Science.gov

Sample records for actual work environment

  1. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  2. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  3. Better Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…

  4. Securing the User's Work Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  5. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  6. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects. PMID:15584444

  7. Using Student Perceptions to Compare Actual and Preferred Classroom Environment in Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Students' perceptions of actual and preferred classroom environment were investigated using the "What is happening in this class? questionnaire" (WIHIC). The WIHIC assesses seven classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, task orientation, investigation, cooperation and equity. A sample of 978 secondary…

  8. Preferred-Actual Learning Environment "Spaces" and Earth Science Outcomes in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components:…

  9. A Comparison of Actual and Preferred Classroom Environments as Perceived by Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern

    2015-01-01

    Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…

  10. Preferred-actual learning environment spaces and earth science outcomes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components: content, method, and assessment with both student-centered and teacher-centered scales embedded. Findings suggest that preferred-actual space (PASmatch) between posttreatment perceptions and pretreatment preferences accounted for a more substantial and statistically significant amount of learning outcomes in terms of students' attitudes toward the subject matter with greater than large effect size, concerning practical significance in the actual earth science classroom. These findings suggest that earth science instruction in the secondary schools should bridge the gap between students' preferred/perceived learning environment with the aim to enhance their learning outcomes.

  11. Early Learning Environments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

    Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment…

  12. [Work process and workers' health in a food and nutrition unit: prescribed versus actual work].

    PubMed

    Colares, Luciléia Granhen Tavares; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the work process in a food and nutrition unit and workers' health, in the words of the participants themselves. Direct observation, a semi-structured interview, and focus groups were used to collect the data. The reference was the dialogue between human ergonomics and work psychodynamics. The results showed that work organization in the study unit represents a routine activity, the requirements of which in terms of the work situation are based on criteria set by the institution. Variability in the activities is influenced mainly by the available equipment, instruments, and materials, thereby generating improvisation in meal production that produces both a physical and psychological cost for workers. Dissatisfaction during the performance of tasks results mainly from the supervisory style and relationship to immediate superiors. Workers themselves proposed changes in the work organization, based on greater dialogue and trust between supervisors and the workforce. Finally, the study identifies the need for an intervention that encourages workers' participation as agents of change. PMID:18157343

  13. Assessing Work Environments for Career Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Daughton, Sally

    1984-01-01

    Reviews six work environment assessment approaches: ecological dimensions, behavior settings, dimensions of organizational structure, collective characteristics of people within an environment, functional or reinforcement properties, and psychosocial and social climate dimensions. Discusses implications for using these approaches in career…

  14. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  15. Level and Social Environment as Determinants of Perceived Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalesny, Mary D.; And Others

    Both the social and physical aspects of the environment have been examined as causes of work behaviors and attitudes, but recent studies concerning the effect of open plan offices have shown inconsistent results. To assess the relative contributions of organizational level and the social and physical work environment in explaining employee…

  16. Applying Technology in the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed, Ed.

    A series of papers is presented from two symposia sponsored by the Work Environment and Technology Committee and offered at annual conferences of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. The 1988 symposium was called "Applying Technology in the Work Environment" and the 1989 symposium was called "Reasonable…

  17. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  18. Development and Validation of Short Forms of Some Instruments Measuring Student Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development/validation of short forms of Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), My Class Inventory (MCI), and Classroom Environment Scale (CES). In addition to these forms measuring perceptions of actual classroom environment, ICEQ and CES short forms measuring preferred classroom environment were also developed.…

  19. Model for a Healthy Work Environment.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice. PMID:27610916

  20. Moving Sound Source Localization Based on Sequential Subspace Estimation in Actual Room Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Suyama, Kenji

    This paper presents a novel method for moving sound source localization and its performance evaluation in actual room environments. The method is based on the MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) which is one of the most high resolution localization methods. When using the MUSIC, a computation of eigenvectors of correlation matrix is required for the estimation. It needs often a high computational costs. Especially, in the situation of moving source, it becomes a crucial drawback because the estimation must be conducted at every the observation time. Moreover, since the correlation matrix varies its characteristics due to the spatial-temporal non-stationarity, the matrix have to be estimated using only a few observed samples. It makes the estimation accuracy degraded. In this paper, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) is applied for sequentially estimating the eigenvectors spanning the subspace. In the PAST, the eigen-decomposition is not required, and therefore it is possible to reduce the computational costs. Several experimental results in the actual room environments are shown to present the superior performance of the proposed method.

  1. Rehabilitation Counselor Work Environment: Examining Congruence with Prototypic Work Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    The profession of rehabilitation counseling has undergone extensive empirical study. Absent from this research has been a theoretical basis for describing and understanding the profession and its associated work environment. The focus of this study was to further our understanding of the nature of the rehabilitation counselor's work environment…

  2. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  3. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  4. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  5. Work Environment and Disadvantagement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, D.; Miskimins, R. W.

    The report describes a series of empirical evaluations of the work environment and its relation to the disadvantaged worker. Data were collected on 530 subjects in five different industries at both the supervisory and non-supervisory level, using a total of eight instruments, including measures of perceived vocational opportunity, self-concept,…

  6. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joan S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  7. College Science Students' Perception Gaps in Preferred-Actual Learning Environment in a Reformed Introductory Earth Science Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yeh; Chang, Yueh-Hsia

    2010-01-01

    This study used an instrument to examine undergraduate students' preferred and actual learning environment perceptions in an introductory earth science course. The results show that science students expect to learn in a learning environment combining teacher-centred and student-centred approaches. However, an expectation incongruence was found in…

  8. A Comparison of the Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment in Biology and Chemistry as Perceived by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1986-01-01

    The actual and preferred students' perception of classroom learning environment was measured using a modified Hebrew version of the Learning Environment Inventory (LEI). This (validated and analyzed for reliability) was given to chemistry (N=1080) and biology (N=400) students. Results and implications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  9. What Checkers Actually Check: An Eye Tracking Study of Inhibitory Control and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Harkin, Ben; Miellet, Sebastien; Kessler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Background Not only is compulsive checking the most common symptom in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with an estimated prevalence of 50–80% in patients, but approximately ∼15% of the general population reveal subclinical checking tendencies that impact negatively on their performance in daily activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand how checking affects attention and memory in clinical as well as subclinical checkers. Eye fixations are commonly used as indicators for the distribution of attention but research in OCD has revealed mixed results at best. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we report atypical eye movement patterns in subclinical checkers during an ecologically valid working memory (WM) manipulation. Our key manipulation was to present an intermediate probe during the delay period of the memory task, explicitly asking for the location of a letter, which, however, had not been part of the encoding set (i.e., misleading participants). Using eye movement measures we now provide evidence that high checkers’ inhibitory impairments for misleading information results in them checking the contents of WM in an atypical manner. Checkers fixate more often and for longer when misleading information is presented than non-checkers. Specifically, checkers spend more time checking stimulus locations as well as locations that had actually been empty during encoding. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that these atypical eye movement patterns directly reflect internal checking of memory contents and we discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of behavioural and neuropsychological data. In addition our results highlight the importance of ecologically valid methodology for revealing the impact of detrimental attention and memory checking on eye movement patterns. PMID:23049755

  10. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Jensen, Paul A; Campbell, Donald L; Lawrence, Robert B; Myers, Warren R

    2003-01-01

    Past studies have found little or no correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). This study investigated the effect of good- and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators on protection in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry and the correlation between WPFs and FFs. Fifteen burners and welders, who wore respirators voluntarily, and chippers participated in this study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models each with three sizes, for a total of six fit-tests. Models and sizes were assigned this way to provide a wide range of FFs among study participants. Each worker donned the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for 2 days. Quantitative FFs were first obtained for each donning using the PortaCount Plus trade mark in a separate room. Without redonning the respirators, workers performed normal work for 1 to 2 hours, and WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece samples simultaneously. A second fit-test was conducted without disturbing the respirator. FFs were obtained by averaging the results from the first and second fit-tests. The resulting FFs had a geometric mean (GM) of 400 (range=10-6010) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 6.1. Of the 55 valid donnings, 43 were good fitting (FFs> or =100) and 12 were poor fitting (FFs<100). The WPFs had a GM of 920 (range=13-230,000) and a GSD of 17.8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments. PMID:14674806

  11. Contact lenses and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, J

    1984-01-01

    Controversial opinions have been presented about the use of contact lenses in industrial environments. Work environments contain few obstacles to the use of contact lenses, but many occupations are associated with the risk of excessive difficulties, spoilation , irritation, or complications. From the radiant energy the shorter (280 nm) ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and the longer (1300 nm) infra-red (IR) wavelengths are absorbed by contact lenses, the absorption increases their temperature and may cause corneal complications. Protective glasses, however, absorb more than 99.5% of the UV and IR energy and thus provide sufficient protection for contact lens wearers exposed to UV or IR radiation. The advantages and risks of contact lenses in industrial work are discussed. PMID:6328841

  12. Far-field environment working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, E.C.; Cady, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  13. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard. PMID:20644349

  14. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  15. The Impact of Congruency between Preferred and Actual Learning Environments on Tenth Graders' Science Literacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Chia-Li D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of congruency between preferred and actual learning environment (PLE & ALE) perceptions on students' science literacy in terms of science concepts, attitudes toward science, and the understanding of the nature of science in an innovative curriculum of High Scope Project, namely Sci-Tech Mind and Humane Heart…

  16. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  17. [Poisons for reproduction in work environment].

    PubMed

    Brochard, P; Cayrouse, C

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the lawful bases of the reprotoxic risk management in work environment, and sets out the recommendations of the French Société de Médecine du Travail (occupational medicine) for the medical supervision of pregnant wage-earners exposed to toxic substances as far as foetal development is concerned. We start with the description of the lawful bases, clarifying the various types of classification of toxic substances for reproduction, the particular regulation applying to reprotoxic categories 1 and 2, particularly with regard to the labelling of these products, the prohibition of availability to the general public, the principles of prevention and the guarantees of remuneration of the pregnant women exposed to this risk. Then, we present the recommendations worked out by the Société Française de Médecine du Travail, with regard to the medical supervision of pregnant wage-earners. They include: evaluation of the risk on the work place, evaluation of exposure, be it external or internal, presentation of methods of calculation of values guides and of recommendations transmitted to occupational doctors, before and during the pregnancy of their patients. To conclude, it is important to remain rigorous with this reprotoxic risk, by referring to the lawful bases at our disposal and supporting the scientific bases following epidemiologic studies. Adequate information must be given to women but also men pf procreation age. In spite of a well-defined lawful framework, watchfulness is required with the new products put on the market and the new scientific data. PMID:16987683

  18. Collaboration is key: The actual experience of disciplines working together in child care.

    PubMed

    Garvis, Susanne; Kirkby, Jane; McMahon, Keryn; Meyer, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Promoting young children's academic and developmental outcomes can no longer be achieved by the single efforts of one profession, but requires professionals to work together in inter-professional teams to understand the complexity of young children's lives. Collaboration in early childhood programs involves health professionals, educators, and other professionals sharing information, validating each other's roles, and providing input around which strategies promote positive outcomes for all children. There are, however, limited studies available within early childhood education on inter-disciplinary relationships between nurses and teachers. This paper helps to fill this void by exploring the relationship of an early childhood teacher and maternal and child health nurse working alongside one another in an Australian kindergarten. Through a narrative approach, a number of characteristics of the relationship were identified as key elements to a productive relationship. Findings are important for health professionals working with early childhood educators. By understanding the complexity within and between disciplines, professionals can work effectively to support young children and their families. PMID:26285056

  19. Blinking supervision in a working environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan

    2016-02-01

    The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer-user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.

  20. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    We present an experimental identification of the local and mean Nusselt number from a rotating TGV brake disk model in the actual environment and exposed to an air flow parallel to the disk surface. This method is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disk combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local and mean convective heat transfer coefficient from the disk surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by a finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. The experimental setup is constituted of a model disk with all the representative parts of the actual TGV brake system. The disk and its actual environment are inside a wind tunnel test section, so that the rotational disk speed and the air flow velocity can be varied. Tests were carried out for rotational speeds w between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88,500 and 545,000), and for an air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m(DOT)s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153,000).

  1. Cardiovascular state changes in simulated work environments

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, Arjan; Mulder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of cardiovascular measures as indicators of changes in cognitive workload has been addressed in several studies. In this paper the question is explored whether cardiovascular patterns in heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity and HRV that are found are consistent within and between two simulated working environments. Two studies, were performed, both with 21 participants: one in an ambulance dispatch simulation and one in a driving simulator. In the ambulance dispatcher task an initial strong increase in blood pressure is followed by a moderate on-going increase in blood pressure during the next hour of task performance. This pattern is accompanied by a strong increase in baroreflex sensitivity while heart rate decreases. In the driving simulator study, blood pressure initially increases but decreases almost to baseline level in the next hour. This pattern is accompanied by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, while heart rate decreases. Results of both studies are interpreted in terms of autonomic control (related to both sympathetic and para-sympathetic effects), using a simplified simulation of a baroreflex regulation model. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that the cardiovascular response patterns in both tasks are a combination of an initial defensive reaction, in combination with compensatory blood pressure control. The level of compensatory blood pressure control, however, is quite different for the two tasks. This helps to understand the differences in response patterns between the two studies in this paper and may be helpful as well for understanding differences in cardiovascular response patterns in general. A substantial part of the effects observed during task performance are regulatory effects and are not always directly related to workload manipulations. Making this distinction may also contribute to the understanding of differences in cardiovascular response patterns during cognitive workload. PMID

  2. Investigation and research on classification of productive skills (1)--Actual work and skills in the car manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1992-12-01

    A survey was conducted at a site for production which is in the process of technological innovation to examine and clarify the trend in current productive skills. In August 1991, a questionnaire survey was given to skilled workers of a car manufacturing company. The number of valid responses was 1,215. The survey included 133 items in the following three areas: (1) nature of workers' productive skills, 40 items; (2) human functions and vocational ability necessary for the work, 60 items; and (3) working conditions, 33 items. The characteristics of the productive skills required in each division were compared and examined based on the final results of the survey. Clear characteristics were found which reflect the actual productive skills introduced into the factories and sections through technological innovation. The nature of the product manufactured at each factory and the actual skills which reflect the work done at the factories are clarified. The survey items used for this research have effectively clarified the characteristic of the productive skills. PMID:1340499

  3. Shift work in a security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

  4. The WorkPlace distributed processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.

  5. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  6. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying. PMID:22453205

  7. Motto: We work for people and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.

    1995-12-31

    This target has been under Danfoss realization for over 60 years, both in Denmark and all over the world. The operational range of the enterprise: is very wide. Danfoss manufactures a large assortment of products, starting from heat automatic control systems, through heat metering devices, industrial and refrigeration automatic control, compressors, flow meters, frequency converters, control systems, and monitoring. The four mainstays of the business activity are based on: high quality products; advanced manufacturing technology; care of the environment, and engagement of the staff. Since 1992 Danfoss has been manufacturing heat radiator thermostats in Poland. A unique solution - namely the use of a gas thermostatic head secures the highest energy savings and operational reliability. In 1993, Danfoss as the sixth company in Poland and the first in its business field, gained a ISO 9002 certificate.

  8. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2001-03-01

    Local and mean convective heat transfer from a rotating TGV brake disc model in the actual environment and submitted to an air flow parallel to the disc surface is studied experimentally in this paper. The experimental technique is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disc combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local convective heat transfer coefficient from the disc surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. These tests were carried out for rotational speed (omega) between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88500 and 545000) so as to obtain laminar and turbulent flow on the disc, and for air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153000).

  9. The Relationship between Work Environment Attributes and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, David; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A survey of over 400 Iowa and Missouri park and recreation professionals showed that work pressure, job clarity, and staff support were key work environment variables related to burnout. Implications for recreation administration are discussed. (Author/PP)

  10. Effect of a changing health care environment on social work leaders: obstacles and opportunities in hospital social work.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, T; Berger, C S

    2001-04-01

    The health care system is undergoing dramatic change in auspice, structure, and services delivery in response to an emphasis on market-driven, cost-containment strategies. Consequently, many hospital social work directors either have lost some of their administrative responsibilities or have expanded their span of control beyond social work services. This article examines the responses of social work administrators to the breadth of changes occurring throughout their hospitals; the major accomplishments of social work services within their facilities; and the failures, frustrations, and obstacles in the delivery of social work services. As a result of examining the relationship between their actual and anticipated behavior and changes in the hospital and external environment, the authors found that social work leaders in hospitals understand the complexities and challenges of the world around them. Overall, they have exhibited commitment, competence, and confidence in shaping organizational change. PMID:11329646

  11. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  12. Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  13. Wage, Work Environment, and Staffing: Effects on Nurse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes—less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  14. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed. PMID:16632768

  15. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  16. Women's work environment and health: clerical workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I; Messias, D K; Arruda, E N

    1996-02-01

    Although women are participating more in the formal workforce, the majority are employed primarily in low-income and low-status occupations. While work roles may provide women with some rewards, employment may also create many stressful demands on their daily lives. As part of an international study, 60 female Brazilian clerical workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire describing what they liked, disliked, and found stressful about the structural, physical, and social aspects of their work environment. Participants also identified strategies they used to cope with stress in the work environment. Dimensions of healthy environments identified in the data included utility, challenge, participation, safety, pleasing workplace, valuation, clarity of roles, and empowerment. Unhealthy environments were characterized by hazards, bureaucracy, devaluation, and economic constraints. Participants described their concerns about the effect of the environment on their physical and mental health, but tended to adopt a passive, resigned coping style rather than a proactive approach to co-creating a healthier work environment. The results and their relationship to healthy work environments are discussed within the context of the larger sociopolitical environment of Brazil. PMID:8552803

  17. Authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles. PMID:19542970

  18. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    SciTech Connect

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  19. A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that

  20. Paper, Piles, and Computer Files: Folklore of Information Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews literature to form a folklore of information workspace and emphasizes the importance of studying folklore of information work environments in the context of the current shift toward removing work from any particular place via information systems, e-mail, and the Web. Discusses trends in workplace design and corporate culture. Contains 84…

  1. What Managers Do to Create Healthy Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Boverie, Patricia; Zondlo, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine what successful managers do to create healthy work environments in a healthcare organization. Managers using exemplary behaviors were selected and interviewed based on employee satisfaction surveys, and focus groups were conducted with employees who worked for them. Effective…

  2. Physical Environment as a Resource in Information Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of physical surroundings and artifacts and how they contribute to the knowledge work occurring there, based on preliminary analysis of data collected in interviews and observations of a research group over a four-month period. General issues of the interaction between information work and environment can be revealed and applied…

  3. Impact of Virtual Work Environment on Traditional Team Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Olson, Joel; Hartman, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    Examines a virtual work team to determine the domains of the team and the effect the virtual work environment had on the domains. Discusses results of a literature review and a phenomenological heuristic case study, including the effects of post-modern philosophy and postindustrial society on changes in the marketplace. (Contains 79 references.)…

  4. Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Link between Identity Processing Styles and the Actual Work of Identity in the Career Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated and compared the associations between identity processing styles and the actual work of identity formation in the career domain in two national contexts, the US and Turkey. Identity styles represent individuals' orientations to identity work, and were measured by the Identity Processing Styles Q-Sort (IPSQ). The…

  5. Importance of work environments on hospital outcomes in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean; Poghosyan, Lusine; Cho, Eunhee; You, Liming; Finlayson, Mary; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aungsuroch, Yupin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of hospital work environments on hospital outcomes across multiple countries. Design Primary survey data using a common instrument were collected from separate cross sections of 98 116 bedside care nurses practising in 1406 hospitals in 9 countries between 1999 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, patient readiness for hospital discharge and quality of patient care. Results High nurse burnout was found in hospitals in all countries except Germany, and ranged from roughly a third of nurses to about 60% of nurses in South Korea and Japan. Job dissatisfaction among nurses was close to 20% in most countries and as high as 60% in Japan. Close to half or more of nurses in every country lacked confidence that patients could care for themselves following discharge. Quality-of-care rated as fair or poor varied from 11% in Canada to 68% in South Korea. Between one-quarter and one-third of hospitals in each country were judged to have poor work environments. Working in a hospital with a better work environment was associated with significantly lower odds of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction and with better quality-of-care outcomes. Conclusions Poor hospital work environments are common and are associated with negative outcomes for nurses and quality of care. Improving work environments holds promise for nurse retention and better quality of patient care. PMID:21561979

  6. Nursing leadership in intensive care units and its relationship to the work environment 1

    PubMed Central

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether there is any relationship between the work environment and nursing leadership at intensive care units (ICUs). METHOD: Correlational study conducted at four ICUs in southern São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study population was comprised of 66 pairs (nurses and nursing technicians) established by lottery. The nurses responded to three instruments: 1) characterization; 2) a validated Portuguese version of the Nursing Work Index Revised (B-NWI-R); and 3) Grid & Leadership in Nursing: ideal behavior. The nursing technicians responded to 1) characterization and to 2) Grid and Leadership in Nursing: actual behavior, relative to the corresponding randomly-assigned nurse. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The work environment was not associated with actual nursing leadership (p = 0.852). The public or private nature of the institutions where the investigated ICUs were located had no significant effect on leadership (p = 0.437). Only the nurse-physician relationship domain stood out (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The choice of leadership styles by nurses should match the ICU characteristics. Leadership skills could be developed, and the work environment did not exert any influence on the investigated population. PMID:25806638

  7. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  8. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention. PMID:24022289

  9. Dental hygienists' work environment: motivating, facilitating, but also trying.

    PubMed

    Candell, A; Engström, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe dental hygienists' experiences of their physical and psychosocial work environment. The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach. Eleven dental hygienists participated in the study and data were collected during spring 2008 using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the dental hygienists experienced their work environment as motivating and facilitating, but at the same time as trying. The three categories revealed a theme: Being controlled in a modern environment characterized by good relationships. Motivating factors were the good relationship with co-workers, managers and patients, seeing the results of your work, having your own responsibility and making your own decisions. The new, pleasant and modern clinics, good cooperation between co-workers and varying duties were described as facilitating factors. The trying factors, as described by the dental hygienists, were above all being controlled by time limits or by some elements of the work, such as teamwork. The dental hygienists also felt stress because appointments were too-short. To conclude, the participants described their work environment as trying in several ways, despite the modern clinics and good relationships. PMID:20624190

  10. [Pregnancy and work environment. Practical guidelines for risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Carlstedt-Duke, Bodil; Gustavsson, Per

    2002-01-10

    Pregnant women are a natural part of the workforce in Sweden. A few types of exposure in the work environment are strictly regulated for pregnant women due to well-known risks of miscarriage, malformations or mental retardation in the child. However, a much larger number of types of exposure may pose risks for negative effects on the pregnancy. Chemical, physical and psychosocial factors may interact with personal medical conditions, and a risk assessment must always be performed with the individual in mind. This article addresses the most common questions about pregnancy and the work environment. According to Swedish law, an employer must perform an assessment of the risks in the work environment for the pregnant woman. If the work environment is considered to be hazardous, the particular exposure in question should be reduced or work tasks changed. If neither of these are possible, the woman has a right to compensation from the Social Insurance Office. Self-employed women are currently excluded from this right. PMID:11871167

  11. [Investigation of the actual conditions of hospital nurses working on three rotating shifts: questionnaire results of shift work schedules, feelings of sleep and fatigue, and depression].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Kamata, S; Naoe, H; Mutoh, F; Chiba, S

    1996-01-01

    These studies were performed to clarify (1) the actual conditions concerning rotating shift schedules of nurses in Japanese university and college hospitals and to evaluate (2) some aspects of the physical and mental health, and (3) sleep profile of hospital nurses working on counter-clockwise shift rotation. Two questionnaire surveys and the OSA sleep inventory (OSA) were carried out. The subjects in the study (1) were a total of 80 nursing directors in university and college hospitals. The questionnaire covered 4 categories, such as the schedule most frequently adopted and reasons for using the schedule. The questionnaires were returned by 67 directors (83.8%). The subjects in the study (2) were 189 nurses working on three-shift work schedules at Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The items in the questionnaire covered 7 categories, as follows: 1) feeling of sleep after each shift (8 items); 2) feeling of fatigue after each shift (30 items); 3) physical symptoms; 4) inter-personal problems; 5) all the items on Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS); 6) all the items on the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire; and 7) 24 items on the Maudsley personality inventory. The questionnaires were returned by 156 nurses (82.5%), whose mean age and duration of shift-work employment were 27.2 +/- 5.1 and 5.0 +/- 4.3 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. For 152 nurses (97.4%) of those returning the questionnaire, the working schedule consisted of 2 consecutive night shifts and 2 consecutive evening shifts, following a variable number of day shifts (rapid and counterclockwise shift rotation). The subjects in the study (3) were 8 healthy nurses working on above-mentioned three rotating shifts at the psychiatric ward of Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, whose mean age was 29.4 +/- 5.8 years (mean +/- SD). All the subjects recorded their sleep-logs and underwent OSA everyday for 30 consecutive days. Of the 240 OSA data, 95 data (16 after day shift, 17 after

  12. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses' experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants' descriptions of their…

  13. Control and Information: Underlying Psychological Dimensions of the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetrick, Lois E.; And Others

    A review of the literature on job analysis and job evaluation reveals several aspects of jobs which are important to organizations. To better explain the psychological dimensions of the work environment, three models of perceived job characteristics were compared using confirmatory factor analysis: Walsh, Taber, and Beehr's (1980) components of…

  14. Controlling Glare Problems in the VDT Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Lawrence M.; Sauter, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and characteristics (light measurement, direct and indirect or reflected glare) of glare problems in the video display terminal work environment are described. Glare control measures, including the location and design of lighting systems, managing outdoor light and using screen filters and hoods, are reviewed. Five sources are given.…

  15. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  16. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  17. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=−0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  18. From School to Work and from Work to School: Information Environments and Transferring Information Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study, based in a Scottish secondary school, aimed to examine the views of students who were completing work experience, on their information literacy practices, and the differences they found between the school and workplace information environments while on work experience. The views of guidance teachers were also explored.…

  19. Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

  20. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  1. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  2. Stressful work environment and wellbeing: What comes first?

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Jokela, Markus; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The association between the psychosocial work environment, including job demands, job control, and organizational justice, and employee wellbeing has been well established. However, the exposure to adverse work environments is typically measured only using self-reported measures that are vulnerable to reporting bias, and thus any associations found may be explained by reverse causality. Using linear regression models and cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested the direction of the association between established job stress models (job demand control and organizational justice models) and 3 wellbeing indicators (psychological distress, sleeping problems, and job satisfaction) among 1524 physicians in a 4-year follow-up. Results from the longitudinal cross-lagged analyses showed that the direction of the association was from low justice to decreasing wellbeing rather than the reverse. Although the pattern was similar in job demands and job control, a reciprocal association was found between job control and psychological distress. PMID:25705911

  3. Managerial strategies for creating an effective work environment.

    PubMed

    Luse, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department. PMID:23547197

  4. Is less really more: Does a prefrontal efficiency genotype actually confer better performance when working memory becomes difficult?

