 years, who were participating in a larger study on the effectiveness of multivitamin supplementation on school performance. Food frequency questionnaires were used to determine intake of total calories and food groups, selected micronutrients, and amount and percent of calories from sweets. Results were compared to age-appropriate recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Height, weight, and ages obtained from current-year student health records were used to calculate body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) percentile for age. Of 193 participants with usable food frequencies and available weight, height, sex, and age, 22% (n=43) were at risk for overweight and 36% (n=69) were overweight. More than 75% of participants failed to meet recommended servings for grains, vegetables, dairy, and fruit groups, and mean intake of each of these food groups was significantly less than recommendations (P<0.001). Twenty-five percent or more of subjects did not meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for iron and folate. Mean intake of calcium was below the Adequate Intake for calcium and 76% of children 8 years old and younger and 93% of children 9 years old and older did not meet the Adequate Intake for calcium. Mean calorie intake was 1,723 kcal (standard deviation+/-924) and mean percent of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 57%, 13%, and 32%, respectively. No correlation was found between total calories, total dietary sugar, or percent of calories from sweets and body mass index. Results of this study suggest that these urban children may be "at risk," based on the high percentage who are overweight and have insufficient food group consumption and micronutrient intake. PMID:17964318

  8. Evaluation of diet quality and weight status of children from a low socioeconomic urban environment supports "at risk" classification.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Denise D; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia; McKay, M Geraldine; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; Touger-Decker, Riva; Smith, Jeffrey K; Perlman, Adam

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated diet quality and weight status in 248 randomly selected low-income urban children, aged 7 to 13 years, who were participating in a larger study on the effectiveness of multivitamin supplementation on school performance. Food frequency questionnaires were used to determine intake of total calories and food groups, selected micronutrients, and amount and percent of calories from sweets. Results were compared to age-appropriate recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Height, weight, and ages obtained from current-year student health records were used to calculate body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) percentile for age. Of 193 participants with usable food frequencies and available weight, height, sex, and age, 22% (n=43) were at risk for overweight and 36% (n=69) were overweight. More than 75% of participants failed to meet recommended servings for grains, vegetables, dairy, and fruit groups, and mean intake of each of these food groups was significantly less than recommendations (P<0.001). Twenty-five percent or more of subjects did not meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for iron and folate. Mean intake of calcium was below the Adequate Intake for calcium and 76% of children 8 years old and younger and 93% of children 9 years old and older did not meet the Adequate Intake for calcium. Mean calorie intake was 1,723 kcal (standard deviation+/-924) and mean percent of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 57%, 13%, and 32%, respectively. No correlation was found between total calories, total dietary sugar, or percent of calories from sweets and body mass index. Results of this study suggest that these urban children may be "at risk," based on the high percentage who are overweight and have insufficient food group consumption and micronutrient intake.

  9. Measuring the bias, precision, accuracy, and validity of self-reported height and weight in assessing overweight and obesity status among adolescents using a surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding bias, precision, and accuracy in adolescent self-reported height and weight across demographic subpopulations is lacking. The bias, precision, and accuracy of adolescent self-reported height and weight across subpopulations were examined using a large, diverse and representative sample of adolescents. A second objective was to develop correction equations for self-reported height and weight to provide more accurate estimates of body mass index (BMI) and weight status. Methods A total of 24,221 students from 8th and 11th grade in Texas participated in the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) surveillance system in years 2000–2002 and 2004–2005. To assess bias, the differences between the self-reported and objective measures, for height and weight were estimated. To assess precision and accuracy, the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was used. BMI was estimated for self-reported and objective measures. The prevalence of students’ weight status was estimated using self-reported and objective measures; absolute (bias) and relative error (relative bias) were assessed subsequently. Correction equations for sex and race/ethnicity subpopulations were developed to estimate objective measures of height, weight and BMI from self-reported measures using weighted linear regression. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of weight status classification using self-reported measures and correction equations are assessed by sex and grade. Results Students in 8th- and 11th-grade overestimated their height from 0.68cm (White girls) to 2.02 cm (African-American boys), and underestimated their weight from 0.4 kg (Hispanic girls) to 0.98 kg (African-American girls). The differences in self-reported versus objectively-measured height and weight resulted in underestimation of BMI ranging from -0.23 kg/m2 (White boys) to -0.7 kg/m2 (African-American girls). The sensitivity of self-reported measures to classify weight

  10. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. PMID:27429801

  11. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  12. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. PMID:27429801

  13. Do Weight Status and Television-Viewing Influence Children’s Subsequent Dietary Changes? A National Longitudinal Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is unknown how children’s dietary changes would vary by overweight/obese status and length of TV-viewing. This study examined whether US children’s weight status and TV-viewing duration influenced their subsequent dietary behavioral changes. Methods A national representative sample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort were followed between 5th and 8th grades during 2004–2007 (N=7,720). Children’s daily TV-viewing hour and weight status were measured at 5th grade. Children reported their dietary behaviors at the 5th and 8th grades, including fruit/vegetable consumption ≥5 times/day (five-a-day), daily fast food and soft drink consumption. Logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dietary behavioral changes by children’s baseline weight status and TV-viewing duration. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in the ORs were examined. Sampling weight and design effect were considered for the analysis. Results Among those without five-a-day at 5th grade, overweight/obese children were more likely to develop the five-a-day behavior at 8th grade than normal weight children (for overweight: OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.14-2.39; obese: OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23). Among girls, overweight group was more likely to develop eating vegetable ≥3 times/day than normal weight group, but 1 more hour/day of TV-viewing at baseline was associated with lower odds of developing eating vegetable ≥3 times/day. Overweight/obese black and Hispanic children were significantly more likely to develop five-a-day than their normal weight counterparts. TV-viewing did not show modification effect on the association between weight status and subsequent dietary changes. Conclusions Overweight/obese children were more likely to improve their subsequent FV consumption than normal weight children, but TV-viewing’s independent relationship with dietary changes may counteract the weight status-associated dietary improvement. PMID:25666531

  14. Regular-Soda Intake Independent of Weight Status Is Associated with Asthma among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. PMID:23260727

  15. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  16. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  17. Brazilian mothers' beliefs, attitudes and practices related to child weight status and early feeding within the context of nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Machado, Marcia Tavares; Sussner, Katarina M; Hardwick, Cary K; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid pace of the nutrition transition worldwide, understanding influences of child feeding practices within a context characterized by the co-existence of overweight and undernutrition in the same population has increasing importance. This qualitative study describes Brazilian mothers' child feeding practices and their perceptions of their association with child weight status and explores the role of socioeconomic, cultural and organizational factors on these relationships. Forty-one women enrolled in the Family Health/Community Health Workers Programme were selected from rural, urban, coastal and indigenous areas in Ceara State, north-east Brazil, to participate in four focus group discussions. Content analysis identified fourteen emergent themes showing mothers' child feeding practices in this setting were influenced by economic resources, mothers' immediate social support networks (e.g. neighbours and family members) and participation in nutrition assistance programmes. Child malnutrition was the most common nutritional concern; nevertheless, mothers were aware of the negative health consequences of obesity but misunderstood its causes (e.g. foods filled with fat would make a person fat; others thought that birth control pills and stimulants given to children were causes of obesity); several reported their own struggles with overweight. Food assistance programmes emerged as an important influence on children's dietary adequacy, especially among mothers describing dire economic situations. The findings have implications for targeting food assistance as well as health and nutrition education strategies in low-income families undergoing the nutrition transition in north-east Brazil.

  18. Does Social Health Insurance Close the Gap: The Case of Socioeconomic Status and Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Survival.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2015-07-01

    Using a retrospective cohort study design, we report empirical evidence on the effect of parental socioeconomic status, primary care, and health care expenditure associated with preterm or low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies on their mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and under-5 mortality) under a universal health care system. A total of 4668 singleton PLBW babies born in Taiwan between January 1 and December 31, 2001, are extracted from a population-based medical claims database for a follow-up of up to 5 years. Multivariate survival models suggest the positive effect of higher parental income is significant in neonatal period but diminishes in later stages. Consistent inverse relationship is observed between adequate antenatal care and the three outcomes: neonatal hazard ratio (HR) = 0.494, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.312 to 0.783; postneonatal HR = 0.282, 95% CI = 0.102 to 0.774; and under-5 HR = 0.575, 95% CI = 0.386 to 0.857. Primary care services uptake should be actively promoted, particularly in lower income groups, to prevent premature PLBW mortality. PMID:25922387

  19. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  20. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  1. The Interactive Role of Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Birth Weight on Trajectories of Body Mass Index Growth in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…

  2. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  3. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  4. The Source and Impact of Appearance Teasing: An Examination by Sex and Weight Status among Early Adolescents from the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almenara, Carlos A.; Ježek, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some adolescents are victims of negative appearance-related feedback, and this may have lasting adverse effects on their self-evaluation. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and impact of appearance teasing across sex and weight status. Methods: The participants were 570 Czech adolescents (47.9% girls) evaluated at age…

  5. Higher Weight Status of Only and Last-Born Children: Maternal Feeding and Child Eating Behaviors as Underlying Processes among 4-8 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Rana H.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behaviors, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  6. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  7. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  8. Growth and adrenal androgen status at 7 years in very low birth weight survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, P; Hyodynmaa, E; Lenko, H; Tammela, O

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether 7 year old VLBW (very low birth weight, <1500 g) survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) evince similar growth status and higher adrenal androgen (AA) levels than term controls, and whether AA levels are higher in VLBW children born small for gestational age (SGA) than in non-SGA cases. Methods: Assessment of height standard deviation score (SDs), body mass index (BMI), and serum androstenedione and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels in 31 VLBW children with BPD, 33 without BPD (no-BPD group), and 33 term controls. Results: Lower median (range) height SDs was found in BPD (-1.0 (-3.4 to 1.4) SD) and no-BPD (-0.9 (-2.9 to 2.2) SD) children than in term controls (0.3 (-1.5 to 1.9) SD). Low BMI (below 10th centile) was more common in both the BPD (18 (58%)) and no-BPD (16 (49%)) children compared to term cases (3 (9%)). The median (range) androstenedione levels tended to be higher in the BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.8) nmol/l) and no-BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.3) nmol/l) groups than in term controls (0.6 (0 to 1.8)). Higher median (range) dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels were detected in the no-BPD compared to the term group (0.9 (0 to 4.1) v 0.3 (0 to 2.3) µmol/l). VLBW children born SGA had higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. Conclusions: At 7 years of age, VLBW children are shorter and tend to have higher AA levels than term controls, but VLBW children with and without BPD do not differ from each other in growth or AA status. Those born SGA have higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. The consequences of these findings to final height and to later metabolic and vascular health remain to be determined. PMID:15033838