    PubMed

    Ihne, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most widely studied effect to emerge from the combination of neuroimaging and human genetics is the association of the COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism with prefrontal activity during working memory. COMT-Val is a putative risk factor in schizophrenia, which is characterized by disordered prefrontal function. Work in healthy populations has sought to characterize mechanisms by which the valine (Val) allele may lead to disadvantaged prefrontal cognition. Lower activity in methionine (Met) carriers has been interpreted as advantageous neural efficiency. Notably, however, studies reporting COMT effects on neural efficiency have generally not reported working memory performance effects. Those studies have employed relatively low/easy working memory loads. Higher loads are known to elicit individual differences in working memory performance that are not visible at lower loads. If COMT-Met confers greater neural efficiency when working memory is easy, a reasonable prediction is that Met carriers will be better able to cope with increasing demand for neural resources when working memory becomes difficult. To our knowledge, this prediction has thus far gone untested. Here, we tested performance on three working memory tasks. Performance on each task was measured at multiple levels of load/difficulty, including loads more demanding than those used in prior studies. We found no genotype-by-load interactions or main effects of COMT genotype on accuracy or reaction time. Indeed, even testing for performance differences at each load of each task failed to find a single significant effect of COMT genotype. Thus, even if COMT genotype has the effects on prefrontal efficiency that prior work has suggested, such effects may not directly impact high-load working memory ability. The present findings accord with previous evidence that behavioral effects of COMT are small or nonexistent and, more broadly, with a growing consensus that substantial effects on phenotype will

  5. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design. PMID:26010282

  6. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

  7. Reconsidering the Workplace: Faculty Perceptions of Their Work and Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to foreground the impact of the material environment on faculty activities, this study examines the dynamic intersections among faculty work practices, the academic workplace and professional identity. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 16 social science faculty at one public university in the United States, this study reveals the…

  8. Gardening work and heavy metals in urban environment.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, V; Lodi, V; Naldi, M; Gherardi, G; Violante, F S; Bonparola, M; Badiello, R; Raffi, G B

    1999-06-01

    Urban soil may be a source of occupational exposure to various pollutants in gardening and land cultivation. This paper presents data of a one-year follow-up of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in the environment of the city of Bologna. Samples of soil and leaves were collected at three locations; gardens from the inner-city high-traffic area, parks in moderate-traffic area, and parks in suburban, low-traffic area. The top and deeper layers of soil and leaves were mainly polluted by lead at all locations, which corresponded to the traffic density. Personal samplers recorded greater concentrations of airborne metals than did the area samplers but the values kept below the threshold limit established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists for the working environment. Due to cumulative nature and interactive effects of toxic metals with other toxic and essential elements, long-term exposure to metals in the urban environment may be a health risk for occupationally exposed gardeners. PMID:10566193

  9. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  10. Effect assessment in work environment interventions: a methodological reflection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised. PMID:20069488

  11. Hazards for farmers with disabilities: working in cold environments.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Stuthridge, Robert W; Field, William E

    2013-01-01

    In consequence of working in cold environments, agricultural workers may be exposed to higher risk of cold-related injuries, compared with the general population. These injuries can include tissue damage due to the exposure to subfreezing temperatures, more generalized symptoms caused by hypothermia, and secondary injuries caused by impaired performance. Risk of cold injury is increased for older workers and for those with disabling health conditions, both of which occur in above-average numbers in agriculture. Based on a selective review of the literature and case studies assembled by Purdue's Breaking New Ground Resource Center, an overview is presented of the mechanisms and symptoms of cold injuries, together with practical suggestions to help reduce risks of cold injuries for workers in agricultural settings. Special attention is given to potential risks to individuals with physical disabilities. PMID:23540305

  12. How can we improve the nursing work environment?

    PubMed

    Holden, Julie

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested by many recently that the nursing work environment needs to be altered to make it more responsive to both nurse and patient needs. One essential aspect of this change would be to increase patient safety. This article suggests that to improve patient safety as well as satisfaction of nurses, the culture of the nursing organization should be transformed into one of a "learning organization." Using this model of an organization, every member of the nursing organization would be encouraged to reach his or her greatest potential, the welfare of the team would become paramount, and a shared vision of where the organization needs to go would emerge, thus maximizing productivity, safety, and job satisfaction for all healthcare team members. This transformation could mean that the terms "Nursing Organizations" and "Learning Organizations" would not have to be oxymorons. PMID:16371823

  13. EWB: The Environment WorkBench Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Environment WorkBench EWB is a desktop integrated analysis tool for studying a spacecraft's interactions with its environment. Over 100 environment and analysis models are integrated into the menu-based tool. EWB, which was developed for and under the guidance of the NASA Lewis Research Center, is built atop the Module Integrator and Rule-based Intelligent Analytic Database (MIRIAD) architecture. This allows every module in EWB to communicate information to other modules in a transparent manner from the user's point of view. It removes the tedious and error-prone steps of entering data by hand from one model to another. EWB runs under UNIX operating systems (SGI and SUN workstations) and under MS Windows (3.x, 95, and NT) operating systems. MIRIAD, the unique software that makes up the core of EWB, provides the flexibility to easily modify old models and incorporate new ones as user needs change. The MIRIAD approach separates the computer assisted engineering (CAE) tool into three distinct units: 1) A modern graphical user interface to present information; 2) A data dictionary interpreter to coordinate analysis; and 3) A database for storing system designs and analysis results. The user interface is externally programmable through ASCII data files, which contain the location and type of information to be displayed on the screen. This approach provides great flexibility in tailoring the look and feel of the code to individual user needs. MIRIADbased applications, such as EWB, have utilities for viewing tabulated parametric study data, XY line plots, contour plots, and three-dimensional plots of contour data and system geometries. In addition, a Monte Carlo facility is provided to allow statistical assessments (including uncertainties) in models or data.

  14. Dysfunctional Scrum: Making it work in a matrixed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Johnson, Ranata L.

    2011-05-16

    While we may be operating as dysfunctional Scrum teams at PNNL, where consistency of implementation will remain an ongoing goal, our experiences are showing a pattern of benefit from following the process as best we can. We have found value in socializing stories and user narratives to describe the user experience. We have teams that meet daily for 30 minutes and sit down while they do it, but it has proven valuable to them. We have had several successful teams deliver products even in our dysfunctional environment. Our ScrumMasters work multiple projects and strive for consistency but in our environment (R&D, engineering, and software development) we need to be adaptable and implement those aspects of the discipline that provide benefits to the teams and clients. Our implementations are not 'by the book,' but as long as teams and customers find value in it and our communication and quality of our software products are improved, then we expect to continue using Agile with Scrum.

  15. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  16. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  17. Performance of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating in an actual boiler environment of a thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D.

    2007-09-15

    The present study aims to evaluate the performance of a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr (chromium carbide-nickel chromium) coating on a nickel-based super-alloy in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler, with the objective to protect the boiler super-heater and reheater tubes from hot corrosion. The tests were performed in the platen super heater zone of a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 900 degrees C under cyclic conditions. The Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating imparted the necessary protection to the nickel-based super alloy in the given environment. The dense and flat splat structure of the coating, and the formation of oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels, might have protected the substrate super alloy from the inward permeation of corrosive species.

  18. Work-to-Family Conflict, Positive Spillover, and Boundary Management: A Person-Environment Fit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…

  19. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  20. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  1. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. PMID:24801009

  2. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  3. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI. PMID:27191372

  4. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  5. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The provision of breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may assist a mother to develop a milk supply for the NICU infant. Human milk offers unique benefits and its provision unique challenges in this highly vulnerable population. The provision of breastfeeding support in this setting has not been studied in a large, multihospital study. We describe the frequency of breastfeeding support provided by nurses and examined relationships between NICU nursing characteristics, the availability of a lactation consultant (LC), and breastfeeding support. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of 2008 survey data from 6060 registered nurses in 104 NICUs nationally. Nurse managers provided data on LCs. These NICUs were members of the Vermont Oxford Network, a voluntary quality and safety collaborative. METHODS Nurses reported on the infants (n = 15,233) they cared for on their last shift, including whether breastfeeding support was provided to parents. Breastfeeding support was measured as a percentage of infants on the unit. The denominator was all infants assigned to all nurse respondents on that NICU. The numerator was the number of infants that nurses reported providing breastfeeding support. Nurses also completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), a nationally endorsed nursing care performance measure. The NICU nursing characteristics include the percentages of nurses with a BSN or higher degree and with 5 or more years of NICU experience, an acuity-adjusted staffing ratio, and PES-NWI subscale scores. Lactation consultant availability was measured as any/none and in full-time equivalent positions per 10 beds. RESULTS The parents of 14% of infants received breastfeeding support from the nurse. Half of the NICUs had an LC. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between 2 measures of nurse staffing and breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher acuity-adjusted staffing ratio was

  6. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  7. Nurses in Practice: A Perspective on Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marcella Z., Ed.; And Others

    A major portion of the collection of 20 readings authored by practicing professionals consists of field observations presented both as raw data (field notes) and as analyzed and organized data. About the work of nurses in a variety of settings, a recurrent theme is that work behavior is greatly influenced by organizational and structural elements…

  8. Usability of a Virtual Learning Environment Concerning Safety at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihamäki, Heli; Vilpola, Inka

    2004-01-01

    Most of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) design methods focus on producing content for a VLE. However, usability of the VLE is also of great importance. Several potential usability problems have been reported in recent e-learning conferences. These problems could have been avoided by applying usability engineering methods before the VLE was…

  9. Scientists working to correct misinformation on radiation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P.; Whicker, W.

    1996-12-31

    Competing claims and conflicting data from the Chernobyl disaster, and other such accidents, have called into question the reliability and consistency of many studies on the behavior of radioactivity in the environment. What is needed, according to an ecologist and a statistician, are guidelines against which the design of radiation studies can be gauged.

  10. Development of the Competitive Work Environment Scale: A Multidimensional Climate Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Thomas D.; Nusbaum, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that competitive work environments may influence individual's attitudes, behaviors, stress, and performance. Unfortunately, adequate measures of competitive environments are lacking. This article traces the development of a new multidimensional competitive work environment scale. An initial 59-item pool covering five…

  11. Examining Middle School Students' Statistical Thinking While Working in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scranton, Melissa Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students think in a technological environment. This was accomplished by exploring the differences in the thinking of students while they worked in a technological environment and comparing this to their work in a paper and pencil environment. The software program TinkerPlots:…

  12. The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2008-08-01

    The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the

  13. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. PMID:22049660

  14. Effectiveness in Work Roles: Employee Responses to Work Environments. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.

    A five-year study of effectiveness in work roles had four general objectives: (1) to assess associations between aspects of working conditions and indicators of employees' work role effectiveness; (2) to identify personal and situational characteristics that limit associations between working conditions and effectiveness; (3) to begin to map the…

  15. Group Work in a Technology-Rich Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…

  16. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  17. The Collaborative School: A Work Environment for Effective Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stuart C.; Scott, James J.

    The benefits of a collaborative work setting--including such practices as mutual help, exchange of ideas, joint planning, and participative decision-making--have been consistently confirmed by studies of effective schools and successful businesses. However, teacher isolation remains the norm. Drawing on recent research and educators' firsthand…

  18. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  19. Tenure, Satisfaction, and Work Environment Flexibility of People with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiocchio, Francois; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), Dawis and Lofquist (1984) hypothesize that Employee satisfaction (ES) and flexibility of the work environment moderate the functional relationship between satisfaction in the work environment (WS) and the correspondence between job requirements and employees' abilities. In addition, they hypothesize that…

  20. External Environment Papers. Working Papers of Planning and Development Research. Working Paper 88-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TV Ontario, Toronto.

    These papers present the major issues and directions in five areas: (1) the socioeconomic and demographic environment (demography, the economies and labor forces of Canada and of Ontario, and the international and social environments); (2) education (K-12, postsecondary, adult, and the educational media resource market); (3) the broadcast…

  1. Performance in a complex multiple-task environment during a laboratory-based simulation of occasional night work.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jürgen; Wastell, David G; Hockey, G Robert J; Earle, Fiona

    A study was carried out to examine the impact of occasional night work on simulated process control using a complex task environment. The 21 student participants were tested during 2 6-hr simulated shifts (daytime and night). In addition to the primary system management task, the simulation allowed measurement of fault diagnosis behavior, monitoring and control actions, and two secondary tasks--alarm reaction time and system status checks (prospective memory)--as well as subjective state. Consistent with predictions from compensatory control theory, night work did not impair system performance, although monitoring and control were reduced (supported by subjective reports of increased use of risky "corner-cutting" strategies). Secondary tasks showed an increase in alarm reaction time during night work, but there was no effect on prospective memory and no clear pattern of change in subjective state. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of complex systems for nighttime operation. PMID:15055462

  2. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940

  3. Improving the work environment through the use of research instruments: an example.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, although the quality of the work environment has improved for registered nurses, there is much that still needs to be done. However, much of the published research conducted in relation to the quality of work environments has focused on the more traditional components of the work environment. To assess the nontraditional components of a work environment, it is critical that reliable and valid instruments be utilized in order to ensure that the data gathered is accurate and truly reflective of what exists within the work environment. This article will describe one instrument, the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Outcome Attainment within Organizations, that has demonstrated reliability and validity. The application of this instrument in the improvement of the health care environment will be discussed. PMID:20023562

  4. Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

  5. School Culture: A Validation Study and Exploration of Its Relationship with Teachers' Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Work Environment in Swedish Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling; Fischbein, Siv

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the organisational characteristics of junior high schools, to identify typologies of work environments and to explore the relationships between the type of work environment and how schools function. The educational profession and the role of teachers have been influenced by policies inspired by the principles…

  7. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... petition for rulemaking, published on October 16, 2009. 74 FR 53190. The vast majority of those comments... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request...

  8. Academics in a New Work Environment: The Impact of New Public Management on Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…

  9. Impact of healthy work environments on new graduate nurses' environmental reality shock.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Brewer, Brewer B; Maguire, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    Do healthy work environments (HWEs) facilitate new graduate transition into professional practice in hospitals? Are such environments related to a decrease in Environmental Reality Shock? Experienced nurses in 17 Magnet hospitals completed the Essentials of Magnetism II(©) (EOMII(©)) instrument that measures health of unit work environments. New graduates (N = 468) were then tracked with modified versions of the EOMII(©) from immediate post hire to 4, 8, and 12 months post hire to ascertain degree of Environmental Reality Shock. New graduate nurses have extremely high anticipations of unit work environments that would enable delivery of quality patient care. HWE is the most-significant variable in Environmental Reality Shock, number of related Issues and Concerns, and perceptions of quality of patient care. Suggestions of how to improve quality of unit work environments are offered. PMID:21498813

  10. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  11. National survey on the use of chemicals in the working environment: estimated exposure events.

    PubMed Central

    Brandorff, N P; Flyvholm, M A; Beck, I D; Skov, T; Bach, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To obtain knowledge about the use and distribution of hazardous chemicals in Danish industry. This knowledge is used to regulate the occupational environment and prevent hazardous exposure. METHODS--A national survey on the use of chemicals was carried out in 1989 in a stratified sample of 1448 Danish businesses. 13,000 different chemical products were reported. Information on components in the chemical products was obtained from the Danish product register data base (PROBAS) and by inquiries to suppliers and manufacturers. At the end of the study the composition of about 9400 of the products was known. A model was developed to estimate national numbers of chemical exposure events as a supplement to data on weights of chemicals used. RESULTS--Data are presented for 36 chemical substances with chronic toxic effects and high estimated national numbers of exposure events for the industry groups included in the survey. Seven of the 36 substances are carcinogens, 17 are reproductive toxicants, 12 are allergens, and 18 are neurotoxicants according to listings of chronic toxicants used by the Danish authorities. The largest national number of exposure events was estimated for the industry groups manufacture of fabricated metal products, and personal services, cleaning, and hair dressing. These should have special attention in further preventive work. CONCLUSIONS--This survey on the use of chemicals is the first nationwide investigation in Denmark to delineate the use of all chemicals. The data have been used in a project to review occupational hazards in general in Danish industry. In the future, the data may be used as a basis for measuring chemical substitution, developing chemical safety, and as reference for more specific investigations and for follow up studies. Also job exposure matrices based on actual use of chemical products can be constructed. PMID:7670620

  12. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  13. Using mediation techniques to manage conflict and create healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must find ways for managing conflict and developing effective working relationships to create healthy work environments. The effects of unresolved conflict on clinical outcomes, staff retention, and the financial health of the organization lead to many unnecessary costs that divert resources from clinical care. The complexity of delivering critical care services makes conflict resolution difficult. Developing collaborative working relationships helps to manage conflict in complex environments. Working relationships are based on the ability to deal with differences. Dealing with differences requires skill development and techniques for balancing interests and communicating effectively. Techniques used by mediators are effective for resolving disputes and developing working relationships. With practice, these techniques are easily transferable to the clinical setting. Listening for understanding, reframing, elevating the definition of the problem, and forming clear agreements can foster working relationships, decrease the level of conflict, and create healthy work environments that benefit patients and professionals. PMID:15461035

  14. Using evidence-based leadership initiatives to create a healthy nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care. PMID:23759905

  15. Effects of Work Environment on Quality of Care in ICUs: A Multisite Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; You, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Ross, Amy Miner; Liu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the effects of the work environment on the quality of care in intensive care units (ICUs). Nurses in ICUs with good work environments or high nurse staffing were significantly less likely to report poor or fair quality of care (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37-0.47), rationing of nursing care (OR = 0.38-0.76), and health care-associated infections (OR = 0.28-0.68). Favorable ICU work environments and adequate nurse staffing can predict better quality of care. PMID:26796973

  16. The quality of dental faculty work-life: report on the 2007 dental school faculty work environment survey.

    PubMed

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William; Ranney, Richard R; Vargas, Adriana; Cardenas, Lina; Rose, William; Ross, Ridley; Funk, Edward

    2008-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of articles on the dental school work environment commissioned by the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. The report is based on the most extensive research to date on faculty satisfaction in the dental school environment. The purpose of the study was to assess faculty perceptions and recommendations related to work environment, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and professional development needs. More broadly, the study intends to provide insight into the "change readiness" of dental schools to move forward with curricular improvements and innovations. Findings are based on 1,748 responses from forty-nine U.S. dental schools obtained during the time frame of February to April 2007. The total number of respondents constituted 17 percent of all U.S. dental school faculty. The average response rate per school was thirty-six (21 percent). To elucidate the data in terms of issues related to the quality of faculty work-life based on demographics, the authors compared perceptions of various aspects of the work culture in academic dentistry among faculty with different academic ranks and academic degrees and by other variables such as age and gender, tenure versus non-tenure appointments, and full- versus part-time status. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show that the majority of faculty members described themselves as very satisfied to satisfied with their dental school overall and with their department as a place to work. Tenured associate professors expressed the greatest level of dissatisfaction. Opportunities for and support of professional development emerged as an area requiring substantially more attention from dental schools. The authors of the study suggest that dental school leaders use these findings to assess their individual dental school's work environment and to plan changes as needed. PMID:18451075

  17. A working environment for digital planetary data processing and mapping using ISIS and GRASS GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frigeri, A.; Hare, T.; Neteler, M.; Coradini, A.; Federico, C.; Orosei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey

  18. A working environment for digital planetary data processing and mapping using ISIS and GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigeri, Alessandro; Hare, Trent; Neteler, Markus; Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Orosei, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey

  19. The association of Chinese hospital work environment with nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Feng; You, Li-Ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-Bo; Lu, Min-Min; Lv, Ai-Li; Ma, Wei-Guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-Hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Bu, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave and to explore the relationship of work environment to nursing outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one-fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported an intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nursing outcomes in Chinese hospitals. PMID:24345617

  20. Work environment structure and psychological ownership: the mediating effects of control.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jon L; O'Driscoll, Michael P; Coghlan, Anne-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Current theorists on the psychology of possession highlight control as an important route in the development of feelings of ownership. In the present article, the authors hypothesized that the extent to which individuals experience control over their job and work environment is positively associated with feelings of ownership for their job and the organization. The authors used supervisory report data on work environment structure and self-reports on experienced control and psychological ownership to test for the mediating effects of experienced control in the relationship between the work environment structure and psychological ownership. The authors found that experienced control mediates the relationship between 3 sources of work environment structure--technology, autonomy, and participative decision making--and psychological ownership of the job and (to a lesser extent) the organization. The authors proposed implications of the findings and directions of further research. PMID:15449699

  1. The Hospital Work Environment And Job Satisfaction of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In prior studies, newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) described their job as being stressful. Little is known about how the hospital work environment affects their job satisfaction. A random sample of NLRNs were surveyed to assess the influence of hospital work environment on job satisfaction. Perceptions of greater job difficulty, job demands, and patient load were significantly related to lower job satisfaction. In contrast, being White, working 12-hour shifts, working more hours, and having more job control, greater professional tenure, and a perception of a better initial orientation were significantly related to higher job satisfaction. PMID:26267960

  2. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  3. Two Types of Learning Environment: Enabling and Constraining a Study of Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellstrom, Eva; Ekholm, Bodil; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first elaborate on the notion of a learning environment based on an empirical study of care work. Second, to explore how aspects of a learning environment may differ between and within units in the same organization, and how to understand and explain such differences. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  4. Teachers' Images of Their Schools and Perceptions of Their Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darrell; Grady, Neville

    1998-01-01

    Describes development of the Images Through Metaphor Questionnaire and its application in an investigation of relationships between 162 (Tasmanian) teachers' images of their schools and their perceptions of their work environment as assessed by the School Level Environment Questionnaire. Results revealed a strong relationship between these…

  5. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  6. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  7. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  8. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. PMID:23032568

  9. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Amy; Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative-descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non-randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence-based interventions to improve staff morale. PMID:26784282

  10. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  11. Full-time dental faculty perceptions of satisfaction with the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Froeschle, Mary Lynn; Sinkford, Jeanne C

    2009-10-01

    A significant factor in a faculty member's accepting or maintaining an academic appointment is the work environment. Assessing the work environment to identify characteristics that could increase faculty retention and recruitment could be valuable to an educational institution. This study assessed the academic dental work environment to identify positive and negative areas affecting career satisfaction. An online survey about departmental structure and individual work patterns was sent to the deans of fifty-two U.S. dental schools who then forwarded the survey to their faculty. Thirty-eight institutions (73 percent) and 451 full-time faculty members from those thirty-eight schools responded. Most dental faculty members in this survey intend to remain in academia for the next five to eight years. Slightly fewer male faculty members intend to remain in dental education for five to eight years than do female faculty members. Positive satisfaction aspects of the work environment listed by respondents included supportive chair/administration, working relationships with colleagues, and interactions with students. Negative satisfaction aspects of the work environment included low salary, long hours, and heavy workloads. Both positive aspects of job satisfaction and negative factors that impede productivity need to be analyzed within the framework of each institution to enact change for career enrichment, leading to increased faculty recruitment and retention. PMID:19805780

  12. Person-centered work environments, psychological safety, and positive affect in healthcare: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R

    2008-01-01

    We propose that in order to systematically improve healthcare quality, healthcare organizations (HCOs) need work environments that are person-centered: environments that support the careprovider as well as the patient. We further argue that HCOs have a moral imperative to provide a workplace where professional care standards can be achieved. We draw upon a large body of research from several disciplines to propose and articulate a theoretical framework that explains how the work environment should be related to the well-being of patients and careproviders, that is, the potential mediating mechanisms. Person-centered work environments include: 1. Climates for patient-centered care. 2. Climates for quality improvement. 3. Benevolent ethical climates. Such a work environment should support the provision of patient-centered care, and should lead to positive psychological states for careproviders, including psychological safety and positive affect. The model contributes to theory by specifying relationships between important organizational variables. The model can potentially contribute to practice by linking specific work environment attributes to outcomes for careproviders and patients. PMID:18839753

  13. The Effects of Training Design, Individual Characteristics and Work Environment on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Michel, John W.; Lyons, Brian D.; Kavanagh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to gain insight into some of the factors that determine the transfer of training to the work context. The present research examined the relationship between three types of predictors on transfer of training, including training design, individual characteristics and work environment. Data was collected at two points in time from 182…

  14. Spaces for Geometric Work: Figural, Instrumental, and Discursive Geneses of Reasoning in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma; Kuzniak, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a dynamic environment on relationships between the three geneses (figural, instrumental, and discursive) of Spaces for Geometric Work. More specifically, it was to determine whether the interactive geometry program GeoGebra could play a specific role in the geometric work of future…

  15. Impact of Graduates from an Online Program in Their Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scagnoli, Norma; Stephens, Melissa; Anderson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Online distance education programs are populated by adult learners who try to continue or complete their education without having to leave their jobs or places of residence. Their work environment becomes not just their working place, but also the lab where they apply new knowledge. The general expectation is that after graduation they will make…

  16. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  17. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

  19. Iowa Certified Nursing Assistants Study: Self-Reported Ratings of the Nursing Home Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Culp, Kennith; Ramey, Sandra; Karlman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are the principal bedside caregivers in nursing homes, yet little is known about their perceptions of the work environment. This population-based, cross-sectional study used a mailed questionnaire to a random sample of Iowa CNAs (N = 584), representing 166 nursing homes. Of the respondents, 88.5% (n = 517) were currently employed in long-term care settings; however, 11.5% (n = 67) indicated they had left their jobs. When CNA responses were compared with those of other occupational groups, general workers reported higher scores on involvement, coworker cohesion, work pressure, and supervisor support. Those who left their CNA jobs rated their work environment as characteristic of excessive managerial control and task orientation. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the relationship between CNAs and their supervisors, CNAs’ need for greater autonomy and innovation, and the need for the work environment to change dramatically in the area of human resource management. PMID:20078021

  20. Muscular exercise in type I-diabetics. I. Different metabolic reactions during heavy muscular work in dependence on actual insulin availability.

    PubMed

    Zander, E; Bruns, W; Wulfert, P; Besch, W; Lubs, D; Chlup, R; Schulz, B

    1983-07-01

    The present study focussed on the impact of heavy muscular work upon metabolic homeostasis in insulin dependent (type I) diabetics in situations involving a certain degree of hyper- and hypoinsulinemia. 20 juvenile type I-diabetics were compared with 6 nondiabetic healthy subjects. The diabetics were studied in states of hypo-(trial A) and hyperinsulinemia (trial B) at the start of the exercise. Differences in insulin availability resulted from the different times that had elapsed from the last insulin injection (3 hours in trial A and 1 hour in trial B) before the ergometer test started at 7 a.m. Six diabetics out of 20 patients were studied in both trials A and B to establish the reproducibility of metabolic reactions to the exercise. Bicycle ergometer tests were carried out in the upright position at 5 graded steps of 50 W, 75 W, 100 W, 125 W and a load near to exhaustion. Rest periods of five minutes were allowed between these work periods for taking blood samples before and after each work load. Plasma glucose, FFA, glycerol, lactate, alanine, IRI and HCP concentrations were investigated. The blood pressure at rest and during exercise was measured, and the physical working capacity (PWC170) was calculated according to Wahlund on the basis of the heart rate response to exercise. The results of the exercise tests reflect clearly the different metabolic reactions to heavy muscular work despite the relatively slight differences in insulin availability at the start: --Exhausting muscular work during the hypoinsulinemic state resulted in hyperglycemia and exaggerated lipolysis. --Heavy muscular work in a hyperinsulinemic state resulted in a reduced blood glucose level and antilipolytic reactions in comparison to nondiabetics. These findings suggest the great necessity of an adequate insulin availability during heavy muscular work in juvenile type I-diabetics. PMID:6352288

  1. Relationship between Psychiatric Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Burnout in Acute Care General Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Aiken, Linda H.; McClaine, Lakeetra; Hanlon, Alexandra L

    2010-01-01

    Following deinstitutionalization, inpatient psychiatric services moved from state institutions to general hospitals. Despite the magnitude of these changes, evaluations of the quality of inpatient care environments in general hospitals are limited. This study examined the extent to which organizational factors of the inpatient psychiatric environments are associated with psychiatric nurse burnout. Organizational factors were measured by an instrument endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Robust clustered regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between organizational factors in 67 hospitals and levels of burnout for 353 psychiatric nurses. Lower levels of psychiatric nurse burnout was significantly associated with inpatient environments that had better overall quality work environments, more effective managers, strong nurse-physician relationships, and higher psychiatric nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. These results suggest that adjustments in organizational management of inpatient psychiatric environments could have a positive effect on psychiatric nurses’ capacity to sustain safe and effective patient care environments. PMID:20144031

  2. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods. PMID:20424349

  3. The effect of the work environment on future sleep disturbances: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Kecklund, Göran; Franklin, Karl A; Leissner, Lena C; Sivertsen, Børge; Lindberg, Eva; Svensson, Anna C; Hansson, Sven O; Sundin, Örjan; Hetta, Jerker; Björkelund, Cecilia; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Workers often attribute poor sleep to factors at work. Despite the large number of workers with sleep disturbances, there is a lack of consensus on the relationship between the work environment and sleep. The purpose of this systematic review therefore was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation. To this end, we employed standardized methods to systematically locate, review, and tabulate the results of prospective or randomized studies of the impact of work factors on sleep disturbances. From the 7981 articles located in five databases, 24 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and formed the base of the review including meta-analyses of the effect sizes. Results showed that the psychosocial work variables of social support at work, control, and organizational justice were related to fewer sleep disturbances, while high work demands, job strain, bullying, and effort-reward imbalance were related to more future sleep disturbances. Moreover, working a steady shift was associated with disturbances while exiting shift work was associated with less disturbed sleep. We conclude that psychosocial work factors and the scheduling of work have an impact on sleep disturbances and this might be utilized in the clinic as well as for planning work environments. Future research needs to employ better methodology and focus on underlying mechanisms. PMID:25645126

  4. It starts with a conversation: a community approach to creating healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Longo, Joy; Dean, Amy; Norris, Shelby Darlene; Wexner, Suzette W; Kent, Leslie N

    2011-01-01

    A healthy work environment is needed to retain nurses. Among the factors that contribute to a healthy work environment are collaboration and communication. Through the leadership of the Palm Healthcare Foundation, Inc., a dialogue was started among health care stakeholders in Palm Beach County, Florida, resulting in a health care work force partnership community collaboration and initiatives to address the retention of nurses. One initiative was sponsoring a "train-the-trainer" program to raise awareness and provide skills for addressing factors that could affect work relationships, including emotional intelligence, generational differences, cultural competency and health literacy, employee crisis, and horizontal violence. A 6-month program evaluation was completed by the participants. A community approach provides a means for providers and educators to address common work force issues collaboratively. PMID:20839660

  5. Psychosocial work environment and incidence of severe depressive symptoms: prospective findings from a 5-year follow-up of the Danish work environment cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rugulies, Reiner; Bültmann, Ute; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann

    2006-05-15

    The authors analyzed the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on the incidence of severe depressive symptoms among 4,133 (49% women) employees from a representative sample of the Danish workforce between 1995 and 2000. Psychosocial work characteristics at baseline included quantitative demands, influence at work, possibilities for development, social support from supervisors and coworkers, and job insecurity. Severe depressive symptoms were measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, with a cutoff point of 52. Women with low influence at work (relative risk (RR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 3.82) and low supervisor support (RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.43) were at increased risk for severe depressive symptoms after exclusion of cases at baseline and adjustment for sociodemographic factors, baseline depression score, and health behaviors. Further adjustments for socioeconomic position did not change the result substantially. Additional analyses showed that a one-standard deviation increase on the influence scale resulted in a 27% decreased risk of severe depressive symptoms. Among men, job insecurity predicted severe depressive symptoms (RR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.07). The findings indicate that the work environment influences the risk of developing severe depressive symptoms and that different factors play a role for men and women. PMID:16571741

  6. Leading a multicultural work environment: reflections on the next frontier of nurse leadership.

    PubMed

    Washington, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Nurses face the challenge of leading in a diverse society. Is the cross section of present-day nurse leaders prepared to meet the needs of patients and a work environment represented by a broader range of social backgrounds, cultural traditions, and languages? Fundamental to leaders' ability to meet diverse needs is a new framework for understanding the meaning of leadership, in which the issue of diversity is paramount. This article explores how the word leadership expresses a more complex system, when responsibility to address human needs is emphasized, and care for multilingual and multiethnic patients by a diverse, committed work environment is a focus. Under the umbrella of diversity, the necessary knowledge to create such a work environment may lack depth or may even be absent. PMID:25714953

  7. Changes in Hospital Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Job Outcomes: An Analysis of Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Evan S.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.; Fagin, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Background One strategy proposed to alleviate nursing shortages is the promotion of organizational efforts that will improve nurse recruitment and retention. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the quality of the nurse work environment is associated with nurse outcomes related to retention, but there have been very few longitudinal studies undertaken to examine this relationship. Objectives To demonstrate how rates of burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction changed in a panel of hospitals over time, and to explore whether these outcomes were associated with changes in nurse work environments. Methods A retrospective, two-stage panel design was chosen for this study. Survey data collected from large random samples of registered nurses employed in Pennsylvania hospitals in 1999 and 2006 were used to derive hospital-level rates of burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction, and to classify the quality of nurses’ work environments at both points in time. A two-period difference model was used to estimate the dependence of changes in rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction on changes in nurse work environments between 1999 and 2006 in 137 hospitals, accounting for concurrent changes in nurse staffing levels. Results In general, nurse outcomes improved between 1999 and 2006, with fewer nurses reporting burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction in 2006 as compared to 1999. Our difference models showed that improvements in work environment had a strong negative association with changes in rates of burnout (β =−6.42%, p<0.01) intentions to leave (β =−4.10%, p<0.01), and job dissatisfaction (β =−8.00%, p<0.01). Conclusions Improvements in nurse work environments over time are associated with lower rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction. PMID:22902135

  8. Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Collins, Brian J; Harris, Kenneth J; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of their work environment moderated the relationship between their core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of their performance. In particular, those with higher core self-evaluations received higher performance ratings in environments perceived as favorable than in environments perceived as unfavorable. PMID:19916664

  9. Drunken environments: a survey of bartenders working in pubs, bars and nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Bøgkjær, Trine; Witte, Maj; Hesse, Morten

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that bartenders play a key role in respect of the health and safety of patrons in nightlife environments. However, little is known of how bartenders themselves are affected by the environments in which they work, especially with regard to their exposure to violence, pressure to drink and stress. We used a cross-sectional survey to assess the experiences of bartenders (n = 424) working in pubs, bars and nightclubs in Denmark. 71% of the respondents reported drinking while working, 6% reported using other drugs than alcohol at work, and 33% reported drinking even when they did not feel like it because of pressure to drink at work. Verbal assaults and threats were common and associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Bartenders' work environment poses a risk for the development of alcohol use disorders. The fact that many bartenders consume significant quantities of alcohol during their working hours may pose a risk not only to their own safety, but also to that of their colleagues and patrons. PMID:24157511

  10. Is working in culturally diverse working environment associated with physicians' work-related well-being? A cross-sectional survey study among Finnish physicians.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-08-01

    International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (p<0.001) and poor job satisfaction (p=0.001). Those physicians who reported high procedural justice and high job control perceived also higher job satisfaction even if they had many FBCs in the work unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and p<0.001 for interaction between FBCs and job control). These associations were robust to adjustments for age, sex, health care sector, specialization, on-call duty, employment contract, full-time employment and leadership position. The results indicate that culturally diverse work units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control. PMID:24602375

  11. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  12. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  13. [Actual problems of the impact of production and management of industrial waste on the environment and public health (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Cherniaeva, T K

    2013-01-01

    In the modern society the importance and applicability of the problem concerning the negative effect of production and consumption waste on the objects of the environment and the state sa people's health is related to their daily emergency, large tonnage, storage, and utilization. Wastes and places of their storage and waste burial constitute an toxicological and epidemiological risk. Chemical and biological contamination of solid waste is a threat to its penetration into the soil, air, groundwater and surface water bodies, vegetation, directly or indirectly, cause variations in health status of the population. PMID:24340576

  14. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent

  15. "It Might Actually Work This Time": Benefits and Barriers to Adapted 12-Step Facilitation Therapy and Mutual-Help Group Attendance From the Perspective of Dually Diagnosed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hagler, Kylee J; Rice, Samara L; Muñoz, Rosa E; Salvador, Julie G; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Most U.S. healthcare professionals encourage mutual-help group involvement as an adjunct to treatment or aftercare for individuals with substance use disorders, yet there are multiple challenges in engaging in these community groups. Dually diagnosed individuals (DDIs) may face additional challenges in affiliating with mutual-help groups. Twelve-step facilitation for DDIs (TSF-DD), a manualized treatment to facilitate mutual-help group involvement, was developed to help patients engage in Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR), a mutual-help group tailored to DDIs. Given the promising role that TSF-DD and DTR may have for increasing abstinence while managing psychiatric symptoms, the aim of the current study was to systematically examine reasons for TSF-DD and DTR attendance from the perspective of DDIs using focus group data. Participants were a subset (n = 15) of individuals diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder as well as a major depressive, bipolar, or psychotic disorder who participated in a parent study testing the efficacy of TSF-DD for increasing mutual-help group involvement and reducing alcohol use. Analyses of focus group data revealed that participants construed DTR and TSF-DD as helpful tools in the understanding and management of their disorders. Relative to other mutual-help groups in which participants reported feeling ostracized because of their dual diagnoses, participants reported that it was beneficial to learn about dual disorders in a safe and accepting environment. Participants also expressed aspects that they disliked. Results from this study yield helpful empirical recommendations to healthcare professionals seeking to increase DDIs' participation in DTR or other mutual-help groups. PMID:26340570

  16. Radiation and protection of the environment: the work of Committee 5.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2012-01-01

    The development of a systematic approach to protection of the environment has required a number of basic steps to be taken, including a discussion of what objectives could reasonably be set, together with an examination of how existing knowledge could best be used in order to achieve them. It has required bold decisions to be made, new modelling to be undertaken, and new data sets to be compiled. Equally challenging, however, has been the need to fold the entire subject area into an expanded system originally developed for the protection of human beings. There are, inevitably, a number of data gaps, and further decisions need to be made. However, the priority now is to examine how this approach to protection of the environment can be used in practice. With an intensifying worldwide debate about the environmental merits of different forms of energy production, it would seem imperative that the various practices involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are able to demonstrate, clearly and independently, their own actual or potential impact on the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection now has the basic means for such evaluations to be made, and further developments in this system will reflect the experience of its practical application. PMID:23089003

  17. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  18. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  19. Teacher-Working-Environment Fit as a Framework for Burnout Experienced by Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the kinds of episodes that challenge comprehensive school teachers' occupational well-being and cause burnout and how teachers perceive the relationship between themselves and their working environment in these episodes. Altogether, a selected group of 68 primary and secondary school teachers were…

  20. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  1. Analysis of French Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Integrate Digital Work Environments into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina; Abbas, Nargis

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the effective use of Digital Work Environment (DWE) in France. A theoretical framework based on the pedagogical engineering approach is used to propose an hypothetical model, which results in an explained variable of intention for the pedagogical use of an educational technology. The sex, the teaching disciplines, the…

  2. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczyńska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  3. Work Environment Practice Attitudes of Recent Black and Chicano Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Ansfried B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A study of work environments of graduates of the University of California School of Pharmacy indicates that minority pharmacists pursue different types of practice in different locations and receive different incomes than nonminority pharmacists, and that minority programs increase minority pharmacist representation in underserved areas. (JMD)

  4. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  5. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  6. Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context during Work with a Digital Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In a European project--CoReflect--researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of…

  7. One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…

  8. Participation in Science Practices while Working in a Multimedia Case-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…

  9. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  10. Stress in the Work Environment: An Examination of Social Support and Hardiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David E.; Campbell, David E.

    Stress in organizations continues to be of interests to researchers in industrial psychology, organizational behavior, and human resources development. This study examined the effects on stress of an individual's social support and hardiness in a work environment. Subjects were 90 employees of an industrial firm and 50 undergraduate students who…

  11. The Publishing House: From Being to Becoming--The Developmental Dimension in Realistic Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the "skills" or "employability" agenda which has long been anathema to the Humanities disciplines need not be the threat it appears to represent. This paper aims to examine the concept of realistic work environments and their focus, not only the provision of hard and soft skills, but also the…

  12. Linking Resident Satisfaction to Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Assisted Living: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between resident satisfaction and staff perceptions of the work environment in assisted living. Staff perceptions were assessed at the facility level, using aggregate measures of staff job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and views of organizational culture. Design and Methods: The sample…

  13. Human Interactive Analysis Using Video: Mapping the Dynamics of Complex Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…

  14. Improving Work Environment Perceptions for Nurses Employed in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Susan L.; Sexton, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Cathryn A.; Cox, Karen S.; Riley, Michele; Ferriell, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Context: Effective recruitment and retention of professional nurses is a survival strategy for health care facilities, especially in rural areas. Purpose: This study examines the use of the Individual Workload Perception Scale to measure nurse satisfaction by a small rural hospital in order to make positive changes in the work environment for…

  15. A Phenomenological Study Examining the Impact of Unionized Environments on College Work Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlow, Betty

    2012-01-01

    For the last half century, faculty in higher education has embraced unionization in its profession in a significant way. Both administrators and faculty in unionized college environments have a stake in the interactions between the two entities and a vested interest in understanding the factors that can influence working relationships. Despite…

  16. The Design of the Virtual Company: Synergism of Learning and Working in a Networked Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Sloep, Peter B.; Gerrissen, Jack F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Virtual Company, a learning environment developed by the Open University (Netherlands) that is modeled after real companies to bridge the gap between learning and working by situating learning in a real-life business setting. Discusses problems in higher education, demands of society, and results of a pilot study. (Author/LRW)

  17. Working Environment and the Research Productivity of Doctoral Students in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kiwan; Karau, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of doctoral students in business. Students in management doctoral programs (N = 200) participated in an online survey. The results show that faculty support was positively associated with research productivity. Among demographic…

  18. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  19. Academic Accreditation of Work-Based Learning in the Construction Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim; Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of work-based learning (WBL) to the education of construction students. The research draws on the experiences of part-time students and students on sandwich courses in a School of the Built Environment. The sandwich courses include a year in industry as the penultimate year of a four-year programme. This WBL…

  20. Teaching Severely Handicapped Students to Perform Meaningful Work in Nonsheltered Vocational Environments. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lou; And Others

    The paper criticizes the practice of providing sheltered occupational environments to severely handicapped individuals and considers ways in which public school programs and adult service systems can be arranged to maximize vocational functioning. Following an operational definition of meaningful work, the chapter analyzes reasons for the…

  1. Teaching MSW Social Work Practice in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Shelley; Whitsett, Doni; Wood, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Blended learning is a newly emerging trend in higher education and is defined as the purposeful integration of synchronous and asynchronous learning to provide educational activities that maximize the benefits of each. This paper describes the development of a graduate social work foundation-year practice class in a blended online environment in…

  2. Using a task analysis to describe nursing work in acute care patient environments.

    PubMed

    Battisto, Dina; Pak, Richard; Vander Wood, Melissa A; Pilcher, June J

    2009-12-01

    To improve the healthcare environment where nurses work and patients receive care, it is necessary to understand the elements that define the healthcare environment. Primary elements include (a) the occupants of the room and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they bring to the situation; (b) what tasks the occupants will be doing in the room; and (c) the characteristics of the built environment. To better understand these components, a task analysis from human factor research was conducted to study nurses as they cared for hospitalized patients. Multiple methods, including a review of nursing textbooks, observations, and interviews, were used to describe nurses' capabilities, nursing activities, and the environmental problems with current patient room models. Findings from this initial study are being used to inform the design and evaluation of an inpatient room prototype and to generate future research in improving clinical environments to support nursing productivity. PMID:19955968

  3. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  4. Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

    2008-07-01

    A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings. PMID:18462704

  5. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  6. Psychosocial work environment and sickness absence among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed Central

    North, F M; Syme, S L; Feeney, A; Shipley, M; Marmot, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine the association between the psychosocial work environment and subsequent rates of sickness absence. METHODS. The analyses were based on a cohort of male and female British civil servants (n=9072). Rates of short spells (7 days) of sickness absence were calculated for different aspects of the psychosocial work environment, as measured by self-reports and personnel managers' ratings (external assessments). RESULTS. Low levels of work demands, control, and support were associated with higher rates of short and long spells of absence in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. The differences were similar for the self-reports and external assessments. After adjustment for grade of employment, the differences were diminished but generally remained significant for short spells. The combination of high demands and low control was only associated with higher rates of short spells in the lower grades. CONCLUSIONS. The psychosocial work environment predicts rates of sickness absence. Increased levels of control and support at work could have beneficial effects in terms of both improving the health and well-being of employees and increasing productivity. PMID:8604757

  7. Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work. PMID:26409368

  8. The Importance of a High-Performance Work Environment in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Dana Beth; Avgar, Ariel Chanan; Sugrue, Noreen M; Cooney-Miner, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the benefits of a high-performance work environment (HPWE) for employees, patients, and hospitals. Study Setting Forty-five adult, medical-surgical units in nine hospitals in upstate New York. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Data Collection Surveys were collected from 1,527 unit-based hospital providers (68.5 percent response rate). Hospitals provided unit turnover and patient data (16,459 discharge records and 2,920 patient surveys). Principal Findings HPWE, as perceived by multiple occupational groups on a unit, is significantly associated with desirable work processes, retention indicators, and care quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the potential benefits for providers, patients, and health care organizations of designing work environments that value and support a broad range of employees as having essential contributions to make to the care process and their organizations. PMID:22716770

  9. Impact of Work Environments and Occupational Hazards on Smoking Intensity in Korean Workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of work environments and occupational hazards on smoking intensity by occupation type in Korean workers. This study used the data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. The sample of this study included 3,769 adults who were aged 18 years or older and had an occupation of office work, sales, or manufacturing. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the generalized linear models revealed that office workers and the sales force who had smoking co-workers at the workplace were more likely to smoke than those who did not. A dirty workplace and exposure to occupational noise were significant factors increasing the smoking intensity for manufacturers. A smoking cessation program considering physical work environments and co-workers' support should be developed for Korean workers. PMID:26681605

  10. Evaluation of Different Light Conditions in the Working Environment for Handling Photosensitive and Thermolabile Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds. PMID:26651560

  11. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, Clodagh; O'Toole, Lynn; Doran, Michele; O'Shea, Finbar

    2015-11-01

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases' experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: "Impact of fatigue on work performance" with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme "Disclosure at Work" participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme "work-based fatigue management strategies" included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases. PMID:26516896

  12. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. Methods A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/− 2 kg/m2) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Results Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. Conclusion This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models. PMID:23327287

  13. Model-based metrics of human-automation function allocation in complex work environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Young

    Function allocation is the design decision which assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automated. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically has been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, and cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary issues with function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives emerged from a review of these fields: technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), team structure and processes, and work structure and the work environment. Together, these perspectives identify the following eight issues with function allocation: 1) Workload, 2) Incoherency in function allocations, 3) Mismatches between responsibility and authority, 4) Interruptive automation, 5) Automation boundary conditions, 6) Function allocation preventing human adaptation to context, 7) Function allocation destabilizing the humans' work environment, and 8) Mission Performance. Addressing these issues systematically requires formal models and simulations that include all necessary aspects of human-automation function allocation: the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them. Also, addressing these issues requires not only a (static) model, but also a (dynamic) simulation that captures temporal aspects of work such as the timing of actions and their impact on the agent's work. Therefore, with properly modeled work as described by the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them, a modeling framework developed by this thesis, which includes static work models and dynamic simulation, can capture the

  14. Virtual and Actual: Relative Accuracy of On-Site and Web-based Instruments in Auditing the Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Joseph, Eran; Lee, Jae Seung; Cromley, Ellen K.; Laden, Francine; Troped, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relative accuracy and usefulness of web tools in evaluating and measuring street-scale built environment characteristics. Methods A well-known audit tool was used to evaluate 84 street segments at the urban edge of metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, using on-site visits and three web-based tools. The assessments were compared to evaluate their relative accuracy and usefulness. Results Web-based audits, based-on Google Maps, Google Street View, and MS Visual Oblique, tend to strongly agree with on-site audits on land-use and transportation characteristics (e.g., types of buildings, commercial destinations, and streets). However, the two approaches to conducting audits (web versus on-site) tend to agree only weakly on fine-grain, temporal, and qualitative environmental elements. Among the web tools used, auditors rated MS Visual Oblique as the most valuable. Yet Street View tends to be rated as the most useful in measuring fine-grain features, such as levelness and condition of sidewalks. Conclusion While web-based tools do not offer a perfect substitute for on-site audits, they allow for preliminary audits to be performed accurately from remote locations, potentially saving time and cost and increasing the effectiveness of subsequent on-site visits. PMID:23247423

  15. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, Clodagh; O’Toole, Lynn; Doran, Michele; O’Shea, Finbar

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases’ experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: “Impact of fatigue on work performance” with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme “Disclosure at Work” participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme “work-based fatigue management strategies” included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases. PMID:26516896

  16. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  17. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  18. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  2. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work. PMID:15242211

  3. Effects of the Physical Work Environment on Physiological Measures of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, J. F.; Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J. F.; Kampschroer, K.; West, A.; Sterling, C.; Christie, I.C.; Abernethy, D.; Sollers, J. J.; Cizza, G.; Marques, A. H.; Sternberg, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In this study we investigated the effects of the physical work environment on two physiological measures of the stress response. Methods and Results Circadian variations in vagally mediated HRV and the morning rise in cortisol were evaluated in sixty participants working in a government building either in a traditional (individual offices and old cubicles; n=40) or a modern workspace (individualized cubicles with improved views and lighting; n=20). Results revealed significant linear (B = −1.03; CI: −1.05 to −1.01, p < .05) and quadratic (B = 1.001; CI: 1.0004 to 1.002, p < .05) trends by office type interactions for indices of vagally mediated HRV. Individuals in the old office space had flatter slopes and thus less circadian variation including less HRV at night, and a larger rise in cortisol upon awakening compared to those in the new office space. Conclusions These results indicate that physical features of the work environment may affect two aspects of the physiological stress response: circadian variations in HRV and the morning rise in cortisol. These findings have important social, economic, and public health implications for work environment risk factors on health. PMID:20404733

  4. Depression in employees in privately owned enterprises in China: is it related to work environment and work ability?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18-54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture. PMID:23528811

  5. Transplant Nurses' Work Environment: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Christiane; Akca, Selda; Einhorn, Ina; Rebafka, Anne; Russell, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerically, nurses represent the largest healthcare profession, thus setting norms for the quality and safety of direct patient care. Evidence of a global shortage of nurses in all clinical practice settings across different healthcare systems and countries has been documented. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess work environments in a sample of German transplant nurses, and (2) to compare their statements with a US-based sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 transplant nurses from 16 German transplant centers provided information on their work environments. The translated version of the Job Design (JD) and Job Satisfaction (JS) survey showed satisfactory internal consistency for the JD (0.78) and JS (0.93) subscales. German nurses' work environments were compared with 331 transplant nurses from the US. RESULTS The majority of transplant nurses were female (81.8%), 55.4% were age 21-40 years, and 78.1% were employed full-time. German (versus US) transplant nurses reported their job design to be best for 'skill varieties' (p≤0.0002), and worst for 'autonomy' (p≤0.01). Job satisfaction was best with 'opportunities for autonomy and growth' (p≤0.0001), and 'pay and benefits' (p≤0.0001) was lowest. A higher professional degree (OR 1.57; p≤0.03; 95% CI 1.19-2.86), and longer time in transplant (OR 1.24; p≤0.001; 95% CI 1.11-1.38) showed a positive impact on German transplant nurses' perceptions of 'job satisfaction'. Nurses with time-dependent working contracts perceived more stress negatively affecting job satisfaction (OR 1.13; p≤0.009; 95% CI 1.02-12.82). CONCLUSIONS German specialty nurses working in the field of solid organ transplantation rate their work environments with respect to job design and job satisfaction as satisfactory. Institutions' investment into satisfactory nurse work environments and specializing nurses might increase the quality of care, thus improving patient outcomes. PMID:27582230

  6. Understanding neighbourhoods, communities and environments: new approaches for social work research

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281

  7. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322

  8. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace. PMID:21902491

  9. An analysis of work environments and operations in hot and humid areas.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, B

    1999-01-01

    Crews on tankers traveling and hauling cargo on the lower reaches of the Mississippi River during the hot and humid (H&H) summer season face various occupational safety and ergonomics problems. Evaluation of medical data reveals that a large number of the crewmembers experience job related injuries, diseases, disorders, and exhaustion as a result of adverse environmental conditions (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], 1993). The accidents and injuries that occurred were characterized and then analysis was used to recommend constructive remedies and solutions. The results were also used to design and develop better work environments on the tankers and in the general industry. In H&H conditions, the body's chemical reactions constantly change in order to maintain the best possible reaction to changing environments. This chemical reaction increases blood flow to the skin through sweating. Body metabolism stabilizes body temperature through muscular work and convection, evaporation and radiation remove heat. PMID:10657930

  10. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján

    2015-12-01

    The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  11. Human factors and error in perinatal care: the interplay between nurses, machines, and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Mahlmeister, Laura R

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal nurses work with intricate systems requiring frequent interface with complex technology. This interplay is strongly influenced by the work environment and systems operations. The interplay among worker, technology, and the environment increases the risk of medical error, adverse patient outcomes, and in some instances, healthcare team member injury. Human factors engineering is an applied science that provides the study of the interface between people and machines. Human factors engineers design operations and systems that recognize the capacities and limitations of human beings and make it difficult for errors to occur. This article discusses the role of human factors research in healthcare design and the application of human factors engineering to perinatal settings. Recommendations are offered for the development of ultrasafe, high-reliability operations based on knowledge accrued through human factors research. PMID:20147826

  12. A simple and flexible risk assessment method in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Tint, Piia; Kiivet, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The existing risk assessment models in the work environment (on the basis of Standard No. BS 8800:1996; British Standards Institution, 1996) contain the need to determine the probability of the occurrence and the severity of consequences of the influence of hazardous factors on the worker. The determination of the probabilities of the influence of hazards (noise, vibration, chemicals, etc.) is complicated. The authors of this article have developed a simple risk assessment method that does not contain the probabilities. The method is based on a 2-step model that could be enlarged into a 6-step model. The implementation possibilities of the model are presented. The existing norms in the work environment in Estonia were analysed and the safety level of a wood-processing factory was determined. PMID:12820910

  13. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  14. A survey of influence of work environment on temporomandibular disorders-related symptoms in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms (TRS) in a Japanese working population. Methods Our study subjects comprised of 1,969 employees from the same Japanese company. The subjects were assessed using a questionnaire that covered both TRS and the work environment. TRS were measured from 4 items on the questionnaire. The work environment factors recorded were the daily mean duration of personal computer use, driving, precise work, commuting, time spent at home before going to bed, sleeping, attending business meetings, and performing physical labor. Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses. A result with P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The median total score on the 4 items used to assess TRS was 5 (25% = 4, 75% = 7). Two groups were defined such that the participants scoring ≤7 were assigned to the low-TRS group and those scoring ≥8, to the high-TRS group. The high-TRS group constituted 22.6% of the subjects. Logistic regression analyses indicated that female gender and extended periods of computer use were significant contributors to the manifestation of TRS. Conclusion This questionnaire-based study showed that gender and computer use time was associated with the prevalence of TRS in this working population. Thus, evaluation of ergonomics is suggested for TMD patients. PMID:22995447

  15. A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

  16. Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

    2003-07-01

    The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed. PMID:12880738

  17. Whole-body task energy metrics for robots performing useful work in unstructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Theobald, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    When considering energy requirements and optimization for robots, it is important to consider mission requirements, and the type of robot performing the mission. For example, the small robots used in today's reconnaissance and explosive ordnance disposal applications have weak manipulators, and do not perform significant physical work on their surrounding environment. In this paper, we focus on robots that will be required to do much more physically demanding tasks, such as manipulating large heavy objects in unstructured environments, and carrying such objects over challenging terrain. Energy considerations for such systems must include models of physical work performed for basic manipulation, pose transition, and locomotion maneuvers. Given the scarcity of robots that can perform useful work in unstructured environments, it is useful to begin the investigation of energy optimization for such robots by considering typical tasks they might perform. This paper makes three contributions in this direction. First, we develop a set of standard tasks that would be useful in unstructured environments. The tasks are expressed in terms of the objects being manipulated, and the work being done, so they are independent of robot morphology. Second, we develop energy metrics and analytical results for theoretical energy requirements for these tasks. These requirements assume no losses due to friction, so they give a best-case estimate of what is achievable. Such metrics are useful in subsequent evaluation of real systems that are not as efficient. Third, we perform preliminary comparisons between different actuation technologies in performing these tasks. These actuation technologies will include electro-mechanical and hydraulic systems. We compare these technologies in terms of power density, and evaluate expected energy efficiency when performing the metric tasks.