  9. Nativity status/length of stay in the US and excessive gestational weight gain in New York City teens, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary H; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2015-02-01

    Nativity status/length of stay in the US has been found to be associated with obesity. However, little work has examined the role of nativity status/length of stay in excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) in adolescents. This study utilized New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene birth certificate data in a cross-sectional analysis of 15,715 singleton births to primiparous teen mothers (12-19 years) between 2008 and 2010. Nativity and length of stay in the United States (US) were obtained from birth certificates. EGWG was calculated using weight at delivery and pre-pregnancy weight. Prevalence ratios were calculated through generalized estimating equations to assess the strength of the association between nativity status/length of US residence and EGWG. For US-born teens, 43 % gained more weight than recommended as compared to 32 % for foreign-born teens who have lived in the US for less than 5 years (FB <5 years). Following adjustment for maternal demographics and other factors, US-born teens (adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) (CI) 1.26 [1.18,1.34]), FB 10+ years (APR (CI) 1.17 [1.07,1.28]), and FB 5-10 years (APR (CI) 1.11 [1.01,1.21]) were more likely to have gained weight excessively as compared to FB <5 years. US-born teens and FB teens that have been in the US longer than 5 years are more likely to gain weight excessively during pregnancy as compared to teens with fewer than 5 years in the US. These results identify a critical period when adolescents are in frequent contact with health care providers and can receive counseling regarding healthy weight gain.

  10. Ethnic/racial disparities in adolescents' home food environments and linkages to dietary intake and weight status.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to confirm that public health recommendations for home/family food environments are equally relevant for diverse populations. This study examined ethnic/racial differences in the home/family environments of adolescents and associations with dietary intake and weight status. The sample included 2374 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents and their parents enrolled in coordinated studies, EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens), in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Adolescents and parents completed surveys and adolescents completed anthropometric measurements in 2009-2010. Nearly all home/family environment variables (n=7 of 8 examined) were found to vary significantly across the ethnic/racial groups. Several of the home/family food environment variables were significantly associated with one or more adolescent outcome in expected directions. For example, parental modeling of healthy food choices was inversely associated with BMI z-score (p=0.03) and positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption (p<0.001). Most observed associations were applicable across ethnic/racial groups; however; eight relationships were found to differ by ethnicity/race. For example, parental encouragement for healthy eating was associated with lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages only among youth representing the White, African American, Asian, and mixed/other ethnic/racial groups and was unrelated to intake among East African, Hispanic, and Native American youth. Food and nutrition professionals along with other providers of health programs and services for adolescents should encourage ethnically/racially diverse parents to follow existing recommendations to promote healthy eating such as modeling nutrient-dense food choices, but also recognize the need for cultural sensitivity in providing such guidance. PMID:25464066

  11. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Provider Advice by Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status: A Qualitative Study of Pregnant Latinas With Excessive Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monica L; Arroyo, Julie; Druker, Susan; Sankey, Heather Z; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-01-01

    Latina women are at high risk of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy; yet little is known about whether factors related to GWG differ by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within this population. We conducted in-depth interviews with 62 pregnant Latina women with pre-pregnancy BMIs in the healthy, overweight, and obese ranges, gestational age ≥22 weeks, and GWG for gestational age above Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Compared to healthy weight and obese women, overweight women least often reported viewing weight as important, making efforts to control their GWG, being aware of the role of diet on GWG, and receiving GWG advice from health-care providers. Among those who received GWG advice, overweight women more often recalled a target GWG above IOM guidelines. Obese women more often reported low acceptance of their GWG, concern about GWG, having received GWG advice from providers, difficulty following providers' dietary advice, and emotional eating as a challenge for controlling GWG. Participants welcomed practical advice to manage GWG. Future interventions to prevent excessive GWG among Latina women should consider differences among women of varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and include multi-level strategies to address psychosocial as well as provider factors. PMID:26016948

  13. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. Results In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. Conclusions It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. PMID:26678603

  14. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  15. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  16. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress.

  17. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  18. A comparison of the health risk, health status, self-motivation, psychological symptomatic distress, and physical fitness of overweight and normal-weight soldiers.

    PubMed

    Troumbley, P F; Burman, K D; Rinke, W J; Lenz, E R

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the assumptions underlying the Army's Weight Control Program (AWCP) and to determine whether overweight and normal-weight soldiers differed with respect to health risk, health status, self-motivation, psychological symptomatic distress, and physical fitness. The sample consisted of 154 active-duty male and female enlisted Army soldiers assigned to the Maryland and District of Washington area: 77 overweight soldiers and 77 normal-weight soldiers were randomly selected from a gender-stratified, unit-specific list. To test the hypothesis that the two groups would differ, data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The hypothesis was supported. The overweight and normal-weight soldiers differed, with the former having greater health risk, lower health status, and lower physical fitness; but the two groups did not differ in self-motivation or psychological symptomatic distress. These results support the concept that obesity is associated with increased morbidity. Further studies are necessary to examine the mechanisms by which endogenous physiological factors contribute to the expression of obesity.

  19. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  20. Congenital heart disease in low-birth-weight infants: effects of small for gestational age (SGA) status and maturity on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Daniel; Azen, Colleen; Bhombal, Shazia; Hastings, Laura; Paquette, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role that small for gestational age (SGA) status plays in postoperative outcomes for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to examine the effect of SGA status, gestational and chronologic age, and weight on differences in morbidities and mortalities during the immediate postoperative hospitalization period. The charts of infants with CHD weighing less than 2.5 kg who underwent operative repair during the neonatal period between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Infants with an isolated patent ductus arteriosus were excluded from the study. Data on hospital morbidities and mortality before discharge were collected. The study identified 136 LBW infants with a diagnosis of CHD. Among the 74 infants who underwent surgery and had complete chart records, the SGA infants had a higher gestational age at birth (36.8 vs. 32.3 weeks; p < 0.0001). The SGA and non-SGA infants did not differ in terms of survival to discharge or immediate postoperative outcomes. A lower weight at surgery was significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection. In contradistinction, an older postnatal age at surgery was associated with an increased risk of preoperative infection (p < 0.0001). Additionally, lower gestational age at birth was associated with home oxygen use, higher tracheostomy rates, and discharge with a gastrostomy tube. Small for gestational age status played no protective role in the outcome for LBW infants after primary surgery for CHD. A weight of 2.4 kg or greater at the time of surgery was associated with lower rates of postoperative infections. Greater duration of time between birth and surgery was associated with a greater risk of preoperative infection. A gestational age of 32 weeks or more at birth was associated with decreased morbidities, which could influence obstetric management. PMID:24997649

  1. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  2. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p < .01), which was negatively correlated with child weight status (p < .01). LPA was also independently positively correlated to responsiveness to child needs (p < .01), monitoring of child intake (p < .01), and perceived responsibility for child feeding. Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives.

  3. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p < .01), which was negatively correlated with child weight status (p < .01). LPA was also independently positively correlated to responsiveness to child needs (p < .01), monitoring of child intake (p < .01), and perceived responsibility for child feeding. Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. PMID:24816322

  4. Associations Among Excess Weight Status and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use in a Large National Sample of Early Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (< grade 9) substance use and use of some illicit substances (inhalants, cocaine, amphetamines) within the past year. Among White early smokers, OB and SO had higher odds of other substance use, whereas White OB and SO recent smokers had lower odds of other substance use. Few significant findings based on weight status were identified for Black or Hispanic youth. These findings suggest adolescent health risk behaviors co-occur uniquely for White youth, in particular those who are SO and by early adolescence. Understanding the downstream public health consequences and how risk pathways of excess weight, tobacco, and other substance use may uniquely unfold for each race/ethnicity group is imperative. PMID:26872477

  5. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-07-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status.

  6. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  7. The association between family meals and early-adolescents' weight status change in the context of parental discipline practices: the moderating roles of ethnicity and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, ethnicity, and acculturation on weight status change in a diverse sample of early-adolescents. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. In fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines. In fifth and eighth grade, children were weighed and measured at school. Above and beyond covariates, less acculturated Hispanic adolescents who ate more family meals and experienced low parental behavioral control in fifth grade were less likely to make a healthy change (γ = -0.15, OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and more likely to make an unhealthy change (γ = 0.32, OR = 1.38, p < 0.05) in their weight status by eighth grade, when compared to White Non-Hispanic adolescents. The implications of interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, and healthy weight promotion are discussed in the context of ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25138136

  8. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  9. Birth Weight, Growth and Feeding Pattern in Early Infancy Predict Overweight/Obesity Status at Two Years of Age: A Birth Cohort Study of Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H.; Guo, Yuan; Jiang, Jingxiong; Yang, Liu; Lu, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Haiyan; Shi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. Methods A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight). Results Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. Conclusion Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies. PMID:23755127

  10. Effects of a 12-month moderate weight loss intervention on insulin sensitivity and inflammation status in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ho, T P; Zhao, X; Courville, A B; Linderman, J D; Smith, S; Sebring, N; Della Valle, D M; Fitzpatrick, B; Simchowitz, L; Celi, F S

    2015-04-01

    Weight loss intervention is the principal non-pharmacological method for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known whether it influences insulin sensitivity directly or via its anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of changes in inflammation status and weight loss on insulin sensitivity in this population.Overweight and obese nondiabetic participants without co-morbidities underwent a one-year weight loss intervention focused on caloric restriction and behavioral support. Markers of inflammation, body composition, anthropometric para-meters, and insulin sensitivity were recorded at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and Minimal Model. Twenty-eight participants (F: 15, M: 13, age 39±5 years, BMI 33.2±4.6 kg/m(2)) completed the study, achieving 9.4±6.9% weight loss, which was predominantly fat mass (7.7±5.6 kg, p<0.0001). Dietary intervention resulted in significant decrease in leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, hs-CRP, and IL-6 (all p<0.02), and improvement in HOMA-IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (SI) (both p<0.001). In response to weight loss IL-1β, IL-2, leptin, and resistin were significantly associated with insulin, sensitivity, whereas sICAM-1 had only marginal additive effect. Moderate weight loss in otherwise healthy overweight and obese individuals resulted in an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the overall inflammation state; the latter played only a minimal independent role in modulating insulin sensitivity.

  11. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  12. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  13. Birth mode-dependent association between pre-pregnancy maternal weight status and the neonatal intestinal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T.; Shin, Hakdong; Pizoni, Aline; Werlang, Isabel C.; Matte, Ursula; Goldani, Marcelo Z.; Goldani, Helena A. S.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a unique ecosystem that influences metabolism in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota can transfer an obese phenotype from humans to mice. Since mothers transmit intestinal microbiota to their offspring during labor, we hypothesized that among vaginal deliveries, maternal body mass index is associated with neonatal gut microbiota composition. We report the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index on stool microbiota from 74 neonates, 18 born vaginally (5 to overweight or obese mothers) and 56 by elective C-section (26 to overweight or obese mothers). Compared to neonates delivered vaginally to normal weight mothers, neonates born to overweight or obese mothers had a distinct gut microbiota community structure (weighted UniFrac distance PERMANOVA, p < 0.001), enriched in Bacteroides and depleted in Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Hydrogenophilus. We show that these microbial signatures are predicted to result in functional differences in metabolic signaling and energy regulation. In contrast, among elective Cesarean deliveries, maternal body mass index was not associated with neonatal gut microbiota community structure (weighted UniFrac distance PERMANOVA, p = 0.628). Our findings indicate that excess maternal pre-pregnancy weight is associated with differences in neonatal acquisition of microbiota during vaginal delivery, but not Cesarean delivery. These differences may translate to altered maintenance of metabolic health in the offspring. PMID:27033998

  14. Children at Risk: The Association between Perceived Weight Status and Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts in Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Lauren M.; Morrissey, Susan L.; Cummings, Doyle M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and…

  15. The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Zeka, Ariana; Melly, Steve J; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Background Air pollution and social characteristics have been shown to affect indicators of health. While use of spatial methods to estimate exposure to air pollution has increased the power to detect effects, questions have been raised about potential for confounding by social factors. Methods A study of singleton births in Eastern Massachusetts was conducted between 1996 and 2002 to examine the association between indicators of traffic, land use, individual and area-based socioeconomic measures (SEM), and birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births), in a two-level hierarchical model. Results We found effects of both individual (education, race, prenatal care index) and area-based (median household income) SEM with all birth outcomes. The associations for traffic and land use variables were mainly seen with birth weight, with an exception for an effect of cumulative traffic density on small for gestational age. Race/ethnicity of mother was an important predictor of birth outcomes and a strong confounder for both area-based SEM and indices of physical environment. The effects of traffic and land use differed by level of education and median household income. Conclusion Overall, the findings of the study suggested greater likelihood of reduced birth weight and preterm births among the more socially disadvantaged, and a greater risk of reduced birth weight associated with traffic exposures. Results revealed the importance of controlling simultaneously for SEM and environmental exposures as the way to better understand determinants of health. PMID:19032747

  16. [Body height, body weight and body mass index of German military recruits. Historical retrospect and current status].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, U; Zellner, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Lüdde, R; Eisele, R; Hebebrand, J

    2001-09-01

    Surveys of conscripts give a chance to pursue the somatic development and the nourishment situation of young men over long times. At the beginning a historical view is given of the organization and methodological basis of medical examinations of German recruits since the introduction of the general conscription at the beginning of the 19th century. Secular changes of the body height are sketched out for selected regions of Germany until the middle of the 20th century. Data of the body weight hardly exist for this time. Until now the greatest continuous documentation of data for body height and body weight is available for West Germany since 1957 and for East Germany between 1973 and the reunion in 1989. The body height of German conscripts has nearly permanently increased since 1957 and reached in 1994 a maximum with 180.0 cm. In general East German conscripts have body height data which are smaller on an average than those of West German conscripts. But in the last years a catch-up in body height could be seen. The body weight of German conscripts also shows an increase apart from some short-time exceptions. The data of West German conscripts are also higher than those of the East German conscripts. Until the reunion the West-East-differences could partly be due to the different mustering age. But the differences also continue in the nineties despite the now identical mustering age. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of the German conscripts (calculated from the average values of body height and body weight) is characterized by increments in the last years. This indicates greater changes in body weight than in body height. The BMI also shows marked West-East-differences. There is no uniform tendency in differences between urban and country side regions for body height and body weight. On the other hand until now differences between selected professional groups are existing. Especially the over-proportional increase of the number of conscripts in the higher body-weight

  17. Pattern of beverage consumption and long-term association with body-weight status in German adolescents--results from the DONALD study.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Stehle, Peter; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Buyken, Anette E; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-06-01

    In the present study the relationship between the consumption of different beverage groups and body-weight status in 5 years of study participation in German adolescents was investigated. We used anthropometric and dietary data from 3 d weighed records of 244 subjects between 9 and 18 years of age participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Only subjects with at least four out of six possible weighed dietary records were considered. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of beverage consumption on body-weight status. BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and body fat percentage (%BF) were chosen as the dependent variables. In boys, energetic beverage consumption was not associated with BMI-SDS or %BF, neither cross-sectionally nor prospectively. In girls, baseline consumption of energetic beverages did not predict baseline BMI-SDS, baseline %BF, or change in either variable over the study period. However, an increase in energetic beverage consumption over the study period was associated with an increase in BMI-SDS (+0.070 SDS/MJ increase in energetic beverage consumption; P = 0.01). Separate consideration of regular soft drinks and fruit juices revealed that, in girls, BMI-SDS increased with increased fruit juice consumption (+0.096 SDS/MJ increase in fruit juice consumption; P = 0.01), and to a lesser extent with regular soft drink consumption (+0.055 SDS/MJ increase in regular soft drink consumption; P = 0.08). In conclusion, these results suggest that an increase in energetic beverage consumption may result in weight gain, at least in adolescent girls. PMID:18034911

  18. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus

  19. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  1. The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Fattore, Liana; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Levitan, Robert D; Kennedy, James L

    2012-03-01

    Females typically show greater behavioural responses to stimulant drugs than males, including loss of appetite; as seen, for example, in those who use methylphenidate (MP) therapeutically for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a relevant issue because of the strong link between ADHD and obesity. In a sample (n=132) of normal-weight (BMI <25) and obese (BMI >30) men and women we assessed appetite, cravings, and snack-food intake in response to MP (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction for the three dependent variables--food-related responding diminishing in all groups from placebo to MP, except in obese males who showed no decreases to the MP challenge. These data show for the first time the existence of gender differences in the appetite response to MP, and are relevant for finding a dopamine pathway to new weight-loss medications, which would be utilized differently in males than in females.

  2. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414167

  3. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake.

  4. A Study of the Sexual Function, Sleep, and Weight Status of Patients after 6 Months of Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Noushin; Sabahi, Abdol Reza; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Gilani, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Background Methadone is a synthetic opioid and receptor agonist morphine; thus, its consumption has the effects and side effects of opioid. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is used as an alternative treatment for people who are suffering from substance abuse and do not have the ability to withdraw. Despite its benefits, this drug also has side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of methadone treatment on sexual function, sleep, and weight after 6 months. Methods The study subjects consisted of 200 patients who had referred to the Methadone Clinic of Shahid Beheshti Training Hospital, Kerman, Iran, during a 6-month period and were treated using MMT. Data collection tools consisted of the demographic questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Arizona sexual experience scale (ASEX). The questionnaires were completed by the participants before and 6 months after the treatment. Findings The results of this study showed that methadone consumption has significant effects on sexual dysfunction, sleep disorders, and weight gain. Conclusion The consideration of the side effects of MMT can result in consumers’ commitment to the treatment. PMID:26322207

  5. What is the actual fate of super-morbid-obese patients who undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as the first step of a two-stage weight-reduction operative strategy?

    PubMed

    Alexandrou, A; Felekouras, E; Giannopoulos, A; Tsigris, C; Diamantis, T

    2012-10-01

    The overall success-rate of the two-stage treatment plan for the treatment of super-morbid obesity has not yet been assessed. We reviewed the long-term results of 41 treated super-morbid-obese patients. Mean initial BMI was 59.5 ± 3.5 kg/m(2). Twelve patients (29.3 %) achieved after only LSG a BMI <35 kg/m(2) (mean 31.9 ± 2). They have lost 78.7 ± 11.8 % of excess body weight (EBW). The remaining 28 patients lost 48.1 ± 11.9 % of EBW and achieved a mean BMI of 44.2 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), thus requiring the second stage. Ten of them (24.4 % of the total or 35.7 % of those in need), were submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). They lost 71.9 ± 4.3 % of EBW and have a mean BMI of 33.6 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). The 18 remaining patients have a BMI of 42 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) and they still suffer from morbid obesity. They have lost 48.5 ± 8.7 % of EBW. The mean rate of EBW loss for all the available 39 patients after either LSG or both LSG and LRYGBP has been 63.2 ± 16.5 % after a mean follow-up of 42.8 ± 19.5 months. Out of 41 patients, 1 died, 1 was lost to follow-up, 21 (51.2 %) achieved "healthy" BMIs and 18 (44 %) still require LRYGBP. The rate of cure of morbid obesity was 51.2 %. A remaining 44 % of super-morbid obese patients still need the completion LRYGBP but have not undergone it. Half of these patients have lost >50 % of their EBW. The two-stage strategy is an effective treatment plan for super-morbid obesity. A less patient-dependent strategy may be needed for a subset of patients.