  18. A collaborative working environment for small group meetings in Second Life.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cintia Rc; Garcia, Ana Cristina B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the SLMeetingRoom, a virtual reality online environment to support group meetings of geographically dispersed participants. A prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using the Second Life platform. Ten additional components had to be added to Second Life environment to support group work essential activities such as participants' communication, tasks' and participants' coordination, participants' collaboration and work evolution's perception. Empirical studies, both pilot and experiment, were developed comparing four different meeting settings: face-to-face, videoconference, stand Second Life and SLMeetingRoom. The study involved graduate students enrolled in the Interface and Multimedia discipline at the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) in Brazil. Results indicated that groups working within SLMeetingRoom environment presented similar results as face-to-face meeting as far as sense of presence is concerned and with low cognitive effort. Task completion and degree of participation were not affected by the meeting set up. It was concluded that Second Life, in conjunction with the SLMeetingRoom components, is a good tool for holding synchronous remote meetings and coexists with other electronic meeting technologies. PMID:23961384

  19. A Model for Design of Tailored Working Environment Intervention Programmes for Small Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Kvorning, Laura V; Rasmussen, Charlotte DN; Smith, Louise H; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Small enterprises have higher exposure to occupational hazards compared to larger enterprises and further, they have fewer resources to control the risks. In order to improve the working environment, development of efficient measures is therefore a major challenge for regulators and other stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to develop a systematic model for the design of tailored intervention programmes meeting the needs of small enterprises. Methods An important challenge for the design process is the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The concept of realist analysis can provide insight into mechanisms by which intervention knowledge can be transferred from one context to another. We use this theoretical approach to develop a design model. Results The model consist of five steps: 1) Defining occupational health and safety challenges of the target group, 2) selecting methods to improve the working environment, 3) developing theories about mechanisms which motivate the target group, 4) analysing the specific context of the target group for small enterprise programmes including owner-management role, social relations, and the perception of the working environment, and 5) designing the intervention based on the preceding steps. We demonstrate how the design model can be applied in practice by the development of an intervention programme for small enterprises in the construction industry. Conclusion The model provides a useful tool for a systematic design process. The model makes it transparent for both researchers and practitioners as to how existing knowledge can be used in the design of new intervention programmes. PMID:23019530

  20. Profiling nurses' job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lee, Alice; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n = 222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n = 362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n = 230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction. PMID:24754648

  1. The effect of safety hat on thermal responses and working efficiency under a high temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Eun; Park, So-Jin

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a safety hat on thermal responses and work efficiency under a high temperature environment. Five healthy male subjects participated in the repeated 'Rest' and 'Exercise' periods in order to compare a safety hat without holes (annoted as 'without hole') and a safety hat with holes (annoted as 'with hole') in a climatic chamber of 30 degrees C, 50%RH. The main findings are as follows: (a) the core temperature (tympanic temperature) and heart rate showed significantly lower levels in the subjects who are under the 'with hole' condition than those who are under the 'without hole' condition; (b) the forehead skin temperature was significantly higher in the subjects who are under the 'without hole' condition than those who ar uder the 'with hole' condition; (c) blood pressure was significantly lower in the 'with hole' condition; and (d) sweat rate which was measured by weight loss before and after the experiment was higher in the 'without hole' condition; and (e) work ability which was measured by a grip strength dynamometer was higher in the 'with hole' condition. Making a hole in the safety hat, designed for proper ventilation and hygiene, is practical in letting out heat and decreasing the physiological burden under a hot working environment. The safety hat with holes is useful in maintaining the homeostasis of the body temperature by releasing body heat efficiently and it is meaningful to keep the working efficiency. PMID:15472459

  2. Quality managements and work environment in oral and maxillofacial surgery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Rosenquist, Jan; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden actively work with quality development and if so, which systems they use. A further aim was to explore the opinion of the employees about quality work. Data were collected by way of a questionnaire with 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic and to the content of healthy work. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. More than half of the respondents stated that they worked with a management system, but there was uncertainty as to the type of a quality system. Only at two clinics, all the respondents agreed on the system. This showed that one of the most important aspects in a quality system, i.e. to inform everyone, was unsatisfactory. The study showed that dental nurses and assistant nurses were more appreciative of quality as a tool for improvement than the maxillo-facial surgeons. There was no such difference concerning the importance of quality work. Dental nurses thought that the quality was more important for the working situation concerning the physical environment than did the maxillo-facial surgeons. PMID:17233328

  3. The vulnerability of rules in complex work environments: dynamism and uncertainty pose problems for cognition.

    PubMed

    Clewley, Richard; Stupple, Edward J N

    2015-01-01

    Many complex work environments rely heavily on cognitive operators using rules. Operators sometimes fail to implement rules, with catastrophic human, social and economic costs. Rule-based error is widely reported, yet the mechanisms of rule vulnerability have received less attention. This paper examines rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. We examined 'the stable approach criteria rule', which acts as a system defence during the approach to land. The study experimentally tested whether system state complexity influenced rule failure. The results showed increased uncertainty and dynamism led to increased likelihood of rule failure. There was also an interaction effect, indicating complexity from different sources can combine to further constrain rule-based response. We discuss the results in relation to recent aircraft accidents and suggest that 'rule-based error' could be progressed to embrace rule vulnerability, fragility and failure. This better reflects the influence that system behaviour and cognitive variety have on rule-based response. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we examined mechanisms of rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. The results suggest work scenarios featuring high uncertainty and dynamism constrain rule-based response, leading to rules becoming vulnerable, fragile or failing completely. This has significant implications for rule-intensive, safety critical work environments. PMID:25588754

  4. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses. PMID:25676080

  5. Work Environments and Exposure to Hazardous Substances in Korean Tire Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Methods Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Results Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m3, the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Conclusion To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended. PMID:22993718

  6. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  7. Mechanical degradation of cold-worked 304 stainless steel in salt spray environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, M. F.; Hsu, H. H.; Young, M. C.; Huang, J. Y.

    2012-03-01

    Saline corrosion is one of the major degradation mechanisms for stainless steel 304 (SS304) spent fuel canisters during the dry storage period. Slow strain rate tensile tests (SSRT) were conducted to determine the tensile strength and notched tensile strength (NTS) of cold-rolled SS304 in 0.5 and 5 wt% saline spray environments at 358 K. The YS and UTS of the steels did not decrease significantly in the 0.5 wt% saline spray environment, but a remarkable decrease in elongation was observed in the 5 wt% saline spray. Furthermore, a notch could exacerbate the saline corrosion degradation and aggravate the hydrogen embrittlement of SS304. The cold work of higher degrees could slightly improve SCC resistance of the SS304 under the lower chloride containing spray. However, the NaCl concentration is a crucial factor affecting the SCC susceptibility of SS304.

  8. Understanding stress in the operating room: a step toward improving the work environment.

    PubMed

    Vowels, Anthony; Topp, Robert; Berger, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Job-related stress is an important factor predicting staff satisfaction and position turnover among nursing staff, particularly in the operating room. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived amount of stress elicited by events in the perioperative environment, the frequency of those events, and the impact of those events on the perceived stress of operating room nurses (ORNs) and operating room technologists (ORTs). The Survey on Stress in the OR instrument, which was used to query the subjects, exhibited high internal consistency of all items. The findings indicated that the ORNs and the ORTs exhibited remarkable similarities between stressful events perceived as high and low impact. The two groups agreed that the highest impact stressful event was "pressure to work more quickly." Using the results of this study, OR administrators may be able to redesign the OR environment to minimize the impact of stressful events and thereby improve job satisfaction and minimize nursing staff turnover. PMID:22545480

  9. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    PubMed

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. PMID:24727389

  10. Work function measurements of olivine: Implication to photoemission charging properties in planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hong; Li, Xiongyao; Wei, Guangfei; Wang, Shijie

    2015-12-01

    For understanding the ubiquitous photoemission charging of solid surface in planetary environments, it is important to characterize the photoemission charging properties of silicate minerals such as the work function. In this study, we measured the work function of olivine mineral based on the measurements of contact potential difference by using an ultrahigh vacuum Kelvin probe force microscopy. Our results showed that work function on olivine mineral surface is mainly affected by surface morphology and crystal orientation and that the variation range of work function is 7.3-8.5 eV. It implicates that photoemission of the olivine mineral occurs under the X-ray and solar ultraviolet irradiation with wavelength of <171 nm. Consequently, it is possible to form electrostatic field of +(5-10) V on the sunlit planet, moon or asteroid surfaces due to dust photoemission charging, which even induces the migration of dust grains and the formation of dust-plasma atmosphere. Those are important problems worried to be solved for future lunar missions. Additionally, our work can help to instruct the dust mitigation technology and the electrostatic beneficiation in future space missions.

  11. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nursing work environments (NWEs) in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi-) experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies), the educational toolbox (one study), the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study), and the violence prevention intervention (one study). Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we recommend that

  12. Teacher Professional Experience and Performance: Impact of the Work Environment and General Welfare in Malaysian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Idris, Abdul Rahman; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the work environment and general welfare of the Malaysian secondary school teachers. Past studies have explicated that the experience of work environment and general welfare exerted a direct influence on the performance of the teachers, hence student outcome. In the factor analysis, the study identified six factors, namely…

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  18. Assessing the Culture and Climate for Quality Improvement in the Work Environment. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim; And Others

    This study attempted to develop a reliable and valid instrument for assessing work environment and continuous quality improvement efforts in the non-academic sectors of colleges and universities particularly those institutions who have adopted Total Quality Management programs. A model of a work environment for continuous quality improvement was…

  19. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  20. The relative importance of leadership and payment system. Effects on quality of care and work environment.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Ewa; Axelsson, Runo; Arnetz, Bengt

    2004-07-01

    The key question addressed in this study is whether the introduction of stronger financial incentives in health care give rise to such a restrictive context that leadership has only a minor influence? Or is good leadership, on the contrary, important to the achievement of both financial and other goals, regardless of contextual factors? Physicians in one Swedish County Council with performance-based reimbursement and in 10 councils without such a system were studied in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. The result of this study indicates that although contextual factors were of substantial importance there is scope for leaders to act, and their actions make a considerable difference, both for the experience of the work process and for the outcome in terms of work environment and quality of care. A good leadership may be able to shield the health care organisation from unwanted side effects of increased financial pressure. PMID:15484608

  1. The impact of work environment on mood disorders and suicide: Evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum. PMID:18836547

  2. Time-resolved measurements of aerosol elemental concentrations in indoor working environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitnik, M.; Kastelic, A.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Vaupetič, P.; Bučar, K.; Novak, S.; Samardžija, Z.; Matsuyama, S.; Catella, G.; Ishii, K.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations in aerosols with a 2-h time resolution in two different types of working environment: a chemistry laboratory dealing with the processing of advanced nanoparticulate materials and a medium-sized machine workshop. Non-stop 10-day and 12-day samplings were performed at each location in order to determine the concentration trends during the non-working/working and weekday/weekend periods. Supplementary measurements of PM10 aerosols with a 2-day sample collection time were performed with a standard Gent PM10 sampler to compare the elemental concentrations with the time-averaged concentrations detected by the 2D step-sampler. The concentrations were determined a posteriori by analyzing the x-ray spectra of aerosol samples emitted after 3-MeV proton bombardment. The PM10 samples collected in the chemistry laboratory were additionally inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the chemical compositions of the individual particles. In the workshop, a total PM10 mass sampling was performed simultaneously with a minute resolution to compare the signal with typical outdoor PM10 concentration levels. A factor analysis of the time-resolved dataset points to six and eight factors in the chemistry laboratory and the machine workshop, respectively. These factors describe most of the data variance, and their composition in terms of different elements can be related to specific indoor activities and conditions. We were able to demonstrate that the elemental concentration sampling with hourly resolution is an excellent tool for studying the indoor air pollution. While sampling the total PM10 mass concentration with a minute resolution may lack the potential to identify the emission sources in a "noisy" environment, the time averaging on a day time scale is too coarse to cope with the working dynamics, even if elemental sensitivity is an option.

  3. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  4. Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context During Work with a Digital Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-08-01

    In a European project—CoReflect—researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of the project. All learning environments are focusing "socio-scientific issues". In this article we report from the pilot implementation of the Swedish learning environment which has an Astrobiology context. The socio-scientific driving questions are "Should we look for, and try to contact, extraterrestrial life?", and "Should we transform Mars into a planet where humans can live in the future?" The students were in their last year of compulsory school (16 years old), and worked together in triads. We report from the groups' decisions and the support used for their claims. On a group level a majority of the student groups in their final statements express reluctance towards both the search of extraterrestrial life and the terraforming of Mars. The support used by the students are reported and discussed. We also look more closely into the argumentation of one of the student groups. The results presented in this article, differ from earlier studies on students' argumentation and decision making on socio-scientific issues (Aikenhead in Science education for everyday life. Evidence-based practice. Teachers College Press, New York, (2006) for an overview), in that they suggest that students do use science related arguments—both from "core" and "frontier" science—in their argumentation and decision making.

  5. Perceptions of Agricultural College Students on the Relationship between Quality and Safety in Agricultural Work Environments.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Sai K; Mosher, Gretchen A

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is a high-hazard industry that employs a large number of young workers below the age of 25. Recent studies have documented a strong positive correlation between quality management in agriculture and occupational safety as perceived by agricultural workers. Younger workers have been found to be at higher risk for occupational injuries and fatalities in agriculture. Furthermore, college students in agriculture have minimal exposure to safety and quality management principles in their coursework and thus may not be aware that the two concepts are associated Little research has studied how young workers perceive the relationship between safety and quality and how these perceptions vary based on demographic characteristics. This study builds on prior research that measured the interactions between employee perceptions of safety and quality in an agricultural work environment. Data were collected using a survey instrument adapted from a previously validated instrument. Analysis of 1017 responses showed that students perceived a high impact of quality practices on the reduction of safety hazards and safety incidents. Students' perceptions of quality and safety in agricultural work environments varied by gender, with female students perceiving the relationship between the two at a higher level than males. No significant difference in perceptions was observed based on students' academic classification, age group, field of study, or childhood environment. This study demonstrates that despite limited academic training in safety and quality, pre-professionals perceive the implementation of quality management as a very important factor in mitigating safety hazards and safety incidents. In addition, this study suggests that current academic training in these disciplines must be modified, since no differences in students' perceptions were observed based on academic classification or field of study. PMID:26211353

  6. Work Environment-Related Factors in Obtaining and Maintaining Work in a Competitive Employment Setting for Employees with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ellenkamp, Joke J H; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Joosen, Margot C W; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Background People with an intellectual disability value work as a significant part of their lives, and many of them want to participate in regular paid employment. Current estimates show that the number of people with ID who have some form of paid employment are very low, ranging from 9 to 40 % across different countries, despite legislations. This review examines papers published in the past 20 years in an attempt to answer the following research question: 'What work environment-related factors contribute to obtaining or maintaining work in competitive employment for people with an intellectual disability?' Method The databases of PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant papers published between 1993 and 2013. All papers were independently screened by two researchers. Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated, and data on work environment-related factors stimulating employment for people with intellectual disabilities were extracted and grouped into categories. Results A total of 1932 articles were retrieved. After extensive screening for relevance and quality, 26 articles were included in this review. Four themes/categories with work environment-related factors that could influence work participation were distinguished. Five studies were conducted on employers' decisions and opinions. Eight focused on job content and performance, and eight on workplace interaction and culture. Five studies evaluated support by job coaches. Conclusion Despite ongoing legislation to promote participation of people with intellectual disabilities in the paid workforce, research in this area is still extremely scarce. In the past 20 years, very few studies have focused on work environment-related factors that can enhance competitive work for people with intellectual disabilities. This review shows that relevant work environment-related factors for obtaining and maintaining work in competitive employment include supporting the

  7. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  8. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  9. Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time. PMID:23276196

  10. Acceptability of robotic manipulators in shared working environments through human-like redundancy resolution.

    PubMed

    Zanchettin, Andrea Maria; Bascetta, Luca; Rocco, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Next generation robotic manipulators are expected to resemble a human-like behavior at kinematic level, in order to reach the same level of dexterity of humans in operations like assembly of small pieces. These manipulators are also expected to share the same working environments with humans without artificial barriers. In this work we conjecture that making robots not only kinematically similar but also able to move and act in the same way as humans do, might facilitate their social acceptance. For this the kinematic redundancy of such new generation manipulators can be exploited. An experimental campaign has been organized to assess the physiological comfort/discomfort perceived by humans working side-by-side with robots. For comparison, a human-like and two alternative redundancy resolution strategies have been implemented. The analysis confirmed the hypothesis that a human-like motion of the robot helps in facilitating social acceptance, by reducing the perceived stress by humans in human-robot coexistence. PMID:23602091

  11. Green Buildings: Benefits to Health, the Environment, and the Bottom Line. US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Hearing, Washington, DC, May 15, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Claire L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a transcript of the speech delivered by the author at the US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Hearing, Washington, DC, May 15, 2007. The author talked about how the Healthy Schools Network works to ensure that every child will have an environmentally healthy school that is clean and in good repair. The organization…

  12. Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  13. Investigating factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' preparedness for managed care environments.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael N; Houston-Vega, Mary Kay; Tan, Philip P; Hawkins, Wesley E

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' perceptions of preparedness to enter managed care environments. Exploratory statistical procedures to reduce data through principle component analysis identified nine factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. These factors include: perceived understanding of agency financial agendas, managing personal risk and liability, perceived understanding of agency documentation requirements, awareness of ethical and value conflicts in documentation, classroom preparation for documentation, understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care agendas, worrying about law suits in employment settings, perceived understanding of managed care gatekeeping and service authorization, and perceptions of field preparation for documentation. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in training students for managed care settings. PMID:12425449

  14. Impact of a broadband interactive televisit/teleconsultation service for residential and working environments.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, M. A.; Arredondo, M. T.; Guillén, S.; Traver, V.; Fernández, C.; Basagoiti, I.; del Nogal, F.; Gallar, P.; Insausti, J.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of health care attention at the point of need is one of the key benefits of telemedicine. Home environment and working place are the two scenarios selected in this article to evaluate the impact of a televisit and teleconsultation service. 31 users from four different medical and patient groups participated in this study supported by European Commission ATTRACT project. The experiences, carried out in Madrid and Valencia Spanish sites, benefited from interactive broadband access networks to provide cost-effective telecare services. Key areas analyzed encompass systems usability, clinical outcomes, patients quality of care and infoethic issues. Services advantages were verified and compared both from patients and medical staff points of view. Main benefits pointed out refer to displacement reduction, better communication doctor/patient, provision of comfort or friendliness, more precise therapy follow-up and increases in patients sense of well being. PMID:11825280

  15. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2007-01-01

    In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining

  16. A Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. The term safely means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences (for example, excess lifetime fatal cancer risk) can be defined. The Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the understanding of health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus the fourth element develops computer codes to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining methods to mitigate the risks are keys to a successful radiation protection strategy.

  17. Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) as a Source of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Fionn; Ewins, Ciaran; Carbonnier, Frederic; Quinn, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Municipal effluent discharged from wastewater treatment works (WwTW) is suspected to be a significant contributor of microplastics (MP) to the environment as many personal care products contain plastic microbeads. A secondary WwTW (population equivalent 650 000) was sampled for microplastics at different stages of the treatment process to ascertain at what stage in the treatment process the MP are being removed. The influent contained on average 15.70 (±5.23) MP·L(-1). This was reduced to 0.25 (±0.04) MP·L(-1) in the final effluent, a decrease of 98.41%. Despite this large reduction we calculate that this WwTW is releasing 65 million microplastics into the receiving water every day. A significant proportion of the microplastic accumulated in and was removed during the grease removal stage (19.67 (±4.51) MP/2.5 g), it was only in the grease that the much publicised microbeads were found. This study shows that despite the efficient removal rates of MP achieved by this modern treatment plant when dealing with such a large volume of effluent even a modest amount of microplastics being released per liter of effluent could result in significant amounts of microplastics entering the environment. This is the first study to describe in detail the fate of microplastics during the wastewater treatment process. PMID:27191224

  18. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  19. Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Srivastava, Rani; Craig, Dianna; Tucker, Donna; Grinspun, Doris; Bajnok, Irmajean; Griffin, Pat; Long, Leslye; Porritt, Kylie; Han, Thuzar; Gi, Aye A

    2007-03-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence on the structures and processes that support development of effective culturally competent practices and a healthy work environment. Culturally competent practices are a congruent set of workforce behaviours, management practices and institutional policies within a practice setting resulting in an organisational environment that is inclusive of cultural and other forms of diversity. Inclusion criteria  This review included quantitative and qualitative evidence, with a particular emphasis on identifying systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. For quantitative evidence, other controlled, and descriptive designs were also included. For qualitative evidence, all methodologies were considered. Participants were staff, patients, and systems or policies that were involved or affected by concepts of cultural competence in the nursing workforce in a healthcare environment. Types of interventions included any strategy that had a cultural competence component, which influenced the work environment, and/or patient and nursing staff in the environment. The types of outcomes of interest to this review included nursing staff outcomes, patient outcomes, organisational outcomes and systems level outcomes. Search strategy  The search sought both published and unpublished literature written in the English language. A comprehensive three-step search strategy was used, first to identify appropriate key words, second to combine all optimal key words into a comprehensive search strategy for each database and finally to review the reference lists of all included reviews and research reports. The databases searched were CINAHL, Medline, Current Contents, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Econ lit, ABI/Inform, ERIC and PubMed. The search for unpublished literature used Dissertation Abstracts International. Methodological

  20. Work environment issues and intention-to-leave in Portuguese nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leone, Claudia; Bruyneel, Luk; Anderson, Janet E; Murrells, Trevor; Dussault, Gilles; Henriques de Jesus, Élvio; Sermeus, Walter; Aiken, Linda; Rafferty, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    This study extends the Registered Nurses Forecasting (RN4CAST) study evidence base with newly collected data from Portuguese nurses working in acute care hospitals, in which the measurement of the quality of work environment, workload and its association with intention-to-leave emerge as of key importance. Data included surveys of 2235 nurses in 144 nursing units in 31 hospitals via stratified random sampling. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis shows that intention-to-leave is higher among nurses with a specialty degree, nurses aged 35-39, and in nursing units where nurses are less satisfied with opportunities for career advancement, staffing levels and participation in hospital affairs. Analysis with moderation effects showed the observed effect of age and of having a specialty degree on intention-to-leave during the regression analysis is reduced in nursing units where nurses are more satisfied with opportunities for career advancement. The most important finding from the study suggests that promoting retention strategies that increase satisfaction with opportunities for career advancement among Portuguese nurses has the potential to override individual characteristics associated with increased turnover intentions. PMID:26474746

  1. Automatic Stress Detection in Working Environments From Smartphones' Accelerometer Data: A First Step.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Osmani, Venet; Mayora, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Increase in workload across many organizations and consequent increase in occupational stress are negatively affecting the health of the workforce. Measuring stress and other human psychological dynamics is difficult due to subjective nature of selfreporting and variability between and within individuals. With the advent of smartphones, it is now possible to monitor diverse aspects of human behavior, including objectively measured behavior related to psychological state and consequently stress. We have used data from the smartphone's built-in accelerometer to detect behavior that correlates with subjects stress levels. Accelerometer sensor was chosen because it raises fewer privacy concerns (e.g., in comparison to location, video, or audio recording), and because its low-power consumption makes it suitable to be embedded in smaller wearable devices, such as fitness trackers. About 30 subjects from two different organizations were provided with smartphones. The study lasted for eight weeks and was conducted in real working environments, with no constraints whatsoever placed upon smartphone usage. The subjects reported their perceived stress levels three times during their working hours. Using combination of statistical models to classify selfreported stress levels, we achieved a maximum overall accuracy of 71% for user-specific models and an accuracy of 60% for the use of similar-users models, relying solely on data from a single accelerometer. PMID:26087509

  2. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Methods Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. Results WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Conclusions Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. PMID:27279474

  3. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  4. Pushing a Stone up a Hill: A Case Study of the Working Environment of South African Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education has been experiencing profound and vigorous transformations in the post-apartheid era. At the same time, global trends toward competition and employment equity contribute to the complexities of the country's higher education environment. These global and local developments combine to impact the working environment of…

  5. Effective and ineffective coping strategies in a low-autonomy work environment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Crane, Monique; Hodson, Stephanie E; Adler, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of different coping strategies in buffering the negative effects of uncontrollable stressors and predicting mental health symptoms in a low-autonomy work environment using a longitudinal design. Soldiers in training indicated the extent to which they engaged in various coping strategies to deal with stressors related to the training environment at 4 different points in time. Factor analyses of soldiers in 2 different countries (i.e., United States and Australia) yielded 5 coping dimensions: active coping, acceptance of demands, seeking social support, humor, and denial/self-criticism. Among U.S. soldiers in basic training, acceptance of demands and denial/self-criticism interacted with the magnitude of basic-training stressors to predict mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety) at 3 different points during training while controlling for symptoms at the immediate prior time period. Acceptance buffered soldiers from the negative effects of the stressors, whereas denial/self-criticism exacerbated the effects of the stressors. The results of LGC models also indicated that the slopes of acceptance and active coping were negatively related to the slope of mental health symptoms across training, whereas the slope for denial/self-criticism was positively related to the slope of symptoms. Active coping was less predictive of functioning in the face of stressors and in the prediction of symptoms over time. The results demonstrated that in a low-autonomy occupational setting, acceptance coping was more effective in facilitating good mental health outcomes compared with other coping strategies considered important in prior research (e.g., active coping). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641486

  6. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM): An Onsite Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) for Chronically High Stress Work Environments to Increase Resiliency and Work Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success

  7. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM): An Onsite Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) for Chronically High Stress Work Environments to Increase Resiliency and Work Engagement.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success

  8. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  9. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  10. Working in a hot environment; perspiration loss; a drink for persons working under hot conditions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatzel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Losses of various nutrients through sweat of persons working under hot conditions were considered. On the basis of these considerations a supplemental drink was formulated consisting of 1 liter of water per hour containing salt, potassium chloride, iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid.

  11. That's Not Funny, Actually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities work hard to try to accommodate students' financial situations. Many institutions provide as much financial support as they can (63 percent of all undergraduates enrolled in 2003-04 received financial aid, according to the NCES). And some professors have begun to help students who work long hours by providing more…

  12. Organizational Commitment Among Intercollegiate Head Athletic Trainers: Examining Our Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winterstein, Andrew P.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Design and Setting: Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. Subjects: A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Measurements: Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Results: Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. Conclusions: The findings reinforce a central theme in intercollegiate athletic training: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student

  13. Work environment perceptions of full-time dental educators: does gender matter?

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Paula E; Inglehart, Marita R; Sinkford, Jeanne C

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates whether female and male full-time dental faculty members in U.S. dental schools differ in their workplace experiences and perceptions. A questionnaire was mailed to the 2,203 U.S. members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) in May 2001, and 870 faculty members responded (response rate: 40 percent). The data of the 738 full-time employed faculty members (female: 257, 34.8 percent; male: 481, 65.1 percent) were analyzed. The results showed that male and female faculty did not differ significantly in the average hours per week worked (men: 46.1 vs. women: 47.1), in the amount of time spent on research (11.67 percent vs. 12.76 percent), and in available grant support (20.1 percent vs. 19.7 percent). Men were more likely than women to have office space (99.2 percent vs. 96.5 percent; p = .0 12), secretarial support (87 percent vs. 75.8 percent; p = .000), protected time for research (37.8 percent vs. 31.6 percent; p = .056), and lab space (23.2 percent vs. 10.6 percent; p = .000). Compared to men, women spent more time on teaching (men: 16.84 percent vs. women: 19 percent; p = .078), and perceived the work environment as less supportive (30 percent vs. 9.3 percent; p = .000). While 73.8 percent of men felt welcome as members of the dental school community, only 50.2 percent of the women felt welcome (p = .000). Male and female respondents differed significantly in the degree of experienced and perceived harassment. We thus concluded that female and male faculty members differ in their experiences and perceptions of the academic climate at U.S. dental schools. These results may be useful when school leaders explore effective recruitment and retention strategies for dental faculty members. PMID:12959166

  14. The work environment and workers' health in four large office buildings.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, H Jasmine; Schwartz, Joel; Milton, Donald K; Burge, Harriet A

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 1-year epidemiologic study in Boston, Massachusetts, beginning May 1997, to examine the associations between environmental factors and office workers' health. We recruited 98 subjects (81 females and 17 males) in 21 offices in four office buildings. We conducted environmental sampling every 6 weeks and concurrently administered detailed questionnaires to collect information on work-related symptoms, psychosocial factors, and perceptions of the office environments. In multivariate analyses, eye irritation was positively correlated with floor dust [odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.14-1.86] and reported lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.08). Nonspecific symptoms were positively associated with unidentified chair fungi (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.15) and several self-reported conditions, including a history of asthma (OR = 3.15; 95% CI, 1.26-7.87), more people in offices (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.51), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.72-4.73), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81). Upper respiratory symptoms were positively associated with total fungal concentrations recovered from chair dust (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) and the following self-reported conditions: more people in offices (OR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01-2.08), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15-2.30), and jobs frequently requiring hard work (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95). This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a clean, uncrowded workspace and the importance of chair fungi as a correlate for health effects. PMID:12842780

  15. State of the (net)work address Developing criteria for applying social networking to the work environment.

    PubMed

    Valdez, André Calero; Schaar, Anne Kathrin; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly faster paced innovative world, maintaining the ability to innovate in spite of an aging work force will become every company's strongest leverage for success. Tapping the latent knowledge resources and creativity of overlooked employees and persisting crucial information for business conduct are promising results for social networking sites (SNS) in a working context. Usability and usefulness are exponential factors in creating a successful SNS. In order to make a SNS usable for a heterogeneous user group, analyses of user diversity in regard to social media need to be done. Furthermore differences in communication medium and frequency in regard to age, content, hierarchy position, departmental thresholds and company size need to be analyzed. For analysis purposes both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Strong effects of age and communication content were found in survey with 194 participants. PMID:22317248

  16. Family Home Childcare Providers: A Comparison of Subsidized and Non-Subsidized Working Environments and Employee Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriner, Michael; Schlee, Bethanne M.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Federal and State Governments provide childcare subsidies for low-income working families. This study compares the encountered issues and working environments of family home providers of subsidized and non-subsidized childcare. Questionnaires were distributed throughout a southeastern state in the United States to 548 family home childcare…

  17. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Their Work Environments: Shaping (Im)possible Ways of Being an Educator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the complex interrelations between educators' work environments and their experiences as an entryway for thinking differently about workforce stability and sustainability. Concepts of macro- and micropolitics (drawn from the work of Deleuze and Guattari) are used to explore one educator's experiences in…

  18. Estimating the Effects of No Child Left Behind on Teachers' Work Environments and Job Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean; Harrington, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on school operations and student achievement. We complement that work by investigating the law's impacts on teachers' perceptions of their work environments and related job attitudes, including satisfaction and commitment to remain in teaching. Using four…

  19. Going Home: The Influence of Workforce Performance Management Systems on the Decision to Engage in Remote Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1975, the advance of home-based or remote work has been predicted and encouraged (Nilles). Remote work entails the ability of workers to function as productively from distant locations as those workers in face-to-face office environments: e.g. secondary offices, co-workplace offices, mobile workstations, and home. This study will look at the…

  20. Influence of thermal environment on optimal working conditions of thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2014-10-01

    Optimization analysis of thermoelectric generators operation is of importance both for practical applications and theoretical considerations. Depending on the desired goal, two different strategies are possible to achieve high performance: through optimization one may seek either power output maximization or conversion efficiency maximization. Recent literature reveals the persistent flawed notion that these two optimal working conditions may be achieved simultaneously. In this article, we lift all source of confusion by correctly posing the problem and solving it. We assume and discuss two possibilities for the environment of the generator to govern its operation: constant incoming heat flux, and constant temperature difference between the heat reservoirs. We demonstrate that, while power and efficiency are maximized simultaneously if the first assumption is considered, this is not possible with the second assumption. This latter corresponds to the seminal analyses of Ioffe who put forth and stressed the importance of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. We also provide a simple procedure to determine the different optimal design parameters of a thermoelectric generator connected to heat reservoirs through thermal contacts with a finite and fixed thermal conductance.

  1. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  3. Nurse work engagement impacts job outcome and nurse-assessed quality of care: model testing with nurse practice environment and nurse work characteristics as predictors

    PubMed Central

    Van Bogaert, Peter; van Heusden, Danny; Timmermans, Olaf; Franck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions, such as nurse–physician relationship, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support, are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption. Background: Understanding how to support and guide nurse practice communities in their daily effort to answer complex care most accurate, alongside with the demand of a stable and healthy nurse workforce, is challenging. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Method: Based on earlier empirical findings, a structural equation model, designed with valid measurement instruments, was tested. The study population included registered acute care hospital nurses (N = 1201) in eight hospitals across Belgium. Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted nurses’ ratings of job outcome variables as well as quality of care. Features of nurses’ work characteristics, e.g., perceived workload, decision latitude, social capital, and the three dimension of work engagement, played mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes. A revised model, using various fit measures, explained 60% of job outcomes and 47% of nurse-assessed quality of care. Conclusion: The findings in this study show that nurse work characteristics as workload, decision latitude, and social capital, alongside with nurse work engagement (e.g., vigor, dedication, and absorption) influence nurses’ perspective of their nurse practice environment, job outcomes, and quality of care. The results underline aspects to considerate for various stakeholders, such as executives, nurse managers, physicians, and staff nurses, in setting up and organizing health care services. PMID:25431563

  4. Negotiating Safety and Sexual Risk Reduction With Clients in Unsanctioned Safer Indoor Sex Work Environments: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüsi, Andrea; Chettiar, Jill; Ridgway, Amelia; Abbott, Janice; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how unique, low-barrier, supportive housing programs for women who are functioning as unsanctioned indoor sex work environments in a Canadian urban setting influence risk negotiation with clients in sex work transactions. Methods. We conducted 39 semistructured qualitative interviews and 6 focus groups with women who live in low-barrier, supportive housing for marginalized sex workers with substance use issues. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Results. Women’s accounts indicated that unsanctioned indoor sex work environments promoted increased control over negotiating sex work transactions, including the capacity to refuse unwanted services, negotiate condom use, and avoid violent perpetrators. Despite the lack of formal legal and policy support for indoor sex work venues in Canada, the environmental-structural supports afforded by these unsanctioned indoor sex work environments, including surveillance cameras and support from staff or police in removing violent clients, were linked to improved police relationships and facilitated the institution of informal peer-safety mechanisms. Conclusions. This study has drawn attention to the potential role of safer indoor sex work environments as venues for public health and violence prevention interventions and has indicated the critical importance of removing the sociolegal barriers preventing the formal implementation of such programs. PMID:22571708

  5. Does living and working in a hot environment induce clinically relevant changes in immune function and voluntary force production capacity?

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p≤0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4 °C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p≤0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p≤0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p≤0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range. PMID:24583514

  6. Actualizing the Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braman, Dave

    Where conditions are right, continuing education (CE) staff working in true collaboration with campus-based credit staff can meet the learning needs of the community and improve instructional quality with greater resource efficiency. CE staff must become learning strategists who bring ideas from their marketplace experience to the instructional…

  7. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations. PMID:23788223

  8. Using Maslow's pyramid and the national database of nursing quality indicators(R) to attain a healthier work environment.

    PubMed

    Groff-Paris, Lisa; Terhaar, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The strongest predictor of nurse job dissatisfaction and intent to leave is that of stress in the practice environment. Good communication, control over practice, decision making at the bedside, teamwork, and nurse empowerment have been found to increase nurse satisfaction and decrease turnover. In this article we share our experience of developing a rapid-design process to change the approach to performance improvement so as to increase engagement, empowerment, effectiveness, and the quality of the professional practice environment. Meal and non-meal breaks were identified as the target area for improvement. Qualitative and quantitative data support the success of this project. We begin this article with a review of literature related to work environment and retention and a presentation of the frameworks used to improve the work environment, specifically Maslow's theory of the Hierarchy of Inborn Needs and the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators Survey. We then describe our performance improvement project and share our conclusion and recommendations. PMID:21800926

  9. True Work: Discovering the Path to Self-Perfection through the Prepared Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joen

    2003-01-01

    Considers 3- to 6-year-olds' work cycle, looking first to the Montessori concept of normalization, manifest as increasing depth of concentration. Offers guidelines for a "protected lesson," designed to foster independence. Discusses interest and purpose as the basis for work, work "curves," control of error, presentation dynamics, and design of…

  10. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  11. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  12. Validation of a Spanish version of the practice environment scale of the nursing work index in the Colombian context.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Lisbeth Carolina Cardona; Bayer, Gloria Lucia Arango; Squires, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The literature supports that organizations that create working conditions with positive practice environments improve nurses' job satisfaction and reduce turnover in hospital settings (Havens & Johnston, 2004; International Council of Nurses [ICN], 2007). Positive practice environments promote quality nursing care and better patient outcomes. However, in South America, there are no instruments to measure the nursing practice environment in a hospital setting. The purpose of this research was to examine the validity and reliability of a Spanish translation of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI; Lake, 2002) in the Colombian clinical context. An instrument validation study using expert panel review, content validity indexing techniques, and a factor analysis of survey responses from 144 nurses was used. The scale-level content validity evaluation achieved high levels of acceptability, with values above 0.90. Construct validity results suggest that the instrument consists of 5 factors as prescribed by original instrument. The overall internal consistency value was a Cronbach's alpha level of 0.89. This is the first instrument to measure the work environment of nursing practice in South America, now validated in the Colombian context. PMID:24865438

  13. Systematic review of the effect of the psychosocial working environment on cognition and dementia.

    PubMed

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Thinschmidt, Marleen; Deckert, Stefanie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Seidler, Andreas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-05-01

    The high incidence of cognitive impairment in the ageing population, together with the challenges it imposes to health systems, raises the question of what affect working life has on cognitive abilities. The study, therefore, reviews recent work on the longitudinal impact of psychosocial work conditions on cognitive functioning and on dementia. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycINFO using a standardised search string and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We included articles reporting longitudinal effects that were investigated in cohort studies, case-control studies or randomised controlled trials in the working population. Two independent reviewers evaluated the studies in three subsequent phases: (i) title-abstract screening, (ii) full-text screening and (iii) checklist-based quality assessment.Methodical evaluation of the identified articles resulted in 17 studies of adequate quality. We found evidence for a protective effect of high job control and high work complexity with people and data on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, cognitively demanding work conditions seem to be associated with a decreased risk of cognitive deterioration in old age.Psychosocial work conditions can have an impact on cognitive functioning and even on the risk of dementia. As the world of work is undergoing fundamental changes, such as accelerated technological advances and an ageing working population, optimising work conditions is essential in order to promote and maintain cognitive abilities into old age. PMID:24259677

  14. What Actually Happened.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An ethics consult was scheduled for the following day. Prior to the consult, Mr. Hope subsequently decompensated and was transferred to the local hospital. The ethics consultation service continued with the ethics consult to discuss the ethical concerns of the medical staff but in particular to create an open forum for the staff to process their moral distress over the care of this patient and to come to an agreed-on plan on how they would proceed should the resident code. The patient never returned to the long-term care setting. While in the emergency room, the patient took a turn for the worse and appeared to require intubation. The emergency room attending physician contacted the patient's family and discussed the imminent likelihood of the patient's demise and the potential harm caused to the patient by resuscitation and intubation, and the family agreed to switch to comfort measures, allowing the patient to pass peacefully. The family stated to the ER physician that they needed to feel as though they had done everything they could to keep their loved one alive and did not want any responsibility for his death. The staff at the long-term care setting still remember Mr. Hope in their daily work and talk about him often. PMID:27348844

  15. Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment (‘foodscape’). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Methods Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29–60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Conclusions Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total

  16. Religiosity Gap Reversed: How Religious Counsellors' Belief System Presents When Working with Clients in a Non-Religious Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…

  17. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  18. Posttraining Interventions To Enhance Transfer: The Moderating Effects of Work Environments. [and] Invited Reaction: Posttraining Interventions To Enhance Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman-Hirsch, Wendy L.

    2001-01-01

    After 267 workers were trained, one group received goal-setting training, a second group self-management training, and a third no additional training. Goal setting improved perceptions of transfer; both interventions were more effective in supportive work environments. (Dale M. Brethower's invited reaction critiques the study from the perspective…

  19. The Development, Validation and Use of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Joy; Young, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Research in rural and remote schools and communities of Queensland resulted in the development and validation of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES). Samples of 252 teachers and 191 community members were used to validate the structure of this questionnaire. It was developed within the standard…

  20. The Quality of Caregiving in Child Care: Relations to Teacher Complexity of Thinking and Perceived Supportiveness of the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Vazquez, Arcel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the complexity of thinking about children by child care teachers and observed teachers' caregiving for infants and toddlers. It was hypothesized that the perceived supportiveness of the work environment would affect this relationship. Fifty-six child care teachers completed a survey assessing complexity…

  1. Using a Person-Environment Fit Framework To Predict Satisfaction and Motivation in Work and Marital Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ton, My-Tien N.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2001-01-01

    Strong Interest Inventory data on 181 individuals were subjected to path analysis. Congruity of interests and values between individuals and environments significantly predicted work and marital satisfaction. Congruence with partners' interests and values was a strong predictor of marital satisfaction. Reinforcement of either interests or values…

  2. The Influence of Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment on Varying Levels of Training Outcomes. [and] Invited Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, J. Bruce; Hinkin, Timothy R.; Tannenbaum, Scott; Mathieu, John E.; Black, William C.

    2001-01-01

    A study by Tracey, Hinkin, Tannenbaum, and Mathieu of 115 management trainees and 305 supervisors/coworkers found that job involvement, commitment, and work environment influenced pretraining self-efficacy and motivation. Hierarchical relationships between levels of training effectiveness criteria were identified. Black's response cites their…

  3. Linking Social Environments with the Well-Being of Adolescents in Dual-Earner and Single Working Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…

  4. Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

  5. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  6. A longitudinal investigation of work environment stressors on the performance and wellbeing of office workers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity. PMID:26360200

  7. Imaging Enhancement on Deep Seismic Reflection with Petrel and Ocean Working Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Huang, D.; Feng, X.; Li, L.; Liu, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2011-12-01

    SinoProbe has been initiated to enhance understanding of earth deep structure, resources and geological disasters forecasting throughout Chinese continent. Besides traditional deep exploration methods, various state-of-the-art technologies have been carried out in order to acquire data and jointly utilize all possible information reflecting deep crust and mantle structures and evolution.Petrel, a powerful software application developed by Schlumberger, has been successfully applied to the O&G industry. It is now a complete seismic-to-simulation application for 3D and 2D seismic interpretation. However, it has a great potential to allow the user to extend utilization with multiple types of data sets to deal with much deeper geophysical information. Petrel all-in-one concept, that functionally comprises of massive data integration, multiple domains experts participation and 3D geological object-oriented etc., will come benefit to the deep earth study. Currently, there is no special tool designed for this purpose so that Petrel is required to extend its potential to cope with not only O&G area but also a larger area with unique requests of deeper objects.Ocean, a software framework for Petrel, provides an open development environment offering seamless integration of developer intellectual contribution to the Petrel mainstream workflow. It is able to accelerate the development and deployment of user's Petrel-like workflows to resolve complex problems. It can be implemented by means of plug-ins utilities although there is additional challenge to write a robust code with Ocean framework. Deep seismic reflection profiling is a well recognized technique to reveal the fine structure of lithosphere. Moreover, it can perform a significant role for prospective evaluation of O&G and mineral resources, and geological disasters. Its near-vertical deep seismic reflection method can enhance broad band seismic observations for imaging of the deep crust and continental geodynamics

  8. Web-Based Social Work Courses: Guidelines for Developing and Implementing an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Fenster, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based courses in schools of social work have proliferated over the past decade, the literature contains few guidelines on steps that schools can take to develop such courses. Using Knowles's framework, which delineates tasks and themes involved in implementing e-learning in social work education, this article describes the cultivation…

  9. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  10. OECD Work on Technology and Education: Innovative Learning Environments as an Integrating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David; Kools, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents in summary a selection of the work conducted by OECD in the field of technology and education, which has been an on-going focus of OECD work since the 1980s. Recently, much of this has been under the heading of "New Millennium Learners", but it has also included the widening of student achievement surveys towards digital…

  11. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Helen; Hitch, Danielle; Watchorn, Valerie; Ang, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice. PMID:26184278

  12. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Helen; Hitch, Danielle; Watchorn, Valerie; Ang, Susan

    2015-07-01

    Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice. PMID:26184278

  13. The Effect of Organizational Development on Teachers' Perceptions of Working Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pierce; Arlin, Marshall

    Twenty-six principals from schools in North Carolina participated in five days of leadership training. They then participated in a 2-week staff development workshop within their own schools but met together again for leadership analysis after the end of each day's staff session. A faculty environment survey was administered to all staff before and…

  14. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  15. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Closing the Gap in Student Achievement between Regions: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Hasan; Delialioglu, Omer; Dennis, Alan; Duffy, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Student achievement gap between urban and suburban regions are a major issue in U.S. schools. Technology enhanced learning environments that support teaching and learning process with advanced technology may close this achievement gap. This paper examines the impact of student and school factors with an emphasis on schools' geographic location on…

  16. Person-Environment Congruence and Personality Domains in the Prediction of Job Performance and Work Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Schinka, John A.; Curtiss, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of the 5-Factor Model (FFM; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and RIASEC (J. L. Holland, 1994) constructs of consistency, differentiation, and person-environment congruence in predicting job performance ratings in a large sample (N = 514) of employees. Hierarchical regression analyses conducted separately by…

  17. Research on Webbed Connectivity in a Web-Based Learning Environment: Online Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Dorinda; Russell, Amy Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary data and analysis of how students in an online MSW program perceive their experiences, interactions, and responses to learning structure, material, and technology in the Web environment. The student perceptions, which have been used to refine the online program, highlight how important it is to students to feel…

  18. Working with Gifted Science Students in a Public High School Environment: One School's Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoi, Mephie; Vondracek, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The Chemistry/Physics Program at Evanston Township High School was designed to provide an environment for the rigorous teaching of advanced science and mathematics to accelerated students. This type of student makes up the bulk of students in the Advanced Placement Chemistry and Physics classes. However, there is a small number of students who…

  19. Investigating the Development of Work-Oriented Groups in an e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated developmental patterns of virtual groups in the e-learning environment. Our findings suggest that for virtual groups formed for the purpose of e-learning, dependency and inclusion characterize the initial stage of group development, as such characteristics reinforce cooperative relationships and help to build a…

  20. Thirst and work capacity of older people in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Marszalek, A

    2000-01-01

    In a hot environment, especially during exercise, the main role of thermoregulative mechanisms is to dissipate excessive heat from the body. The most effective way of heat dissipation is sweat production and its evaporation off skin surface. Intense sweating results in a considerable loss of water and electrolytes. There are some results that indicate lower thirst of older men than young ones in response to a hot environment and osmotic stimuli. Our studies conducted in men of different ages exposed to a hot environment indicated that there were no significant differences in rectal temperature (Tre) or heat storage (S) among groups at rest. Lower Tre and lower S in older men with higher physical capacity for their age than in young ones with average physical capacity was shown. However, in all the experiments significantly lower thirst in older men than in the young was indicated. Special attention should be paid to fluid replacement among workers in a hot environment because of lower thirst and lower hydration of older men. These individuals may be exposed to dehydration risk during prolonged exercise, despite the possibility to tolerate heat strain as well as young ones. Further studies are necessary because of some diversity in the meaning of the results. PMID:10828160

  1. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  2. Working Together for a Healthy Environment: A Guide for Multi-Cultural Community Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As a community-based organization, community leader or activist, individuals are in a unique position to take the lead in raising awareness about resource conservation, good solid waste management, and safeguarding the environment for future generations. This paper is designed to help individuals plan and execute community events that promote the…

  3. Adapting the Icelandic Education System to a Changing Environment. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppanz, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Iceland's performance in skills accumulation against the backdrop of a rapidly changing economic environment and discusses directions for further improvements. Since the late 1990s, the government has considerably raised expenditure on education, which is now among the highest in the OECD relative to GDP. Nonetheless, Iceland…

  4. Using a Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments to Explore Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Don Gottfredson, Gary; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have positive views of their general happiness or subjective well-being (SWB). Furthermore, SWB tends to be stable and rebound to prior levels following events or circumstances that might be expected to change its level. The authors speculate about ways a theory of person-environment transactions--Holland's theory of vocational…

  5. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    PubMed

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. PMID:21342457

  6. Improvement of Tsukiji free fish market in Tokyo ("Kaizen" of work environment).

    PubMed

    Kishida, K; Ikegami, T; Maehara, N; Watanabe, A

    1996-06-01

    "TSUKIJI" is one of the biggest and most famous Free Fish Markets in the world, but there are many problems on the working condition because it was built about 60 years ago. Our investigation was held 1991 to 1993 to give some improvements regarding layout of buildings, working time, heat condition at refrigerator, working posture, and so on. We used a questionnaire on daily life and health care of workers, time study with measurement of heartbeats, and checklist (using Checklist for Improvement of Safety-Health and Working Conditions,' made by ILO). The main occupations in TSUKIJI were seller, buyer, delivery worker, and refrigerator maintenance worker. Their starting time was early in the morning, usually between 2:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m., but the hardest one was delivery workers starting at 9:00 p.m. They used auto cargo car for carrying to shops from refrigerator or from auction places many times. Sellers had two different types of work. First, the seller set up the auction, numbering the fish (or cases of seafood), arranging them in order, and so on. The rest of the work was transaction of invoices, sometimes using VDU with almost sitting. These works did not look well balanced. Buyer of tuna cut if like lumber by electric saws did not have guard for protection and there were more than 200 machines. Overlooking the market by checklist, some problems were clarified, and suggestions for improvement include restructuring the whole layout of the market or reforming buildings, standardization of the cases, adjustment of health facilities, safety protection on tools and machines, management of working system, working posture, health care, and so on. PMID:9551131

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  9. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  10. NNSA ASC Exascale Environment Planning, Applications Working Group, Report February 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Still, C H; Arsenlis, A; Bond, R B; Steinkamp, M J; Swaminarayan, S; Womble, D E; Koniges, A E; Harrison, J R; Chen, J H

    2011-02-25

    The scope of the Apps WG covers three areas of interest: Physics and Engineering Models (PEM), multi-physics Integrated Codes (IC), and Verification and Validation (V&V). Each places different demands on the exascale environment. The exascale challenge will be to provide environments that optimize all three. PEM serve as a test bed for both model development and 'best practices' for IC code development, as well as their use as standalone codes to improve scientific understanding. Rapidly achieving reasonable performance for a small team is the key to maintaining PEM innovation. Thus, the environment must provide the ability to develop portable code at a higher level of abstraction, which can then be tuned, as needed. PEM concentrate their computational footprint in one or a few kernels that must perform efficiently. Their comparative simplicity permits extreme optimization, so the environment must provide the ability to exercise significant control over the lower software and hardware levels. IC serve as the underlying software tools employed for most ASC problems of interest. Often coupling dozens of physics models into very large, very complex applications, ICs are usually the product of hundreds of staff-years of development, with lifetimes measured in decades. Thus, emphasis is placed on portability, maintainability and overall performance, with optimization done on the whole rather than on individual parts. The exascale environment must provide a high-level standardized programming model with effective tools and mechanisms for fault detection and remediation. Finally, V&V addresses the infrastructure and methods to facilitate the assessment of code and model suitability for applications, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods for assessment and quantification of margins of uncertainty (QMU). V&V employs both PEM and IC, with somewhat differing goals, i.e., parameter studies and error assessments to determine both the quality of the calculation and to