  6. Household and family factors related to weight status in first through third graders: a cross-sectional study in Eastern Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental influences have been linked to child weight status, however further understanding of associations in diverse populations is needed. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of household and family factors associated with overweight was conducted on a culturally diverse, urban dwelling sample of 820 first through third graders (mean age 7.6 ± 1.0 years) residing in three eastern Massachusetts cities. Overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile, based on measured height and weight, and the CDC growth reference. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify demographic, behavioral, and social environmental variables significantly related to weight status. Independent variables included race-ethnicity, age, sex, servings of sugar-sweetened beverages/week, hours of screen time/week, parent overweight, (calculated from self-reported weight/height), parent education, household food restriction rules regarding snacking and/or kitchen access, frequency of having dinner as a family (reported as “a lot” vs. “sometimes/rarely/never”) and child vitamin/mineral supplement use. Selected interactions were explored based on prior studies. Results Prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in girls and 40.8% in boys. In the final, adjusted model, compared to white children, the odds of overweight were higher in children of Hispanic race-ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 - 4.1). In the same adjusted model, compared to children with no household food restriction rules, the odds of overweight were 2.6 (95% CI = 1.3-5.1) times higher and 3.5 (95% CI = 1.9-6.4) times higher for children having one rule or two rules, respectively. Parent report of frequent family dinner and child vitamin use were protective, with a halving of risk for overweight for each behavior (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31-0.71 and OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.37-0.78, respectively). Conclusions In the presence of other factors, frequent

  7. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Methods Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (–2SD) from median of WHO’s reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child’s age and sex, mother’s education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16–1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53–1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38–1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of

  8. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, body weight, and energy status in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T

    2013-08-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.

  9. Youth Dietary Intake and Weight Status: Healthful Neighborhood Food Environments Enhance the Protective Role of Supportive Family Home Environments

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n = 2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14. 4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  10. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu) Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Andriani, Helen; Liao, Chu-Yung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu) in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research) survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237). Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21) and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07). This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively). There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life. PMID:26959047

  11. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu) Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Helen; Liao, Chu-Yung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-03-07

    Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu) in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research) survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237). Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.07). This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96-1.13, respectively). There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.

  12. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  13. Differential effects of chronic naltrexone treatment on food intake patterns and body weight in rats depend on their food deprivation status.

    PubMed

    De Tomasi, Eliana Barrios; Juárez, Jorge

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of chronic naltrexone treatment on daily patterns of food intake in food-deprived and free-feeding rats. In experiment 1, Wistar male rats had continuous access to food and water, while in experiment 2 they were deprived of food for 12h/day. Animals in both experiments were studied as follows: a baseline period (7days), followed by a treatment period (14days) with either saline or naltrexone at 10mg/kg/day. Finally, a post-treatment period (7days) was assessed. Food and water consumption were measured every 2h after the naltrexone or saline injection for 12h and once more 12h later. Experiment 1: Food intake was higher in the naltrexone group 10h after injection. Total food intake and body weight gain were higher in the naltrexone group than in the saline group in the second week of treatment and in the post-treatment period. Experiment 2: The overeating observed in the saline group in the hours following the 12h of the food deprivation period was suppressed by naltrexone, though total daily food intake was not affected. Body weight gain was initially reduced by naltrexone, but a rebound effect was observed during the post-treatment period in the naltrexone group. Naltrexone produced a differential effect on food intake and body weight that depended on the rats' food deprivation status. These results could be explained in terms of opioid receptor up-regulation that enhances the rewarding effects of food or by naltrexone-produced changes in palatability.

  14. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity. PMID:27077659

  15. Focal and Generalized Patterns of Cerebral Cortical Veins Due to Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus or Prolonged Seizure Episode after Convulsive Status Epilepticus – A MRI Study Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar; Krestel, Heinz; Springer, Elisabeth; Huber, Adrian; Weisstanner, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Gralla, Jan; Wiest, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions. We hypothesized that SWI-related oxygenation patterns reflect ictal or postictal patterns that resemble SE or sequelae of seizures. Results Sixteen patients were examined during nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as confirmed by EEG, a further ten patients suffered from witnessed and prolonged seizure episode ahead of imaging without initial EEG. MRI patterns of 15 of the 26 patients revealed generalized hyperoxygenation by SWI in keeping with either global or multifocal cortical hyperperfusion. Eight patients revealed a focal hyperoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF increase and three patients showed a focal deoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF decrease. Conclusions SWI-related hyper- and deoxygenation patterns resemble ictal and postictal CBF changes within a range from globally increased to focally decreased perfusion. In all 26 patients the SWI patterns were in keeping with ictal hyperperfusion (hyperoxygenation patterns) or postictal hypoperfusion (deoxygenation patterns) respectively. A new finding of this study is that cortical venous patterns in SWI can be not only focally, but globally attenuated. SWI may thus be considered as an alternative contrast-free MR sequence to identify perfusion changes related to ictal or postictal conditions. PMID:27486662

  16. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  17. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  18. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  19. Maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain in New York city, 1999-2001: the effect of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR = 0.81; 95 % CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95 % CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95 % CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence.

  20. Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health

  1. School restrictions on outdoor activities and weight status in adolescent children after Japan’s 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster: a mid-term to long-term retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Blangiardo, Marta; Hodgson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Radiation fears following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster affected levels of physical activity in local children. We assessed the postdisaster versus predisaster weight status in school children and evaluated to what extent school restrictions on outdoor activities that were intended to reduce radiation exposure risk affected child weight. Participants We considered children aged 13–15 years from 4 of the 5 secondary schools in Soma City (n=1030, 99.1% of all children in the city), located in 35–50 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant, postdisaster (2012 and 2015) and predisaster (2010). Methods Weight status, in terms of body mass index (BMI), percentage of overweight (POW) and incidence of obesity and underweight (defined as a POW ≥20% and ≤−20%, respectively) were examined and compared predisaster and postdisaster using regression models. We also constructed models to assess the impact of school restrictions on outdoor activity on weight status. Results After adjustment for covariates, a slight decrease in mean BMI and POW was detected in females in 2012 (−0.37, 95% CI −0.68 to −0.06; and −1.97, 95% CI −3.57 to −0.36, respectively). For male children, obesity incidence increased in 2012 (OR for obesity: 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.08). Compared with predisaster weight status, no significant weight change was identified in 2015 in either males or females. School restrictions on outdoor activities were not significantly associated with weight status. Conclusions 4 years following the disaster, weight status has recovered to the predisaster levels for males and females; however, a slight decrease in weight in females and a slight increase in risk of obesity were observed in males 1 year following the disaster. Our findings could be used to guide actions taken during the early phase of a radiological disaster to manage the postdisaster health risks in adolescent children. PMID:27683520

  2. Factors associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight in African-American smokers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Shostrom, Valerie; Choi, Simon; Mayo, Matthew S; Okuyemi, Kola; Kaur, Harsohena; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2005-01-01

    This study examined sociodemographic, behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight among African-American smokers (N=600, M=44.2 years, 70% female). Sixty-eight percent of the sample were overweight or obese (sample BMI M=28.0, SD=6.7). Three separate, simultaneous multivariable regression models were used to determine which factors were associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight. Poorer health, female gender and high-school education or higher were significantly associated with higher BMIs (p<0.05). Being female (OR=5.8, 95% CI=3.6-9.3) and having a higher BMI (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.5-0.6) was associated with perception of overweight and smoking more cigarettes per day (OR=1.0, 95% CI=1.0-1.1), and perceiving oneself as overweight (OR=14.1, 95% CI=8.2-24.2) was associated with trying to lose weight. Participants somewhat underestimated their BMI in their weight perceptions. Those who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to be trying to lose weight; therefore, increasing participant awareness of actual BMI status may lead to improved weight-control efforts in African-American smokers. Several expected associations with outcomes were not found, suggesting that BMI and weight constructs are not well-understood in this population.

  3. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    PubMed

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = -0.037; r² = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  4. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H. M.; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Mathers, John C.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  5. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient. PMID:24262526

  6. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient.

  7. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  8. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiEun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  9. Can racial disparity in health between black and white Americans be attributed to racial disparities in body weight and socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined risk factors of CHC trajectory including race, BMI, and SES. The sample consists of 22,560 in 1998, 20,825 in 2000, and 19,004 in 2002. Data analysis was done through latent growth curve modeling. As expected, older adults presented an increasing trajectory of CHCs over time. Black Americans presented a significantly more negative CHC trajectory than did their white counterparts, confirming racial disparity in health over time. Consequent hierarchical analyses revealed that racial disparity in CHC trajectory can be explained by racial disparity in BMI and that racial disparity in BMI can be attributed to racial disparity in SES. Because low SES is closely related to unhealthy diet and negative health behaviors that may subsequently lead to obesity and chronic health conditions, the findings suggest that to address racial disparity in CHCs, it is important for social workers to continuously try to mitigate racial inequality in SES.

  10. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents' Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.

    PubMed

    Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001-2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods. PMID:26593930

  11. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents' Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.

    PubMed

    Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong

    2015-11-17

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001-2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  12. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods. PMID:26593930

  13. Bone mineral density in 11-13-year-old boys: relative importance of the weight status and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Ivuskans, Arturs; Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of being overweight on bone mineral status in 11-13-year-old boys, who were divided into overweight (OW; n = 110) and normal weight (NW; n = 154) groups. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), bone mineral content (BMC) at the WB, and body composition were assessed. Calculation of the bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was completed for the WB, LS and FN. The BMC/height ratio was also computed. OW boys displayed similar values (P > 0.05) for LS and FN BMAD and lower (P < 0.05) WB BMAD, despite significantly higher values (P < 0.05) for more widely used WB and LS BMD, WB BMC and WB BMC/height in comparison with NW boys. Fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m(2)) had the highest correlation coefficients from the calculated body composition indices with all bone mineral values in NW boys. In OW boys, the FFMI had the highest correlation only with FN BMD, while other measured bone mineral values had highest correlations with either BMI or FMI indices. In conclusion, OW boys have higher crude WB BMD, BMC and BMC/height ratio in comparison with NW boys. However, the bone growth appears to be insufficient to compensate for the higher mechanical load applied on the bone by higher FM and also FFM values in OW boys. Excessive adiposity does not have a protective effect on the development of BMAD in growing boys reaching puberty.

  14. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  15. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  16. The Etiology of Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Adolescents' actual and perceived weights were examined in relation to why adolescents think they weigh what they do, where adolescents obtain weight control information, and adolescents' weight locus of control. Significant chi-square differences were found between weight locus of control orientations and actual and perceived weight categories.…

  17. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  18. Perceived and actual competence among overweight and non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Caputi, Peter; Cliff, Dylan P

    2010-11-01

    Child overweight and obesity continues to be a global public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children's actual and perceived physical competence and parental perception's of their child's competence differ by weight status. Understanding these differences is important because physical activity levels are significantly lower among overweight children than their lean counterparts and children's motivation to participate in physical activity is influenced by their perceived and actual competence and their parents perceptions of their competence. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1414 9- and 11-year-old children and their parents from 20 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes measured included child and parental perceptions of physical competence and children's actual physical competence. Parents of overweight boys perceived them to be significantly less competent than parents of non-overweight boys. For 11-year-old girls, parent's perception of their daughter's ability to run (mean diff=1.06 [95% CI 0.73, 1.40]), jump (mean diff=0.54 [95% CI 0.15, 0.93]) and leap (mean diff=0.78 [95% CI 0.41, 1.17]) was lower among parents of overweight children. Overweight children also reported lower perceived physical competence than non-overweight children. 9- and 11-year-old overweight boys had lower actual physical competence than non-overweight boys (mean diff=1.32 [95% CI 0.29, 2.35]; mean diff=1.26 [95% CI 0.37, 2.15], respectively). Overweight 11-year-old girls had lower actual competence than non-overweight 11-year-old girls (mean diff=1.14 [95% CI 0.70, 2.12]). This study highlighted several differences between overweight and non-overweight children. Better understanding these differences at different stages of development may lead to identifying more specific and appropriate intervention points to promote physical activity in overweight children.

  19. HiPIMS "goes production", actual status & outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Oliver; Kölker, Werner; Bolz, Stephan; Schiffers, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Hardness, toughness, and adhesion are today among the most important characteristics of PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coatings for machining tools that are used for highly demanding hard, high-speed, and dry machining. The continued development and improvement of materials constantly creates new and more demanding challenges for machining tools. In particular, materials that are especially hard or difficult to machine, materials that are prone to stress hardening, and materials with low heat conductivity require coatings with high thermal and oxidation stability in addition to the properties already mentioned. With a view to these properties, the new HiPIMS technology is currently being used to develop a new generation of coatings with significantly improved properties compared to conventional coatings. They are able to process hard-to-machine materials such as nickel-based alloys and stainless austenitic steels at lower costs - with comparatively significantly improved machining parameters and considerably less tool wear.

  20. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  1. Attributing discrimination to weight: associations with well-being, self-care, and disease status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lindsey; Wallston, Kenneth; Trief, Paula; Ulbrecht, Jan; Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between attributing self-reported discrimination to weight and diabetes outcomes (glycemic control, diabetes-related distress, and diabetes self-care). A community dwelling sample of 185 adults (mean age 55.4; 80 % White/Caucasian 65 % female) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c level ≥ 7.5 %) provided demographic and several self-report measures (including diabetes-related distress, diabetes self-care activities, discrimination, and attributions of discrimination), and had height, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assessed by trained research staff as part of a larger research study. Individuals who attributed self-reported discrimination to weight had significantly higher HbA1c levels, higher levels of diabetes-related distress, and worse diabetes-related self-care behaviors (general diet, exercise, and glucose testing). These relationships persisted even when controlling for BMI, overall discrimination, depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that the perception of weight stigma among individuals with type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with a range of poor diabetes outcomes. Efforts to reduce exposure to and/or teach adaptive coping for weight stigma may benefit patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  3. Suppressed cytokine production in whole blood cultures is related to iron status and is partially corrected following weight reduction in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assess ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and its association with iron status in obese versus non-obese women. Determine the change in ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production six months after restrictive bariatric surgery in the obese group. Subjects were 17 obese (BMI: 46.6 ±7.9 kg/m2) and 1...

  4. When ignorance is bliss: weight perception, body mass index and quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, J; Millar, L; Petersen, S; Swinburn, B; Lewis, A J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body weight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may

  5. Association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and body weight status of caregiver-child dyads: The HEALTH study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few Americans meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) yet, a large percentage are overweight. The goal of this research was to examine the association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the DGA and weight in a multi-site study. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 836 caregiver-c...

  6. Subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine combination preserves plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidant status, and organ weights in rats.

    PubMed

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Edewor, Gloria; Kale, Oluwafemi Ezekiel; Ekor, Martins

    2012-01-01

    Recent instances of breakdowns of malaria control programs and the constant emergence of drug-resistant parasites to monotherapies have shored up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the malaria therapy of choice. We evaluated a subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidants, and organ weights in rats. Sixteen albino rats were grouped into three. Group A (n = 5) served as the control. Groups B (n = 6) and C (n = 5) were administered, twice daily, oral therapeutic doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1.14/6.86 mg/kg/d) and artesunate-amodiaquine (2.86/8.58 mg/kg/d), respectively, for seven days. From our results, ACTs did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase, and total glutathione levels when compared with the control. Plasma total cholesterol levels also decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05). Organ-system weights were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from control rats. Artesunate-amodiaquine, but not artemether-lumefantrine, significantly increased (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity and also afforded a 27.2% decrease in heart weight when compared with control. Also, both ACTs increased (P < 0.05) lipid peroxidation. Overall, artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine may preserve renal antioxidants and organ weights in vivo. However, caution is required above therapeutic indications or in chronic doses as this may predispose to renal oxidative stress.

  7. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  8. Post term dietary-induced changes in DHA and AA status relate to gains in weight, length, and head circumference in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Muskiet, Frits A J; Schaafsma, Anne; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2011-12-01

    Preterms need supplementation with docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (AA) acids to prevent steep postnatal declines. Associations between growth and erythrocyte (RBC) DHA and AA were studied in 139 preterms (51% male, gestational age 30.3±1.5 weeks, birth weight 1341±288g) fed human milk with breast milk fortifier or preterm formula until term, followed by postdischarge formula (PDF; n=52, 0.4% DHA, 0.4% AA), term formula (TF; n=41, 0.2% DHA, 0.2% AA), or human milk (HM; n=46). At six months, PDF resulted in higher RBC-DHA than TF and HM, while RBC-AA was higher than TF, but similar to HM. There were no between-group differences in growth between term and six months. RHC-DHA related positively with gain in weight and length and negatively with gain in head circumference. RBC-AA related positively with gain in head circumference and negatively with gain in weight and length. In conclusion, PDF with higher DHA and AA than TF may promote postnatal growth of preterms.

  9. Effects of dietary inclusion of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruit on body weight, insulin level and glycemic status of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Hakimeh; Shahryar, Habib Aghdam; Abbaspour, Reza; Lotfi, Hamidreza

    2012-06-01

    The aim of present experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplemented CCF on body weight, serum glucose and insulin in healthy condition. In present experiment, 36 one-month-old male hamsters (94 +/- 1 g) were divided into four groups; group 1 (control): fed basal diets without fruit supplementation, group 2: fed daily 5 g CCF only at first daily meal, group 3: fed daily 10 g CCF, at first and second daily meals and group 4: fed daily 15 g CCF, at first, second and third daily meals, for 20 days. Dietary CCF caused significant decreases in final body weight. Based on serum biochemical analysis, a significant glucose decrease in groups fed only one supplemented meal and it's correlated with elevation of insulin level. Supplementation of CCF (two or three times daily) was not efficient for more hypoglycemic effect and there was no significant difference with glucose level of control group. Also, there was no any difference between insulin levels of group 2 and 3, whereas there was considerable elevation in insulin level for groups fed CCF in comparison with control rate. It was concluded that supplemented cornelian cherry fruit for one, two or three daily meal can decreases weight gain and for only one daily meal can cause considerable hypoglycemic effect, whereas supplemented for two or three times daily was not more efficient that may be due to glycemic regulation of healthy animals. PMID:24191630

  10. Factors associated with inappropriate weight loss attempts by early adolescent girls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, A; Sato, M; Totsuka, K; Saito, K; Kodama, S; Fukushi, A; Yamanashi, Y; Matsushima, E; Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, E; Kondo, K; Yamamoto, S; Sone, H

    2011-09-01

    Attempting to lose weight by normal or underweight adolescent girls is a serious issue in many countries. It has been reported that the mode of attempted weight loss does not differ between normal weight and overweight girls. These inappropriate weight loss attempts (IWLA) by normal or underweight adolescent girls is associated with various health issues, but factors associated with IWLA have only been marginally elucidated. In this study, we applied a single multivariate regression analysis to clarify independent factors for IWLA. Study subjects were 134 pairs of early adolescent girls (aged 12-15) and their mothers. In addition to IWLA, many factors including height, weight, body image, perceived weight status, depressive symptoms, media influence and self-esteem were surveyed in both mothers and daughters and subjected to multivariate analysis. Approximately half of girls surveyed had IWLA, even though all were of normal weight and 62.9% knew that they were of normal weight. IWLA were independently associated with depressive symptoms (OR (95% CI); 2.80 (1.21-6.50), p=0.016) independent of actual or perceived weight status. Factors significantly associated with IWLA by the girls were percentage deviation of weight from standard weight (%DW) and media influence on the girls themselves, and media influence on and self-esteem of their mothers. IWLA, which were frequently observed among early adolescent girls even among those of normal weight, were closely related to depressive status. IWLA were significantly associated with not only factors related to the girls (1.09 (1.04-1.14), p=0.001), but also with maternal psychological factors (1.06 (1.00-1.13), p=0.035) conveyed by the media. Future prospective or interventional studies are required to clarify whether these factors could be targeted in an effort to prevent IWLA. PMID:22290031

  11. On the Study of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight Gain as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Belonging to Low Socio-Economic Category: A Study from Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima

    2015-01-01

    Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey. PMID:26170546

  12. On the Study of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight Gain as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Belonging to Low Socio-Economic Category: A Study from Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima

    2015-01-01

    Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey.

  13. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  14. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  15. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...

  16. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fabiana M. C.; Lima, Vanessa C. O.; Costa, Izael S.; Medeiros, Amanda F.; Serquiz, Alexandre C.; Lima, Maíra C. J. S.; Serquiz, Raphael P.; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Uchôa, Adriana F.; Santos, Elizeu A.; Morais, Ana H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI) in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1) Cafeteria diet; (2) Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg); and (3) Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment. PMID:27690087

  17. Are overweight and obese youths more often bullied by their peers? A meta-analysis on the correlation between weight status and bullying.