  11. Physicians' occupational stress, depressive symptoms and work ability in relation to their working environment: a cross-sectional study of differences among medical residents with various specialties working in German hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyse and compare differences in occupational stress, depressive symptoms, work ability and working environment among residents working in various medical specialties. Methods 435 German hospital residents in medical training working in 6 different medical specialties participated in a cross-sectional survey study. Physicians were asked about their working conditions and aspects of mental health and work ability. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Work Ability Index, the ICD-10 Symptom Rating and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire were used to measure working conditions, mental health and work ability. Results Results show that up to 17% of the physicians reported high levels of occupational distress and 9% reported high levels of depressive symptoms. 11% of the hospital physicians scored low in work ability. Significant differences between medical specialties were demonstrated for occupational distress, depressive symptoms, work ability, job demands and job resources. Surgeons showed consistently the highest levels of perceived distress but also the highest levels of work ability and lowest scores for depression. Depressive symptoms were rated with the highest levels by anaesthesiologists. Significant associations between physicians’ working conditions, occupational distress and mental health-related aspects are illustrated. Conclusions Study results demonstrated significant differences in specific job stressors, demands and resources. Relevant relations between work factors and physicians' health and work ability are discussed. These findings should be reinvestigated in further studies, especially with a longitudinal study design. This work suggests that to ensure physicians' health, hospital management should plan and implement suitable mental health promotion strategies. In addition, operational efficiency through resource planning optimisation and work process improvements should be focused by hospital management

  12. Links among high-performance work environment, service quality, and customer satisfaction: an extension to the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare managers must deliver high-quality patient services that generate highly satisfied and loyal customers. In this article, we examine how a high-involvement approach to the work environment of healthcare employees may lead to exceptional service quality, satisfied patients, and ultimately to loyal customers. Specifically, we investigate the chain of events through which high-performance work systems (HPWS) and customer orientation influence employee and customer perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in a national sample of 113 Veterans Health Administration ambulatory care centers. We present a conceptual model for linking work environment to customer satisfaction and test this model using structural equations modeling. The results suggest that (1) HPWS is linked to employee perceptions of their ability to deliver high-quality customer service, both directly and through their perceptions of customer orientation; (2) employee perceptions of customer service are linked to customer perceptions of high-quality service; and (3) perceived service quality is linked with customer satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings, including suggestions of how healthcare managers can implement changes to their work environments, are discussed. PMID:17447538

  13. Measuring and managing the work environment of the mid-level provider – the neglected human resource

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Bowie, Cameron; Manafa, Ogenna; Maseko, Fresier; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Hevey, David; Normand, Charles; Chirwa, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Background Much has been written in the past decade about the health workforce crisis that is crippling health service delivery in many middle-income and low-income countries. Countries having lost most of their highly qualified health care professionals to migration increasingly rely on mid-level providers as the mainstay for health services delivery. Mid-level providers are health workers who perform tasks conventionally associated with more highly trained and internationally mobile workers. Their training usually has lower entry requirements and is for shorter periods (usually two to four years). Our study aimed to explore a neglected but crucial aspect of human resources for health in Africa: the provision of a work environment that will promote motivation and performance of mid-level providers. This paper explores the work environment of mid-level providers in Malawi, and contributes to the validation of an instrument to measure the work environment of mid-level providers in low-income countries. Methods Three districts were purposively sampled from each of the three geographical regions in Malawi. A total of 34 health facilities from the three districts were included in the study. All staff in each of the facilities were included in the sampling frame. A total of 153 staff members consented to be interviewed. Participants completed measures of perceptions of work environment, burnout and job satisfaction. Findings The Healthcare Provider Work Index, derived through Principal Components Analysis and Rasch Analysis of our modification of an existing questionnaire, constituted four subscales, measuring: (1) levels of staffing and resources; (2) management support; (3) workplace relationships; and (4) control over practice. Multivariate analysis indicated that scores on the Work Index significantly predicted key variables concerning motivation and attrition such as emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, satisfaction with the profession and plans to leave the

  14. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The

  15. Managing motivation and developing job satisfaction in the health care work environment.

    PubMed

    Timmreck, T C

    2001-09-01

    Motivation relies on internal/intrinsic and external factors to stimulate work-related behavior. This article presents an overview of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and reports on the results of a study of 99 health service midmanagers. The participants completed a survey asking whether they believe in motivational factors and if they use them. Several of Herzberg's motivational factors were included (achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement) plus several other motivational factors including money/pay, self-interest, seek a higher standard of living. Negative factors included guilt, threats, power, and control. This article presents motivation factors, such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth, self-interest, pay, and belief in successful outcome, that were presented to 99 mid-level health services administrators. PMID:11556553

  16. PlanWorks: A Debugging Environment for Constraint Based Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daley, Patrick; Frank, Jeremy; Iatauro, Michael; McGann, Conor; Taylor, Will

    2005-01-01

    Numerous planning and scheduling systems employ underlying constraint reasoning systems. Debugging such systems involves the search for errors in model rules, constraint reasoning algorithms, search heuristics, and the problem instance (initial state and goals). In order to effectively find such problems, users must see why each state or action is in a plan by tracking causal chains back to part of the initial problem instance. They must be able to visualize complex relationships among many different entities and distinguish between those entities easily. For example, a variable can be in the scope of several constraints, as well as part of a state or activity in a plan; the activity can arise as a consequence of another activity and a model rule. Finally, they must be able to track each logical inference made during planning. We have developed PlanWorks, a comprehensive system for debugging constraint-based planning and scheduling systems. PlanWorks assumes a strong transaction model of the entire planning process, including adding and removing parts of the constraint network, variable assignment, and constraint propagation. A planner logs all transactions to a relational database that is tailored to support queries for of specialized views to display different forms of data (e.g. constraints, activities, resources, and causal links). PlanWorks was specifically developed for the Extensible Universal Remote Operations Planning Architecture (EUROPA(sub 2)) developed at NASA, but the underlying principles behind PlanWorks make it useful for many constraint-based planning systems. The paper is organized as follows. We first describe some fundamentals of EUROPA(sub 2). We then describe PlanWorks' principal components. We then discuss each component in detail, and then describe inter-component navigation features. We close with a discussion of how PlanWorks is used to find model flaws.

  17. Risk for the new or expectant mother working in the perioperative environment.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, D

    2000-06-01

    Being pregnant is not an illness, and in the National Health Service, where the majority of the workforce are female, pregnancy should be regarded as part of everyday life. Yet the workplace can damage your health, and that of an unborn child, through hazardous substances such as chemicals, radiation, and anaesthetic gases; through work which involves moving and handling of loads; through stress, excessive hours or shift work; and for perioperative practitioners, through standing for long periods of time (Rogers et al 1999). PMID:11892292

  18. Process for Managing and Optimizing Radiology Work Flow in the Electronic Heath Record Environment.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Peter B; Long, Graham

    2016-02-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) implementation has dramatically impacted all facets of radiology workflow. Many departments find themselves unprepared for the multiple issues that surface following EHR deployment and the ongoing need for workflow optimization. This paper reviews the structure and processes utilized by the team, developed at the University of Colorado Hospital to evaluate, prioritize, and implement requests for workflow repairs and improvements within the EHR. The evolution of this team as the academic hospital formed a health system with two community hospital sites is also described. This structure may serve as a useful template for others considering EHR deployment or struggling to manage radiology workflow within an existing EHR environment. PMID:26296949

  19. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  20. A Survey of Graduate Social Work Educators: Teaching Perspectives and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhoff, Kristin Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Social work educators have the challenging task of preparing students to be ethically, morally, and socially responsible professionals. As professionals in the 21st Century, social workers are faced with ever increasing complexity and change. Teaching philosophies are at the foundation of what educators do in the classroom. Research about teaching…

  1. Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plackowski, Linda C.

    In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

  2. Effect of Worked Examples on Mental Model Progression in a Computer-Based Simulation Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Nelson, David W.; Meeker, Richard; Liang, Xinya; Boulware, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    In a diagnostic problem solving operation of a computer-simulated chemical plant, chemical engineering students were randomly assigned to two groups: one studying product-oriented worked examples, the other practicing conventional problem solving. Effects of these instructional strategies on the progression of learners' mental models were examined…

  3. A Collaborative Autoethnography of Literacy Professional Development Work in a High-Needs Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jennifer Y.; Parsons, Sue Christian; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Thomas, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative autoethnography (CAE) of three teacher educators' work as literacy professional development (PD) leaders in a high-needs, culturally diverse, urban, US school district. The research questions focused on what the facilitators learned about leading literacy PD in a high-needs/high-stakes…

  4. Intelligent Performance Assessment of Students' Laboratory Work in a Virtual Electronic Laboratory Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achumba, I. E.; Azzi, D.; Dunn, V. L.; Chukwudebe, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory work is critical in undergraduate engineering courses. It is used to integrate theory and practice. This demands that laboratory activities are synchronized with lectures to maximize their derivable learning outcomes, which are measurable through assessment. The typical high costs of the traditional engineering laboratory, which often…

  5. Multigenerational Perceptions of the Academic Work Environment in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Kelly A.; Chakradhar, Kala; Muller, Susan; Waddill, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The current workforce composition of the academy is comprised of multiple generational cohorts, Traditionalists, Leading Edge Boomers, Trailing Edge Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials. Despite the plethora of research identifying a myriad of differences in the way these generational cohorts approach work and social activities little…

  6. The Lived Experience of Nurses Working with Student Nurses in the Clinical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathorn, Donna; Machtmes, Krisanna; Tillman, Ken

    2009-01-01

    One response to the nursing shortage is to increase promotion and retention in nursing programs: However, negative attitudes of nurses threaten student progression and retention. A phenomenological study explored the lived experience of nurses who worked with student nurses to discover "what" attitudes nurses had toward student nurses and "how"…

  7. What Pupils Can Learn from Working with Robotic Direct Manipulation Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Lou; van Keulen, Hanno; Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four perspectives were distinguished with increasing…

  8. To hide or not to hide, that is the question! Lesbians and gay men describe experiences from nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Homosexual nursing staff (n = 21) from different parts of Sweden were interviewed about experiences from their psychosocial work environment and about what they consider important points to communicate about lesbians and gay men in nursing. The findings show that most of the informants were partly open about their sexual orientation at work, the women less so than the men. All informants spoke of the fear of being socially excluded. Reported negative experiences included being neglected, harassment, and verbal discomfort based on sexual prejudices. The informants regarded responsibility, the need for knowledge, the consequences of invisibility, and the lesbian's specific situation, important points to communicate regarding homosexuality and nursing. PMID:17594978

  9. What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers’ satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Methods Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Conclusions Two dimensions of health workers’ work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to

  10. Physical Work Environment as a Managerial Tool for Decreasing Job-Related Anxiety and Improving Employee-Employer Relations.

    PubMed

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John; Shepley, Mardelle

    2015-01-01

    The expected increase in healthcare needs resulting from the Affordable Care Act and the growing population of older citizens in the United States is challenging owners and operators of hospitals to improve quality of care and reduce operational costs. Meanwhile, studies have indicated a serious shortage in the healthcare workforce and have highlighted the critical role of employees' job-related attitudes and feelings. The main objective of this study was to test whether employees' evaluations of important environments within hospitals were significantly associated with their job-related attitudes and feelings, and whether this relationship varied across different demographic groups. About 700 healthcare professionals from 10 acute-care hospitals run by three healthcare organizations participated in this cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling found that employees' evaluations of their physical work environment were significantly associated with lower rates of job-related anxiety, higher levels of job satisfaction, and increased rates of organizational commitment. Perceived organizational support was responsible for mediating part of these relationships, indicating that employees can perceive a healthy work environment as a sign of their organization valuing them and caring about their well-being. When distinguishing between different spaces, analysis found that satisfaction with rest areas and work spaces had the largest effect size, while the influence of patient areas was small. Employees newer to the facility and to the organization were more influenced by the physical work environment. This study provides preliminary evidence that facility design can be used as a managerial tool for improving employees' job-related attitudes and feelings and earning their commitment. PMID:26529848

  11. Thriving in program management environments: the case of social work in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Globerman, Judith; White, Jane J; Mullings, Delores; Davies, Joan MacKenzie

    2003-01-01

    The shifts in hospitals from single-site functionally organized university and community hospitals to multilayered, mega institutions have had dramatic effects on social work practice. Through this longitudinal research we examine, using a strengths perspective and qualitative interviews, the strategies social workers in 22 hospitals across Ontario, Canada, utilized to survive and thrive. The findings identify the importance of clearly articulating one's value to the organization, staying current, and being flexible. PMID:14984246

  12. Mental wellbeing of children engaged in agricultural work activities and quality of family environment.

    PubMed

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2007-01-01

    A considerable percentage of Polish children from agricultural families are engaged by their parents in performing work activities on farms. The performance of these tasks arouses various emotional reactions in children, from the feeling of threat, fear and anxiety, to the feeling of satisfaction, being contented and proud. The subjective feeling of happiness and life satisfaction is an extremely important factor affecting the mental health and functioning of a human being. The objective of the study was to show to what extent the quality of communication between children and parents, and the level of family cohesion and adaptability according to the Circumplex Model by D. H. Olson et al., modifies children's emotional reactions associated with the tasks performed. The study covered 192 children aged 12-13, whose parents were running a family farm. Growing up in a healthy family characterised by a balanced level of cohesion, adaptability and good communication with the father and mother, favours the occurrence in children of pleasant emotions in reaction to work which they undertake on behalf of their parents on a farm. In such families, more often than in families with bad communication and dysfunctional families (disengaged, rigid), children experience satisfaction, have a feeling of deepening bonds with their parents, and the feeling of being more adult and preparing themselves well for adult life. Family characteristics which are evidence of disorders in its functioning (lack of good communication with the father, mother, lack of bonds between family members, rigid, chaos in a family) co-occur with the child experiencing unpleasant emotional states in associated with the work performed, there occur feelings of dissatisfaction, unhappiness, unpleasantness, the feeling that it would be better to learn than to work. PMID:17655188

  13. A Browser-Based Multi-User Working Environment for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Glaser, C.; Klingebiel, D.; Komm, M.; Müller, G.; Rieger, M.; Steggemann, J.; Urban, M.; Winchen, T.

    2014-06-01

    Many programs in experimental particle physics do not yet have a graphical interface, or demand strong platform and software requirements. With the most recent development of the VISPA project, we provide graphical interfaces to existing software programs and access to multiple computing clusters through standard web browsers. The scalable clientserver system allows analyses to be performed in sizable teams, and disburdens the individual physicist from installing and maintaining a software environment. The VISPA graphical interfaces are implemented in HTML, JavaScript and extensions to the Python webserver. The webserver uses SSH and RPC to access user data, code and processes on remote sites. As example applications we present graphical interfaces for steering the reconstruction framework OFFLINE of the Pierre-Auger experiment, and the analysis development toolkit PXL. The browser based VISPA system was field-tested in biweekly homework of a third year physics course by more than 100 students. We discuss the system deployment and the evaluation by the students.

  14. ADIFOR: Automatic differentiation in a source translator environment. ADIFOR Working Note No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Carle, A.

    1992-07-01

    The numerical methods employed in the solution of many scientific computing problems require the computation of derivatives of a function f: R{sup n} {yields} R{sup m}. ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation in FORtran) is a source transformation tool that accepts Fortran 77 code for the computation of a function and writes portable Fortran 77 code for the computation of the derivatives. In contrast to previous approaches, ADIFOR views automatic differentiation as a source transformation problem and employs the data analysis capabilities of the ParaScope Fortran programming environment. Experimental results show that ADIFOR can handle real- life codes and that ADIFOR-generated codes are competitive with divided-difference approximations of derivatives. In addition, studies suggest that the source-transformation approach to automatic differentation may improve the time required to compute derivatives by orders of magnitude.

  15. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  16. Feasibility Study of Scheduling Work of System Operation in Deregulated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Toshio; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Sasaki, Tetsuo

    This paper presents the results of work flow analysis of generation scheduling and power system operation on the assumption that further deregulation is introduced into Japanese electric utility. California system and PJM system are tested as they are introduced into Japan. It was made clear that the time required for making the plan to operate the grid for the next day is acceptable for the Japanese system when a spot market is founded. Flow simulation of jobs of the power system operation is done based on IDEF0 method using flow charts similar to Petri net.

  17. Effect of Joint Commission International Accreditation on the Nursing Work Environment in a Tertiary Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ilya; Farkash-Fink, Naomi; Fish, Miri

    2016-01-01

    How might a tertiary hospital's nursing staff respond to the huge improvement effort required for external accreditation if they are encouraged to lead the change process themselves? This article reports the results of a concurrent evaluation of the nursing work climate at ward level, before and after accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Physician-nurse relations improved; the involvement of social workers, dieticians, and physiotherapists increased; support services responded more quickly to requests; and management-line staff relations became closer. PMID:27096904

  18. Full shift arm inclinometry among dairy parlor workers: a feasibility study in a challenging work environment.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Fethke, Nathan B; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, the US dairy industry has experienced a significant transformation from small farm operations to an industrialization of the milking process. This transformation has resulted in improvements in process efficiency and product quality. Milking tasks in large-herd parlors are highly-repetitive involving awkward postures and high muscle loads of the upper extremity. Field-based direct measures of physical exposures have been limited in challenging work settings such as dairies. This study evaluated full-shift exposures of posture and motion of the upper extremity among large-herd parlor milkers using wireless inclinometry. Results suggest large-herd parlor workers may be exposed to high exposure levels (posture, movement velocity, repetition, and inadequate rest) associated with the development of shoulder pathology. Compared to other high-risk occupations involving shoulder-intensive work, parlor workers may have higher exposure levels. These findings warrant the need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of cost-effective intervention strategies. PMID:22019358

  19. [Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the working environment during aluminum production].

    PubMed

    Brzeźnicki, S; Przybylski, H

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to a group od chemicals responsible, to a great extent, for the contamination of the industrial and ambient air. A number of industrial processes such as coke production, coal tar processing, production of electric energy and certain rubber goods as well as metallurgy, especially aluminium metallurgy with its anodes made of coal tar pitch are the major sources of PAH emission. An attempt was made to determine PAH concentrations at selected workposts at an aluminium production plant. Breathing zone air samples were collected by individual dosimetry. Coal tar pitch volatiles were determined by a gravimetric method and individual PAHs by HPLC. The presence of naphtalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benzo/a/anthracene, chrysene, benzo/a/pyrene, benzo/b/fluorenthene, benzo/k/fluoranthene, benzo/a/pyrene, dibenzo/a,h/anthracene, benzo/g,h,i/perylene and indeno/1,2,3-c,d/pyrene was identified at all investigated workposts. The highest concentrations of benzo/a/pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles were found at workposts of crane operators which is due to the character of the work performed. The replacement of "wet" anode material by the "dry" one should contribute to improving of the working conditions. PMID:8834591

  20. Adult Work Commitment, Financial Stability, and Social Environment as Related to Trajectories of Marijuana Use Beginning in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective is to examine trajectories of marijuana use among African Americans and Puerto Ricans from late adolescence to adulthood, with attention paid towards work commitment, financial stability, drug use and violence. (N=816.) The chronic marijuana user trajectory group compared to the none or low, increasing, and/or moderate marijuana user trajectory group was associated with negative aspects of work commitment, financial stability, and the social environment. The chronic marijuana user group was similar to the increasing marijuana user group on work commitment and financial stability. Treating marijuana use in late adolescence may reduce difficulty in the assumption of adult roles. Since chronic marijuana users experienced the most adverse effects in each of the domains, they require more intense clinical intervention than moderate marijuana users. PMID:23844962

  1. Psychosocial Work Environment and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among 21-Year-Old Workers: A Population-Based Investigation (2011-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Sara; Carnide, Filomena; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lucas, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Background The current labour market is becoming more flexible and informal, with job insecurity selectively affecting young workers. However, the role of these increasing adverse psychosocial working conditions on health outcomes remains little known among newly employed workers. Objective To estimate the associations between psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal outcomes (widespread pain syndrome features and regional pain) in a population-based sample of young workers. Methods Cross-sectional data from workers aged 21 years were collected during the third wave of the EPITeen cohort study (2011-2013; n=650). The Job Content Questionnaire was used to characterize the psychosocial work environment according to the demand-control-support model. Data on pain and non-pain dimensions of the widespread pain syndrome (Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire) as well as on regional musculoskeletal pain (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were also collected. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using logistic regression and all estimates were adjusted for sex, education and occupational biomechanical demands. Results Job insecurity was significantly associated to the non-pain dimension of the widespread pain syndrome (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.51 [1.08, 2.12]). Young workers with strain jobs were significantly more likely to report high levels of non-pain symptoms when compared with those with no-strain jobs and this effect was even stronger when social support was added to the main exposure: workers with strain jobs and low social support had twice the odds of reporting high levels of non-pain features than those with high strain but high social support jobs (adjusted OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.31). These significant associations were not observed when widespread pain or multisite regional pain were the outcomes. Conclusion In the beginning of professional life, high strain jobs were associated to non

  2. The correlation between work environment and the occurrence of cervicobrachial symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, L; Olafsson, A; Stefansson, E; Aagaard, H; Odén, A; Andersson, G B; Hansson, T; Hagert, C G

    1989-05-01

    The correlation between symptoms from the neck and upper extremities and some individual and work-related factors was analyzed in 2814 industrial workers. Physical stress by type of job was the factor most strongly correlated with ongoing cervicobrachial symptoms. Symptoms from the neck and upper extremities were twice as common in workers who used vibrating hand tools. Mental stress at the onset of the symptoms was associated with an increased prevalence of trapezius myalgia and with lateral humeral epicondylitis and "radial tunnel syndrome" in the dominant arm. Women had about double the rate of cervicobrachial symptoms as did men. Short stature increased the rate of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and hands as did overweight. Playing of racquet sports decreased the risk of symptoms from the neck and hands. PMID:2715853

  3. Working With LGBT Baby Boomers and Older Adults: Factors That Signal a Welcoming Service Environment.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Catherine F; Moone, Rajean P; Olson, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Many providers recognize the importance of creating culturally competent services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Although multiple resources list steps to make professional practices more LGBT-welcoming, these resources provide no empirical data to support their recommendations. LGBT older adults (N = 327) were asked to describe what signals that a provider is LGBT-welcoming. Six of the top 10 signals related to provider behavior and suggest the importance of staff training; the balance included display of signage and rainbow flags, use of inclusive language on forms and the presence of LGBT-identified staff. Results provide evidence-based recommendations for working with LGBT older adults. PMID:26193473

  4. Projects for increasing job satisfaction and creating a healthy work environment.

    PubMed

    Brunges, Michele; Foley-Brinza, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Workplace culture is one of the biggest factors driving employee commitment and engagement. Multiple studies have shown that hospitals will perform better over time if employees are committed to their jobs and engaged in what they do. By creating and implementing multiple projects during a three-year period, a team at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, increased job satisfaction. Projects included ensuring meal breaks were offered, creating a serenity area, developing the patient ambassador role, actively addressing bullying and unprofessional behavior, assigning a student mentee to work with staff members on culture change, offering regular fun activities, redesigning the unit, reorganizing schedules to reduce stress, implementing education and training initiatives, establishing a Unit Practice Council, and implementing reward and recognition programs. Survey results and anecdotal evidence suggest that these projects combined to increase employee satisfaction and employee retention rates. PMID:25453685

  5. Support and access for nursing continuing education in Canadian work environments.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Michelle; Hall, Linda McGillis; Price, Sheri; Andrews, Gavin; Harris, Alexandra; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how educational opportunities may affect nurses' decision to move within Canada. Thematic analysis of qualitative data obtained from 35 registered nurses and 35 licensed practical nurses highlighted educational opportunities available in Canada and how these influence nurses' decision to move across the country for work. The results indicate that Canadian nurses value continued learning but face several barriers while trying to further their education. Two main themes emerged: support for and access to continuing education. Canadian nurses perceive a lack of support, both financially and in the form of scheduling, for engaging in continuing education. Additionally, the lack of access to accredited continuing education programs was reported. The findings and implications of this study are examined within the context of nurse mobility. PMID:24863720

  6. The effects of negative air ions on various physiological functions during work in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, O.; Rotstein, A.; Dlin, R.; Dotan, R.; Sulman, F. G.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of negative air-ions on human physical performance has been investigated. Twenty-one healthy males, 20 25 years old (X=23.6±2.6) were exposed to two 180-min rest and exercise sessions two weeks apart. The subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n=12) or to a control group (n=9). The experimental group performed the first session in neutral air conditions and the second one in air containing 1.36 to 1.90×105 negative air ions and 1.40 to 1.66×102 positive air ions/ml. The control group performed both sessions under neutral air conditions. All sessions were held at Ta=40±1‡C and 25±5% RH. Each session included one hour of resting under the respective ionization conditions, followed by 3 30-min cycle ergometer work bouts, separated by 7-min rest periods. The mechanical work-load during the bicycle exercise was 1.64±0.6 W/kg BW. The experimental group showed a significant reduction with negative air-ions in heart rate (HR), in rectal temperature, and in the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), all when compared with their own neutral session. The control group showed no significant changes between the first and the second exposure. Although not statistically significant, being exposed to negative air-ions seems also to reduce total sweat rate and minute ventilation (VE), and to increase O2 pulse. It is suggested that under the conditions of this study negative air ions can improve various cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions as well as subjective feelings during physical effort. It is felt that such positive influences may be augmented by increasing the exposure time to negative ionized air and/or prolonging the stressful conditions.

  7. Comprehensive systematic review of evidence on developing and sustaining nursing leadership that fosters a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Laschinger, Heather; Porritt, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Tucker, Donna; Long, Leslye

    2007-06-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility, meaningfulness and effectiveness of nursing leadership attributes that contribute to the development and sustainability of nursing leadership to foster a healthy work environment. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility, meaningfulness and effectiveness of developing and sustaining nursing leadership to foster a healthy work environment in healthcare. Papers of the highest level of evidence ratings were given priority. Participants of interest were leaders and those who were affected by leadership, specifically staff and patients. Interventions of interest including positive leadership attributes, as well as system and policy constructs, that impact on the development and sustainability of nursing leadership within the healthcare environment were considered in the review. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the paper. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of 48 papers, experimental, qualitative and textual in nature, were included in the review. The majority of papers were descriptive and examined the relationships between leadership styles and characteristics and particular outcomes, such as satisfaction. Because of the diverse

  8. Working towards a test for screening visual skills in a complex visual environment.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, M; Baumer-Bergande, E; Seiffert, B

    2012-01-01

    We developed a test for screening visual skills under similar conditions as at workplace. The test was administered to 207 participants, recruited in the working population. Six-digit numbers were super-imposed on a video of a drive and presented for 300 ms in the central visual field and in the periphery. Participants reported whether or not the integer '3' was included in the numbers. Normative data for the test were computed using 150 data sets of participants reporting not to take drugs and with an age ranging between 15 y and 67 y. Participants performed better in the central visual field than in periphery. The test could successfully be completed by participants of all ages without the need of adjustment of settings. Comparison of 46 data sets recorded in participants taking drugs (30 y-68 y) with age matched participants not taking drugs demonstrates an additional potential application of the test. Practitioner Summary: Developed test delivers comparative estimates of visual skills within short time and appears as valuable and cheap complementation to current testing procedures in industrial practice. The test can be used in a preventive and in educative manner to monitor effects of factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation or drug consumption. PMID:22928619

  9. Environment learning using descriptions or navigation: The involvement of working memory in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Martinelli, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana

    2016-05-01

    This study examined age-related differences between young and older adults in the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM) when paths are learned from verbal and visuo-spatial inputs. A sample of 60 young adults (20-30 years old) and 58 older adults (60-75 years old) learned two paths from the person's point of view, one displayed in the form of a video showing the path, the other presenting the path in a verbal description. During the learning phase, participants concurrently performed a verbal task (articulatory suppression, AS group), or a visuo-spatial task (spatial tapping, ST group), or no secondary task (control, C group). After learning each path, participants completed tasks that involved the following: (1) recalling the sequential order and the location of landmarks; and (2) judging spatial sentences as true or false (verification test). The results showed that young adults outperformed older adults in all recall tasks. In both age groups performance in all types of task was worse in the AS and ST groups than in the C group, irrespective of the type of input. Overall, these findings suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial components of WM underpin the processing of environmental information in both young and older adults. The results are discussed in terms of age-related differences and according to the spatial cognition framework. PMID:26280566

  10. An evaluation of nonclinical dissociation utilizing a virtual environment shows enhanced working memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Saidel-Goley, Isaac N; Albiero, Erin E; Flannery, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Dissociation is a mental process resulting in the disruption of memory, perception, and sometimes identity. At a nonclinical level, only mild dissociative experiences occur. The nature of nonclinical dissociation is disputed in the literature, with some asserting that it is a beneficial information processing style and others positing that it is a psychopathological phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of nonclinical dissociation with respect to memory and attention, by including a more ecologically valid virtual reality (VR) memory task along with standard neuropsychological tasks. Forty-five undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the northeast participated for course credit. The participants completed a battery of tasks including two standard memory tasks, a standard attention task, and an experimental VR memory task; the VR task included immersion in a virtual apartment, followed by incidental object-location recall for objects in the virtual apartment. Support for the theoretical model portraying nonclinical dissociation as a beneficial information processing style was found in this study. Dissociation scores were positively correlated with working memory scores and attentional processing scores on the standard neuropsychological tasks. In terms of the VR task, dissociation scores were positively correlated with more false positive memories that could be the result of a tendency of nonclinical highly dissociative individuals to create more elaborative schemas. This study also demonstrates that VR paradigms add to the prediction of cognitive functioning in testing protocols using standard neuropsychological tests, while simultaneously increasing ecological validity. PMID:22149026

  11. Optimization of Physical Working Environment Setting to Improve Productivity and Minimize Error by Taguchi and VIKOR Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilma Rahmillah, Fety

    2016-01-01

    The working environment is one factor that has contribution to the worker's performance, especially for continuous and monotonous works. L9 Taguchi design experiment for inner array is used to design the experiment which was carried out in laboratory whereas L4 is for outer array. Four control variables with three levels of each are used to get the optimal combination of working environment setting. Four responses are also measured to know the effect of four control factors. Results shown that by using ANOVA, the effect of illumination, temperature, and instrumental music to the number of ouput, number of error, and rating perceived discomfort is significant with the total variance explained of 54,67%, 60,67%, and 75,22% respectively. By using VIKOR method, it yields the optimal combination of experiment 66 with the setting condition of A3-B2-C1-D3. The illumination is 325-350 lux, temperature is 240-260C, fast category of instrumental music, and 70-80 dB for intensity of the music being played.