    PubMed

    van Geel, M; Vedder, P; Tanilon, J

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that overweight and obese youths are stigmatized in contemporary society, and are more likely than normal-weight youths to become the victims of bullying. In the current study, meta-analyses were performed to analyze to what extent overweight and obese youths are more likely than normal-weight youths to be the victims of bullying. The databases Psychinfo, ERIC and Medline were searched for relevant articles. Retrieved articles were scanned to find further articles. Language was not used as an exclusion criterion. A total of 14 articles (N=55 231) were included in a meta-analysis on bullying and overweight youths, and a total of 16 articles (N=58 520) were included in a meta-analysis on bullying and obese youths. The results suggested that both overweight and obese youths were more likely to be victims of bullying. The results were not moderated by gender, overweight and obese boys and girls were equally likely to be victimized. Results remained significant after adjustment for publication bias. Both overweight and obesity are risk factors for being a victim of bullying.

  18. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p < 0.001) and ADP (66.6 ± 9.1 vs. 64.8 ± 9.0 kg; p = 0.001), reflecting the reduction in body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  19. The Effect of Cumin cyminum L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Karamali, Fatemeh; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohreh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight subjects. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight. Patients and Methods This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 72 subjects with overweight, aged 18 - 50 years old. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received high-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (75 mg each, n = 24), group B low-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (25 mg each, n = 24) and group C placebos (n = 24) twice daily for eight weeks. Results After eight weeks of intervention, compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime resulted in significant weight loss (in the high-dose group: -2.1 ± 1.7 vs. in the low-dose group: -1.2 ± 1.5 and in the placebo group: + 0.2 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.001) and body mass index (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.5 and +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, administration of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P < 0.001) and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+ 0.02 ± 0.02 vs. + 0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively; P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-14.1 ± 56.2 vs. +13.9 ± 36.8 and + 10.6 ± 25.1 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.03), total-cholesterol (-18.4 ± 28.6 vs. +8.6 ± 28.5 and -1.0 ± 24.8 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.004) and low density lipoproteins- (LDL)-cholesterol levels (-11.8 ± 20.7 vs. +6.5 ± 23.2 and -2.9 ± 20.4 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.01) was observed following the consumption of

  20. Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status, infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low-income, multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Rees, Gail A; Crawford, Michael A; Morton, R Hugh; Dorman, Edgar K

    2010-08-01

    Poor nutrient intake during pregnancy can adversely affect both infant and maternal health. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of multiple-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in a socially deprived population in the developed world. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of multiple-micronutrient supplementation including 20 mg Fe and 400 microg folic acid, from the first trimester of pregnancy in 402 mothers, in East London, UK. Nutrient status was measured at recruitment, and at 26 and 34 weeks of gestation. Infants were weighed at birth. At recruitment the prevalence of anaemia was 13 %, vitamin D insufficiency 72 %, thiamin deficiency 12 % and folate deficiency 5 %, with no differences between groups. Only 39 % of women completed the study; rates of non-compliance were similar in both groups. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants receiving treatment had higher mean Hb at 26 weeks of gestation (110 (sd 10) v.108 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.041) and 34 weeks of gestation (113 (sd 12) v.109 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.003) and packed cell volume concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation (0.330 (sd 0.025) v. 0.323 (sd 0.026) l/l; P = 0.011) and 34 weeks of gestation (0.338 (sd 0.029) v. 0.330 (sd 0.028) l/l; P = 0.014) compared with controls. Analysis of compliant women showed supplemented women had higher median concentrations of serum ferritin, erythrocyte folate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D later in gestation than controls. In the compliant subset (n 149), placebo mothers had more small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (eight SGA v. thirteen; P = 0.042) than treatment mothers. Baseline micronutrient deficiencies were common; the multiple-micronutrient supplement was well-tolerated and improved nutrient status. Multiple-micronutrient supplements from early pregnancy may be beneficial and larger studies are required to assess impact on birth outcomes and infant development.

  1. Effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on serum immunoglobulin concentration, health status and body weight gain in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Mech, A; Dhali, A; Baruah, K K; Singh, R K; Mondal, S K; Rajkhowa, C

    2011-12-01

    The effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on the concentration of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves. The hypotheses were that the variable method and time of first colostrum feeding might affect the level of serum Ig and in turn the growth performance and health status of the claves during the early age. The newborn calves were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental groups - G-1: allowed to suckle the dam at own choice, G-2: separated immediately after birth and allowed to suckle the dam first at 6 h and then at own choice, G-3: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam first at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h, G-4: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam within 1 h, at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were lowest (p < 0.01) at birth and increased following colostrum feeding irrespective of the experimental group. Highest concentrations of all the Ig classes were observed at 12-24 h after birth. The concentrations then transiently decreased from day 7 to 14, and then steadily increased after day 28. The concentrations of IgG (p < 0.01) and IgA (p < 0.05) were higher in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the first week after birth. Similarly, higher concentration of IgA (p < 0.05) was found in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the rest of the experimental period. The apparent absorption efficiency of colostral IgG was higher (p < 0.05) in G-4 in relation to G-3. Growth rate and health status were not influenced by the method and time of first colostrum feeding. In conclusion, a 6-h delay in the first colostrum feeding reduced the level of serum Ig noticeably.

  2. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., "nutritional balance of the dish"), constraints (e.g., "my cooking skills"), pleasure (e.g., "originality of the dish"), specific diets (e.g., "my health status"), and organization (e.g., "what I planned to eat"). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62-0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17-1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking. PMID:27399764

  3. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-07-05

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., "nutritional balance of the dish"), constraints (e.g., "my cooking skills"), pleasure (e.g., "originality of the dish"), specific diets (e.g., "my health status"), and organization (e.g., "what I planned to eat"). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62-0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17-1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking.

  4. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  5. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF.

  6. Night eating status and influence on body weight, body image, hunger, and cortisol pre- and post- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J; Gluck, M; Lorence, M; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2008-12-01

    Night Eating Syndrome is a common disorder in severely obese individuals and may be associated with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. This study compared night eaters (NE) and comparably obese controls (C) pre- and post-Roux-en- Y Gastric Bypass surgery at 2 and 5 months, following an overnight fast on hormonal measures associated with HPA axis and related appetite and psychological measures. There were 24 (10 NE, 14 C) clinically severely obese participants (body mass index =47.0+/-8.4 SD). At pre-surgery baseline, afternoon fasting hunger ratings differed significantly and were lower for NE than for C (p=0.01). Eight of the participants (4 NE, 4C) returned for all 3 study visits. At 5 months post-surgery, NE and C did not differ in weight loss, reductions in waist circumference, insulin levels, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). However, NE as compared to C, did not improve in self ratings of body image (p<0.05), and had significant increases in fasting afternoon cortisol levels 5 months after surgery (p=0.01).

  7. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  8. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  9. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs.

  10. Glutaredoxin modulates platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell signaling by regulating the redox status of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Munetake; Ihara, Yoshito; Murata, Hiroaki; Urata, Yoshishige; Kono, Takaaki; Yodoi, Junji; Seto, Shinji; Yano, Katsusuke; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-09-29

    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in various cellular functions, including the redox-dependent regulation of certain integral proteins. Here we demonstrated that overexpression of GRX suppressed the proliferation of myocardiac H9c2 cells treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. After stimulation with PDGF-BB, the phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR) beta was suppressed in GRX gene-transfected cells, compared with controls. Conversely, the phosphorylation was enhanced by depletion of GRX by RNA interference. In this study we focused on the role of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) in the dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta via a redox-dependent mechanism. We found that depletion of LMW-PTP using RNA interference enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta, indicating that LMW-PTP works for PDGFRbeta. The enhancement of the phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta was well correlated with inactivation of LMW-PTP by cellular peroxide generated in the cells stimulated with PDGF-BB. In vitro, with hydrogen peroxide treatment, LMW-PTP showed decreased activity with the concomitant formation of dithiothreitol-reducible oligomers. GRX protected LMW-PTP from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation and inactivation in concert with glutathione, NADPH, and glutathione disulfide reductase. This strongly suggests that retention of activity of LMW-PTP by enhanced GRX expression suppresses the proliferation of cells treated with PDGF-BB via enhanced dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta. Thus, GRX plays an important role in PDGF-BB-dependent cell proliferation by regulating the redox state of LMW-PTP. PMID:16893901

  11. Glutaredoxin modulates platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell signaling by regulating the redox status of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Munetake; Ihara, Yoshito; Murata, Hiroaki; Urata, Yoshishige; Kono, Takaaki; Yodoi, Junji; Seto, Shinji; Yano, Katsusuke; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-09-29

    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in various cellular functions, including the redox-dependent regulation of certain integral proteins. Here we demonstrated that overexpression of GRX suppressed the proliferation of myocardiac H9c2 cells treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. After stimulation with PDGF-BB, the phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR) beta was suppressed in GRX gene-transfected cells, compared with controls. Conversely, the phosphorylation was enhanced by depletion of GRX by RNA interference. In this study we focused on the role of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) in the dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta via a redox-dependent mechanism. We found that depletion of LMW-PTP using RNA interference enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta, indicating that LMW-PTP works for PDGFRbeta. The enhancement of the phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta was well correlated with inactivation of LMW-PTP by cellular peroxide generated in the cells stimulated with PDGF-BB. In vitro, with hydrogen peroxide treatment, LMW-PTP showed decreased activity with the concomitant formation of dithiothreitol-reducible oligomers. GRX protected LMW-PTP from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation and inactivation in concert with glutathione, NADPH, and glutathione disulfide reductase. This strongly suggests that retention of activity of LMW-PTP by enhanced GRX expression suppresses the proliferation of cells treated with PDGF-BB via enhanced dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta. Thus, GRX plays an important role in PDGF-BB-dependent cell proliferation by regulating the redox state of LMW-PTP.

  12. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  13. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  14. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  15. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  16. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  17. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  18. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P < 0.001, SED 0.350). Although the LC and MC diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P < 0.005), these were still above the values indicative of deficiency. Interestingly, plasma vitamin C concentrations increased on consumption of the LC diet (P < 0.05). Plasma markers of insulin resistance (P < 0.001), lipaemia and inflammation (P < 0.05, TNF-α and IL-10) improved similarly on both diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  19. Body image in obese patients before and after stable weight reduction following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Adami, G F; Meneghelli, A; Bressani, A; Scopinaro, N

    1999-03-01

    The role of possessing an abnormal body weight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when body weight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body Attitude Questionnaire. When the individuals were obese, a sharply impaired body image was observed; following operation, weight loss corresponded to normalization of body dissatisfaction, feeling of fatness, and physical attractiveness, whereas body disparagement and salience of shape, although improved in comparison to preoperative data, remained significantly different from that of controls. In the obese patients, some aspects of body image alterations are substantially accounted for by overweight status; other aspects reflect inner feelings, which are partially independent of the actual body weight and shape. PMID:10193918

  20. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  1. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  2. 19 CFR 159.22 - Net weights and tares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... per half box for paper wrappings, and actual tare for outer containers. Ocher, dry, in casks: Eight percent of the gross weight. Ocher, in oil, in casks: Twelve percent of the gross weight. Pimientos...

  3. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour. PMID:15384317

  4. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  5. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  6. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations.

    PubMed

    Price, Amanda A; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Kraus, Caroline L; McKenzie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  7. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  8. Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. Results: The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score ≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score ≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Conclusions: Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:25765447

  9. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  10. Pathogenic Weight-Control Behaviors of Young Competitive Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Study of 955 9- to 18-year-olds at a competitive swimming camp revealed that many subjects had misperceptions about their body weights, particularly girls; swimmers' decisions to lose or gain weight were based on their perceptions more than on their actual weight; and others' opinions strongly influenced swimmers' opinions of their own weight.…

  11. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors among overweight and obese adults in Pakistan: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss is known to decrease the health risks associated with being overweight and obese. Awareness of overweight status is an important determinant of weight loss attempts and may have more of an impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. We therefore investigated the perception of weight among adults attending primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan, and compared it to their weight categories based on BMI (Body Mass Index), focusing on the underestimation of weight in overweight and obese individuals. We also explored the factors associated with underestimation of weight in these individuals. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 493 adults presenting to the three primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted face to face interviews to gather data on a pre-coded questionnaire. The questionnaire included detail on demographics, presence of comorbid conditions, and questions regarding weight assessment. We measured height and weight of the participants and calculated the BMI. The BMI was categorized into normal weight, overweight and obese based on the revised definitions for Asian populations. Perception about weight was determined by asking the study participants the following question: Do you consider yourself to be a) thin b) just right c) overweight d) obese. We compared the responses with the categorized BMI. To identify factors associated with underestimation of weight, we used simple and multiple logistic regression to calculate crude odds Ratios (OR) and adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results Overall 45.8% (n = 226) of the study participants were obese and 18% (n = 89) were overweight. There was poor agreement between self perception and actual BMI (Kappa = 0.24, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001). Among obese participants a large proportion (73%) did not perceive themselves as obese, although half (n = 102) of them thought they may

  12. Composition of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour participation across the school-day, influence of gender and weight status: cross-sectional analyses among disadvantaged Victorian school children

    PubMed Central

    Strugnell, Claudia; Turner, Kyle; Malakellis, Mary; Hayward, Josh; Foster, Charlie; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background The after-school period has been described as the ‘critical window’ for physical activity (PA) participation. However, little is known about the importance of this window compared with the before and during-school period among socioeconomically disadvantaged children, and influence of gender and weight status. Methods 39 out of 156 (RR=25%) invited primary schools across 26 local government areas in Victoria, Australia, consented to participate with 856 children (RR=36%) participating in the wider study. The analysis sample included 298 Grade 4 and Grade 6 children (mean age: 11.2±1.1; 44% male) whom met minimum accelerometry wear-time criteria and had complete height, weight and health-behaviours questionnaire data. Accelerometry measured duration in daily light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) was calculated for before-school=8–8:59, during-school=9:00–15:29 and after-school=15:30–18:00. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. Results During-school represented the greatest accumulation of LPA and MVPA compared with the before and after-school periods. Boys engaged in 102 min/day of LPA (95% CI 98.5 to 104.9) and 62 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 58.9 to 64.7) during-school; girls engaged in 103 min/day of LPA (95% CI 99.7 to 106.5) and 45 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 42.9 to 47.4). Linear regression models indicated that girls with overweight or obesity engaged in significantly less LPA, MVPA and more time in ST during-school. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of in-school PA compared with after-school PA among socioeconomically disadvantage children whom may have fewer resources to participate in after-school PA. PMID:27601489

  13. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  14. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  15. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  16. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  17. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  18. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  19. Teenagers' Perceived and Actual Probabilities of Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namerow, Pearila Brickner; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescent females' (N=425) actual and perceived probabilities of pregnancy. Subjects estimated their likelihood of becoming pregnant the last time they had intercourse, and indicated the dates of last intercourse and last menstrual period. Found that the distributions of perceived probability of pregnancy were nearly identical for both…

  20. Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1996-03-01

    Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

  1. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  2. [Perinatal factors which affect low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bissot, A; Villera, K; Solano, H; Bethancourt, L; Lawson, A

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of low-birth weight babies in the Santo Tomás maternity ward was 9% between the first of August of 1992 and the 31 of July of 1993. We found a higher risk of having low birth weight babies if the mother was toxemic, without prenatal care of low socioeconomic status and if she was single. We did not find an association with adolescence, short mother's height, low educational status and primi- or multiparity of 5 or more.

  3. Differences Between the Perceived and Actual Age of Overweight Onset in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Rahimi, Amanda M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Roberts, Mary D.; Theim, Kelly R.; Menzie, Carolyn M.; Mirch, Margaret C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether children or their parents can accurately recall the age at which they became overweight. Design, Subjects and Main Outcome Measures We interviewed 64 overweight children (7–18 years old) about their weight history and compared reported age of overweight onset with actual onset, as determined by the age at which the child's measured BMI first exceeded the 95th percentile. Results Only 28% of children reported overweight onset within 1 year of actual overweight onset. Reported overweight onset age (7.6 ± 2.5y) and actual onset age (5.3 ± 2.5y; P < .001) were not significantly correlated (r2 = .03, P = .22). Children who became overweight before 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at a later age than actual onset, whereas children who became overweight after 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at an earlier age than actual onset (P < .001), with 27% of children either underreporting or overreporting their overweight onset by at least 5 years. Similar results were found when analyzing parent reports of their children's overweight onset. Conclusions Reported and actual overweight onset ages were uncorrelated in our sample, suggesting that families may not be cognizant of children's growth trajectories. Greater efforts should be made to help parents and children understand and track growth patterns with the aim of preventing excessive weight gain. PMID:17406158

  4. Fetal weight estimation by ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference.

    PubMed

    Kearney, K; Vigneron, N; Frischman, P; Johnson, J W

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonic measurements of fetal abdominal circumference to ultrasonic measurements of fetal biparietal diameter, as a means of estimating fetal body weight. Of 58 fetuses who had abdominal circumferences measured, 48 (82%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birth weights. Forty-four of the same 58 fetuses had satisfactory biparietal diameter measurements, but only 21 (48%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birthweights. Ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference appears to be a more reliable index of fetal body weight than other currently available techniques.

  5. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  6. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  7. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA Dryden has been engaged in exciting work that will enable lighter weight and more fuel efficient vehicles through advanced control and dynamics technologies. The main areas of emphasis are Enabling Light-weight Flexible Structures, real time control surface optimization for fuel efficiency and autonomous formation flight. This presentation provides a description of the current and upcoming work in these areas. Additionally, status is provided Dryden's work on HTV-2.

  8. Smoke and mirrors: magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight.

    PubMed

    White, Marney A; McKee, Sherry A; O'malley, Stephanie S

    2007-10-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to suppress body weight. Participants were 385 individuals undergoing treatment for smoking cessation. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A), the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale, and the Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PBRQ). Results indicated that heightened beliefs in the effectiveness of smoking to control weight were related to eating and weight concerns; specifically, strong associations were observed between SCQ-A Weight Control scores and fear of weight gain, loss of control over eating, and body dissatisfaction. Although SCQ-A Weight Control scores were related to (self-reported) weight gain during a previous quit attempt, scores did not predict actual weight gain over the course of the cessation trial. Reported weight gain at previous attempts was also unrelated to actual weight gain over the current trial. These findings indicate that eating and weight-concerned smokers may benefit from psychoeducation concerning the relatively modest and temporary ability of nicotine to suppress weight.

  9. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. The Accuracy of Broselow Tape Weight Estimate among Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    AlGarni, Abdullaziz; AlGamdi, Fasial; Jawish, Mona; Wani, Tariq Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of the Broselow Tape (BT) versions 2007 and 2011 in estimating weight among pediatric population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Fahad Medical City and six schools across Riyadh province on 1–143-month-old children. BT 2007 and 2011 estimated weights were recorded. Both tapes via the child's height produce an estimated weight, which was compared with the actual weight. Results. A total of 3537 children were recruited. The height (cm) of the subjects was 97.7 ± 24.1 and the actual weight (kg) was 16.07 ± 8.9, whereas the estimated weight determined by BT 2007 was 15.87 ± 7.56 and by BT 2011 was 16.38 ± 7.95. Across all the five age groups, correlation between actual weight and BT 2007 ranged between 0.702 and 0.788, while correlation between actual weight and BT 2011 ranged between 0.698 and 0.788. Correlation between BT 2007 and BT 2011 across all the five age groups ranged from 0.979 to 0.989. Accuracy of both the tape versions was adversely affected when age was >95 months and body weight was >26 kilograms. Conclusions. Our study showed that BT 2007 and 2011 provided accurate estimation of the body weight based on measured body height. However, 2011 version provided more precise estimate for weight. PMID:27668258

  16. The Accuracy of Broselow Tape Weight Estimate among Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    AlGarni, Abdullaziz; AlGamdi, Fasial; Jawish, Mona; Wani, Tariq Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of the Broselow Tape (BT) versions 2007 and 2011 in estimating weight among pediatric population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Fahad Medical City and six schools across Riyadh province on 1–143-month-old children. BT 2007 and 2011 estimated weights were recorded. Both tapes via the child's height produce an estimated weight, which was compared with the actual weight. Results. A total of 3537 children were recruited. The height (cm) of the subjects was 97.7 ± 24.1 and the actual weight (kg) was 16.07 ± 8.9, whereas the estimated weight determined by BT 2007 was 15.87 ± 7.56 and by BT 2011 was 16.38 ± 7.95. Across all the five age groups, correlation between actual weight and BT 2007 ranged between 0.702 and 0.788, while correlation between actual weight and BT 2011 ranged between 0.698 and 0.788. Correlation between BT 2007 and BT 2011 across all the five age groups ranged from 0.979 to 0.989. Accuracy of both the tape versions was adversely affected when age was >95 months and body weight was >26 kilograms. Conclusions. Our study showed that BT 2007 and 2011 provided accurate estimation of the body weight based on measured body height. However, 2011 version provided more precise estimate for weight.