  12. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  13. Current Trends in Numerical Simulation for Parallel Engineering Environments New Directions and Work-in-Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Trinitis, C; Schulz, M

    2006-06-29

    In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Remarkable progress in CPU architecture, system scalability, and interconnect technology continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in parallel algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. ParSim brings together researchers from both application disciplines and computer science and aims at fostering closer cooperation between these fields. Since its successful introduction in 2002, ParSim has established itself as an integral part of the EuroPVM/MPI conference series. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a short turn-around time. This offers a unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables the participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, eleven papers from authors in nine countries were submitted to ParSim, and we selected five of them. They cover a wide range of different application fields including gas flow simulations, thermo-mechanical processes in nuclear waste storage, and cosmological simulations. At the same time, the selected contributions also address the computer science side of their codes and discuss different parallelization strategies, programming models and languages, as well as the use nonblocking collective operations in MPI. We are confident that this provides an attractive program and that ParSim will be an informal setting for lively discussions and for fostering new

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Annealed and Cold Worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C Concentrated Salt Environments

    SciTech Connect

    P. Andresen

    2000-11-08

    Stress corrosion crack growth studies have been performed on annealed and cold worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C, aerated, concentrated, high pH salt environments characteristic of concentrated ground water. Following a very careful transition from fatigue precracking conditions to SCC conditions, the long term behavior under very stable conditions was monitored using reversing dc potential drop. Titanium Grade 7 exhibited continuous crack growth under both near-static and complete static loading conditions. Alloy 22 exhibited similar growth rates, but was less prone to maintain stable crack growth as conditions approached fully static loading.

  15. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. Methods The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization’s disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. Results The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Conclusions Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a

  16. A multilevel analysis of the effects of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allison S; Erickson, Rebecca J; Moran, Christina M; Diefendorff, James M; Bromley, Gail E

    2013-12-01

    Few researchers have examined how the components of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) relate to nurses' well-being at multiple organizational levels. The objective of the study was to perform a multilevel assessment of the relationships of the PES-NWI subscales with three nurse outcomes: job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intentions. Additionally, we tested the multilevel factor structure of the PES-NWI. In a sample of 699 full-time registered nurses in 79 units and 9 branches of a hospital system, relationships of the NWI with nurse outcomes were fairly consistent across levels of analysis. However, subscales contributed differently to the three outcomes, demonstrating the complexity of environmental influences on nurses' work experience. PMID:24122833

  17. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p < .05) on job satisfaction through ten variables: negative affectivity, variety, workgroup cohesion, nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. PMID:24985551

  18. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  19. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  20. Injury and the orchestral environment: part I. The role of work organisation and psychosocial factors in injury risk.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2013-12-01

    That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians. PMID:24337034

  1. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs): the effectiveness of one company's HCP in a 12-hr work shift environment.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J L; Royster, L H; Pearson, R G

    1990-08-01

    An existing hearing conservation program (HCP), originally designed when an 8-hr work shift schedule was in effect, was evaluated at a plant site where a 12-hr work shift schedule is now utilized. The study included the following phases: a noise analysis of the work environment, HCP evaluation through the use of audiometric data base analysis (ADBA), applying ADBA procedures and a comparison of the shift in hearing threshold levels (HTLs) for the 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts, and an evaluation of the hearing protection devices (HPDs) being used at the facility over the 12-hr work shift by measuring temporary threshold shift (TTS). The mean measured employee time-weighted average (TWA) in the process area where the TTS study was conducted was 92 dBA. It was found that the existing HCP is at best marginal. The most likely causes of this less-than-desirable rating are inadequate audiometric testing procedures and inadequate HPD utilization. Furthermore, it was concluded that, at this time, the introduction of the 12-hr work shift has had no impact on the level of effectiveness of the HCP. In evaluating the three HPDs in use at the facility (3-M foam earplug, E-A-R foam earplug, and Bilsom Soft earplug), it was found that they all offered effective protection from noise at all audiometric test frequencies (0.5 to 6 kHz) except 0.5 kHz. All three HPDs exhibited TTS at 0.5 kHz with the TTS measured significant at the p less than 0.05 level for the E-A-R and 3-M wearer groups. PMID:2392973

  2. A Learning, Working Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Heather

    1979-01-01

    The author describes physical conditions in the classroom--light, sound, color and touch, and space--that the educator can alter to improve human comfort and thus make the classroom a more pleasurable, effective place for both teacher and student. (Editor)

  3. The Electronic Working Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Boris

    This review of the impact of the microelectronic revolution on the Canadian telephone industry focuses on the prospect of dwindling job security for telephone workers. Technical advances that are cited as having reduced the industry's job market include the dial telephone, direct distance dialing, directory assistance computerization, and…

  4. The effect of a science work experience program for teachers on the classroom environment: A qualitative program evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Wendy Michelle

    Science Work Experience Programs for Teachers (SWEPTs) provide an opportunity for science and math teachers to work in research laboratories during the summer to experience science as it is practiced in the laboratory-setting. Through the use of interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations, and an analysis of printed student sheets and student work, the lived experience of a cohort of program participants in Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Secondary School Science Teachers was recorded in an effort to describe the effect of experience in a SWEPT on the classroom environment of teacher participants and student outcomes. Relying on Social Learning Theory and science education reform documentation as a theoretical framework the following dimensions of the classroom were examined: (1) emergent themes that include the participants' perceptions of the importance of technology in the classroom, (2) interpersonal relationships with the teachers at the participants' schools, fellow program participants, research scientists, and students, and (3) changes in epistemological structure, curriculum, instructional strategies, and classroom practices. Methodological and theoretical implications are addressed with respect to future studies, and suggestions for refinement of SWEPTs are provided.

  5. The contribution of Raman spectroscopy to the analytical quality control of cytotoxic drugs in a hospital environment: eliminating the exposure risks for staff members and their work environment.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Philippe; Amin, Alexandre; Vidal, Fabrice; Merlette, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of the technical performance, respective costs and environmental effect of two invasive analytical methods (HPLC and UV/visible-FTIR) as compared to a new non-invasive analytical technique (Raman spectroscopy). Three pharmacotherapeutic models were used to compare the analytical performances of the three analytical techniques. Statistical inter-method correlation analysis was performed using non-parametric correlation rank tests. The study's economic component combined calculations relative to the depreciation of the equipment and the estimated cost of an AQC unit of work. In any case, analytical validation parameters of the three techniques were satisfactory, and strong correlations between the two spectroscopic techniques vs. HPLC were found. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was found to be superior as compared to the other techniques for numerous key criteria including a complete safety for operators and their occupational environment, a non-invasive procedure, no need for consumables, and a low operating cost. Finally, Raman spectroscopy appears superior for technical, economic and environmental objectives, as compared with the other invasive analytical methods. PMID:24792972

  6. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF HYGIENE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN THE PRESERVATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene. PMID:26302549

  7. High indoor CO2 concentrations in an office environment increases the transcutaneous CO2 level and sleepiness during cognitive work.

    PubMed

    Vehviläinen, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Rintamäki, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Hirvonen, Ari; Niemi, Olli; Vinha, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a multiparametric analysis on the environmental factors, the physiological stress reactions in the body, the measured alertness, and the subjective symptoms during simulated office work. Volunteer male subjects were monitored during three 4-hr work meetings in an office room, both in a ventilated and a non-ventilated environment. The environmental parameters measured included CO(2), temperature, and relative humidity. The physiological test battery consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system functions, salivary stress hormones, blood's CO(2)- content and oxygen saturation, skin temperatures, thermal sensations, vigilance, and sleepiness. The study shows that we can see physiological changes caused by high CO(2) concentration. The findings support the view that low or moderate level increases in concentration of CO(2) in indoor air might cause elevation in the blood's transcutaneously assessed CO(2). The observed findings are higher CO(2) concentrations in tissues, changes in heart rate variation, and an increase of peripheral blood circulation during exposure to elevated CO(2) concentration. The subjective parameters and symptoms support the physiological findings. This study shows that a high concentration of CO(2) in indoor air seem to be one parameter causing physiological effects, which can decrease the facility user's functional ability. The correct amount of ventilation with relation to the number of people using the facility, functional air distribution, and regular breaks can counteract the decrease in functional ability. The findings of the study suggest that merely increasing ventilation is not necessarily a rational solution from a technical-economical viewpoint. Instead or in addition, more comprehensive, anthropocentric planning of space is needed as well as instructions and new kinds of reference values for the design and realization of office environments. PMID:26273786

  8. Mass-dependent Corrections and Atmospheric Invasion: Working with the Radiocarbon Content of CO2 in the Soil Gas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon is becoming a more commonly utilized tool for C cycling studies, as it helps constrain biotic ecosystem processes such as C turnover times and sources of production. However, for studies that focus on CO2, the sampling methods for Δ14CO2 (surface chambers and subsurface gas wells) can be affected by abiotic processes, which may bias results as a function of gas transport regime (diffusion and advection). The radiocarbon community currently uses a δ13C correction to account for mass-dependent fractionation, but to date this correction has not been validated for the soil gas environment, where atmospheric invasion and gas transport are important. This study used an analytical soil gas transport model across a range of soil diffusivities and production rates, in which we could control Δ14CO2 and δ13CO2 signatures of production and atmosphere. This synthetic situation allowed us to assess the bias that results from using the conventional correction method for estimating Δ14CO2 of soil production. We found that the conventional correction is not strictly valid in this setting for interpreting the signature of production and does not account for diffusion and atmospheric invasion. The resultant Δ14CO2 bias scales with soil diffusivity and production rates. We propose a new two-step correction for Δ14CO2 work in the soil environment that accounts for atmospheric invasion and the δ13CO2 correction, and is able to reproduce a true value of Δ14CO2 of production. This work not only assists in data interpretation, but also helps clarify a methodological window of opportunity for accurately measuring the Δ14CO2 of soil production using subsurface sampling.

  9. A comparison of sampling and analytical methods for assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in a railroad work environment.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Shaw, L; Julian, J; Smolynec, K; Wood, C; Shaw, D

    1999-10-01

    Methods of assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust were evaluated in a railroad work environment. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)-recommended elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust methods of sampling and analysis for assessing diesel exhaust were included in the study. A total of 215 personal and area samples were collected using both size-selective (nylon cyclone and Marple) and non-size-selective samplers. The results demonstrate that the elemental carbon method is suitable for the railroad environment and the respirable combustible dust method is not. All elemental carbon concentrations measured were below the proposed ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.15 mg/m3. The concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) were also found to be below their respective TLVs. There is no correlation between elemental carbon or respirable combustible dust and the oxides of nitrogen. The elemental carbon as fraction of total carbon is about 13 percent, except for onboard locomotives where it is about 24 percent. Comparison of elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust measurements showed consistent relationships for most sampling locations, with respirable combustible dust concentrations 12 to 53 times higher than the elemental carbon levels. PMID:10561882

  10. A comparison of sampling and analytical methods for assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in a railroad work environment

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, D.K.; Shaw, L.; Julian, J.; Smolynec, K.; Wood, C.; Shaw, D.

    1999-10-01

    Methods of assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust were evaluated in a railroad work environment. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH{reg_sign})-recommended elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust methods of sampling and analysis for assessing diesel exhaust were included in the study. A total of 215 personal and area samples were collected using both size-selective and non-size-selective samplers. The results demonstrate that the elemental carbon method is suitable for the railroad environment and the respirable combustible dust method is not. All elemental carbon concentrations measured were below the proposed ACG1H Threshold Limit Value (TLV{reg_sign}) of 0.15 mg/m{sup 3}. The concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) were also found to be below their respective TLVs. There is no correlation between elemental carbon or respirable combustible dust and the oxides of nitrogen. The elemental carbon as fraction of total carbon is about 13%, except for onboard locomotives where it is about 24%. Comparison of elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust measurements showed consistent relationships for most sampling locations with respirable combustible dust concentrations 12 to 53 times higher than the elemental carbon levels.

  11. Work/Life Boundary Management in an Integrative Environment: A Study of Residence Life Professionals who Live at Their Place of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Pressley Robinson, IV

    2013-01-01

    How individuals manage work/life boundaries when they live at the place they work, as opposed to working from home, is a gap in both work/life literature and in higher education literature. An obvious example from higher education is the resident life professional that lives in the residential facility that she or he oversees. Living in a…

  12. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  13. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Conclusions Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence

  14. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044861

  15. Work-in-progress presented at the Army symposium on solid mechanics, 1980, designing for extremes: Environment, loading, and structural behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Work-in-Progress was presented at the Army Symposium on solid Mechanics, 1980. Designing for Extremes: Environment, Loading, and Structural Behavior, held at Bass River (Cape Cod), Massachusetts, 29 September through 2 October 1980 were presented.

  16. Psychosocial work environment, job mobility and gender differences in turnover behaviour: a prospective study among the Swedish general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period. Method Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24–60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender. Results Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99). Conclusions The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for

  17. Workplan for European Centre for Environment and Health: Report on a Working Group (Rome, Italy, October 29-31, October 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    After the European Charter on Environment and Health was approved at the Minsterial Conference in Frankfurt-am-Main, in December 1989, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Italian Government covened a working group to study the desirability and feasibility of setting up a European Centre on Environment and Health (ECEH). The main purpose of…

  18. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  19. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  1. Children and Their Physical and Social Environment. 1970 White House Conference on Children, Report of Forum 19. (Working Copy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    We want an environment that is good for all our children to grow up in and reach their full potential. They need an environment that gives them many kinds of experiences, that provides both privacy and opportunities to form social bonds, and that is enriched by beauty. To provide such an environment for our children, we must also provide it for…

  2. ‘The dangers attending these conditions are evident’: Public Health and the Working Environment of Lancashire Textile Communities, c.1870–1939

    PubMed Central

    Greenlees, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the position of the working environment within public health priorities and as a contributor to the health of a community. Using two Lancashire textile towns (Burnley and Blackburn) as case studies and drawing on a variety of sources, it highlights how, while legislation set the industry parameters for legal enforcement of working conditions, local public health priorities were pivotal in setting codes of practice. The complexities entwined with identifying the working environment as a cause of ill health and with improving it were entangled within the local community health context. In addition, the multiple understandings of Medical Officers of Health surrounding the remit of their responsibilities impacted the local health context. These did not always parallel national regulations. Indeed, it was these local, community specific forces that set the public health agenda, determined its path and the place of the working environment within this. PMID:24771979

  3. Rethinking the Learning Space at Work and Beyond: The Achievement of Agency across the Boundaries of Work-Related Spaces and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersh, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of the learning space at work and discusses the extent to which its different configurations allow employees to exercise personal agency within a range of learning spaces. Although the learning space at work is already the subject of extensive research, the continuous development of the learning society and the…

  4. "Opt-Out" Rates at Motherhood across High-Education Career Paths: Selection versus Work Environment. NBER Working Paper No. 14717

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Jane Leber; Wolfram, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the propensity of highly educated women to exit the labor force at motherhood. We focus on systematic differences across women with various graduate degrees to analyze whether these speak to differences in the capacity to combine children with work over a variety of high-education career paths. Working with a sample of Harvard…

  5. Assessing engineering students' demonstration of workplace competencies in experiential learning environments through internships and cooperative work experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laingen, Mark A.

    This study investigates the relationships between supervisor assessments and internship students' self-assessments for 15 workplace competencies, demonstrated in an internship or cooperative work environment. The 15 workplace competencies were developed by Iowa State University in collaboration with over 200 constituents comprised of Iowa State University COE alumni, engineering employers, COE faculty, partnering international faculty, and COE students, to provide clear, independent, and assessable measures for the eleven learning outcomes identified in the ABET Criterion 3 (a-k) outcomes. The study investigated workplace competency assessment data collected over ten years, commencing with the fall 2001 internship assessment term and concluding with the fall 2011 assessment term. The study used three separate methodologies to analyze workplace competency assessments in the COE. Part 1 analyzed data across the fifteen workplace competencies, and across ten programs in the College of Engineering, that have been involved with the workplace competency assessment of internship and cooperative students from the beginning of data collection in 2001. Supervisor assessment ratings were compared to internship student self-assessment ratings across the ten-year span from 2001-11using the non-parametric equivalent of the paired t-test; the Wilcoxon singed rank test for paired data. Part 2 of the study investigated the relationship between supervisor and student self-assessment data across assessment terms related to the 2001-05 and 2006-11 ABET accreditation cycles. The third part investigated how data tracking workplace competency strengths and weaknesses and ABET outcomes achievement percentages have changed between the assessment terms across accreditation cycles. Part 3 included an on-line survey sent to program curriculum committee members involved with workplace competency assessment data that investigated how the engineering programs are utilizing this data in support

  6. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers – a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. Methods The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. Results The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Conclusions Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures. PMID:24238560

  7. Provider perceptions of the social work environment and the state of pediatric care in a downsized urban public academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David Besong

    2011-05-01

    The author's purpose through this study was to document and analyze health provider perceptions of their social work environment and the state of pediatric care at Los Angeles County King/Drew Hospital and Medical Center in 2000, after the restructuring and downsizing of the hospital and its community clinics. The research results showed nurses and physicians reporting that both the quality of pediatric care and the provider social work environment were poor. Negative factors in the social work environment included: low employee morale, poorly staffed clinical teams, lack of professional autonomy, perceptions of low quality of care for pediatric patients, and interpersonal issues of poor communication and collaboration among providers. Providers also perceived a non-supportive work environment, sense of powerlessness, poor quality of work, lack of goal clarity from leadership, lack of fairness in leadership behavior, and an organizational leadership that is abandoning its core mission and values, thereby making it difficult for providers to carry out their professional functions. The author's findings in this study suggest a relationship between intra-role conflict, social employment environment and quality of care at King/Drew Medical Center in 2000. Lessons for practice are presented. PMID:21660823

  8. Rethinking the learning space at work and beyond: The achievement of agency across the boundaries of work-related spaces and environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersh, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of the learning space at work and discusses the extent to which its different configurations allow employees to exercise personal agency within a range of learning spaces. Although the learning space at work is already the subject of extensive research, the continuous development of the learning society and the development of new types of working spaces calls for further research to advance our knowledge and understanding of the ways that individuals exercise agency and learn in the workplace. Research findings suggest that the current perception of workplace learning is strongly related to the notion of the learning space, in which individuals and teams work, learn and develop their skills. The perception of the workplace as a site only for work-specific training is gradually changing, as workplaces are now acknowledged as sites for learning in various configurations, and as contributing to the personal development and social engagement of employees. This paper argues that personal agency is constructed in the workplace, and this process involves active interrelations between agency and three dimensions of the workplace (individual, spatial and organisational), identified through both empirical and theoretical research. The discussion is supported by data from two research projects on workplace learning in the United Kingdom. This paper thus considers how different configurations of the learning space and the boundaries between a range of work-related spaces facilitate the achievement of personal agency.

  9. Performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and other hardware in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Robert P.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) plus other associated hardware during the recent flight of Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1). The RAHF was developed to provide proper housing (food, water, temperature control, lighting and waste management) for up to 24 rodents during flights on the Spacelab. The GPWS was designed to contain particulates and toxic chemicals generated during plant and animal handling and dissection/fixation activities during space flights. A history of the hardware development involves as well as the redesign activities prior to the actual flight are discussed.

  10. Confirmation of the Validity of the Relational Coordination Survey as a Measure of the Work Environment in a National Sample of Infection Preventionists

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Heather M.; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Thompson, Sarah; Sousa, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Prevention of HAIs requires multifaceted approaches that consider the work environment in which interventions are implemented. This study assessed the construct validity of the Relational Coordination Survey (RCS) as a measure of the work environment in infection prevention departments. Data were obtained from 614 Infection Preventionists (IPs). Factor analysis and structural equation modeling tested the hypothesized model. Cronbach’s alpha for the 28-item RCS was .91. Factor analyses confirmed a 4-factor solution that explained 58.17% of the variance. The fit indices for the model indicated an adequate fit (x2 (346) = 699.38, p <.00; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .06). The RCS may be a useful tool for measuring aspects of the work environment for IPs. PMID:26673765

  11. Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments That Work. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, C. Carney; Banning, James H.

    This book offers a select sampling of concepts and models organized around a distinctive framework and reflective of themes critical to the successful functioning of higher education institutions. It is organized into two parts. Part One, "Type and Impacts of Campus Environments," offers an overview of models and concepts of human environments,…

  12. A Descriptive Study of Perceived Impact of Gender on Employment Status, Type of Work, Industry Relationships, Working Environment & Job Satisfaction in Livestock Industry Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  15. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  16. The nurse as investor: using the strategies of Sarbanes-Oxley corporate legislation to radically transform the work environment of nurses.

    PubMed

    Beason, Charlotte F

    2005-01-01

    Experts in creative management recommend that managers routinely explore the practices of other disciplines to develop innovative strategies for their organizations. The author examines the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Corporate Responsibility Act of 2002, designed to ensure sound corporate fiscal practices, and proposes a model using the same actions to radically transform the nursing work environment. PMID:15923981

  17. The Influence of Leadership Styles, Work Environment and Job Satisfaction of Employee Performance--Studies in the School of SMPN 10 Surabaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Teddy; Priyono

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to know and test the influence of leadership styles, work environment and job satisfaction of employees on performance. Research methods with the use of a quantitative approach, the population in this study as many as 45 people while the sample in this research is 45 people. In this study the researchers data analysis using SPSS…

  18. Exploring the Influence of High-Stakes Testing and Accountability on Teachers' Professional Identities through the Factors of Instructional Practice, Work Environment, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Janet Harmon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of high-stakes testing and accountability on teachers' perceptions of their professional identities. Teachers' instructional practice, work environments, and personal factors are now immersed in the context of high-stakes testing and accountability. This context colors the decisions teachers make…

  19. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  20. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  1. Cognitive Style and the Experiencing of Cognitive Demands of the Work Environment and Sources of Job Satisfaction among Employees in SMEs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrom, Erika

    This study examined cognitive, that is, information processing, style and its relationship to the experiencing of sources of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and cognitive demands of the work environment among employees in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The aim of the study was to gain a more thorough understanding of the role of…

  2. EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND WORK ENVIRONMENT STUDY: RELATIONSHIPS OF EMPLOYEE'S SELF-REPORTED HEALTHY SYMPTOMS WITH DIRECT INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington, D.C. area have expressed concerns about air quality and work environment discomforts. s part of a large-scale study of health and comfort concerns, ...

  3. [Good practice in occupational health services - The influence of hazardous conditions and nuisance coexisting in the work environment and at home on the course and outcome of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wężyk, Agata; Muszyński, Paweł; Polańska, Kinga; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The key activity in good practice of occupational medicine is to control, on a regular basis, the workers' health and how it is affected by the work environment and - consequently - to provide the employers and employees with advice regarding the organization, ergonomics, physiology and psychology of work. Occupational medicine practitioners should remember that certain duties are performed both at work and at home. This issue is particularly important in preventive healthcare of pregnant working women. Taking the above into consideration, we reviewed the literature with respect to nuisance and occupational risk factors, which might be associated with professional and household duties. The research indicates the need to reduce activities that require frequent bending or lifting, put a women at risk of falling or cause excess occupational stress for pregnant women. We would like to draw the doctors' attention to the possibility of exceeding a 4-hour limit of work at video display terminals and negative effects of low physical exercise and sitting for a long time both at work and at home. Since long working hours (over 40 h/week) affect the course of pregnancy negatively, total working time at work (including any additional jobs) and at home must be taken into account in the occupational risk assessment. To sum up, we emphasize that preventive healthcare of pregnant working women should mainly include education programmes. Women need to know how to perform their work safely and pay attention to the scope and frequency of household tasks (duties). PMID:26647989

  4. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  5. A qualitative study of the interactions among the psychosocial work environment and family, community and services for workers with low mental health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The psychosocial work environment can benefit and harm mental health. Poor psychosocial work environments and high level work-family conflict are both associated with poor mental health, yet little is known about how people with poor mental health manage the interactions among multiple life domains. This study explores the interfaces among paid work, family, community and support services and their combined effects on mental health. Methods We conducted 21 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people identified as having poor mental health to examine their experiences of paid employment and mental health and wellbeing in the context of their daily lives. Results The employment-related psychosocial work environment, particularly workplace relationships, employment security and degree of control over hours, strongly affected participants’ mental health. The interfaces among the life domains of family, community and access to support services suggest that effects on mental health differ according to: time spent in each domain, the social, psychological and physical spaces where domain activities take place, life stage and the power available to participants in their multiple domains. This paper is based on a framework analysis of all the interviews, and vignettes of four cases. Cases were selected to represent different types of relationships among the domains and how interactions among them either mitigated and/or exacerbated mental health effects of psychosocial work environments. Conclusions Examining domain interactions provides greater explanatory capacity for understanding how people with low mental health manage their lives than restricting the research to the separate impacts of the psychosocial work environment or work-family conflict. The extent to which people can change the conditions under which they engage in paid work and participate in family and social life is significantly affected by the extent to which their employment position

  6. Ethics in practice: managed care and the changing health care environment: medicine as a profession managed care ethics working group statement.

    PubMed

    Povar, Gail J; Blumen, Helen; Daniel, John; Daub, Suzanne; Evans, Lois; Holm, Richard P; Levkovich, Natalie; McCarter, Alice O; Sabin, James; Snyder, Lois; Sulmasy, Daniel; Vaughan, Peter; Wellikson, Laurence D; Campbell, Amy

    2004-07-20

    Cost pressures and changes in the health care environment pose ethical challenges and hard choices for patients, physicians, policymakers, and society. In 2000 and 2001, the American College of Physicians, with the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Ethics Program, convened a working group of stakeholders--patients, physicians, and managed care representatives, along with medical ethicists--to develop a statement of ethics for managed care. The group explored the impact of a changing health care environment on patient-physician relationships and how to best apply the principles of professionalism in this environment. The statement that emerged offers guidance on preserving the patient-clinician relationship, patient rights and responsibilities, confidentiality and privacy, resource allocation and stewardship, the obligation of health plans to foster an ethical environment for the delivery of care, and the clinician's responsibility to individual patients, the community, and the public health, among other issues. PMID:15262669

  7. The Role of Goal Pursuit in the Interaction between Psychosocial Work Environment and Occupational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvonen, Katriina; Feldt, Taru; Tolvanen, Asko; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    The relation of the core components of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model (ERI; Siegrist, 1996) to goal pursuit was investigated. Goal pursuit was studied through categories of goal contents--competency, progression, well-being, job change, job security, organization, finance, or no work goal--based on the personal work goals of managers (Hyvonen,…

  8. Understanding How Students Perceive the Role of Ideas for Their Knowledge Work in a Knowledge-Building Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chiu, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how students viewed the role of ideas for knowledge work and how such a view was related to their inquiry activities. Data mainly came from students' online interaction logs, group discussion and inquiry, and a survey concerning the role of ideas for knowledge work. The findings suggest that knowledge building was conducive to…

  9. User requirements for geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data in a web-based virtual globe environment.

    PubMed

    Yovcheva, Zornitza; van Elzakker, Corné P J M; Köbben, Barend

    2013-11-01

    Web-based tools developed in the last couple of years offer unique opportunities to effectively support scientists in their effort to collaborate. Communication among environmental researchers often involves not only work with geographical (spatial), but also with temporal data and information. Literature still provides limited documentation when it comes to user requirements for effective geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data. To start filling this gap, our study adopted a User-Centered Design approach and first explored the user requirements of environmental researchers working on distributed research projects for collaborative dissemination, exchange and work with spatio-temporal data. Our results show that system design will be mainly influenced by the nature and type of data users work with. From the end-users' perspective, optimal conversion of huge files of spatio-temporal data for further dissemination, accuracy of conversion, organization of content and security have a key role for effective geo-collaboration. PMID:23164199

  10. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  11. Toward Development Work: The Workplace as a Learning Environment. EEE701 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, The Changing Workplace: Part B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document constructs a framework for exploring the concept of the workplace as a learning environment that is in fact the primary school for adult learning and…

  12. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 16026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Caspi et al. (2002, 2003), Guo et al. (2008a), and Pescosolido et al. (2008) all claim to have demonstrated allele-by-environment interactions, but in all cases environmental influences are potentially endogenous to the unmeasured genetic characteristics of the subjects and their families. Thus, gene-gene interactions cannot be ruled out as an…

  13. Working Collaboratively in Virtual Learning Environments: Using Second Life with Korean High School Students in History Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the impact of the use of a virtual environment for learning Korean history on high school students' learning outcomes and attitudes toward virtual worlds (collaboration, engagement, general use of SL [Second Life], and immersion). In addition, this experiment examined the relationships…

  14. Effect of cold work on surface reactivity and nano-hardness of alloy 800 in corroding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. K.; Lu, B. T.; Luo, J. L.; Lu, Y. C.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in situ scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to investigate effect of cold work on surface reactivity of UNS N08800 alloy, and in situ nanoindentation technique was employed to measure corrosion-induced degradation of resistance to plastic deformation in surface layer. The SECM measurements indicated that cold work would cause an increase of surface reactivity, especially on surface area around non-inclusions. According to in situ nanoindentation measurements, anodic dissolution would reduce the surface hardness. This effect was enhanced by cold work.

  15. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population. PMID:19660906

  16. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human-horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human-horse interactions. Whilst most-if not all-horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events. PMID:27164148

  17. Development of a virtual learning environment to enhance undergraduate nursing students' effectiveness and interest in working with older people.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Helen; Nash, Robyn; Sacre, Sandra; Courtney, Mary; Abbey, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Throughout the world populations are aging and there is a concomitant global need for increasing numbers of nurses who are skilled in working with older people. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based resource for use in nursing schools to help educate undergraduate nursing students about working effectively with older people. This paper details the process of developing the working with older people website, www.workingwitholderpeople.edu.au, which was launched at the end of 2006. The working with older people website was designed for use as a stand alone or self directed program and/or as a set of modules suitable for integration within individual undergraduate nursing programs. The resource is unique in its portrayal of older adults and the challenges they face in a way that is appealing to undergraduate students, and engages them in meaningful learning activities, based on authentic cases, while also providing comprehensive resources and links. PMID:18206272

  18. Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults: Findings from the URBAN study

    PubMed Central

    Badland, Hannah M.; Oliver, Melody; Kearns, Robin A.; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Duncan, Mitch J.; Batty, G. David

    2012-01-01

    Although the neighbourhoods and health field is well established, the relationships between neighbourhood selection, neighbourhood preference, work-related travel behaviours, and transport infrastructure have not been fully explored. It is likely that understanding these complex relationships more fully will inform urban policy development, and planning for neighbourhoods that support health behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify associations between these variables in a sample of employed adults. Self-reported demographic, work-related transport behaviours, and neighbourhood preference data were collected from 1616 employed adults recruited from 48 neighbourhoods located across four New Zealand cities. Data were collected between April 2008 and September 2010. Neighbourhood built environment measures were generated using geographical information systems. Findings demonstrated that more people preferred to live in urban (more walkable), rather than suburban (less walkable) settings. Those living in more suburban neighbourhoods had significantly longer work commute distances and lower density of public transport stops available within the neighbourhood when compared with those who lived in more urban neighbourhoods. Those preferring a suburban style neighbourhood commuted approximately 1.5 km further to work when compared with participants preferring urban settings. Respondents who preferred a suburban style neighbourhood were less likely to take public or active transport to/from work when compared with those who preferred an urban style setting, regardless of the neighbourhood type in which they resided. Although it is unlikely that constructing more walkable environments will result in work-related travel behaviour change for all, providing additional highly walkable environments will help satisfy the demand for these settings, reinforce positive health behaviours, and support those amenable to change to engage in higher levels of

  19. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  20. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  1. Practice environments and their associations with nurse-reported outcomes in Belgian hospitals: Development and preliminary validation of a Dutch adaptation of the Revised Nursing Work Index

    PubMed Central

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Clarke, Sean; Vermeyen, Karel; Meulemans, Herman; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Aim To study the relationship between nurse work environment, job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care in the Belgian context. Background Work environment characteristics are important for attracting and retaining professional nurses in hospitals. The Revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R) was originally designed to describe the professional nurse work environment in U.S. Magnet Hospitals and subsequently has been extensively used in research internationally. Method The NWI-R was translated into Dutch to measure the nurse work environment in 155 nurses across 13 units in three Belgian hospitals. Factor analysis was used to identify a set of coherent subscales. The relationship between work environments and job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care was investigated using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results: Three reliable, consistent and meaningful subscales of the NWI-R were identified: nurse–physician relations, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support. All three subscales had significant associations with several outcome variables. Nurse–physician relations had a significant positive association with nurse job satisfaction, intention to stay the hospital, the nurse-assessed unit level quality of care and personal accomplishment. Nurse management at the unit level had a significant positive association with the nurse job satisfaction, nurse-assessed quality of care on the unit and in the hospital, and personal accomplishment. Hospital management and organizational support had a significant positive association with the nurse-assessed quality of care in the hospital and personal accomplishment. Higher ratings of nurse–physician relations and nurse management at the unit level had significant negative associations with both the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions, whereas hospital management and organizational support was inversely associated only

  2. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  3. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  4. From organizational awareness to organizational competency in health care social work: the importance of formulating a "profession-in-environment" fit.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William; Silverman, Ed; Allen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Today's health care environments require organizational competence as well as clinical skill. Economically driven business paradigms and the principles underlying the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 emphasize integrated, collaborative care delivered using transdisciplinary service models. Attention must be focused on achieving patient care goals while demonstrating an appreciation for the mission, priorities and operational constraints of the provider organization. The educational challenge is to cultivate the ability to negotiate "ideology" or ideal practice with the practical realities of health care provider environments without compromising professional ethics. Competently exercising such ability promotes a sound "profession-in-environment" fit and enhances the recognition of social work as a crucial patient care component. PMID:25760488

  5. The Use of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) within a Constructivist Learning Environment to Develop Core Competencies in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fire, Nancy; Casstevens, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving foundation-level practice behaviors to develop social work core competencies involves integrating learning across a curriculum. This article focuses on two phases of foundation-level course redevelopment aimed to support graduate students in accomplishing this outcome. The first phase involved restructuring the course to become a…

  6. The Learning Edge: Supporting Student Success in a Competency-Based Learning Environment. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubilla, Laura; Sturgis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    State by state, our country is revamping our education system to ensure that each and every one of our young people is college and career ready. To ensure high-quality competency education, in 2011 one hundred innovators created a working definition to guide the field. This paper delves into the fourth element of the definition: "Students…

  7. [Surveillance on pesticides: quantification of use and prediction of impact on health, work and the environment for Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Pignati, Wanderlei; Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the quantity, type and toxicity of pesticides used per hectare in the State of Mato Grosso as a surveillance strategy for the health of workers, the population in general and the environment, and to serve as a surveillance indicator for Brazilian cities. Brazil cultivated 95 million hectares in 2012, and Mato Grosso was the major consumer of pesticides. In this research, the database of the Agriculture and Livestock Defense Institute was consulted, as it records the prescribed agronomic data and place of use in sales invoices. The results reveal the average consumption of pesticides per hectare per crop: 12 liters for soy; 6 liters for corn; 4.8 liters for sugarcane; and 24 liters for cotton. The toxicological types and classes of pesticides used per hectare per crop were also monitored. Using a matrix of agricultural production and pesticide consumption, it was also found that certain health problems are correlated with the major producing regions. Based on pesticide consumption, agricultural production and pesticide toxicity it is possible to ascertain health problems in Brazilian cities and establish prevention and surveillance strategies for the workers, the environment and the populations exposed to pesticides. PMID:25388175

  8. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  9. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. Methods A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. Results In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. Conclusions We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 Source of funding The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare. PMID:22243622

  10. A systematic review of studies in the contributions of the work environment to ischaemic heart disease development

    PubMed Central

    Jood, Katarina; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Vingård, Eva; Perk, Joep; Östergren, Per Olov; Hall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is need for an updated systematic review of associations between occupational exposures and ischaemic heart disease (IHD), using the GRADE system. Methods: Inclusion criteria: (i) publication in English in peer-reviewed journal between 1985 and 2014, (ii) quantified relationship between occupational exposure (psychosocial, organizational, physical and other ergonomic job factors) and IHD outcome, (iii) cohort studies with at least 1000 participants or comparable case-control studies with at least 50 + 50 participants, (iv) assessments of exposure and outcome at baseline as well as at follow-up and (v) gender and age analysis. Relevance and quality were assessed using predefined criteria. Level of evidence was then assessed using the GRADE system. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of confounders. Possible publication bias was discussed. Results: Ninety-six articles of high or medium high scientific quality were finally included. There was moderately strong evidence (grade 3 out of 4) for a relationship between job strain and small decision latitude on one hand and IHD incidence on the other hand. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for iso-strain, pressing work, effort-reward imbalance, low support, lack of justice, lack of skill discretion, insecure employment, night work, long working week and noise in relation to IHD. No difference between men and women with regard to the effect of adverse job conditions on IHD incidence. Conclusions: There is scientific evidence that employees, both men and women, who report specific occupational exposures, such as low decision latitude, job strain or noise, have an increased incidence of IHD. PMID:27032996

  11. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined. PMID:26589138

  12. The eye-complaint questionnaire in a visual display unit work environment: internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Steenstra, Ivan A; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2009-03-01

    The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a 10-item eye-complaint questionnaire (ECQ) were examined within a sample of office workers. Repeated within-subjects measures were performed within a single day and over intervals of 1 and 7 d. Questionnaires were completed by 96 workers (70% female, mean age 36.4 years) who perform more than 4 h of visual display unit work each day. The internal consistency of the ECQ was high (alpha = 0.801). Although test-retest reliability was low within a single day (morning and afternoon) (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.68, 95% CI 0.38, 0.82), it was good between two morning measurements over a 1-d interval (ICC = 0.91 95% CI 0.87, 0.94) and between morning measurements with a 7-d interval (ICC = 0.87, 95% CI 0.81, 0.92). The ICC between afternoon measurements over a 1-week interval was moderate (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66, 0.85). This questionnaire is a reliable and consistent instrument for easily assessing eye complaints in office work. The timing of the measurements must be kept in consideration since measurements are confounded by exposures over the day. PMID:19296318

  13. Psychosocial work environment as a risk factor for absence with a psychiatric diagnosis: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ferrie, Jane E; Oksanen, Tuula; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna

    2010-07-15

    Recent reviews show that self-reported psychosocial factors related to work, such as job demands and job control, are associated with employee mental health, but it is not known whether this association is attributable to reporting bias. The authors examined this question using objectively measured hospital ward overcrowding as an instrument. The extent of overcrowding provided a strong instrument for self-reported job demands but not for job control, and it was used to examine unbiased associations between self-reported job demands and sickness absence with a psychiatric diagnosis among 2,784 female nurses working in somatic illness wards in Finland. During the 12-month follow-up period (2004-2005), 102 nurses had an absence with a psychiatric diagnosis, 33 with a diagnosis of depressive disorder. Both greater extent of overcrowding and higher self-reported job demands were associated with increased risk of psychiatric absence. The latter association was stronger but less precisely estimated in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands that was explained by overcrowding. Repeating these analyses with absence due to depressive disorders as the outcome led to similar results. Findings from this instrumental-variables analysis support the status of high self-reported job demands as a risk factor for absence with a psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:20534822

  14. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 1. Results of employee survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. This report documented the design of the study and the results of a detailed questionnaire survey of all Madison Building employees conducted in February of 1989. The questionnaire included questions on health symptoms, comfort concerns, background health data, and demographic characteristics. The overall response rate to the survey was 90 percent with 2845 of 3176 employees participating. More than 1200 employees also took the opportunity to make additional comments in the comments section at the end of the survey. The predominant type of symptoms reported among these employees were those that may be associated with poor indoor air quality. Almost half of the respondents reported that a symptom or symptoms reduced their ability to work at least some of the time. Almost half reported more frequent infections since beginning work in the building. Approximately two thirds reported satisfaction with their physical workstations. They did report that the air was often too dry with too little movement.

  15. A profile of HIV risk factors in the context of sex work environments among migrant female sex workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-03-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g. boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a sexually transmitted infection symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments. PMID:20391235

  16. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  17. Do inclusive work environments matter? Effects of community-integrated employment on quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blick, Rachel N; Litz, Katherine S; Thornhill, Monica G; Goreczny, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    More individuals with an intellectual disability now possess prerequisite skills and supports necessary for successful work force integration than did previous generations. The current study compared quality of life of community-integrated workers with those participating in sheltered vocational workshops and adult day care programs. We considered numerous indices of quality of life, including inclusion and community participation; satisfaction within professional services, home life, and day activities; dignity, rights, and respect received from others; fear; choice and control; and family satisfaction. Our data revealed several important differences in quality of life across daytime activities; participants involved in community-integrated employment tended to be younger, indicated a greater sense of community integration, and reported more financial autonomy than did those who participated in adult day care programs and sheltered workshops. However, individuals reported no differences in overall satisfaction across daytime activities. We discuss generational differences across employment status as well as possible explanations to account for high levels of satisfaction across daytime activities. PMID:26977937

  18. Active vibration control of a cylindrical structure using flexible piezoactuators: experimental work in air and water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, the modal characteristics and vibration control performance of a cylindrical structure in air and water are experimentally investigated, and the results are presented in time and frequency domains. In order to achieve this goal, an end-capped cylindrical shell structure is considered as a host structure, and MFC (macro fiber composite) actuators, which are flexible, are bonded on the surface of the structure. After manufacturing a cylindrical shell structure with aluminum, a modal test is carried out, and the natural frequencies of the proposed structure are obtained and analyzed. To verify the modal test results, a finite element analysis is also performed, and the results are compared with the modal test results. By using the experimentally obtained modal characteristics, a state space control model is established. An optimal controller is then designed in order to control the unwanted vibration and is experimentally realized. It has been shown that the structural vibration can be effectively decreased with the optimal control methodology in both air and water environmental conditions.

  19. The Effects of Metabolic Work Rate and Ambient Environment on Physiological Tolerance Times While Wearing Explosive and Chemical Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph T.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological tolerance times when wearing explosive and chemical (>35 kg) personal protective equipment (PPE) in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Twelve healthy males undertook nine trials which involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km·h−1 in the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Participants exercised for 60 min or until volitional fatigue, core temperature reached 39°C, or heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum. Tolerance time, core temperature, skin temperature, mean body temperature, heart rate, and body mass loss were measured. Exercise time was reduced in the higher WBGT environments (WBGT37 < WBGT30 < WBGT21; P < 0.05) and work intensities (5.5 < 4 < 2.5 km·h−1; P < 0.001). The majority of trials (85/108; 78.7%) were terminated due to participant's heart rate exceeding 90% of their maximum. A total of eight trials (7.4%) lasted the full duration. Only nine (8.3%) trials were terminated due to volitional fatigue and six (5.6%) due to core temperatures in excess of 39°C. These results demonstrate that physiological tolerance times are influenced by the external environment and workload and that cardiovascular strain is the limiting factor to work tolerance when wearing this heavy multilayered PPE. PMID:25866818

  20. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    PubMed

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care. PMID:26327261

  1. The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members. PMID:24313819

  2. Performance of automated slidemakers and stainers in a working laboratory environment – routine operation and quality control

    PubMed Central

    SIMSON, E; GASCON-LEMA, M G; BROWN, D L

    2010-01-01

    The automated slidemaker/stainers of the four Beckman Coulter LH755 hematology systems in our laboratory are operated as analyzers, with similar requirements for setup, maintenance and quality control. A study was performed to confirm that these slide maker/stainers in routine use produce peripheral blood films that are completely satisfactory for microscopy and without cells, particularly abnormal cells, being pulled to the edges or sides of the film outside the usual working area. One hundred and thirty-nine automated blood films that had been produced during routine operation were compared with well-prepared manual films from the same patients. None of the films was unacceptable for microscopy. The distributions of normal white cell types within the counting areas of automated films compared with manual films, for all 139 samples for WBC from 1.0 to 352.8 × 109/l; for blasts and promyelocytes in the 65 samples in which they occurred and for nucleated red blood cells in the 58 samples in which they occurred all fell within the expected limits of 200 cell differential counts of CLSI H20-A. Red cell morphology and the occurrence of WBC clumps, platelet clumps and smudge cells were comparable between the automated and manual films of all samples. We conclude that automated slidemaker/stainers, as typified by those of the Beckman Coulter LH755 system, are capable of producing blood films comparable with well-prepared manual films in routine laboratory use; and that the maintenance and quality control procedures used in our laboratory ensure consistent high quality performance from these systems. PMID:19220552

  3. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didactic instruction and training in problem-solving, teambuilding and constructive conflict resolution. Methods Seventy seven staff members and 44 patients' relatives were asked to complete a survey that included the Work Environment Scale (WES-10), a Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS), the Conviction of Therapeutic Competency (CTC) scale and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8). To evaluate the outcome of the team building process, we analyzed changes over time in the WES-10 subscales. Additionally the interrelationship between the WES-10 subscales with other subscales and with sociodemographic parameters like age, gender was calculated by means of a bivariate correlation analysis. Results The team building process had a significant positive effect on perceived work environment in only one area. There was a significant improvement in the ward staffs' perception of their ability to constructively resolve conflicts 3 years after inception of the team building process than there was before inception. However, even in a unit that utilized holistic treatment and nursing in the care of severely disable patients, such care necessitating a very heavy workload, the measurements on the Self Realization, Life Satisfaction and Conviction of Therapeutic Competency scales remained high and unchanged over the three year time period of the study. Conclusions Strategic interventions might be an option to improve interpersonal relationships and finally quality of patient care. PMID:20214789

  4. Total approach is a must for small and medium enterprises to attain sustainable working conditions and environment, with special reference to Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, Adnyana

    2006-01-01

    Attention and assistance to enhance the role of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) by the government is more emphasized due to the success of SMEs in earning significant amount of foreign currency when Indonesia had to face economical crisis in 1997. This policy has been highly recognized again since the bombing tragedy in 2002; with the excellent evidence to show how important SMEs is in helping and maintaining the economic development of Bali. But in the implementation the assistance needs to be remanaged again in a more proper and appropriate way to attain the ultimate goals. The three economic potentials, agriculture in broad sense, tourism and SMEs (cottage industry included), must be developed in harmony, interdependence, support and complementary each other, if possible as synergist to obtain sustainable development of Bali. While assistance to SMEs must be done in a more coordinated way among the government technical offices, universities, NGOs, banking, and other social community institutions. By doing so, there would be no duplication or gap, nor creation of new disadvantageous problems. It could be in form of ergonomics, occupational health and safety impacts and problems in particular, and in adverse working conditions and environment in general. Therefore it is a must at this moment to carry out total approach in helping SMEs, by integrating the effort to improve their working conditions and environment, built-in within the effort to enhance SMEs'quality of life through economic assistance. In this process a total approach through SHIP approach and Appropriate Technology intervention must be done wisely and timely. By so doing, SMEs'sustainable working conditions and environment shall be attained. PMID:16610528

  5. 1D and 3D anthropometric data application on public transport vehicle layout and on oil and gas laboratories work environment design.

    PubMed

    Pastura, F C H; Guimarães, C P; Zamberlan, M C P; Cid, G L; Santos, V S; Streit, P; Paranhos, A G; Cobbe, R T; Cobbe, K T; Batista, D S

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present 1D and 3D anthropometric data applied to two distinct design situations: one related to the interior layout of a public transport vehicle and another one related to oil and gas laboratories work environment design. On this study, the 1D anthropometric data were extracted from the Brazilian anthropometric database developed by INT and the 3D anthropometric data were obtained using a Cyberware 3D whole body scanner. A second purpose of this paper is to present the 3D human scanning data as a tool that can help designers on decision making. PMID:22317431

  6. Rural health workers and their work environment: the role of inter-personal factors on job satisfaction of nurses in rural Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is an important focal attitude towards work. Understanding factors that relate to job satisfaction allows interventions to be developed to enhance work performance. Most research on job satisfaction among nurses has been conducted in acute care settings in industrialized countries. Factors that relate to rural nurses are different. This study examined inter-personal, intra-personal and extra-personal factors that influence job satisfaction among rural primary care nurses in a Low and Middle Income country (LMIC), Papua New Guinea. Methods Data was collected using self administered questionnaire from rural nurses attending a training program from 15 of the 20 provinces. Results of a total of 344 nurses were available for analysis. A measure of overall job satisfaction and measures for facets of job satisfaction was developed in the study based on literature and a qualitative study. Multi-variate analysis was used to test prediction models. Results There was significant difference in the level of job satisfaction by age and years in the profession. Higher levels of overall job satisfaction and intrinsic satisfaction were seen in nurses employed by Church facilities compared to government facilities (P <0.01). Ownership of facility, work climate, supervisory support and community support predicted 35% (R2 =0.35) of the variation in job satisfaction. The factors contributing most were work climate (17%) and supervisory support (10%). None of these factors were predictive of an intention to leave. Conclusions This study provides empirical evidence that inter-personal relationships: work climate and supportive supervision are the most important influences of job satisfaction for rural nurses in a LMIC. These findings highlight that the provision of a conducive environment requires attention to human relations aspects. For PNG this is very important as this critical cadre provide the frontline of primary health care for more than 70% of the

  7. [The INSuLa Project: the survey of training needs in the SPSAL(Service for Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment)].

    PubMed

    Martini, Agnese; Iavicoli, Sergio; Bonafede, Michela; Corso, Luca; Iosuel, Michela; Isolani, Lucia; Di Leone, Giorgio; Di Marzio, Davide; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    According to Italian Legislative Decree 81/2008 and subsequent modifications the Regions and Autonomous Provinces have a innovative and complex role: 1) to regulate and coordinate the total prevention system and 2) to develop interventions/initiatives through regional/local occupational safety and health (OSH) department using not only inspections and controls but education, training and support. Recommendations also include consolidating the role of actors involved in preventing risks to occupational health throughout occupational safety and health education and training, keys for a successful process to improve prevention system. As result of changing world of work and OSH legislation the INSuLa project has creating a national survey involving of all Italian prevention system actors, in order to evaluate implementation and impact of the actual regulations. According to overall objective of the INSuLA project, for the first time in Italy, we studied about operators in regional/local OSH department. The purpose of this paper is to show and recognize the individual learning paths, the perception of adequacy education degree, the exploring criticalities andthe training needs. PMID:25558748

  8. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  9. EPA's indoor-air-quality and work-environment survey: Relationships of employees' self-reported health symptoms with direct indoor-air-quality measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.J.; Clayton, C.A.; Wallace, L.A.; Highsmith, V.R.; Kollander, M.

    1991-06-07

    In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington, D.C. area have expressed concerns about air quality and work environment discomforts. As part of a large-scale study of health and comfort concerns, environmental monitoring was carried out in March 1989 at approximately 100 sites (rooms) within these buildings. Employees in the vicinity of the monitors were administered a brief questionnaire to elicit information regarding their work environment, comfort levels, odors noticed, health symptoms, mood states, and perceptions of overall air quality. Statistical analyses were carried out for the 191 males and the 192 females for whom both questionnaire and monitoring data were available. The analyses entailed estimation of linear regression and logistic regression models aimed at testing for associations between the employees' responses and the environmental measurements, which included temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and particlate concentrations (100 sites), and various microbiologic and volatile organic compound concentrations (subset of 56 sites). Principal component analyses were used to develop some of the outcome and explanatory variables used in the models. In the paper, the authors describe the study design, the study limitations, the statistical models and methods, and the results and implications of the data analysis.

  10. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  12. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  13. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  14. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  15. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  16. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  19. Working Toward a Better Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Career opportunities in the field of environmental protection fall into four broad categories: equipment operation, monitoring of pollution control activities, environmental technology and education, and environmental service and research. (Author)

  20. Creating Learning Environments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how Walnut Hills High School's (Cincinnati, OH) new Arts and Science Center was designed to students' and teachers' specifications. Facility assessment and planning are discussed, concluding with comments on the new facility's impact on education. (GR)