  17. Scaling of Average Weighted Receiving Time on Double-Weighted Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan; Hou, Jie; Li, Xingyi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of the double-weighted Koch networks based on actual road networks depending on the two weight factors w,r ∈ (0, 1]. The double weights represent the capacity-flowing weight and the cost-traveling weight, respectively. Denote by wFij the capacity-flowing weight connecting the nodes i and j, and denote by wCij the cost-traveling weight connecting the nodes i and j. Let wFij be related to the weight factor w, and let wCij be related to the weight factor r. This paper assumes that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the capacity-flowing weight of edge linking them. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the cost-traveling weight connecting the two nodes. We define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) on the double-weighted Koch networks. The obtained result displays that in the large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(w,r) = ½ log2(1 + 3wr). We show that the AWRT exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the double-weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information.

  18. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  19. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  1. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  2. What Happened to Self-Actualization? Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook

    2010-05-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is one of psychology's genuinely good ideas and has had a sustained impact in and out of psychology. The revision of the hierarchy by Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, and Schaller (2010, this issue) is overdue and makes an important contribution by grounding the hierarchy in modern evolutionary thought. However, we suggest that it may be premature to remove self-actualization from the hierarchy by reducing it to other needs associated with status and reproduction.

  3. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  4. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  5. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actual SO2 emissions rate. 74.22... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation...

  6. Actualization and the Fear of Death: Retesting an Existential Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith; Robinson, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrates that within a group of highly actualized individuals, the degree to which "own death" is integrated into constructs of self is a far more powerful predictor of fear of death than actualization. Findings suggest that actualization and integration are independent in their overall effect on fear of death. (Author)

  7. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  8. The Impact of Weight Perception on the Health Behaviors of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Jessica; Naquin, Mildred; Gillan, Wynn; Bowers, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has links to numerous health problems. Having an accurate perception of one's own weight is an important aspect of maintaining an appropriate weight. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among perceived body weight, actual body weight, body satisfaction, and selected health behaviors. Methods: The…

  9. An Attempt to Shorten the Quest for Weight Loss Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; And Others

    Health psychologists continue to have difficulty identifying prognostic indicators of weight loss success. Psychological, social, and demographic factors have been examined, but correlations with weight loss are disappointing. Actual behaviors or quantifications of specific actions and historical measures were examined for their validity in…

  10. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  11. Extrapancreatic effects of incretin hormones: evidence for weight-independent changes in morphological aspects and oxidative status in insulin-sensitive organs of the obese nondiabetic Zucker rat (ZFR).

    PubMed

    Colin, Ides M; Colin, Henri; Dufour, Ines; Gielen, Charles-Edouard; Many, Marie-Christine; Saey, Jean; Knoops, Bernard; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Incretin-based therapies are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Although hypoglycemic actions of incretins are mostly due to their insulinotropic/glucagonostatic effects, they may also influence extrapancreatic metabolism. We administered exendin-4 (Ex-4), a long-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist, at low dose (0.1 nmol/kg/day) for a short period (10 days), in obese nondiabetic fa/fa Zucker rats (ZFRs). Ex-4-treated ZFRs were compared to vehicle (saline)-treated ZFRs and vehicle- and Ex-4-treated lean rats (LRs). Blood glucose levels were measured at days 0, 9, and 10. Ingested food and animal weight were recorded daily. On the day of sacrifice (d10), blood was sampled along with liver, epididymal, subcutaneous, brown adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues from animals fasted for 24 h. Plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, food intake, and body and epididymal fat weight were unchanged, but gross morphological changes were observed in insulin-sensitive tissues. The average size of hepatocytes was significantly lower in Ex-4-treated ZFRs, associated with decreased number and size of lipid droplets and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) staining, a marker of oxidative stress (OS). Myocytes, which were smaller in ZFRs than in LRs, were significantly enlarged and depleted of lipid droplets in Ex-4-treated ZFRs. Weak HNE staining was increased by Ex-4. A similar observation was made in brown adipose tissue, whereas the elevated HNE staining observed in epididymal adipocytes of ZFRs, suggestive of strong OS, was decreased by Ex-4. These results suggest that incretins by acting on OS in insulin-sensitive tissues may contribute to weight-independent improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:27511983

  12. Biological determinants of pregnancy weight gain in a Filipino population.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, A M; Adair, L S

    1993-03-01

    Patterns of pregnancy weight gain and predictors of first trimester and total weight gain were investigated in a sample of 1367 women from Cebu, Philippines, with pregnancy intervals of < 2 y. The mean total weight gain based on actual measurements of prepregnant weight was 8.4 kg. Controlling for gestational week when weight was measured, multivariate-regression models predicted higher first trimester weight gain with higher parity, lower prepregnant body mass index (BMI), and longer nonpregnant intervals. Higher total weight gain was associated with longer nonpregnant intervals, lower prepregnant BMI, taller maternal stature, and relatively high dietary energy intakes. Lactation into the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal age over 35 y had significant negative effects on total weight gain. Given the importance of maternal weight gain in predicting birth outcome, this study provides information on modifiable risk factors that should be considered when developing maternal-infant health policy and programs.

  13. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  14. Measuring internalized weight attitudes across body weight categories: validation of the modified weight bias internalization scale.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate a modified version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) that is applicable to individuals across different body weight statuses. One hundred forty-eight men and women completed an online survey that included the WBIS-M and relevant measures of psychopathology. Results indicated that the WBIS-M had high internal consistency and strong construct validity. The WBIS-M also demonstrated significant correlations with body image, eating pathology, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and was associated with these outcomes distinctly from antifat attitudes and body mass index. Implications for the use of this scale in diverse samples are discussed. PMID:24100004

  15. Parametric study of helicopter aircraft systems costs and weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    Weight estimating relationships (WERs) and recurring production cost estimating relationships (CERs) were developed for helicopters at the system level. The WERs estimate system level weight based on performance or design characteristics which are available during concept formulation or the preliminary design phase. The CER (or CERs in some cases) for each system utilize weight (either actual or estimated using the appropriate WER) and production quantity as the key parameters.

  16. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  17. Internalized weight bias: ratings of the self, normal weight, and obese individuals and psychological maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Carels, Robert A; Burmeister, J; Oehlhof, M W; Hinman, N; LeRoy, M; Bannon, E; Koball, A; Ashrafloun, L

    2013-02-01

    Current measures of internalized weight bias assess factors such as responsibility for weight status, mistreatment because of weight, etc. A potential complementary approach for assessing internalized weight bias is to examine the correspondence between individuals' ratings of obese people, normal weight people, and themselves on personality traits. This investigation examined the relationships among different measures of internalized weight bias, as well as the association between those measures and psychosocial maladjustment. Prior to the beginning of a weight loss intervention, 62 overweight/obese adults completed measures of explicit and internalized weight bias as well as body image, binge eating, and depression. Discrepancies between participants' ratings of obese people in general and ratings of themselves on both positive and negative traits predicted unique variance in measures of maladjustment above a traditional assessment of internalized weight bias. This novel approach to measuring internalized weight bias provides information above and beyond traditional measures of internalized weight bias and begins to provide insights into social comparison processes involved in weight bias. PMID:22322909

  18. Unhealthy Weight Control Practices: Culprits and Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Zachary Michael; Patterson, Sean; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Preoccupation with weight status and a desire to lose weight appears common. Many individuals seek “magic bullet” approaches to weight loss and waive the risks of using these products. In this paper, we review the challenges of weight maintenance, highlight some unhealthy weight control practices, and discuss the futility and potential danger of unregulated weight control agents. Novel clinical strategies are discussed that health care providers may use to triage patients with obesity in an attempt to make ethical and personalized treatment decisions. PMID:25733947

  19. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  20. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  1. Actual status of therapeutic vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau, Katarzyna; Goździk-Spychalska, Joanna; Spychalski, Łukasz; Bryl, Maciej; Gołda-Gocka, Iwona; Kopczyńska, Anna; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander; Ramlau, Rodryg

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although treatment methods such as surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have improved, prognosis remains unsatisfactory, and developing new therapeutic strategies is still an urgent matter. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach wherein activated immune cells can specifically kill tumour cells. Several lung cancer vaccines have demonstrated prolonged survival time in phase II and III trials, and several clinical trials are under investigation. However, many clinical trials involving cancer vaccination with defined tumour antigens have shown this method to work only in a small number of patients. Cancer immunotherapy is not completely effective in eradicating tumour cells because they evade host immune control. PMID:24966788

  2. Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Anti-marijuana Ads, Usage Intentions, and Actual Marijuana Usage

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The association of adolescents’ appraisals of the anti-marijuana television ads used in the National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12 to 18 year old respondents (N = 2993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multi-level linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all p < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents’ usage status predicted intentions and actual usage one year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions, and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both p < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users reporting more positive attitudes towards the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding pre-implementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  3. Adolescents' attitudes toward antimarijuana ads, usage intentions, and actual marijuana usage.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2013-12-01

    The association of adolescents' appraisals of the antimarijuana TV ads used in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12- to 18-year-old respondents (N = 2,993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multilevel linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: Resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all ps < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents' usage status predicted intentions and actual usage 1 year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both ps < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users who reported more positive attitudes toward the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding preimplementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  4. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  5. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration. PMID:23439336

  6. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  7. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  8. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  9. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  10. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  11. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  12. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  13. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  14. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  15. Depression and Self-Actualization in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between depressive affect and self-actualization in gifted adolescents (N=248). Found that gifted students who were not self-actualizing types were more depressed; and guilt, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, and cognitive difficulty were important symptoms. Gifted adolescents tended to be more socially…

  16. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  17. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  18. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  19. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  20. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....